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Sample records for relative root elongation

  1. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  2. Ammonium-induced loss of root gravitropism is related to auxin distribution and TRH1 function, and is uncoupled from the inhibition of root elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Na; Li, Baohai; Dong, Gangqiang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2012-06-01

    Root gravitropism is affected by many environmental stresses, including salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. One significant environmental stress, excess ammonium (NH(4)(+)), is well documented to inhibit root elongation and lateral root formation, yet little is known about its effects on the direction of root growth. We show here that inhibition of root elongation upon elevation of external NH(4)(+) is accompanied by a loss in root gravitropism (agravitropism) in Arabidopsis. Addition of potassium (K(+)) to the treatment medium partially rescued the inhibition of root elongation by high NH(4)(+) but did not improve gravitropic root curvature. Expression analysis of the auxin-responsive reporter gene DR5::GUS revealed that NH(4)(+) treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced auxin gradients across the root cap but extended their duration once initiated. Moreover, the β-glucuronidase (GUS) signal intensity in root tip cells was significantly reduced under high NH(4)(+) treatment over time. The potassium carrier mutant trh1 displayed different patterns of root gravitropism and DR5::GUS signal intensity in root apex cells compared with the wild type in response to NH(4)(+). Together, the results demonstrate that the effects of NH(4)(+) on root gravitropism are related to delayed lateral auxin redistribution and the TRH1 pathway, and are largely independent of inhibitory effects on root elongation. PMID:22407650

  3. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    2000-12-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation. PMID:11762379

  4. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  5. Stimulation of Root Elongation and Curvature by Calcium 1

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Scott, Tom K.; Suge, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca2+-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca2+-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may participate in root tropisms. PMID:11537880

  6. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  7. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM, AND ALUMINUM ON SOYBEAN ROOT ELONGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alleviation of Al rhizotoxicity by Ca and Mg can differ among species and genotypes. Root elongation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] line N93-S-179 and cvs. Young and Ransom exposed to varying concentrations of Al, Ca and Mg were compared in two experiments using a vertically split root system. ...

  8. The blue light receptor Phototropin 1 suppresses lateral root growth by controlling cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Moni, A; Lee, A-Y; Briggs, W R; Han, I-S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the blue light receptor phototropin 1 (phot1) and lateral root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy images, as well as PHOT1 mRNA expression studies provide evidence that it is highly expressed in the elongation zone of lateral roots where auxin is accumulating. However, treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid significantly reduced PHOT1 expression in this zone. In addition, PHOT1 expression was higher in darkness than in light. The total number of lateral roots was higher in the phot1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis. Cells in the elongation zone of lateral roots of the phot1 mutant were longer than those of wild-type lateral roots. These findings suggest that PHOT1 plays a role(s) in elongation of lateral roots through the control of an auxin-related signalling pathway. PMID:24803136

  9. Soil strength and macropore volume limit root elongation rates in many UK agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Tracy A.; Hallett, Paul D.; Binnie, Kirsty; Young, Mark W.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Hawes, Cathy; Bengough, A. Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Simple indicators of crop and cultivar performance across a range of soil types and management are needed for designing and testing sustainable cropping practices. This paper determined the extent to which soil chemical and physical properties, particularly soil strength and pore-size distribution influences root elongation in a wide range of agricultural top soils, using a seedling-based indicator. Methods Intact soil cores were sampled from the topsoil of 59 agricultural fields in Scotland, representing a wide geographic spread, range of textures and management practices. Water release characteristics, dry bulk density and needle penetrometer resistance were measured on three cores from each field. Soil samples from the same locations were sieved, analysed for chemical characteristics, and packed to dry bulk density of 1·0 g cm−3 to minimize physical constraints. Root elongation rates were determined for barley seedlings planted in both intact field and packed soil cores at a water content close to field capacity (–20 kPa matric potential). Key Results Root elongation in field soil was typically less than half of that in packed soils. Penetrometer resistance was typically between 1 and 3 MPa for field soils, indicating the soils were relatively hard, despite their moderately wet condition (compared with <0·2 MPa for packed soil). Root elongation was strongly linked to differences in physical rather than chemical properties. In field soil root elongation was related most closely to the volume of soil pores between 60 µm and 300 µm equivalent diameter, as estimated from water-release characteristics, accounting for 65·7 % of the variation in the elongation rates. Conclusions Root elongation rate in the majority of field soils was slower than half of the unimpeded (packed) rate. Such major reductions in root elongation rates will decrease rooting volumes and limit crop growth in soils where nutrients and water are scarce. PMID:22684682

  10. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene. PMID:11542270

  11. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  12. Inhibition of root elongation in microgravity by an applied electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Aizawa, S.; Yoshizaki, I.; Kamigaichi, S.; Mukai, C.; Shimazu, T.; Fukui, K.; Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.

    1999-01-01

    Roots grown in an applied electric field demonstrate a bidirectional curvature. To further understand the nature of this response and its implications for the regulation of differential growth, we applied an electric field to roots growing in microgravity. We found that growth rates of roots in microgravity were higher than growth rates of ground controls. Immediately upon application of the electric field, root elongation was inhibited. We interpret this result as an indication that, in the absence of a gravity stimulus, the sensitivity of the root to an applied electric stimulus is increased. Further space experiments are required to determine the extent to which this sensitivity is shifted. The implications of this result are discussed in relation to gravitropic signaling and the regulation of differential cell elongation in the root.

  13. ALFIN-LIKE 6 is involved in root hair elongation during phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Yu, Su-May; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Phosphate (Pi) starvation in plants induces dense and elongated root hairs, which increase the absorptive surface area of the roots and play a critical role in Pi uptake. The molecular mechanism underlying these changes remains unclear. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were employed to identify novel genes involved in root hair formation on Pi starvation. The mutant per2, with defects in root hair elongation specifically under low Pi conditions, was identified in a large-scale genetic screen of T-DNA insertion lines. The phenotype was caused by a mutation in the homeodomain protein ALFIN-LIKE 6 (AL6). From a screen of mutants defective in genes that showed lower transcript abundance in per2 relative to wild-type roots on low Pi medium, we identified four putative downstream targets of AL6, namely ETC1, NPC4, SQD2 and PS2, all of which were critical in root hair elongation of Pi-deficient plants. The results further indicate that AL6 is involved in the control of growth and several key responses to Pi starvation. Our findings demonstrate that AL6 controls the transcription of a suite of genes critical for root hair elongation under low Pi conditions, suggesting a novel physiological function for an Alfin gene in Arabidopsis. PMID:23432399

  14. Plant Elongator regulates auxin-related genes during RNA polymerase II transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Hilde; De Groeve, Steven; Fleury, Delphine; Neyt, Pia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van der Straeten, Dominique; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert; Houben, Andreas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2010-01-26

    In eukaryotes, transcription of protein-encoding genes is strongly regulated by posttranslational modifications of histones that affect the accessibility of the DNA by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The Elongator complex was originally identified in yeast as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex that activates RNAPII-mediated transcription. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Elongator mutants elo1, elo2, and elo3 with decreased leaf and primary root growth due to reduced cell proliferation identified homologs of components of the yeast Elongator complex, Elp4, Elp1, and Elp3, respectively. Here we show that the Elongator complex was purified from plant cell cultures as a six-component complex. The role of plant Elongator in transcription elongation was supported by colocalization of the HAT enzyme, ELO3, with euchromatin and the phosphorylated form of RNAPII, and reduced histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation at the coding region of the SHORT HYPOCOTYL 2 auxin repressor and the LAX2 auxin influx carrier gene with reduced expression levels in the elo3 mutant. Additional auxin-related genes were down-regulated in the transcriptome of elo mutants but not targeted by the Elongator HAT activity showing specificity in target gene selection. Biological relevance was apparent by auxin-related phenotypes and marker gene analysis. Ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses were up-regulated in the elo transcriptome and might contribute to the pleiotropic elo phenotype. Thus, although the structure of Elongator and its substrate are conserved, target gene selection has diverged, showing that auxin signaling and influx are under chromatin control. PMID:20080602

  15. Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

    2014-06-01

    Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

  16. Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

  17. Effects of abscisic acid and xanthoxin on elongation and gravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Mulkey, T. J.; Yang, R. L.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) and xanthoxin (Xan) in maize root gravitropism by (1) testing the ability of ABA to allow positive gravitropism in dark-grown seedlings of the maize cultivar LG11, a cultivar known to require light for positive gravitropism of the primary root, (2) comparing curvature in roots in which half of the cap had been excised and replaced with agar containing either ABA or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), (3) measuring gravitropism in roots of seedlings submerged in oxygenated solutions of ABA or IAA and (4) testing the effect of Xan on root elongation. Using a variety of methods of applying ABA to the root, we found that ABA did not cause horizontally-oriented primary roots of dark-grown seedlings to become positively gravitropic. Replacing half of the root cap of vertically oriented roots with an agar block containing ABA had little or no effect on curvature relative to that of controls in which the half cap was replaced by a plain agar block. Replacement of the removed half cap with IAA either canceled or reversed the curvature displayed by controls. When light-grown seedlings were submerged in ABA they responded strongly to gravistimulation while those in IAA did not. Xan (up to 0.1 mM) did not affect root elongation. The results indicate that ABA is not a likely mediator of root gravitropism and that the putative ABA precursor, Xan, lacks the appropriate growth-inhibiting properties to serve as a mediator of root gravitropism.

  18. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  19. Inhibition of Acid-Enhanced Elongation of Zea mays Root Segments by Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Eiichi; Scott, Tom K.; Masuda, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sugars and metabolic inhibitors on the elongation of Zea mays root segments was analyzed by a rhizometer which records the elongation of each of 32 root segments at the same time. Galactose suppressed the acid-enhanced rapid elongation after a lag period of 1.5 hours, but it did not inhibit the slow elongation at pH 7. Mannose was less inhibitory than galactose. Arabinose, xylose, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol caused no inhibition. When galactose was removed after a 1-hour treatment, the elongation was partially recovered. Cycloheximide and 2-deoxyglucose suppressed acid-enhanced elongation when these were applied at the same time as acid treatments, whereas cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) inhibited elongation only if it was applied prior to acid treatment. Over the 9-hour period of elongation studied, the inhibition by galactose was comparable to that of cycloheximide. Since galactose has been reported to suppress the sugar metabolism necessary for the cell wall synthesis, the later phase of acid-enhanced elongation of root segments may at least partially depend on the synthesis or metabolism of cell wall components. The inhibition of root growth by galactose may be partially ascribed to a direct effect on the elongation process in roots, an effect that is enhanced by the acidification of the cell walls. PMID:16666790

  20. Phosphorus and magnesium interactively modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary roots in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Li, Xin; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong; Liang, Yongchao; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-01-01

    A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. Application of either auxin influx inhibitor or efflux inhibitor inhibited the elongation and increased the deviation angle of primary roots, and decreased auxin level in root tips. Furthermore, the auxin-transport mutants aux1-22 and eir1-1 displayed reduced root growth and increased the deviation angle. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of P and Mg on the development of root morphology in Arabidopsis through auxin signals that modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary root and the expression of root differentiation and development genes. PMID:25922494

  1. Phosphorus and magnesium interactively modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary roots in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Li, Xin; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong; Liang, Yongchao; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. Application of either auxin influx inhibitor or efflux inhibitor inhibited the elongation and increased the deviation angle of primary roots, and decreased auxin level in root tips. Furthermore, the auxin-transport mutants aux1-22 and eir1-1 displayed reduced root growth and increased the deviation angle. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of P and Mg on the development of root morphology in Arabidopsis through auxin signals that modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary root and the expression of root differentiation and development genes. PMID:25922494

  2. Abscisic acid regulates root elongation through the activities of auxin and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Thole, Julie M; Beisner, Erin R; Liu, James; Venkova, Savina V; Strader, Lucia C

    2014-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, including inhibition of root elongation and seed germination. We performed an ABA resistance screen to identify factors required for ABA response in root elongation inhibition. We identified two classes of Arabidopsis thaliana AR mutants that displayed ABA-resistant root elongation: those that displayed resistance to ABA in both root elongation and seed germination and those that displayed resistance to ABA in root elongation but not in seed germination. We used PCR-based genotyping to identify a mutation in ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), positional information to identify mutations in AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), and whole genome sequencing to identify mutations in AUX1, AUXIN RESISTANT4 (AXR4), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE ROOT1/PIN-FORMED2 (EIR1/PIN2). Identification of auxin and ethylene response mutants among our isolates suggested that auxin and ethylene responsiveness were required for ABA inhibition of root elongation. To further our understanding of auxin/ethylene/ABA crosstalk, we examined ABA responsiveness of double mutants of ethylene overproducer1 (eto1) or ein2 combined with auxin-resistant mutants and found that auxin and ethylene likely operate in a linear pathway to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of root elongation, whereas these two hormones likely act independently to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of seed germination. PMID:24836325

  3. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Evans, M L

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize. PMID:11539697

  4. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

  5. Copper regulates primary root elongation through PIN1-mediated auxin redistribution.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Mei; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    The heavy metal copper (Cu) is an essential microelement required for normal plant growth and development, but it inhibits primary root growth when in excess. The mechanism underlying how excess Cu functions in this process remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that a higher concentration of CuSO4 inhibited primary root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings by affecting both the elongation and meristem zones. In the meristem zone, meristematic cell division potential was reduced by excess Cu. Further experiments showed that Cu can modulate auxin distribution, resulting in higher auxin activities in both the elongation and meristem zones of Cu-treated roots based on DR5::GUS expression patterns. This Cu-mediated auxin redistribution was shown to be responsible for Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation. Additional genetic and physiological data demonstrated that it was PINFORMED1 (PIN1), but not PIN2 or AUXIN1 (AUX1), that regulated this process. However, Cu-induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation did not contribute to Cu-induced auxin redistribution for inhibition of root elongation. When the possible role of ethylene in this process was analyzed, Cu had a similar impact on the root elongation of both the wild type and the ein2-1 mutant, implying that Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation was not due to the ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:23396597

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana RALF1 opposes brassinosteroid effects on root cell elongation and lateral root formation

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a peptide signal that plays a basic role in cell biology and most likely regulates cell expansion. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines with high and low levels of AtRALF1 transcripts were used to investigate this peptide’s mechanism of action. Overexpression of the root-specific isoform AtRALF1 resulted in reduced cell size. Conversely, AtRALF1 silencing increased root length by increasing the size of root cells. AtRALF1-silenced plants also showed an increase in the number of lateral roots, whereas AtRALF1 overexpression produced the opposite effect. In addition, four AtRALF1-inducible genes were identified: two genes encoding proline-rich proteins (AtPRP1 and AtPRP3), one encoding a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (AtHRPG2), and one encoding a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (TCH4). These genes were expressed in roots and involved in cell-wall rearrangement, and their induction was concentration dependent. Furthermore, AtRALF1-overexpressing plants were less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide (BL); upon BL treatment, the plants showed no increase in root length and a compromised increase in hypocotyl elongation. In addition, the treatment had no effect on the number of emerged lateral roots. AtRALF1 also induces two brassinosteroid (BR)-downregulated genes involved in the BR biosynthetic pathway: the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHISM AND DWARFISM (CPD) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Simultaneous treatment with both AtRALF1 and BL caused a reduction in AtRALF1-inducible gene expression levels, suggesting that these signals may compete for components shared by both pathways. Taken together, these results indicate an opposing effect of AtRALF1 and BL, and suggest that RALF’s mechanism of action could be to interfere with the BR signalling pathway. PMID:24620000

  7. Food reserves in mountain longleaf pine roots during shoot elongation.

    SciTech Connect

    Walkinshaw, C.H.; W.J. Otrosina

    2001-03-20

    Roots of saplings appear to be models for healthy tissues in longleaf pines. Results show that roots of mountain longleaf pine have a normal anatomy, but also have unusual amounts of starch when compared to loblolly pine roots growing during phenologiexecy equal time periods. Roots appear large in diameter and grow much nearer the soil surface than roots observed from Coastal Plain longleaf pine. Starch grains are large in size and uniformly filled root cells. These results yield methodology potentially useful in assessment of health and productivity of longleaf pine.

  8. The Arabidopsis thaliana elongator complex subunit 2 epigenetically affects root development

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuebin; Tian, Huiyu; Li, Hongjiang; Yu, Qianqian; Wang, Lei; Friml, Jiri; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    The elongator complex subunit 2 (ELP2) protein, one subunit of an evolutionarily conserved histone acetyltransferase complex, has been shown to participate in leaf patterning, plant immune and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, its role in root development was explored. Compared to the wild type, the elp2 mutant exhibited an accelerated differentiation of its root stem cells and cell division was more active in its quiescent centre (QC). The key transcription factors responsible for maintaining root stem cell and QC identity, such as AP2 transcription factors PLT1 (PLETHORA1) and PLT2 (PLETHORA2), GRAS transcription factors such as SCR (SCARECROW) and SHR (SHORT ROOT) and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 transcription factor WOX5, were all strongly down-regulated in the mutant. On the other hand, expression of the G2/M transition activator CYCB1 was substantially induced in elp2. The auxin efflux transporters PIN1 and PIN2 showed decreased protein levels and PIN1 also displayed mild polarity alterations in elp2, which resulted in a reduced auxin content in the root tip. Either the acetylation or methylation level of each of these genes differed between the mutant and the wild type, suggesting that the ELP2 regulation of root development involves the epigenetic modification of a range of transcription factors and other developmental regulators. PMID:25998905

  9. Genetic variability of oxalate oxidase activity and elongation in water-stressed primary roots of diverse maize and rice lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work on maize primary roots under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. In association with these responses, several proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, part...

  10. Aluminium-induced inhibition of root elongation in Arabidopsis is mediated by ethylene and auxin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei; Tian, Qiu-Ying; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is phytotoxic when solubilized into Al(3+) in acidic soils. One of the earliest and distinct symptoms of Al(3+) toxicity is inhibition of root elongation. To decipher the mechanism by which Al(3+) inhibits root elongation, the role of ethylene and auxin in Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated using the wild type and mutants defective in ethylene signalling (etr1-3 and ein2-1) and auxin polar transport (aux1-7 and pin2). Exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis to AlCl(3) led to a marked inhibition of root elongation, and elicited a rapid ethylene evolution and enhanced activity of the ethylene reporter EBS:GUS in root apices. Root elongation in etr1-3 and ein2-1 mutants was less inhibited by Al(3+) than that in wild-type plants. Ethylene synthesis inhibitors, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and an antagonist of ethylene perception (Ag(+)) abolished the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root elongation. There was less inhibition of root elongation by Al(3+) in aux1-7 and pin2 mutants than in the wild type. The auxin polar transport inhibitor, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), substantially alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root elongation. The Al(3+) and ethylene synthesis precursor aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) increased auxin reporter DR5:GUS activity in roots. The Al(3+)-induced increase in DR5:GUS activity was reduced by AVG, while the Al(3+)-induced increase in EBS:GUS activity was not altered by NPA. Al(3+) and ACC increased transcripts of AUX1 and PIN2, and this effect was no longer observed in the presence of AVG and Co(2+). These findings indicate that Al(3+)-induced ethylene production is likely to act as a signal to alter auxin distribution in roots by disrupting AUX1- and PIN2-mediated auxin polar transport, leading to arrest of root elongation. PMID:19858117

  11. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1993-08-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism. PMID:11536543

  12. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  13. Root elongation against a constant force: experiment with a computerized feedback-controlled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzeja, P. S.; Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.

    2001-01-01

    Axial force was applied to the root tip of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) seedlings using a computerized, feedback-controlled mechanical device. The system's feedback capability allowed continuous control of a constant tip load, and the attached displacement transducer provided the time course of root elongation. Loads up to 7.5 g decreased the root elongation rate by 0.13 mm h-1 g-1, but loads 7.5 to 17.5 g decreased the growth rate by only 0.04 mm h-1 g-1. Loads higher than 18 g stopped root elongation completely. Measurement of the cross-sectional areas of the root tips indicated that the 18 g load had applied about 0.98 MPa of axial pressure to the root, thereby exceeding the root's ability to respond with increased turgor pressure. Recorded time-lapse images of loaded roots showed that radial thickening (swelling) occurred behind the root cap, whose cross-sectional area increased with tip load.

  14. Soybean Root Elongation Response to Magnesium Additions to Acid Subsoil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additions of micromolar concentrations of Mg2+ to hydroponic solutions enhance Al tolerance of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by increasing citrate secretion from roots and external complexation of toxic Al species in solution. The objective of this study was to assess the ameliorative effect of M...

  15. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations. Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

  16. SCAR Mediates Light-Induced Root Elongation in Arabidopsis through Photoreceptors and Proteasomes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dyachok, Julia; Zhu, Ling; Liao, Fuqi; He, Ji; Huq, Enamul; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2011-01-01

    The ARP2/3 complex, a highly conserved nucleator of F-actin, and its activator, the SCAR complex, are essential for growth in plants and animals. In this article, we present a pathway through which roots of Arabidopsis thaliana directly perceive light to promote their elongation. The ARP2/3-SCAR complex and the maintenance of longitudinally aligned F-actin arrays are crucial components of this pathway. The involvement of the ARP2/3-SCAR complex in light-regulated root growth is supported by our finding that mutants of the SCAR complex subunit BRK1/HSPC300, or other individual subunits of the ARP2/3-SCAR complex, showed a dramatic inhibition of root elongation in the light, which mirrored reduced growth of wild-type roots in the dark. SCAR1 degradation in dark-grown wild-type roots by constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) E3 ligase and 26S proteasome accompanied the loss of longitudinal F-actin and reduced root growth. Light perceived by the root photoreceptors, cryptochrome and phytochrome, suppressed COP1-mediated SCAR1 degradation. Taken together, our data provide a biochemical explanation for light-induced promotion of root elongation by the ARP2/3-SCAR complex. PMID:21972261

  17. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  18. The Regulation of Growth in the Distal Elongation Zone of Maize Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The major goals of the proposed research were 1. To develop specialized software for automated whole surface root expansion analysis and to develop technology for controlled placement of surface electrodes for analysis of relationships between root growth and root pH and electrophysiological properties. 2. To measure surface pH patterns and determine the possible role of proton flux in gravitropic sensing or response, and 3. To determine the role of auxin transport in establishment of patterns of proton flux and electrical gradients during the gravitropic response of roots with special emphasis on the role of the distal elongation zone in the early phases of the gravitropic response.

  19. Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

  20. Association of specific pectin methylesterases with Al-induced root elongation inhibition in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao Ying; Zeng, Zhang Hui; Yan, Jing Ying; Fan, Wei; Bian, Hong Wu; Zhu, Mu Yuan; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-08-01

    The negative charges of cell wall pectin molecules attributed by pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) contribute to Al binding capacity. We examined the expression profiles of 35 members of the PME gene family in the root apex of an Al-sensitive rice 'Zhefu802' under Al stress. While root elongation was inhibited by 40% after 3-h exposure to 25 µM Al, cell wall PME activity and the abundance of eight PME genes transcripts were increased. The same Al treatment which had almost no effect on root elongation of an Al-resistant rice ssp. japonica 'Nipponbare' did not change the expression patterns of these eight PME genes. However, when Al concentration was increased to 50 µM, by which the root elongation of 'Nipponbare' was inhibited by 40% too, the expression of these PME genes were also upregulated except two genes with no signal. These suggest a possible correlation between the upregulated genes and Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in rice. Furthermore, these eight PME genes behaved differently when subjected to CdCl2 and LaCl3 treatments, implying the specificity of different PME genes in response to different metal toxicities. The transgenic rice overexpressing one of these eight PME genes OsPME14 showed higher PME activity and Al content in root tip cell wall, and became more sensitive to Al stress, verifying the involvement of the specific PME gene in Al toxicity. Therefore, our results provided the molecular evidence to connect the expression of specific PME genes with the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in rice. PMID:23136980

  1. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

  2. SEED GERMINATION AND ROOT ELONGATION TOXICITY TESTS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE EVALUATION: METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seed germination tests measure soil toxicity directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents which may be present in site-samples. n the seed germination toxicity test, site-soil is mixed with a reference soil to yield exposure co...

  3. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SIX TEST CHEMICALS TO LETTUCE USING TWO ROOT ELONGATION TEST METHODS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv buttercrunch) was used to evaluate and compare the results from two different root elongation phytotoxicity test methods with the same six test substances. Seeds were either germinated in the dark on an inclined filter paper substrate with one end i...

  4. Distribution of electrolytes in cells of the tomato root elongation zone during a gravitropic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, Dmytro

    It is known that gravitropic response of etiolated seedlings is accompanied with asymmetrical distribution of auxins. The higher amount of auxins in the tissues of the lower sides of gravistimulated organs induces cell elongation in shoots and inhibits cell elongation in roots. In spite on the progress in understanding of the auxin-mediated effects on plant growth and development, there is no a complete conception concerning of gravitropic response mechanism. This investigation aims to determine whether the growth response of tomato seedlings on reorientation to the horizontal induces alterations in distribution of electrolytes in cells of the main root elongation zone, the site where induction of the curvature takes place. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Rio Grande) seedlings were grown on agar surface in 10 cm Petri dishes. The gravitropic response of seedlings was evaluated by the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90° from the vertical. Root segments of several mm basipetal to the root tip were fixed in liquid nitrogen, freeze-substituted with Lowicril K11M at -35° C. Sections 100 and 1000 nm thick were cut using LKB Ultrotome V, collected by dry method and analyzed in the 6060 LA SEM at accelerating voltage 15 kV. Using different modes of X-ray microanalysis (X-ray map, - line and -point analysis), distribution of the physiologically relevant ions (Na, P, K, Ca) in cells of surface layers of the upper and lower root sides were investigated. The peculiarities in localization of the electrolytes in different subcellular compartments as well as distribution in the direction between upper and lower sides of the root curvature are discussed.

  5. Wntless regulates dentin apposition and root elongation in the mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Bae, C H; Kim, T H; Ko, S O; Lee, J C; Yang, X; Cho, E S

    2015-03-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;Wls(CO/CO) mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, ?-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation. PMID:25595365

  6. Wntless Regulates Dentin Apposition and Root Elongation in the Mandibular Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bae, C.H.; Kim, T.H.; Ko, S.O.; Lee, J.C.; Yang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;WlsCO/CO mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, β-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation. PMID:25595365

  7. Effects of rare earth oxide nanoparticles on root elongation of plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Kuang, Linglin; He, Xiao; Bai, Wei; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2010-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of four rare earth oxide nanoparticles, nano-CeO(2), nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) on seven higher plant species (radish, rape, tomato, lettuce, wheat, cabbage, and cucumber) were investigated in the present study by means of root elongation experiments. Their effects on root growth varied greatly between different nanoparticles and plant species. A suspension of 2000 mg L(-1) nano-CeO(2) had no effect on the root elongation of six plants, except lettuce. On the contrary, 2000 mg L(-1) suspensions of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) severely inhibited the root elongation of all the seven species. Inhibitory effects of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3), and nano-Yb(2)O(3) also differed in the different growth process of plants. For wheat, the inhibition mainly took place during the seed incubation process, while lettuce and rape were inhibited on both seed soaking and incubation process. The fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for rape were about 40 mg L(-1) of nano-La(2)O(3), 20mg L(-1) of nano-Gd(2)O(3), and 70 mg L(-1) of nano-Yb(2)O(3), respectively. In the concentration ranges used in this study, the RE(3+) ion released from the nanoparticles had negligible effects on the root elongation. These results are helpful in understanding phytotoxicity of rare earth oxide nanoparticles. PMID:19897228

  8. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

  9. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  10. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Alessandro; Begheldo, Maura; Genre, Andrea; Lanfranco, Luisa; Trevisan, Sara; Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  11. Modeling of acute cadmium toxicity in solution to barley root elongation using biotic ligand model theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuedong; Wu, Mingyan; Ma, Jingxing; Chen, Xiaolin; Hua, Luo

    2016-04-01

    Protons (H(+)) as well as different major and trace elements may inhibit cadmium (Cd) uptake in aquatic organisms and thus alleviate Cd toxicity. However, little is known about such interactions in soil organisms. In this study, the independent effects of the cations calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), potassium (K(+)), H(+) and zinc (Zn(2+)) on Cd toxicity were investigated with 5-day long barley root elongation tests in nutrient solutions. The tested concentrations of selected cations and trace metal ions were based on the ranges that occur naturally in soil pore water. The toxicity of Cd decreased with increasing activity of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), H(+) and Zn(2+), but not K(+). Accordingly, conditional binding constants were obtained for the binding of Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), H(+), and Zn(2+) with the binding ligand: logKCdBL 5.19, logKCaBL 2.87, logKMgBL 2.98, logKHBL 5.13 and logKZnBL 5.42, respectively. Furthermore, it was calculated that on average 29% of the biotic ligand sites needed to be occupied by Cd to induce a 50% decrease in root elongation. Using the estimated constants, a biotic ligand model was successfully developed to predict the Cd toxicity to barley root elongation as a function of solution characteristics. The feasibility and accuracy of its application for predicting Cd toxicity in soils were discussed. PMID:27090701

  12. Seed germination and root elongation as indicators of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, H.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hook, D.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Wetland ecosystems have often been impacted by the addition of hazardous waste materials. Methods are needed to evaluate the effect of these substances on wetland ecosystems and the organisms within them. This study evaluates the response of various wetland plant species to representative contaminants (cadmium, nickel, atrazine, anthracene, and tetrachloroethylene). Species tested include Caphalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Sparganium americanum (bur-reed), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash). To the authors` knowledge these species have rarely if ever been used in toxicological assays. The endpoints used are germination and root elongation. Preliminary studies using a petri dish system have shown decreased germination at the highest metal concentration (50mg/L) and decreased root elongation in the higher metal concentrations (10, 25, and 50mg/L). Interference from the carrier was observed in the organic tests. Root elongation studies using the metals are being continued using tubes with various sand and vermiculite mixes into which freshly germinated seeds are placed. Species with the best responses will be tested in the field at the Savannah River Site, SC, and also with fuel oil. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which tests are well established.

  13. Correlations between changes in electrical parameters and changes in cell elongation rates in gavistimulated roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1994-08-01

    The earliest changes in growth rate following the gravistimulation of roots occur in a special group of cells between the meristem and the elongating region of the root. This zone is called the postomitotic isodiametric growth (PIG) zone and consists of cells which have ceased dividing and are expanding isodiametrically. Upon gravistimulation cells along the upper side of the PIG zone begin elongating rapidly and this accounts for much of the early growth asymmetry. There is rapid (< 30 s) hyperpolarization of cells on the upper side of the PIG zone as well as rapid uptake of potassium from the stele. We propose that there is a relationship between the rate of hydrogen ion efflux and the extent of membrane hyperpolarization in the PIG zone and that such changes in potential are an early indication of impending changes in growth performance. Although the development of auxin asymmetry in the cap and its transmission to the elongating region is considered to be the controlling factor in root gravitropism, auxin asymmetry in the cap develops only after 30 min, about the same as the lag before initiation of curvature. Although this dilemma may be partly resolved by the location of the PIG zone close to the cap, alternative explanations such as gravi-detection by the PIG zone or very rapid (electrical?) signal transmission from the cap to the PIG zone need to be considered.

  14. [Toxic effects of monosodium glutamate wastewater on crop seed germination and root elongation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Lanying; Guo, Hao

    2006-07-01

    To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate wastewater pollution, a pollution exposure experiment was carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat, Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged from different processing phases of monosodium glutamate production. The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between the inhibition rates of wheat seed germination and root elongation and the COD(Cr) of mother liquor scraps. The toxicity of monosodium glutamate wastewater to the test crops was in the order of tomato > Chinese cabbage > wheat, indicating that tomato was most sensitive to the wastewater, and could be considered as an ideal toxic bioindicator. The half-effect concentration (IC50) based on the seed germination and root elongation of test crops exposed to the wastewater discharged from various processing phases of monosodium glutamate production was 22.0 to approximately 32432 mg x L(-1) and 17.3 to approximately 3320 mg x L(-1), respectively. PMID:17044508

  15. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented. PMID:24902980

  16. Elongation and Termination Reactions of Protein Synthesis on Maize Root Tip Polyribosomes Studied in a Homologous Cell-Free System 1

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Cecelia; Kim, Chang-Yub; Roberts, Justin K. M.

    1991-01-01

    We show that the control of gene expression at the level of elongation and termination of protein synthesis can be observed in vitro. Free cytoplasmic polyribosomes were isolated from maize (Zea mays) root tips, and translated in root tip extracts that had been fractionated with ammonium sulfate to contain elongation factors, and be depleted in initiation factors. The root tip extract performs elongation and termination reactions as efficiently as wheat germ extracts. The translation products of the maize system are the same as made in vivo. The dependence of these in vitro elongation and termination reactions on pH was determined. Total protein synthesis in this system exhibits an optimum at pH ∼7.5. However, the pH dependence of rates of synthesis of individual proteins is not at all uniform; many polyribosomes become stalled when translated at low pH. These data were compared with the elongation and termination capacity of polyribosomes isolated from oxygenated and hypoxic root tips (tissue having, respectively, high and low cytoplasmic pH values). We observed an inverse relationship between the relative abundance of many specific translatable mRNAs in polyribosomes of hypoxic root tips, and the relative rates of elongation and termination reactions on the different mRNAs at low pH in vitro. These results suggest that changes in intracellular pH in hypoxic root tips can be sensed directly by the translational machinery and thereby selectively modulate gene expression. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668202

  17. Role of Apoplastic and Cell-Wall Peroxidases on the Stimulation of Root Elongation by Ascorbate.

    PubMed Central

    Cordoba-Pedregosa, MdC.; Gonzalez-Reyes, J. A.; Canadillas, MdS.; Navas, P.; Cordoba, F.

    1996-01-01

    Elongation of onion (Allium cepa L.) roots was highly stimulated by ascorbate (ASC) and its natural precursor I-galactone-[gamma]-lactone (GL). When incubation media were supplemented with lycorine (Lyc), an inhibitor of the ASC biosynthesis, root growth was negligible even in the presence of ASC or GL. ASC completely inhibited in vitro guaiacol peroxidase activities that were isolated from both the apoplast and the cell wall. However, ferulic-acid-dependent peroxidase from the cell wall was partially inhibited by ASC, whereas ferulic acid peroxidase activity from the apoplastic fluid was completely inhibited by ASC as long as ASC was present in the assay medium. ASC content in cells was increased by preincubations with ASC or GL, whereas Lyc reduced it. On the other hand, ASC or GL treatments decreased both apoplast and cell-wall-bound peroxidase activities, whereas Lyc had a slight stimulating effect. These results are discussed on the basis of a possible control of root elongation by ASC via its action on peroxidases that are involved in the regulation of cell-wall extensibility. PMID:12226436

  18. Cytoplasmic calcium levels in protoplasts from the cap and elongation zone of maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, H. G.; Evans, M. L.; Johnson, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium has been implicated as a key component in the signal transduction process of root gravitropism. We measured cytoplasmic free calcium in protoplasts isolated from the elongation zone and cap of primary roots of light-grown, vertically oriented seedlings of Zea mays L. Protoplasts were loaded with the penta-potassium salts of fura-2 and indo-1 by incubation in acidic solutions of these calcium indicators. Loading increased with decreasing pH but the pH dependence was stronger for indo-1 than for fura-2. In the case of fura-2, loading was enhanced only at the lowest pH (4.5) tested. Dyes loaded in this manner were distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm as indicated by fluorescence patterns. As an alternative method of loading, protoplasts were incubated with the acetoxymethylesters of fura-2 and indo-1. Protoplasts loaded by this method exhibited fluorescence both in the cytoplasm and in association with various organelles. Cytoplasmic calcium levels measured using spectrofluorometry, were found to be 160 +/- 40 nM and 257 +/- 27 nM, respectively, in populations of protoplasts from the root cap and elongation zone. Cytoplasmic free calcium did not increase upon addition of calcium to the incubation medium, indicating that the passive permeability to calcium was low.

  19. The sensitivity of an hydroponic lettuce root elongation bioassay to metals, phenol and wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihae; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Depuydt, Stephen; Oh, Jung-Woo; Jo, Youn-Min; Kim, Kyungtae; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2016-04-01

    The root elongation bioassay is one of the most straightforward test methods used for environmental monitoring in terms of simplicity, rapidity and economy since it merely requires filter paper, distilled water and Petri dishes. However, filter paper as a support material is known to be problematic as it can reduce the sensitivity of the test. The newly developed hydroponic method reported here differs from the conventional root elongation method (US EPA filter paper method) in that no support material is used and the exposure time is shorter (48h in this test versus 120h in the US EPA test). For metals, the hydroponic test method was 3.3 (for Hg) to 57 (for Cu) times more sensitive than the US EPA method with the rank orders of sensitivity, estimated from EC50 values, being Cu≥Cd>Ni≥Zn≥Hg for the former and Hg≥Cu≥Ni≥Cd≥Zn for the latter methods. For phenol, the results did not differ significantly; EC50 values were 124mgL(-1) and 108-180mgL(-1) for the hydroponic and filter paper methods, respectively. Lettuce was less sensitive than daphnids to wastewaters, but the root elongation response appears to be wastewater-specific and is especially sensitive for detecting the presence of fluorine. The new hydroponic test thus provides many practical advantages, especially in terms of cost and time-effectiveness requiring only a well plate, a small volume of distilled water and short exposure period; furthermore, no specialist expertise is required. The method is simpler than the conventional EPA technique in not using filter paper which can influence the sensitivity of the test. Additionally, plant seeds have a long shelf-life and require little or no maintenance. PMID:26748376

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A.; Khabarova, Olga V.; Gallep, Cristiano M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Methods Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a ‘free-running’ state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. Key Results and Conclusions The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ≥4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate. PMID:23532042

  1. Proline-rich protein-like PRPL1 controls elongation of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boron, Agnieszka Karolina; Van Orden, Jürgen; Nektarios Markakis, Marios; Mouille, Grégory; Adriaensen, Dirk; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman; Vissenberg, Kris

    2014-10-01

    The synthesis and composition of cell walls is dynamically adapted in response to many developmental and environmental signals. In this respect, cell wall proteins involved in controlling cell elongation are critical for cell development. Transcriptome analysis identified a gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, which was named proline-rich protein-like, AtPRPL1, based on sequence similarities from a phylogenetic analysis. The most resemblance was found to AtPRP1 and AtPRP3 from Arabidopsis, which are known to be involved in root hair growth and development. In A. thaliana four proline-rich cell wall protein genes, playing a role in building up the cross-connections between cell wall components, can be distinguished. AtPRPL1 is a small gene that in promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) analysis has high expression in trichoblast cells and in the collet. Chemical or mutational interference with root hair formation inhibited this expression. Altered expression levels in knock-out or overexpression lines interfered with normal root hair growth and etiolated hypocotyl development, but Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis did not identify consistent changes in cell wall composition of root hairs and hypocotyl. Co-localization analysis of the AtPRPL1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein and different red fluorescent protein (RFP)-labelled markers confirmed the presence of AtPRPL1-GFP in small vesicles moving over the endoplasmic reticulum. Together, these data indicate that the AtPRPL1 protein is involved in the cell's elongation process. How exactly this is achieved remains unclear at present. PMID:25147272

  2. The rib1 Mutant of Arabidopsis Has Alterations in Indole-3-Butyric Acid Transport, Hypocotyl Elongation, and Root Architecture1

    PubMed Central

    Poupart, Julie; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Muday, Gloria K.; Waddell, Candace S.

    2005-01-01

    Polar transport of the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has recently been shown to occur in Arabidopsis (Arabidopis thaliana) seedlings, yet the physiological importance of this process has yet to be fully resolved. Here we describe the first demonstration of altered IBA transport in an Arabidopsis mutant, and show that the resistant to IBA (rib1) mutation results in alterations in growth, development, and response to exogenous auxin consistent with an important physiological role for IBA transport. Both hypocotyl and root IBA basipetal transport are decreased in rib1 and root acropetal IBA transport is increased. While indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport levels are not different in rib1 compared to wild type, root acropetal IAA transport is insensitive to the IAA efflux inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid in rib1, as is the dependent physiological process of lateral root formation. These observed changes in IBA transport are accompanied by altered rib1 phenotypes. Previously, rib1 roots were shown to be less sensitive to growth inhibition by IBA, but to have a wild-type response to IAA in root elongation. rib1 is also less sensitive to IBA in stimulation of lateral root formation and in hypocotyl elongation under most, but not all, light and sucrose conditions. rib1 has wild-type responses to IAA, except under one set of conditions, low light and 1.5% sucrose, in which both hypocotyl elongation and lateral root formation show altered IAA response. Taken together, our results support a model in which endogenous IBA influences wild-type seedling morphology. Modifications in IBA distribution in seedlings affect hypocotyl and root elongation, as well as lateral root formation. PMID:16258013

  3. Phytotoxicity of veterinary antibiotics to seed germination and root elongation of crops.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are being used worldwide in agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and manure application. They cause damages to the ecosystem when discharged into the environment, but there is a lack of information on their toxicity to plants and animals. This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of five major VAs, namely tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, tomato, carrot and cucumber, and investigated the relationship between their physicochemical properties and phytotoxicities. Results show that these compounds significantly inhibited root elongation (p<0.05), the most sensitive endpoint for the phytotoxicity test. TC was associated with the highest level of toxicity, followed by NOR, ERY, SMZ and CAP. Regarding crop species, lettuce was found to be sensitive to most of the VAs. The median effect concentration (EC50) of TC, SMZ, NOR, ERY and CAP to lettuce was 14.4, 157, 49.4, 68.8 and 204mg/L, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been established based on the measured data. It is evident that hydrophobicity was the most important factor governing the phytotoxicity of these compounds to seeds, which could be explained by the polar narcosis mechanism. Lettuce is considered a good biomarker for VAs in the environment. According to the derived equation, phytotoxicities of selected VA compounds on different crops can be calculated, which could be applicable to other VAs. Environmental risks of VAs were summarized based on the phytotoxicity results and other persistent factors. PMID:26773832

  4. Hydrogen-rich water alleviates aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in alfalfa via decreasing nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Cui, Weiti; Zhu, Kaikai; Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chunhua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-02-28

    One of the earliest and distinct symptoms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is the inhibition of root elongation. Although hydrogen gas (H2) is recently described as an important bio-regulator in plants, whether and how H2 regulates Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is largely unknown. To address these gaps, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to investigate a physiological role of H2 and its possible molecular mechanism. Individual or simultaneous (in particular) exposure of alfalfa seedlings to Al, or a fresh but not old nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP), not only increased NO production, but also led to a significant inhibition of root elongation. Above responses were differentially alleviated by pretreatment with 50% saturation of HRW. The addition of HRW also alleviated the appearance of Al toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of seedling growth and less accumulation of Al. Subsequent results revealed that the removal of NO by the NO scavenger, similar to HRW, could decrease NO production and alleviate Al- or SNP-induced inhibition of root growth. Thus, we proposed that HRW alleviated Al-induced inhibition of alfalfa root elongation by decreasing NO production. Such findings may be applicable to enhance crop yield and improve stress tolerance. PMID:24413050

  5. Inhibition of root elongation by ethylene in wetland and non-wetland plant species and the impact of longitudinal ventilation.

    PubMed

    Visser, Eric J W; Pierik, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The slow gas diffusion rate in flooded soil not only causes oxygen deficiency, but also favours the accumulation of ethylene in root systems to concentrations that may strongly affect root elongation. Previously published experiments showed that root elongation in rice is much less strongly inhibited by ethylene than in some other species less well adapted to wet conditions. Rice roots have also been reported to produce abnormally little ethylene. We tested if these traits are typical of wetland species and are thus likely to be widespread adaptive traits. Comparisons using 14 species indicated that insensitivity to the inhibiting effects of ethylene on root elongation is unlikely to be a common feature of temperate wetland species. However, resistance to longitudinal gas diffusion within roots of wetland species, which largely depends on diameter and the presence of gas-filled channels, was found to be less than in non-wetland species. We show that this can help maintain low internal ethylene concentrations by venting accumulated gas to the shoot and atmosphere. PMID:17177874

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONALIZED AND NON-FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBES ON ROOT ELONGATION OF SELECTED CROP SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have many potential beneficial uses with additional applications constantly being investigated. However, these unique properties create a potential cause for concern of toxicity, not only in humans and animals, but also in plants. Root elong...

  7. Derivation of formulas for root-mean-square errors in location, orientation, and shape in triangulation solution of an elongated object in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the root-mean-square (rms) displacement, slope, and curvature errors in an azimuth-elevation image trace of an elongated object in space, as functions of the number and spacing of the input data points and the rms elevation error in the individual input data points from a single observation station. Also, formulas are derived for the total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors in the triangulation solution of an elongated object in space due to the rms displacement, slope, and curvature errors, respectively, in the azimuth-elevation image traces from different observation stations. The total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors provide useful measure numbers for determining the relative merits of two or more different triangulation procedures applicable to elongated objects in space.

  8. The locations and amounts of endogenous ions and elements in the cap and elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays L.: an electron-probe EDS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Hunter, K. E.; Olmos, D.; Smith, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative electron-probe energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to localize endogenous Na, Cl, K, P, S, Mg and Ca in cryofixed and freeze-dried cryosections of the cap (i.e. the putative site of graviperception) and elongating zone (i.e. site of gravicurvature) of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays. Ca, Na, Cl, K and Mg accumulate along the lower side of caps of horizontally oriented roots. The most dramatic asymmetries of these ions occur in the apoplast, especially the mucilage. We could not detect any significant differences in the concentrations of these ions in the central cytoplasm of columella cells along the upper and lower sides of caps of horizontally-oriented roots. However, the increased amounts of Na, Cl, K and Mg in the longitudinal walls of columella cells along the lower side of the cap suggest that these ions may move down through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots. Ca also accumulates (largely in the mucilage) along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots, while Na, P, Cl and K tend to accumulate along the upper side of the elongating zone. Of these ions, only K increases in concentration in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells in the upper vs lower sides of the elongating zone. These results indicate that (1) gravity-induced asymmetries of ions differ significantly in the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (2) Ca accumulates along the lower side of the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (3) increased growth of the upper side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with increased amounts of K in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells, and (4) the apoplast (especially the mucilage) may be an important component of the pathway via which ions move in graviresponding rots of Zea mays. These results are discussed relative to mechanisms for graviperception and gravicurvature of roots.

  9. Nitric oxide: an emerging regulator of cell elongation during primary root growth.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marcos, María; Sanz, Luis; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2012-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly inducible molecule and overaccumulated during stress responses, such as drought, cold and pathogen infection. Several key developmental processes within a plant life cycle have been reported to be signaled by this gaseous molecule, and among them seed germination, de-etiolation, gravitropic response or root growth are well-characterized. The importance of NO as a plant growth and stress regulator is emerging considerably, despite the current knowledge about its signaling pathway is still limited. Therefore, the identification and characterization at the molecular level of NO targets is essential to get a deeper insight into this pathway. Here we characterize the effect of NO on root development in Arabidopsis and found that NO application reduces cell lengths in differentiation zone. Additionally, the contribution of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway to the NO root-related phenotypes, mainly through DELLA repressors, is also depicted. PMID:22353861

  10. Elongation-related functions of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Junker, Astrid; Mönke, Gudrun; Rutten, Twan; Keilwagen, Jens; Seifert, Michael; Thi, Tuyet Minh Nguyen; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Viehöver, Prisca; Hähnel, Urs; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Altschmied, Lothar; Conrad, Udo; Weisshaar, Bernd; Bäumlein, Helmut

    2012-08-01

    The transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) controls aspects of early embryogenesis and seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify components of the LEC1 regulon, transgenic plants were derived in which LEC1 expression was inducible by dexamethasone treatment. The cotyledon-like leaves and swollen root tips developed by these plants contained seed-storage compounds and resemble the phenotypes produced by increased auxin levels. In agreement with this, LEC1 was found to mediate up-regulation of the auxin synthesis gene YUCCA10. Auxin accumulated primarily in the elongation zone at the root-hypocotyl junction (collet). This accumulation correlates with hypocotyl growth, which is either inhibited in LEC1-induced embryonic seedlings or stimulated in the LEC1-induced long-hypocotyl phenotype, therefore resembling etiolated seedlings. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a number of phytohormone- and elongation-related genes among the putative LEC1 target genes. LEC1 appears to be an integrator of various regulatory events, involving the transcription factor itself as well as light and hormone signalling, especially during somatic and early zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, the data suggest non-embryonic functions for LEC1 during post-germinative etiolation. PMID:22429691

  11. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar. PMID:25028322

  12. Ammonium Inhibits Primary Root Growth by Reducing the Length of Meristem and Elongation Zone and Decreasing Elemental Expansion Rate in the Root Apex in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kun; Chen, Fanjun; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ammonium on primary root growth has been well documented; however the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms are still controversial. To avoid ammonium toxicity to shoot growth, we used a vertical two-layer split plate system, in which the upper layer contained nitrate and the lower layer contained ammonium. In this way, nitrogen status was maintained and only the apical part of the root system was exposed to ammonium. Using a kinematic approach, we show here that 1 mM ammonium reduces primary root growth, decreasing both elemental expansion and cell production. Ammonium inhibits the length of elongation zone and the maximum elemental expansion rate. Ammonium also decreases the apparent length of the meristem as well as the number of dividing cells without affecting cell division rate. Moreover, ammonium reduces the number of root cap cells but appears to affect neither the status of root stem cell niche nor the distal auxin maximum at the quiescent center. Ammonium also inhibits root gravitropism and concomitantly down-regulates the expression of two pivotal auxin transporters, AUX1 and PIN2. Insofar as ammonium inhibits root growth rate in AUX1 and PIN2 loss-of-function mutants almost as strongly as in wild type, we conclude that ammonium inhibits root growth and gravitropism by largely distinct pathways. PMID:23577185

  13. The role of the root apoplast in aluminium-induced inhibition of root elongation and in aluminium resistance of plants: a review

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Walter J.; Wang, Yunxia; Eticha, Dejene

    2010-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important soil constraint for plant growth and development in acid soils. The mechanism of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is still not well understood, and it is a matter of debate whether the primary lesions of Al toxicity are apoplastic or symplastic. Scope The present review focuses on the role of the apoplast in Al toxicity and resistance, summarizing evidence from our own experimental work and other evidence published since 1995. Conclusions The binding of Al in the cell wall particularly to the pectic matrix and to the apoplastic face of the plasma membrane in the most Al-sensitive root zone of the root apex thus impairing apoplastic and symplastic cell functions is a major factor leading to Al-induced inhibition of root elongation. Although symplastic lesions of Al toxicity cannot be excluded, the protection of the root apoplast appears to be a prerequisite for Al resistance in both Al-tolerant and Al-accumulating plant species. In many plant species the release of organic acid anions complexing Al, thus protecting the root apoplast from Al binding, is a most important Al resistance mechanism. However, there is increasing physiological, biochemical and, most recently also, molecular evidence showing that the modification of the binding properties of the root apoplast contributes to Al resistance. A further in-depth characterization of the Al-induced apoplastic reaction in the most Al-sensitive zone of the root apex is urgently required, particularly to understand the Al resistance of the most Al-resistant plant species. PMID:20237112

  14. GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-01-01

    As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from –2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

  15. Transcription coactivator Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 modulates anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation through transrepression of Constitutive Photomorphogenic1.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), a transcription coactivator, is implicated in modulating cell proliferation. In this study, I found that AN3 is a novel regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis and light-induced root elongation. Seedlings and seeds lacking AN3 activity presented significantly reduced anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation, whereas those of transgenic plants harbouring the 35S:AN3 construct exhibited increased anthocyanin accumulation. AN3 is required for the proper expression of other genes that affect anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation, Constitutive Photomorphogenic1 (COP1), encoding a RING motif - containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. AN3 was associated with COP1 promoter in vivo. Thus, AN3 may act with other proteins that bind to COP1 promoter to promote anthocyanin accumulation and inhibit light-induced root elongation. PMID:25256341

  16. Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Di Salvatore, M; Carafa, A M; Carratù, G

    2008-11-01

    Seed germination and root elongation test is used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish has long been used for this test. Same reports indicate that filter paper might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances, especially metal cations. This study evaluate toxicity of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on lettuce, broccoli, tomato and radish seed using two bed material: agar and filter paper. The results show that percent germination is not affected by substrates; vice versa, as for root elongation, the test in agar showed to be more sensible than that the one on filter paper. The radical growth inhibition depends on the metal, on the tested concentration and on the species; among the tested metals, cadmium was the one determining the highest toxic effects on different species and lettuce was the plant that suffered more. From the comparison, it is clearly evident the greater sensibility of the test in agar; on the other hand, the lower sensibility of the test on the filter paper might be caused by the partial and not homogeneous exposition of the root to metal cations. PMID:18768198

  17. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  18. OsSNDP1, a Sec14-nodulin domain-containing protein, plays a critical role in root hair elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Chul Min; Xuan, Yuan-hu; Park, Soon Ju; Piao, Hai Long; Je, Byoung Il; Liu, Jingmiao; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Bo-Kyeong; Han, Chang-Deok

    2013-05-01

    Rice is cultivated in water-logged paddy lands. Thus, rice root hairs on the epidermal layers are exposed to a different redox status of nitrogen species, organic acids, and metal ions than root hairs growing in drained soil. To identify genes that play an important role in root hair growth, a forward genetics approach was used to screen for short-root-hair mutants. A short-root-hair mutant was identified and isolated by using map-based cloning and sequencing. The mutation arose from a single amino acid substitution of OsSNDP1 (Oryza sativa Sec14-nodulin domain protein), which shows high sequence homology with Arabidopsis COW1/AtSFH1 and encodes a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). By performing complementation assays with Atsfh1 mutants, we demonstrated that OsSNDP1 is involved in growth of root hairs. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy was utilized to further characterize the effect of the Ossndp1 mutation on root hair morphology. Aberrant morphogenesis was detected in root hair elongation and maturation zones. Many root hairs were branched and showed irregular shapes due to bulged nodes. Many epidermal cells also produced dome-shaped root hairs, which indicated that root hair elongation ceased at an early stage. These studies showed that PITP-mediated phospholipid signaling and metabolism is critical for root hair elongation in rice. PMID:23456248

  19. Selenium Inhibits Root Elongation by Repressing the Generation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

  20. Involvement of calmodulin in regulation of primary root elongation by N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Chao; Jia, Zhenhua; Huang, Yali; Li, Haili; Song, Shuishan

    2015-01-01

    Many bacteria use signal molecules of low molecular weight to monitor their local population density and to coordinate their collective behavior in a process called “quorum sensing” (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the primary QS signals among Gram-negative bacteria. AHL-mediated QS plays an essential role in diverse bacterial physiological processes. Recent evidence shows that plants are able to sense bacterial AHLs and respond to them appropriately. However, little is known about the mechanism by which plants perceive and transduce the bacterial AHLs within cells. In this study, we found that the stimulatory effect of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) on primary root elongation of Arabidopsis was abolished by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7) and trifluoperazine (TFP). Western-blot and ELISA analysis revealed that the concentration of CaM protein in Arabidopsis roots increased after treatment with 1 μM 3OC6-HSL. Results from quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of all nine CaM genes in Arabidopsis genome was up-regulated in the plants treated with 3OC6-HSL. The loss-of-function mutants of each AtCaM gene (AtCaM1-9) were insensitive to 3OC6-HSL-stimulation of primary root elongation. On the other hand, the genetic evidence showed that CaM may not participates the inhibition of primary root length caused by application of long-chained AHLs such as C10-HSL and C12-HSL. Nevertheless, our results suggest that CaM is involved in the bacterial 3OC6-HSL signaling in plant cells. These data offer new insight into the mechanism of plant response to bacterial QS signals. PMID:25628641

  1. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  2. Overlapping functions of the four class XI myosins in Arabidopsis growth, root hair elongation, and organelle motility

    PubMed Central

    Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2008-01-01

    Flowering plants have evolved multigene families of the class XI myosin motors, the functions of which remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated functional profiles of the Arabidopsis myosins that belong to two paralogous pairs, XI-K/XI-1 and XI-2/XI-B, using single and double gene-knockout mutants. It was found that the myosins XI-K, XI-2, and XI-B, but not XI-1 have overlapping and additive roles in the root hair elongation. A nonidentical set of the three myosins, XI-K, XI-1, and XI-2, exhibited partially redundant and additive roles in the transport of Golgi stacks, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. Conspicuously, the double xi-k/1 knockout plants that showed the largest cumulative reduction of the organelle velocities also exhibited a stunted plant growth and reduced fecundity phenotype. Collectively, these results suggest that the rapid, myosin-powered organelle trafficking is required for the optimal plant growth, whereas a distinct myosin function, presumably the vesicular transport, is involved in elongation of the root hairs. In addition, our data imply that the myosin gene duplication in plants has been followed by a gradual functional specialization of the resulting pairs of myosin paralogs. PMID:19060218

  3. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jintao; Zhao, Yu; Chu, Huangwei; Wang, Likai; Fu, Yanru; Liu, Ping; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Chen, Chunli; Mou, Tongmin; Feng, Yuqi; Kumar, Prakash; Xu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb), a mild gibberellin (GA) deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26275148

  4. Hyper, a hydrogen peroxide sensor, indicates the sensitivity of the Arabidopsis root elongation zone to aluminum treatment.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Barrera, Alejandra; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Zepeda, Isaac; Sanchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez-Lopez, Rosana; Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cardenas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that some reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are central regulators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the cellular levels of ROS are thought to be tightly regulated by an efficient and elaborate pro- and antioxidant system that modulates the production and scavenging of ROS. Until recently, studies of ROS in plant cells have been limited to biochemical assays and the use of fluorescent probes; however, the irreversible oxidation of these fluorescent probes makes it impossible to visualize dynamic changes in ROS levels. In this work, we describe the use of Hyper, a recently developed live cell probe for H2O2 measurements in living cells, to monitor oxidative stress in Arabidopsis roots subjected to aluminum treatment. Hyper consists of a circularly permuted YFP (cpYFP) inserted into the regulatory domain of the Escherichia coli hydrogen peroxide-binding protein (OxyR), and is a H2O2-specific ratiometric, and therefore quantitative, probe that can be expressed in plant and animal cells. Now we demonstrate that H2O2 levels drop sharply in the elongation zone of roots treated with aluminum. This response could contribute to root growth arrest and provides evidence that H2O2 is involved in early Al sensing. PMID:25569758

  5. Seed germination, root elongation, root-tip mitosis, and micronucleus induction of five crop plants exposed to chromium in fluvo-aquic soil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing-; Liu, Guan-Nan; Xue, Wei; Fu, Wen-Jun; Liang, Bao-Cui; Liu, Xin-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxic effects of chromium (Cr) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and corn (Zea mays), and identify the sensitive plant species and appropriate bioassays for potential use in phytotoxicity assessment of Cr in soil. Results showed that seed germination might not be a sensitive assay for assessing Cr toxicity because at most of the Cr levels there were no toxic effects. Root elongation was more sensitive to Cr than seed germination. The lowest concentration of adverse effect (LOAEC) of lettuce was 20 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil, and that of the other 4 species was 50 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil. The mitotic index fluctuated with increasing Cr concentration, thus it was insufficient to assess toxicity of Cr in soil. However, micronucleus assay showed that 5 mg Cr/kg(-1) soil caused a significant increase in micronucleus frequency in cabbage, cucumber, and lettuce. For wheat and corn, however, the LOAEC was 20 and 50 mg/Cr/kg(-1) soil, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of Cr accumulation showed that lettuce significantly accumulated Cr for all the tested concentrations. However, corn and wheat significantly accumulated Cr only with the highest tested dose. This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of Cr on root growth. It can be concluded that root elongation and micronucleus assay are good indicators to assess the phytotoxicity of Cr in soil. Lettuce is the most sensitive species for indicating the toxicity of Cr in soil. PMID:24318542

  6. Lettuce seed germination and root elongation toxicity evaluation of the F-Area seepline soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This study is a continuation of similar studies conducted by Easton and Murphy (1993) and Loehle (1990). The objectives of these studies are to: (1) assess the toxicity of the water-soluble constituents of soil in a seepline adjacent to the F-Area Seepage Basins and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of rainwater movements in reducing the toxicity of the soil. Soils from the F-Area seepline that were found to inhibit lettuce seed germination and radical elongation in 1990 were not found to be significantly different from soils from an uncontaminated control site in this test. After six washings of the soil, the toxicity of the leachate was comparable to that of de-ionized water. This indicates that natural water movements may have rendered the F-Area seepline soils less toxic to lettuce seedlings than in previous tests.

  7. Transient Proliferation of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells on the Epidermal Apex Contributes to Highly Aluminum-Resistant Root Elongation in Camphor Tree1[W

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  8. Potassium transporter TRH1 subunits assemble regulating root-hair elongation autonomously from the cell fate determination pathway.

    PubMed

    Daras, Gerasimos; Rigas, Stamatis; Tsitsekian, Dikran; Iacovides, Tefkros A; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-02-01

    Trichoblasts of trh1 plants form root-hair initiation sites that fail to undergo tip growth resulting in a tiny root-hair phenotype. TRH1 belongs to Arabidopsis KT/KUP/HAK potassium transporter family controlling root-hair growth and gravitropism. Double mutant combinations between trh1 and root-hair mutants affecting cell fate or root-hair initiation exhibited additive phenotypes, suggesting that TRH1 acts independently and developmentally downstream of root-hair initiation. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC), upon TRH1-YFP(C) and TRH1-YFP(N) co-transformation into tobacco epidermal cells, led to fluorescence emission indicative of TRH1 subunit homodimerization. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed two types of interactions. The hydrophilic segment between the second and the third transmembrane domain extending from residues Q105 to T141 is competent for a relatively weak interaction, whereas the region at the C-terminal beyond the last transmembrane domain, extending from amino acids R565 to A729, strongly self-interacts. These domains likely facilitate the co-assembly of TRH1 subunits forming an active K(+) transport system within cellular membrane structures. The results support the role of TRH1 acting as a convergence point between the developmental root-hair pathway and the environmental/hormonal signaling pathway to preserve auxin homeostasis ensuring plant adaptation in changing environments. PMID:25575998

  9. Comparative Proteomics Indicates That Biosynthesis of Pectic Precursors Is Important for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Hair Elongation*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chao-You; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yu; Xu, Chao; Jiao, Yue; Qin, Yong-Mei; Western, Tamara L.; Yu, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2010-01-01

    The quality of cotton fiber is determined by its final length and strength, which is a function of primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Using a comparative proteomics approach, we identified 104 proteins from cotton ovules 10 days postanthesis with 93 preferentially accumulated in the wild type and 11 accumulated in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that nucleotide sugar metabolism was the most significantly up-regulated biochemical process during fiber elongation. Seven protein spots potentially involved in pectic cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis were specifically accumulated in wild-type samples at both the protein and transcript levels. Protein and mRNA expression of these genes increased when either ethylene or lignoceric acid (C24:0) was added to the culture medium, suggesting that these compounds may promote fiber elongation by modulating the production of cell wall polymers. Quantitative analysis revealed that fiber primary cell walls contained significantly higher amounts of pectin, whereas more hemicellulose was found in ovule samples. Significant fiber growth was observed when UDP-l-rhamnose, UDP-d-galacturonic acid, or UDP-d-glucuronic acid, all of which were readily incorporated into the pectin fraction of cell wall preparations, was added to the ovule culture medium. The short root hairs of Arabidopsis uer1-1 and gae6-1 mutants were complemented either by genetic transformation of the respective cotton cDNA or by adding a specific pectin precursor to the growth medium. When two pectin precursors, produced by either UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose 3,5-epimerase 4-reductase or by UDP-d-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase successively, were used in the chemical complementation assay, wild-type root hair lengths were observed in both cut1 and ein2-5 Arabidopsis seedlings, which showed defects in C24:0 biosynthesis or ethylene signaling, respectively. Our results suggest that ethylene and C24:0 may promote cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root hair growth by activating the pectin biosynthesis network, especially UDP-l-rhamnose and UDP-d-galacturonic acid synthesis. PMID:20525998

  10. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action is high in the root elongation zone and in the trichoblasts of all vascular plants from Selaginella to Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, K; Van Sandt, V; Fry, S C; Verbelen, J-P

    2003-01-01

    The endotransglucosylase action of the enzyme xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) was localized in the roots of diverse vascular plants: club-mosses (lycopodiophytes), ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots. High action was always found in the epidermis cell wall of the elongation zone and in trichoblasts in the differentiation zone. Clearly XTH and its action in root development evolved before the evolutionary divergence of ferns and seed plants and also of the lycopodiophytes and euphyllophytes. PMID:12493861

  11. Genome-wide analysis of small RNAs reveals eight fiber elongation-related and 257 novel microRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other types of small regulatory RNAs play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Cotton is one of the most economically important crops, but little is known about the roles of miRNAs during cotton fiber elongation. Results Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational analysis to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) related to cotton fiber elongation in Gossypium hirsutum L. (G. hirsutum). The sequence analysis confirmed the expression of 79 known miRNA families in elongating fiber cells and identified 257 novel miRNAs, primarily derived from corresponding specific loci in the Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. (G. raimondii) genome. Furthermore, a comparison of the miRNAomes revealed that 46 miRNA families were differentially expressed throughout the elongation period. Importantly, the predicted and experimentally validated targets of eight miRNAs were associated with fiber elongation, with obvious functional relationships with calcium and auxin signal transduction, fatty acid metabolism, anthocyanin synthesis and the xylem tissue differentiation. Moreover, one tasiRNA was also identified, and its target, ARF4, was experimentally validated in vivo. Conclusion This study not only facilitated the discovery of 257 novel low-abundance miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells but also revealed a potential regulatory network of nine sRNAs important for fiber elongation. The identification and characterization of miRNAs in elongating cotton fiber cells might promote the further study of fiber miRNA regulation mechanisms and provide insight into the importance of miRNAs in cotton. PMID:24044642

  12. Regulation of Growth Response to Water Stress in the Soybean Primary Root. I. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Region-Specific Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and Control of Free Iron in the Elongation Zone.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-stressed soybean primary roots, elongation was maintained at well-watered rates in the apical 4 mm (region 1) but was progressively inhibited in the 4-8 mm region (region 2), which exhibits maximum elongation in well-watered roots. These responses are similar to previous results for the mai...

  13. OsARF12, a transcription activator on auxin response gene, regulates root elongation and affects iron accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Qi, YanHua; Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Chen, Yue; Xu, YanXia; Liu, Yu; Wu, YunRong; Jiang, DeAn

    2012-01-01

    • Auxin has an important role in maintaining optimal root system architecture (RSA) that can cope with growth reductions of crops caused by water or nutrient shortages. However, the mechanism of controlling RSA remains largely unclear. Here, we found a limiting factor of RSA--OsARF12--an auxin response factor whose knockout led to decreased primary root length in rice (Oryza sativa). • OsARF12 as a transcription activator can facilitate the expression of the auxin response element DR5::GFP, and OsARF12 was inhibited by osa-miRNA167d by transient expression in tobacco and rice callus. • The root elongation zones of osarf12 and osarf12/25, which had lower auxin concentrations, were distinctly shorter than for the wild-type, possibly as a result of decreased expression of auxin synthesis genes OsYUCCAs and auxin efflux carriers OsPINs and OsPGPs. The knockout of OsARF12 also altered the abundance of mitochondrial iron-regulated (OsMIR), iron (Fe)-regulated transporter1 (OsIRT1) and short postembryonic root1 (OsSPR1) in roots of rice, and resulted in lower Fe content. • The data provide evidence for the biological function of OsARF12, which is implicated in regulating root elongation. Our investigation contributes a novel insight for uncovering regulation of RSA and the relationship between auxin response and Fe acquisition. PMID:21973088

  14. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  15. Development of a Multi-Species Biotic Ligand Model Predicting the Toxicity of Trivalent Chromium to Barley Root Elongation in Solution Culture

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ningning; Zhong, Xu; Li, Bo; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Little knowledge is available about the influence of cation competition and metal speciation on trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) toxicity. In the present study, the effects of pH and selected cations on the toxicity of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation were investigated to develop an appropriate biotic ligand model (BLM). Results showed that the toxicity of Cr(III) decreased with increasing activity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ but not with K+ and Na+. The effect of pH on Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation could be explained by H+ competition with Cr3+ bound to a biotic ligand (BL) as well as by the concomitant toxicity of CrOH2+ in solution culture. Stability constants were obtained for the binding of Cr3+, CrOH2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and H+ with binding ligand: log KCrBL 7.34, log KCrOHBL 5.35, log KCaBL 2.64, log KMgBL 2.98, and log KHBL 4.74. On the basis of those estimated parameters, a BLM was successfully developed to predict Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation as a function of solution characteristics. PMID:25119269

  16. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-l-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism. PMID:26565655

  17. GABA Accumulation Causes Cell Elongation Defects and a Decrease in Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted and Cell Wall-Related Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Updegraff, Emily P.; Yu, Agnès; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Preuss, Daphne; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

    2011-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, is a signaling factor in many organisms. In plants, GABA is known to accumulate under a variety of stresses. However, the consequence of GABA accumulation, especially in vegetative tissues, remains poorly understood. Moreover, gene expression changes as a consequence of GABA accumulation in plants are largely unknown. The pop2 mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism and accumulates GABA, is a good model to examine the effects of GABA accumulation on plant development. Here, we show that the pop2 mutants have pollen tube elongation defects in the transmitting tract of pistils. Additionally, we observed growth inhibition of primary root and dark-grown hypocotyl, at least in part due to cell elongation defects, upon exposure to exogenous GABA. Microarray analysis of pop2-1 seedlings grown in GABA-supplemented medium revealed that 60% of genes whose expression decreased encode secreted proteins. Besides, functional classification of genes with decreased expression in the pop2-1 mutant showed that cell wall-related genes were significantly enriched in the microarray data set, consistent with the cell elongation defects observed in pop2 mutants. Our study identifies cell elongation defects caused by GABA accumulation in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. Additionally, our results show that genes that encode secreted and cell wall-related proteins may mediate some of the effects of GABA accumulation. The potential function of GABA as a growth control factor under stressful conditions is discussed. PMID:21471118

  18. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  19. Arabidopsis ERF1 Mediates Cross-Talk between Ethylene and Auxin Biosynthesis during Primary Root Elongation by Regulating ASA1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Yu, Lin-Hui; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The gaseous phytohormone ethylene participates in the regulation of root growth and development in Arabidopsis. It is known that root growth inhibition by ethylene involves auxin, which is partially mediated by the action of the WEAK ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2/ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE α1 (WEI2/ASA1), encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis, from which auxin is derived. However, the molecular mechanism by which ethylene decreases root growth via ASA1 is not understood. Here we report that the ethylene-responsive AP2 transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1), plays an important role in primary root elongation of Arabidopsis. Using loss- and gain-of-function transgenic lines as well as biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that ERF1 can directly up-regulate ASA1 by binding to its promoter, leading to auxin accumulation and ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth. This discloses one mechanism linking ethylene signaling and auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:26745809

  20. Production of reactive oxygen intermediates (O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2), and (.)OH) by maize roots and their role in wall loosening and elongation growth.

    PubMed

    Liszkay, Anja; van der Zalm, Esther; Schopfer, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Cell extension in the growing zone of plant roots typically takes place with a maximum local growth rate of 50% length increase per hour. The biochemical mechanism of this dramatic growth process is still poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that the wall-loosening reaction controlling root elongation is effected by the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, initiated by a NAD(P)H oxidase-catalyzed formation of superoxide radicals (O(2)(.-)) at the plasma membrane and culminating in the generation of polysaccharide-cleaving hydroxyl radicals ((.)OH) by cell wall peroxidase. The following results were obtained using primary roots of maize (Zea mays) seedlings as experimental material. (1) Production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2), and (.)OH can be demonstrated in the growing zone using specific histochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. (2) Auxin-induced inhibition of growth is accompanied by a reduction of O(2)(.-) production. (3) Experimental generation of (.)OH in the cell walls with the Fenton reaction causes wall loosening (cell wall creep), specifically in the growing zone. Alternatively, wall loosening can be induced by (.)OH produced by endogenous cell wall peroxidase in the presence of NADH and H(2)O(2). (4) Inhibition of endogenous (.)OH formation by O(2)(.-) or (.)OH scavengers, or inhibitors of NAD(P)H oxidase or peroxidase activity, suppress elongation growth. These results show that juvenile root cells transiently express the ability to generate (.)OH, and to respond to (.)OH by wall loosening, in passing through the growing zone. Moreover, inhibitor studies indicate that (.)OH formation is essential for normal root growth. PMID:15466236

  1. Relations between Roots and Coefficients of Cubic Equations with One Root Negative the Reciprocal of Another

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Under predetermined conditions on the roots and coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions relating the coefficients of a given cubic equation x[cubed] + ax[squared] + bx + c = 0 can be established so that the roots possess desired properties. In this note, the condition for one root of a cubic equation to be "the negative reciprocal of…

  2. Succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 is needed for assembly and activity of mitochondrial complex II and for normal root elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) plays a central role in respiratory metabolism as a component of both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We report the identification of an SDH assembly factor by analysis of T-DNA insertions in At5g51040, a protein with unknown function that was identified by mass spectrometry analysis as a low abundance mitochondrial protein. This gene is co-expressed with a number of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, including SDH1-1, and has low partial sequence similarity to human SDHAF2, a protein required for flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) insertion into SDH. In contrast to observations of other SDH deficient lines in Arabidopsis, the sdhaf2 line did not affect photosynthetic rate or stomatal conductance, but instead showed inhibition of primary root elongation with early lateral root emergence, presumably due to the low SDH activity caused by the reduced abundance of SDHAF2. Both roots and leaves showed succinate accumulation but different responses in the abundance of other organic acids and amino acids assayed. Isolated mitochondria showed lowered SDH1 protein abundance, lowered maximal SDH activity and less protein-bound flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at the molecular mass of SDH1 in the gel separation. The short root phenotype and SDH function of sdhaf2 was fully complemented by transformation with SDHAF2. Application of the SDH inhibitor, malonate, phenocopied the sdhaf2 root architecture in WT. Whole root respiratory assays showed no difference between WT and sdhaf2, but micro-respirometry of the tips of roots clearly showed low oxygen consumption in sdhaf2 which could explain a metabolic deficit responsible for root tip growth. PMID:23036115

  3. Genome-Wide and Experimental Resolution of Relative Translation Elongation Speed at Individual Gene Level in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Cui, Yizhi; Zhong, Jiayong; Jin, Jingjie; He, Qing-Yu; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Gong

    2016-01-01

    In the process of translation, ribosomes first assemble on mRNAs (translation initiation) and then translate along the mRNA (elongation) to synthesize proteins. Elongation pausing is deemed highly relevant to co-translational folding of nascent peptides and the functionality of protein products, which positioned the evaluation of elongation speed as one of the central questions in the field of translational control. By integrating three types of RNA-seq methods, we experimentally and computationally resolved elongation speed, with our proposed elongation velocity index (EVI), a relative measure at individual gene level and under physiological condition in human cells. We successfully distinguished slow-translating genes from the background translatome. We demonstrated that low-EVI genes encoded more stable proteins. We further identified cell-specific slow-translating codons, which might serve as a causal factor of elongation deceleration. As an example for the biological relevance, we showed that the relatively slow-translating genes tended to be associated with the maintenance of malignant phenotypes per pathway analyses. In conclusion, EVI opens a new view to understand why human cells tend to avoid simultaneously speeding up translation initiation and decelerating elongation, and the possible cancer relevance of translating low-EVI genes to gain better protein quality. PMID:26926465

  4. L-Cysteine inhibits root elongation through auxin/PLETHORA and SCR/SHR pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Mao, Jie-Li; Zhao, Ying-Jun; Li, Chuan-You; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2015-02-01

    L-Cysteine plays a prominent role in sulfur metabolism of plants. However, its role in root development is largely unknown. Here, we report that L-cysteine reduces primary root growth in a dosage-dependent manner. Elevating cellular L-cysteine level by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to high L-cysteine, buthionine sulphoximine, or O-acetylserine leads to altered auxin maximum in root tips, the expression of quiescent center cell marker as well as the decrease of the auxin carriers PIN1, PIN2, PIN3, and PIN7 of primary roots. We also show that high L-cysteine significantly reduces the protein level of two sets of stem cell specific transcription factors PLETHORA1/2 and SCR/SHR. However, L-cysteine does not downregulate the transcript level of PINs, PLTs, or SCR/SHR, suggesting that an uncharacterized post-transcriptional mechanism may regulate the accumulation of PIN, PLT, and SCR/SHR proteins and auxin transport in the root tips. These results suggest that endogenous L-cysteine level acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1/2 and SCR/SHR. L-Cysteine may serve as a link between sulfate assimilation and auxin in regulating root growth. PMID:24798139

  5. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. PMID:26595095

  6. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress. PMID:26140668

  7. Multiple functions of Kip-related protein5 connect endoreduplication and cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Jégu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Delarue, Marianne; Mazubert, Christelle; Bourge, Mickaël; Hudik, Elodie; Blanchet, Sophie; Soler, Marie-Noëlle; Charon, Céline; De Veylder, Lieven; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

    2013-04-01

    Despite considerable progress in our knowledge regarding the cell cycle inhibitor of the Kip-related protein (KRP) family in plants, less is known about the coordination of endoreduplication and cell differentiation. In animals, the role of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors as multifunctional factors coordinating cell cycle regulation and cell differentiation is well documented and involves not only the inhibition of CDK/cyclin complexes but also other mechanisms, among them the regulation of transcription. Interestingly, several plant KRPs have a punctuated distribution in the nucleus, suggesting that they are associated with heterochromatin. Here, one of these chromatin-bound KRPs, KRP5, has been studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). KRP5 is expressed in endoreduplicating cells, and loss of KRP5 function decreases endoreduplication, indicating that KRP5 is a positive regulator of endoreduplication. This regulation relies on several mechanisms: in addition to its role in cyclin/CDK kinase inhibition previously described, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data combined with transcript quantification provide evidence that KRP5 regulates the transcription of genes involved in cell wall organization. Furthermore, KRP5 overexpression increases chromocenter decondensation and endoreduplication in the Arabidopsis trithorax-related protein5 (atxr5) atxr6 double mutant, which is deficient for the deposition of heterochromatin marks. Hence, KRP5 could bind chromatin to coordinately control endoreduplication and chromatin structure and allow the expression of genes required for cell elongation. PMID:23426196

  8. The histone deacetylase HDA19 controls root cell elongation and modulates a subset of phosphate starvation responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Wu, Keqiang; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The length of root epidermal cells and their patterning into files of hair-bearing and non-hair cells are genetically determined but respond with high plasticity to environmental cues. Limited phyto-availability of the essential mineral nutrient phosphate (Pi) increases the number of root hairs by longitudinal shortening of epidermal cells and by reprogramming the fate of cells in positions normally occupied by non-hair cells. Through analysis of the root morphology and transcriptional profiles from transgenic Arabidopsis lines with altered expression of the histone deacetylase HDA19, we show that in an intricate interplay of Pi availability and intrinsic factors, HDA19 controls the epidermal cell length, probably by altering the positional bias that dictates epidermal patterning. In addition, HDA19 regulates several Pi-responsive genes that encode proteins with important regulatory or metabolic roles in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. In particular, HDA19 affects genes encoding SPX (SYG1/Pho81/XPR) domain-containing proteins and genes involved in membrane lipid remodeling, a key response to Pi starvation that increases the free Pi in plants. Our data add a novel, non-transcriptionally regulated component of the Pi signaling network and emphasize the importance of reversible post-translational histone modification for the integration of external signals into intrinsic developmental and metabolic programs. PMID:26508133

  9. RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 Forms a Ternary Complex with JAZ and Class-C bHLH Factors and Regulates Jasmonate-Induced Gene Expression and Root Cell Elongation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kurata, Kyo; Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Habu, Yoshiki; Ando, Tsuyu; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Katoh, Etsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity of root growth in response to environmental cues and stresses is a fundamental characteristic of land plants. However, the molecular basis underlying the regulation of root growth under stressful conditions is poorly understood. Here, we report that a rice nuclear factor, RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 (RSS3), regulates root cell elongation during adaptation to salinity. Loss of function of RSS3 only moderately inhibits cell elongation under normal conditions, but it provokes spontaneous root cell swelling, accompanied by severe root growth inhibition, under saline conditions. RSS3 is preferentially expressed in the root tip and forms a ternary complex with class-C basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN proteins, the latter of which are the key regulators of jasmonate (JA) signaling. The mutated protein arising from the rss3 allele fails to interact with bHLH factors, and the expression of a significant portion of JA-responsive genes is upregulated in rss3. These results, together with the known roles of JAs in root growth regulation, suggest that RSS3 modulates the expression of JA-responsive genes and plays a crucial role in a mechanism that sustains root cell elongation at appropriate rates under stressful conditions. PMID:23715469

  10. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  11. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  12. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation for non-calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanqing; Di Toro, Dominic M; Allen, Herbert E

    2015-07-01

    A Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model (TBLM) for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation (RE) developed from experiments conducted in sand culture was used to predict toxicity in non-calcareous soils. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and pH in sand solution were varied individually and TBLM parameters were computed. EC50 increased as Mg(2+) increased, whereas the effect of Ca(2+) was insignificant. TBLM parameters developed from sand culture were validated by toxicity tests in eight Ni-amended, non-calcareous soils. Additional to Ni(2+) toxicity, toxicity from all solution ions was modelled independently as an osmotic effect and needed to be included for soil culture results. The EC50s and EC10s in soil culture were predicted within twofold of measured results. These are close to the results obtained using parameters estimated from the soil culture data itself. PMID:25800936

  13. An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuxin; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in modulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, as well as of plant metabolism in Arabidopsis. Several bHLH transcription factors have been shown to be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. We report here the characterization of bHLH129, a bHLH transcription factor in Arabidopsis. We found that the expression level of bHLH129 was reduced in response to exogenously applied ABA, and elevated in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. Florescence observation of transgenic plants expressing bHLH129-GFP showed that bHLH129 was localized in the nucleus, and transient expression of bHLH129 in protoplasts inhibited reporter gene expression. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter, bHLH129 promoted root elongation, and the transgenic plants were less sensitivity to ABA in root elongation assays. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that ABA response of several genes involved in ABA signaling, including ABI1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 were altered in the transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH129. Taken together, our study suggests that bHLH129 is a transcription repressor that negatively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26625868

  14. Zonal Changes in Ascorbate and Hydrogen Peroxide Contents, Peroxidase, and Ascorbate-Related Enzyme Activities in Onion Roots1

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Córdoba-Pedregosa, María; Córdoba, Francisco; Villalba, José Manuel; González-Reyes, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) roots growing hydroponically show differential zonal values for intra- (symplastic) and extra- (apoplastic) cellular ascorbate (ASC) and dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents and for related enzyme activities. In whole roots, ASC and DHA concentrations were higher in root apex and meristem and gradually decreased toward the root base. Guaiacol peroxidase, ASC peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate oxidoreductase, DHA reductase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities showed differential activity patterns depending on the zone of the root and their apoplastic or symplastic origin. An in vivo staining of peroxidase activity also revealed a specific distribution pattern along the root axis. Using electron microscopy, hydrogen peroxide was found at different locations depending on the root zone but was mainly located in cell walls from epidermal and meristematic cells and in cells undergoing lignification. A balanced control of all of these molecules seems to exist along the root axis and may be directly related to the mechanisms in which the ASC system is involved, as cell division and elongation. The role of ASC on growth and development in relation to its presence at the different zones of the root is discussed. PMID:12586893

  15. Tomato BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 Is Required for Systemin-Induced Root Elongation in Solanum pimpinellifolium but Is Not Essential for Wound Signaling[W

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Nicholas; Caño-Delgado, Ana; Harrison, Kate; Montoya, Teresa; Chory, Joanne; Bishop, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    The tomato Leu-rich repeat receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) has been implicated in both peptide (systemin) and steroid (brassinosteroid [BR]) hormone perception. In an attempt to dissect these signaling pathways, we show that transgenic expression of BRI1 can restore the dwarf phenotype of the tomato curl3 (cu3) mutation. Confirmation that BRI1 is involved in BR signaling is highlighted by the lack of BR binding to microsomal fractions made from cu3 mutants and the restoration of BR responsiveness following transformation with BRI1. In addition, wound and systemin responses in the cu3 mutants are functional, as assayed by proteinase inhibitor gene induction and rapid alkalinization of culture medium. However, we observed BRI1-dependent root elongation in response to systemin in Solanum pimpinellifolium. In addition, ethylene perception is required for normal systemin responses in roots. These data taken together suggest that cu3 is not defective in systemin-induced wound signaling and that systemin perception can occur via a non-BRI1 mechanism. PMID:17513502

  16. Preliminary study of relating cotton fiber tenacity and elongation with crystallinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fundamental understanding of the relationship between cotton fiber strength (or tenacity) / elongation and structure is important, as cotton breeders could modify their varieties for enhancing end-use qualities. In this study, the Stelometer instrument was employed to measure bundle fiber tenacity a...

  17. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal differences between EM and AM trees. We further assessed the evidence of convergence or divergence in root traits among the six co-occurring species. Eight fine root morphological and chemical traits were investigated in root segments of the first to fourth root order in three different soil depths and the relative importance of the factors root order, tree species and soil depth for root morphology was determined. Root order was more influential than tree species while soil depth had only a small effect on root morphology All six species showed similar decreases in specific root length and specific root area from the 1st to the 4th root order, while the species patterns differed considerably in root tissue density, root N concentration, and particularly with respect to root tip abundance. Most root morphological traits were not significantly different between EM and AM species (except for specific root area that was larger in AM species), indicating that mycorrhiza type is not a key factor influencing fine root morphology in these species. The order-based root analysis detected species differences more clearly than the simple analysis of bulked fine root mass. Despite convergence in important root traits among AM and EM species, even congeneric species may differ in certain fine root morphological traits. This suggests that, in general, species identity has a larger influence on fine root morphology than mycorrhiza type. PMID:25717334

  18. Root Antioxidant Mechanisms in Relation to Root Thermotolerance in Perennial Grass Species Contrasting in Heat Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of plant root tolerance to high temperatures through antioxidant defense are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether superior root thermotolerance of heat-tolerant Agrostis scabra relative to its congeneric heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera was associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. A. scabra 'NTAS' and A. stolonifera 'Penncross' plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30°C, day/night) in growth chambers for 24 d. Superoxide (O2(-)) content increased in both A. stolonifera and A. scabra roots under heat stress but to a far lesser extent in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased significantly in A. stolonifera roots but not in A. scabra roots responding to heat stress. The content of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione) did not differ between A. stolonifera and A. scabra under heat stress. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase was less suppressed in A. scabra than that in A. stolonifera under heat stress, while peroxidase and catalase were more induced in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Similarly, their encoded transcript levels were either less suppressed, or more induced in A. scabra roots than those in A. stolonifera during heat stress. Roots of A. scabra exhibited greater alternative respiration rate and lower cytochrome respiration rate under heat stress, which was associated with suppression of O2(-) and H2O2 production as shown by respiration inhibitors. Superior root thermotolerance of A. scabra was related to decreases in H2O2 and O2(-) accumulation facilitated by active enzymatic antioxidant defense systems and the maintenance of alternative respiration, alleviating cellular damages by heat-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26382960

  19. Root Antioxidant Mechanisms in Relation to Root Thermotolerance in Perennial Grass Species Contrasting in Heat Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of plant root tolerance to high temperatures through antioxidant defense are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether superior root thermotolerance of heat-tolerant Agrostis scabra relative to its congeneric heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera was associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. A. scabra ‘NTAS’ and A. stolonifera ‘Penncross’ plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30°C, day/night) in growth chambers for 24 d. Superoxide (O2-) content increased in both A. stolonifera and A. scabra roots under heat stress but to a far lesser extent in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased significantly in A. stolonifera roots but not in A. scabra roots responding to heat stress. The content of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione) did not differ between A. stolonifera and A. scabra under heat stress. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase was less suppressed in A. scabra than that in A. stolonifera under heat stress, while peroxidase and catalase were more induced in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Similarly, their encoded transcript levels were either less suppressed, or more induced in A. scabra roots than those in A. stolonifera during heat stress. Roots of A. scabra exhibited greater alternative respiration rate and lower cytochrome respiration rate under heat stress, which was associated with suppression of O2- and H2O2 production as shown by respiration inhibitors. Superior root thermotolerance of A. scabra was related to decreases in H2O2 and O2- accumulation facilitated by active enzymatic antioxidant defense systems and the maintenance of alternative respiration, alleviating cellular damages by heat-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26382960

  20. Boron nutrition and mobility, and its relation to the elemental composition of greenhouse grown root crops I. rutabaga

    SciTech Connect

    Shelp, B.J.; Shattuck, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The nutrition and mobility of B, and its relation to the elemental composition of two cultivars of rutabaga (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera cv. Laurentian and Wilhelmsberger) plants were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Laurentian exhibited a greater response than Wilhelmsberger to continuing B deficiency as indicated by the severity in the roots of brown heart, of external roughness and elongation and of the decrease in B concentration. Signs of B deficiency were not found when the B contents of the root and young leaves were 27 and 56 ..mu..g and g/sup -1/ DM respectively. Root B levels of 14 and 17-20 ..mu..g f/sup -1/ gave moderate and slight internal signs of brown discoloration. Foliar applications of B partially restored the B concentrations of the roots; however, the mechanisms of movement was unclear. The Mg, Mn and Zn contents of roots were the only elements that consistently increased and accumulated under B deficiency. The relative element composition of the root compared to the mature leaves is consistent with the root being supplied predominantly with nutrients by the phloem.

  1. Why fine tree roots are stronger than thicker roots: The role of cellulose and lignin in relation to slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Li-Hua; Jiang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Plant roots help to reinforce the soil, increase slope stability and decrease water erosion. Root tensile strength plays an important role in soil reinforcement and slope stabilization. The relationship between tensile strength and internal chemical composition of roots is unknown due to limited studies. Thus, it is difficult to determine why root tensile strength tends to decrease with increasing root diameter. In this study, biomechanical and biochemical tests were performed on the roots of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) to determine the relationships among tensile strength and the contents of the main chemical composition: cellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin in the roots with different diameters. Our results confirmed that the tensile strength of Chinese pine roots decreased with increasing root diameter, and this relationship might be a power function. The chemical contents of the roots and root diameter were also related to each other with significant power regression. With increasing root diameter, the cellulose content and alpha-cellulose content increased, but the lignin content decreased. In addition, the lignin content exhibited a significantly positive relationship with tensile strength. Furthermore, the ratios of lignin/cellulose and lignin/alpha-cellulose decreased with increasing root diameter following significant power regressions, and they also demonstrated a positive relationship with tensile strength. Taken together, these results may be useful for studies on root tensile strength, soil reinforcement and slope stability.

  2. Light induction of the Euglena chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factors: relative effectiveness of different wavelength ranges.

    PubMed

    Eberly, S L; Spremulli, G H; Spremulli, L L

    1986-03-01

    The abilities of different wavelength ranges of light to promote the increase in the activities of the Euglena chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factors (EFs) during chloroplast biogenesis have been determined. Blue light was far more effective than either green light or red light in increasing the level of chloroplast EF-G, a nuclear encoded gene product. This observation suggests that the induction of EF-Gchl is under the control of the blue photoreceptor that has been identified in Euglena. Blue light was also the most effective wavelength range in facilitating the increase in EF-Ts, a nuclear gene product, and EF-Tu, a chloroplast gene product. However, red light and surprisingly green light were also effective. These results are not consistent with either of the known blue or blue/red photoreceptor systems in Euglena being the sole component involved in the light induction of these two factors and suggest that a green photoresponse may also be important in the development of the chloroplast. The specific activity of the Euglena mitochondrial protein biosynthetic translocase (EF-Gmt) decreased in cells exposed to light. Blue light caused an immediate decline in EF-Gmt activity; whereas, there was a temporal delay in the decrease in EF-Gmt activity when cells were exposed to either red or green light. PMID:3082283

  3. Cotton fiber properties relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  4. A Model Relating Root Permeability to Flux and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Burlyn E.

    1977-01-01

    A model that relates hydraulic permeability to water flux and to gradients in pressure potential and solute potential was tested using soybean (Glycine max) plants. Water flux was varied by additions of polyethylene glycol 6,000 around one portion of a divided root system and by changing the light intensity and CO2 concentration around the plants. The data are compatible with the model only if the hydraulic permeability varies with flux; however, the data were insufficient for rigorous testing. Three sets of published data fit the model only if hydraulic permeability varies. Evidence originally presented as involving constant hydraulic permeability is shown, rather, to require variable hydraulic permeability. PMID:16660071

  5. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  6. Nitric oxide exacerbates Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in rice bean by affecting cell wall and plasma membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Xu, Xiao Yan; Chen, Li Qian; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the most widespread problems for crop production on acid soils, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Here we found that exogenous application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) exacerbated the inhibition of Al-induced root growth in rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi 'Jiangnan', Fabaceae]. This was accompanied by an increased accumulation of Al in the root apex. However, Al treatments had no effect on endogenous NO concentrations in root apices. These results indicate that a change in NO concentration is not the cause of Al-induced root growth inhibition and the adverse effect of SNP on Al-induced root growth inhibition should result from increased Al accumulation. Al could significantly induce citrate efflux but SNP had no effects on citrate efflux either in the absence or presence of Al. On the other hand, SNP pretreatment significantly increased Al-induced malondialdehyde accumulation and Evans Blue staining, indicating an intensification of the disruption of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, SNP pretreatment also caused greater induction of pectin methylesterase activity by Al, which could be the cause of the increased Al accumulation. Taken together, it is concluded that NO exacerbates Al-induced root growth inhibition by affecting cell wall and plasma membrane properties. PMID:22230427

  7. Inactivation of plasma membrane-localized CDPK-RELATED KINASE5 decelerates PIN2 exocytosis and root gravitropic response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Tietz, Olaf; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, Hajnalka; Páy, Anikó; Salchert, Klaus; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Szabados, László; Palme, Klaus; Koncz, Csaba; Cséplo, Agnes

    2013-05-01

    CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5-green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane-associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling. PMID:23673979

  8. Measurement of Elongated Particle Dissolution Rates and Consequent Size/Shape Distribution Alterations in Support of Relative Potency Determinations and Human Dosimetry Model Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clearance of inhaled bio-persistent elongated particles (EPs) from the lungs and their associated translocation to pleural and other extra-pulmonary tissues involves a number of inter-related and coincidental physicochemical and physiological processes. These can result in EP dis...

  9. TEF-7A, a transcript elongation factor gene, influences yield-related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yuquan; Wang, Lanfen; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, TaTEF-7A, a member of the transcript elongation factor gene family, and its flanking sequences were isolated. TaTEF-7A was located on chromosome 7A and was flanked by markers Xwmc83 and XP3156.3. Subcellular localization revealed that TaTEF-7A protein was localized in the nucleus. This gene was expressed in all organs, but the highest expression occurred in young spikes and developing seeds. Overexpression of TaTEF-7A in Arabidopsis thaliana produced pleiotropic effects on vegetative and reproductive development that enhanced grain length, silique number, and silique length. No diversity was found in the coding region of TaTEF-7A, but 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms and Indels were detected in the promoter regions of different cultivars. Markers based on sequence variations in the promoter regions (InDel-629 and InDel-604) were developed, and three haplotypes were identified based on those markers. Haplotype–trait association analysis of the Chinese wheat mini core collection revealed that TaTEF-7A was significantly associated with grain number per spike. Phenotyping of near-isogenic lines (NILs) confirmed that TaTEF-7A increases potential grain yield and yield-related traits. Frequency changes in favoured haplotypes gradually increased in cultivars released in China from the 1940s. Geographic distributions of favoured haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. The presence of Hap-7A-3, the favoured haplotype, showed a positive correlation with yield in a global set of breeding lines. These results suggest that TaTEF-7A is a functional regulatory factor for grain number per spike and provide a basis for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25056774

  10. TEF-7A, a transcript elongation factor gene, influences yield-related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yuquan; Wang, Lanfen; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, TaTEF-7A, a member of the transcript elongation factor gene family, and its flanking sequences were isolated. TaTEF-7A was located on chromosome 7A and was flanked by markers Xwmc83 and XP3156.3. Subcellular localization revealed that TaTEF-7A protein was localized in the nucleus. This gene was expressed in all organs, but the highest expression occurred in young spikes and developing seeds. Overexpression of TaTEF-7A in Arabidopsis thaliana produced pleiotropic effects on vegetative and reproductive development that enhanced grain length, silique number, and silique length. No diversity was found in the coding region of TaTEF-7A, but 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms and Indels were detected in the promoter regions of different cultivars. Markers based on sequence variations in the promoter regions (InDel-629 and InDel-604) were developed, and three haplotypes were identified based on those markers. Haplotype-trait association analysis of the Chinese wheat mini core collection revealed that TaTEF-7A was significantly associated with grain number per spike. Phenotyping of near-isogenic lines (NILs) confirmed that TaTEF-7A increases potential grain yield and yield-related traits. Frequency changes in favoured haplotypes gradually increased in cultivars released in China from the 1940s. Geographic distributions of favoured haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. The presence of Hap-7A-3, the favoured haplotype, showed a positive correlation with yield in a global set of breeding lines. These results suggest that TaTEF-7A is a functional regulatory factor for grain number per spike and provide a basis for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25056774

  11. Head morphology of the duckbill eel, Hoplunnis punctata (Regan, 1915; Nettastomatidae: Anguilliformes) in relation to jaw elongation.

    PubMed

    Eagderi, Soheil; Adriaens, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Hoplunnis punctata, a member of the Anguilliformes, is a long-snouted eel that lives in benthic habitats of the continental shelf of tropical waters. The purpose of this study was to examine the skull morphology of this little known nettastomatid and to understand the changes associated with jaw elongation as well as the implications of jaw elongation on the feeding apparatus. We present a detailed description of the cranial osteology and myology of H. punctata and how these characters differ from Conger conger (Congrinae: Congridae), a representative with moderate jaw length, and Heteroconger hassi (Heterocongrinae: Congridae), a representative with a short jaw. Shape comparison shows a caudal displacement of the hyomandibula, quadrate-mandibular articulation and opercle-hyomandibular joint, decrease in the depth of the neurocranium, and increase in the distance between the anterior suspensorial facet and the posterior end of the orbit in H. punctata as a result of jaw elongation. These characteristics along with its immobile, long maxillary and well-developed adductor mandibulae muscle complex suggest that food may be obtained by powerful biting. Jaw elongation potentially affects the functioning of the feeding apparatus in H. punctata by providing more space for the olfactory rosette, increasing biting speed and reducing drag during prey capture. PMID:20439154

  12. Auxin and Cellular Elongation.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Estevez, José M

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  13. Control of Transcriptional Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hojoong; Lis, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Elongation is becoming increasingly recognized as a critically controlled step in transcriptional regulation. While traditional genetic and biochemical studies have identified major players of transcriptional elongation, our understanding of the importance and roles of these factors is evolving rapidly through the recent advances in genome-wide and single-molecule technologies. Here we focus on how elongation can modulate the transcriptional outcome through the rate-liming step of RNA polymerase II pausing near promoters, and how the participating factors were identified. Among the factors we describe are NELF and DSIF, the pausing factors, and P-TEFb, the key player in pause release. We also describe non-exclusive models for how pausing is achieved by making use of high resolution genome-wide mapping of paused Pol II relative to promoter elements and the first nucleosome. We also discuss Pol II elongation through the bodies of genes and the roles of FACT and Spt6, the factors that allow Pol II to move through nucleosomes. PMID:24050178

  14. Light-Inducible MiR163 Targets PXMT1 Transcripts to Promote Seed Germination and Primary Root Elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pil Joong; Park, Bong Soo; Wang, Huan; Liu, Jun; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-03-01

    Expression of many plant microRNAs is responsive to hormones and environmental stimuli, but none has yet been associated with light. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) miR163 is 24 nucleotides in length and targets mRNAs encoding several S-adenosyl-Met-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase family members. Here, we found that miR163 is highly induced by light during seedling de-etiolation as well as seed germination. Under the same condition, its target PXMT1, encoding a methyltransferase that methylates 1,7-paraxanthine, is down-regulated. Light repression of PXMT1 is abolished in a mir163 null mutant, but the repression can be restored to wild-type levels in complementation lines expressing pri-miR163 gene in the mir163 mutant background. During seed germination, miR163 and its target PXMT1 are predominantly expressed in the radicle, and the expression patterns of the two genes are inversely correlated. Moreover, compared with the wild type, mir163 mutant or PXMT1 overexpression line shows delayed seed germination under continuous light, and seedlings develop shorter primary roots with an increased number of lateral roots under long-day condition. Together, our results indicate that miR163 targets PXMT1 mRNA to promote seed germination and modulate root architecture during early development of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26768601

  15. Light-Inducible MiR163 Targets PXMT1 Transcripts to Promote Seed Germination and Primary Root Elongation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pil Joong; Park, Bong Soo; Wang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Expression of many plant microRNAs is responsive to hormones and environmental stimuli, but none has yet been associated with light. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) miR163 is 24 nucleotides in length and targets mRNAs encoding several S-adenosyl-Met-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase family members. Here, we found that miR163 is highly induced by light during seedling de-etiolation as well as seed germination. Under the same condition, its target PXMT1, encoding a methyltransferase that methylates 1,7-paraxanthine, is down-regulated. Light repression of PXMT1 is abolished in a mir163 null mutant, but the repression can be restored to wild-type levels in complementation lines expressing pri-miR163 gene in the mir163 mutant background. During seed germination, miR163 and its target PXMT1 are predominantly expressed in the radicle, and the expression patterns of the two genes are inversely correlated. Moreover, compared with the wild type, mir163 mutant or PXMT1 overexpression line shows delayed seed germination under continuous light, and seedlings develop shorter primary roots with an increased number of lateral roots under long-day condition. Together, our results indicate that miR163 targets PXMT1 mRNA to promote seed germination and modulate root architecture during early development of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26768601

  16. Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima: root hydraulics and water relations.

    PubMed

    Trifilò, P; Raimondo, F; Nardini, A; Lo Gullo, M A; Salleo, S

    2004-01-01

    Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle is a major factor underlying the impressively wide expansion of this species in Europe and North America. We studied the specific mechanism used by A. altissima to withstand drought by subjecting potted seedlings to four irrigation regimes. At the end of the 13-week treatment period, soil water potential was -0.05 MPa for well-watered control seedlings (W) and -0.4, -0.8 and -1.7 MPa for drought-stressed seedlings (S) in irrigation regimes S1, S2 and S3, respectively. Root and shoot biomass production did not differ significantly among the four groups. A progressively marked stomatal closure was observed in drought-stressed seedlings, leading to homeostasis of leaf water potential, which was maintained well above the turgor loss point. Root and shoot hydraulics were measured with a high-pressure flow meter. When scaled by leaf surface area, shoot hydraulic conductance did not differ among the treated seedlings, whereas root hydraulic conductance decreased by about 20% in S1 and S2 seedlings and by about 70% in S3 seedlings, with respect to the well-watered control value. Similar differences were observed when root hydraulic conductance was scaled by root surface area, suggesting that roots had become less permeable to water. Anatomical observations of root cross sections revealed that S3 seedlings had shrunken cortical cells and a multilayer endodermal-like tissue that probably impaired soil-to-root stele water transport. We conclude that A. altissima seedlings are able to withstand drought by employing a highly effective water-saving mechanism that involves reduced water loss by leaves and reduced root hydraulic conductance. This water-saving mechanism helps explain how A. altissima successfully competes with native vegetation. PMID:14652220

  17. Relations of fine-root morphology on (137)Cs uptake by fourteen Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Aye, Yi Swe; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Omari, Richard Ansong; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen Brassica species consisting of seven leafy vegetables and seven root vegetables were examined for (137)Cs uptake differences in relation to their fine-root morphological characters. A pot experiment was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015 in a Phytroton using a contaminated soil of Fukushima prefecture. Leafy vegetables showed bigger root diameters, larger root surface area and larger root volume. Consequently, leafy vegetables had higher (137)Cs uptake compared to root vegetables. Among the three fine-root parameters, only root surface area was observed as a significant contributing factor to higher (137)Cs uptake in terms of transfer factor (TF, dry weight basis). Kakina exhibited higher (137)Cs TF value (0.20) followed by Chinese cabbage (0.18) and mizuna (0.17). Lower TF values were observed in turnip (0.059), rutabaga (Kitanoshou) (0.062) and radish (Ha daikon) (0.064). PMID:26355648

  18. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under flooding conditions. PMID:22738296

  19. Quaternionic Roots of E 8 Related Coxeter Graphs and Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Mehmet; Özdeþ Koca, Nazife; Koç, Ramazan

    1998-05-01

    The lattice matching of two sets of quaternionic roots of F4 leads to quaternionic roots of E8 which has a decomposition H4 + s H4 where the Coxeter graph H4 is represented by the 120 quaternionic elements of the binary icosahedral group. The 30 pure imaginary quaternions constitute the roots of H3 which has a natural extension to H3 + s H3 describing the root system of the Lie algebra D6. It is noted that there exist three lattices in 6-dimensions whose point group W(D6) admits the icosahedral symmetry H3 as a subgroup, the roots of which describe the mid-points of the edges of an icosahedron. A natural extension of the Coxeter group H2 of order 10 is the Weyl group W(A4) where H2 + s H2 constitute the root system of the Lie algebra A4. The relevance of these systems to quasicrystals are discussed.

  20. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinemetz, C. L.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

  1. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. MICAL-L1-related and unrelated mechanisms underlying elongated tubular endosomal network (ETEN) in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, Ewoud B; Boes, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal pathway constitutes a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which is composed of vesicular and tubular compartments. Endosomal tubules enable geometry-based discrimination between membrane and luminal content. Extended tubular endosomes were suggested to deliver a steady stream of membrane proteins to one location more reliable and effective than vesicular endosomes. Recently, we demonstrated that human dendritic cells (DCs) form a large elongated tubular endosomal network, e.g. ETEN, upon distinct triggers. LPS-stimulation triggered late endosomal tubulation. Additional clustering of class I MHC and ICAM-1 by a cognate interaction between antigen-laden DC and antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells induces formation of transferrin-positive tubules emanating from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC). We here discuss cell-biological mechanisms that are involved in membrane bending and possibly underlie initiation, elongation, and stabilization of ETEN in human DCs. Using a knock-down approach we demonstrate that MICAL-L1 is necessary for ETEN remodeling originating from ERC in human DCs. PMID:26478765

  3. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    PubMed Central

    Ivanchenko, Maria G.; den Os, Désirée; Monshausen, Gabriele B.; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Methods Wild-type and auxin-resistant mutant, diageotropica (dgt), of tomato (S. lycopersicum ‘Ailsa Craig’) were characterized in terms of root apical meristem and elongation zone histology, expression of the cell-cycle marker gene Sl-CycB1;1, accumulation of ROS, response to auxin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of ROS-related mRNAs. Key Results The dgt mutant exhibited histological defects in the root apical meristem and elongation zone and displayed a constitutively increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root tip, part of which was detected in the apoplast. Treatments of wild-type with auxin increased the H2O2 concentration in the root tip in a dose-dependent manner. Auxin and H2O2 elicited similar inhibition of cell elongation while bringing forth differential responses in terms of meristem length and number of cells in the elongation zone. Auxin treatments affected the expression of mRNAs of ROS-scavenging enzymes and less significantly mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The dgt mutation resulted in resistance to both auxin and H2O2 and affected profoundly the expression of mRNAs related to antioxidant level. Conclusions The results indicate that auxin regulates the level of H2O2 in the root tip, so increasing the auxin level triggers accumulation of H2O2 leading to inhibition of root cell elongation and root growth. The dgt mutation affects this pathway by reducing the auxin responsiveness of tissues and by disrupting the H2O2 homeostasis in the root tip. PMID:23965615

  4. Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-09-01

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these "food supplements", relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19-45) and two reports of cases (n = 15-156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50-500 g instead of 3-30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw "caowu" (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled "caowu" developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

  5. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45) and two reports of cases (n = 15–156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

  6. Inactivation of Plasma Membrane–Localized CDPK-RELATED KINASE5 Decelerates PIN2 Exocytosis and Root Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rigó, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Tietz, Olaf; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, Hajnalka; Páy, Anikó; Salchert, Klaus; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Szabados, László; Palme, Klaus; Koncz, Csaba; Cséplő, Ágnes

    2013-01-01

    CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5–green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane–associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling. PMID:23673979

  7. A new species of moray eel (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) from Taiwan, with comments on related elongate unpatterned species.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kar-Hoe; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chen, Hong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The following nine elongate unpatterned muraenid species of the subfamily Muraeninae, including one new species, are recognized from Taiwan and adjacent waters: Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel), G. dorsalis Seale, G. melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen, G. phasmatodes (Smith), G. prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka, G. sagmacephalus Böhlke, Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker), Strophidon sathete (Hamilton) and G. pseudomelanosomatus new species, described from two specimens. This new moray eel is distinguished from its similar species, G. melanosomatus, by the following features: grey brown body (vs. black), snout length 20.5% (vs. 17.8%) of head length, smaller eye diameter 8.2% (vs. 10.0%) of head length; preanal length 49.5% (vs. 58.5%) total length, and preanal vertebrae 89-89 (vs. 105-109). Phylogenetic relationships of the nine species were examined using nucleotide sequence data from partial sequences of mitochondrial ND5 gene (600 bp), and seven species form COI (600 bp). The genetic analyses suggest that G. pseudomelanosomatus is distinct from G. melanosomatus and the other six species of Gymnothorax. Morphological features and mitogenetic affinities strongly suggest that "G." dorsalis should be placed in Strophidon rather than in Gymnothorax. The results also suggest that employment of ND5 and COI gene sequences are rather useful for identification of species and for obtaining reasonable insights into the phylogeny of the muraenid species. PMID:26701587

  8. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent identification number, the distance between branching point to the parent root base, the root length, the root radius and the nodes that belong to each individual root path. This information is relevant for the analysis of dynamic root system development as well as the parameterisation of root architecture models. Here, we show results of Root System Analyzer applied to analyse the root systems of wheat plants grown in rhizotrons. Different treatments with respect to soil moisture and apatite concentrations were used to test the effects of those conditions on root system development. Photographs of the root systems were taken at high spatial and temporal resolution and root systems are automatically tracked.

  9. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T.; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P. Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B.; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J. Grover; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be necessary to reveal their potential to enhance flooding tolerance of soybean cultivars. PMID:25268626

  10. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  11. Kernel elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Golam, Faruq; Prodhan, Zakaria H

    2013-02-01

    Kernel elongation after cooking is an important character of fine rice and most rice consumers prefer length-wise elongation. Although improvement of aromatic rice began early in the 1970s, until now the mechanisms and genetics of kernel elongation has remained unrevealed. Kernel elongation is considered as a physical phenomenon and is influenced by several physicochemical and genetic factors, including genotypes, aging temperature, aging time, water uptake, amylose content and gelatinization temperature. Recently the complete genetic map of fine rice has been created and the gene responsible for kernel length identified; moreover, this gene is tightly linked with the cooked kernel elongation trait. Several molecular markers linked with cooked kernel elongation have been developed. These tools will be helpful for the improvement of this important trait. For the proper study of cooked kernel elongation of rice, this review paper will provide the basis and directional materials for further studies. PMID:23238771

  12. WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene WOX11 increases rice drought resistance by controlling root hair formation and root system development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Saifeng; Zhou, Dao-Xiu; Zhao, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Roots are essential organs for anchoring plants, exploring and exploiting soil resources, and establishing plant-microorganisms communities in vascular plants. Rice has a complex root system architecture consisting of several root types, including primary roots, lateral roots, and crown roots. Crown roots constitute the major part of the rice root system and play important roles during the growing period. Recently, we have refined a mechanism that involves ERF3/WOX11 interaction is required to regulate the expression of genes in the cytokinin signaling pathway during the different stages of crown roots development in rice. In this study, we further analyzed the root phenotypes of WOX11 transgenic plants and revealed that WOX11 also acts in controlling root hair development and enhancing rice drought resistance, in addition to its roles in regulating crown root and lateral root development. Based on this new finding, we proposed the mechanism of that WOX11 is involved in drought resistance by modulating rice root system development. PMID:26689769

  13. Elongational rheology of polyethylene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfzadeh, Bijan

    Elongational melt flow behavior is an important and fundamental concept underlying many industrial plastics operations which involve a rapid change of shape as for example fiber spinning and stretching, bottle blow molding, and film blowing and stretching. Under high process loads polymeric materials experience enormous stresses causing the molecular structure to gain considerable orientation. This event has significant effects on the melt flow behavior and can be measured in terms of elongational viscosity and changes in enthalpy and entropy. Different polymeric materials with unique molecular characteristics are expected to respond uniquely to the elongational deformation; hence, molecular parameters such as molecular weight and degree of branching were related to the measurable elongational flow variables. Elongational viscosities were measured for high and low density polyethylenes using an advanced capillary extrusion rheometer fitted with semi-hyperbolic dies. Said dies establish a purely elongational. flow field at constant elongational strain rate. The elongational viscosities were evaluated under influence of process strain rate, Hencky strain (natural logarithm of area reduction of the extrusion die), and temperature. Enthalpy and entropy changes associated with the orientation development of semi-hyperbolic processed melts were also determined. Results showed that elongational viscosities were primarily affected by differences in weight average molecular weight rather than degree of branching. This effect was process strain rate as well as temperature dependent. An investigation of melt relaxation and the associated first decay time constants revealed that with increasing strain rate the molecular field of the melt asymptotically gained orientation in approaching a limit. As a result of this behavior molecular uniqueness vanished at high process strain rates, yielding to orientation development and the associated restructuring of the melt's molecular morphology. Flow induced orientation was measured in form of enthalpy changes that were largest for the highest elongational strain rates and larger Hencky strain. The enthalpy changes were in magnitude one order lower than the polymer's heat of fusion. This explained why peak melt temperatures, evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, remained unchanged in magnitude with a rise in process strain rate and Hencky strain.

  14. Quaternionic roots of SO(8), SO(9), F4 and the related Weyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Mehmet; Koç, Ramazan; Al-Barwani, Muataz

    2003-07-01

    The root systems of SO(8), SO(9) and F4 are constructed by quaternions. Triality manifests itself as permutations of pure quaternion units e1, e2 and e3. It is shown that the automorphism groups of the associated root systems are the finite subgroups of O(4) generated by left-right actions of unit quaternions on the root systems. The relevant finite groups of quaternions, the binary tetrahedral and binary octahedral groups, play essential roles in the construction of the Weyl groups and their conjugacy classes. The relations between the Dynkin indices, standard orthogonal vector and the quaternionic weights are obtained.

  15. Auxin-induced inhibition of lateral root initiation contributes to root system shaping in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2010-12-01

    The hormone auxin is known to inhibit root elongation and to promote initiation of lateral roots. Here we report complex effects of auxin on lateral root initiation in roots showing reduced cell elongation after auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the promotion of lateral root initiation by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was reduced as the IAA concentration was increased in the nanomolar range, and IAA became inhibitory at 25 nM. Detection of this unexpected inhibitory effect required evaluation of root portions that had newly formed during treatment, separately from root portions that existed prior to treatment. Lateral root initiation was also reduced in the iaaM-OX Arabidopsis line, which has an endogenously increased IAA level. The ethylene signaling mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3, the auxin transport mutants aux1-7 and eir1/pin2, and the auxin perception/response mutant tir1-1 were resistant to the inhibitory effect of IAA on lateral root initiation, consistent with a requirement for intact ethylene signaling, auxin transport and auxin perception/response for this effect. The pericycle cell length was less dramatically reduced than cortical cell length, suggesting that a reduction in the pericycle cell number relative to the cortex could occur with the increase of the IAA level. Expression of the DR5:GUS auxin reporter was also less effectively induced, and the AXR3 auxin repressor protein was less effectively eliminated in such root portions, suggesting that decreased auxin responsiveness may accompany the inhibition. Our study highlights a connection between auxin-regulated inhibition of parent root elongation and a decrease in lateral root initiation. This may be required to regulate the spacing of lateral roots and optimize root architecture to environmental demands. PMID:21105922

  16. Root structure-function relationships in 74 species: evidence of a root economics spectrum related to carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Roumet, Catherine; Birouste, Marine; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Ghestem, Murielle; Osman, Normaniza; Vrignon-Brenas, Sylvain; Cao, Kun-Fang; Stokes, Alexia

    2016-05-01

    Although fine roots are important components of the global carbon cycle, there is limited understanding of root structure-function relationships among species. We determined whether root respiration rate and decomposability, two key processes driving carbon cycling but always studied separately, varied with root morphological and chemical traits, in a coordinated way that would demonstrate the existence of a root economics spectrum (RES). Twelve traits were measured on fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm) of 74 species (31 graminoids and 43 herbaceous and dwarf shrub eudicots) collected in three biomes. The findings of this study support the existence of a RES representing an axis of trait variation in which root respiration was positively correlated to nitrogen concentration and specific root length and negatively correlated to the root dry matter content, lignin : nitrogen ratio and the remaining mass after decomposition. This pattern of traits was highly consistent within graminoids but less consistent within eudicots, as a result of an uncoupling between decomposability and morphology, and of heterogeneity of individual roots of eudicots within the fine-root pool. The positive relationship found between root respiration and decomposability is essential for a better understanding of vegetation-soil feedbacks and for improving terrestrial biosphere models predicting the consequences of plant community changes for carbon cycling. PMID:26765311

  17. Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein genes. Results In this study, maize seedling roots got shorter and displayed swelling after exposure to 200 mM NaCl for 48 h and 96 h. Cytological observation showed that the growth inhibition of maize roots was due to the reduction in meristematic zone cell division activity and elongation zone cell production. The enlargement of the stele tissue and cortex cells contributed to root swelling in the elongation zone. The cell wall is thought to be the major control point for cell enlargement. Cell wall related proteins include xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET), expansins (EXP), and the plasma membrane proton pump (MHA). RT-PCR results displayed an up-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPA1, ZmEXPA3, ZmEXPA5, ZmEXPB1, ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes and the down-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPB4 and ZmMHA genes as the duration of exposure was increased. Histone acetylation is regulated by HATs, which are often correlated with gene activation. The expression of histone acetyltransferase genes ZmHATB and ZmGCN5 was increased after 200 mM NaCl treatment, accompanied by an increase in the global acetylation levels of histones H3K9 and H4K5. ChIP experiment showed that the up-regulation of the ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes was associated with the elevated H3K9 acetylation levels on the promoter regions and coding regions of these two genes. Conclusions These data suggested that the up-regulation of some cell wall related genes mediated cell enlargement to possibly mitigate the salinity-induced ionic toxicity, and different genes had specific function in response to salt stress. Histone modification as a mediator may contribute to rapid regulation of cell wall related gene expression, which reduces the damage of excess salinity to plants. PMID:24758373

  18. Complex physiological and molecular processes underlying root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Rujin; Guan, Changhui; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to guide their growth in relation to the gravity vector. For most roots, this response to gravity allows downward growth into soil where water and nutrients are available for plant growth and development. The primary site for gravity sensing in roots includes the root cap and appears to involve the sedimentation of amyloplasts within the columella cells. This process triggers a signal transduction pathway that promotes both an acidification of the wall around the columella cells, an alkalinization of the columella cytoplasm, and the development of a lateral polarity across the root cap that allows for the establishment of a lateral auxin gradient. This gradient is then transmitted to the elongation zones where it triggers a differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the central elongation zone, responsible for part of the gravitropic curvature. Recent findings also suggest the involvement of a secondary site/mechanism of gravity sensing for gravitropism in roots, and the possibility that the early phases of graviresponse, which involve differential elongation on opposite flanks of the distal elongation zone, might be independent of this auxin gradient. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these various phases of the gravitropic response in roots.

  19. Elongation factor G-induced structural change in helix 34 of 16S rRNA related to translocation on the ribosome.

    PubMed Central

    Matassova, A B; Rodnina, M V; Wintermeyer, W

    2001-01-01

    During the translocation step of the elongation cycle, two tRNAs together with the mRNA move synchronously and rapidly on the ribosome. The movement is catalyzed by the binding of elongation factor G (EF-G) and driven by GTP hydrolysis. Here we study structural changes of the ribosome related to EF-G binding and translocation by monitoring the accessibility of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for chemical modification by dimethyl sulfate or cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fe(II)-EDTA. In the state of the ribosome that is formed upon binding of EF-G but before the movement of the tRNAs takes place, residues 1054,1196, and 1201 in helix 34 in 16S rRNA are strongly protected. The protections depend on EF-G binding, but do not require GTP hydrolysis, and are lost upon translocation. Mutants of EF-G, which are active in ribosome binding and GTP hydrolysis but impaired in translocation, do not bring about the protections. According to cryo-electron microscopy (Stark et al., Cell, 2000, 100:301-309), there is no contact of EF-G with the protected residues of helix 34 in the pretranslocation state, suggesting that the observed protections are due to an induced conformational change. Thus, the present results indicate that EF-G binding to the pretranslocation ribosome induces a structural change of the head of the 30S subunit that is essential for subsequent tRNA-mRNA movement in translocation. PMID:11780642

  20. Soluble Proteins in Alfalfa Roots as Related to Cold Hardiness 12

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Eldean D.; Stahmann, Mark A.; Smith, Dale

    1967-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from alfalfa roots of hardy and nonhardy varieties were studied in relation to cold hardiness with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme analysis. Soluble protein content of alfalfa roots increased during hardening in all varieties. Two new isoenzymes with peroxidase activities were found in the fully hardened samples but no large shifts in the electrophoretic pattern were detected with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peroxidase and catalase activities increased during hardening in all varieties, but only small differences among hardy and nonhardy varieties were detectable. The studies indicated that protein metabolism was altered during the hardening process. Images PMID:16656593

  1. Computer based imaging and analysis of root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Two key issues in studies of the nature of the gravitropic response in roots have been the determination of the precise pattern of differential elongation responsible for downward bending and the identification of the cells that show the initial motor response. The main approach for examining patterns of differential growth during root gravitropic curvature has been to apply markers to the root surface and photograph the root at regular intervals during gravitropic curvature. Although these studies have provided valuable information on the characteristics of the gravitropic motor response in roots, their labor intensive nature limits sample size and discourages both high frequency of sampling and depth of analysis of surface expansion data. In this brief review we describe the development of computer-based video analysis systems for automated measurement of root growth and shape change and discuss some key features of the root gravitropic response that have been revealed using this methodology. We summarize the capabilities of several new pieces of software designed to measure growth and shape changes in graviresponding roots and describe recent progress in developing analysis systems for studying the small, but experimentally popular, primary roots of Arabidopsis. A key finding revealed by such studies is that the initial gravitropic response of roots of maize and Arabidopsis occurs in the distal elongation zone (DEZ) near the root apical meristem, not in the main elongation zone. Another finding is that the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ following gravistimulation appears to be related to rapid membrane potential changes in this region of the root. These observations have provided the incentive for ongoing studies examining possible links between potential growth modifying factors (auxin, calcium, protons) and gravistimulated changes in membrane potential and growth patterns in the DEZ.

  2. The Relation Between Rotation Deformity and Nerve Root Stress in Lumbar Scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak

    Even though several finite element models of lumbar spine were introduced, there has been no model including the neural structure. Therefore, the authors made the novel lumbar spine finite element model including neural structure. Using this model, we investigated the relation between the deformity pattern and nerve root stress. Two lumbar models with different types of curve pattern (lateral bending and lateral bending with rotation curve) were made. In the model of lateral bending curves without rotation, the principal compressive nerve root stress on the concave side was greater than the principal tensile stress on the convex side at the apex vertebra. Contrarily, in the lateral bending curve with rotational deformity, the nerve stress on the convex side was higher than that on the concave side. Therefore, this study elicit that deformity pattern could have significantly influence on the nerve root stress in the lumbar spine.

  3. Respiration rate in maize roots is related to concentration of reduced nitrogen and proliferation of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between specific rate of respiration (respiration rate per unit root dry weight) and concentration of reduced nitrogen was examined for maize (Zea mays L.) roots. Plants with 2 primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 days in a split-root hydroponic system in which NO3- was supplied to both axes at 1.0 mol m-3, to one axis at 1.0 mol m-3 and the other axis at 0.0 mol m-3, or to both axes at 0.0 mol m-3. Respiration rates and root characteristics were measured at 2-day intervals. Specific rate of respiration was positively correlated in a nonlinear relationship with concentration of reduced nitrogen. The lowest specific rates of respiration occurred when neither axis received exogenous NO3- and the concentration of reduced nitrogen in the axes was less than 9 mg g-1. The greatest rates occurred in axes that were actively absorbing NO3- and contained more than 35 mg g-1 of reduced nitrogen. At 23 mg g-1 of reduced nitrogen, below which initiation of lateral branches was decreased by 30-50%, specific rate of respiration was 17% greater for roots actively absorbing NO3- than for roots not absorbing NO3-. Increases in specific rate of respiration associated with concentrations of reduced nitrogen greater than 23 mg g-1 were concluded to be attributable primarily to proliferation of lateral branches.

  4. The WUSCHEL Related Homeobox Protein WOX7 Regulates the Sugar Response of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyu; Hao, Yueling; Cui, Hongchang

    2016-02-01

    Sugars promote lateral root formation at low levels but become inhibitory at high C/N or C/P ratios. How sugars suppress lateral root formation is unclear, however. Here we report that WOX7, a member of the WUSCHEL related homeobox (WOX) family transcription factors, inhibits lateral root development in a sugar-dependent manner. The number of lateral root primordia increased in wox7 mutants but decreased in plants over-expressing WOX7. Plants expressing the WOX7-VP16 fusion protein produced even more lateral roots than wox7, suggesting that WOX7 acts as a transcriptional repressor in lateral root development. WOX7 is expressed at all stages of lateral root development, but it is primarily involved in lateral root initiation. Consistent with this, the wox7 mutant had a higher mitotic activity only at early stages of lateral root development. Further studies suggest that WOX7 regulates lateral root development through direct repression of cell cycle genes, particularly CYCD6;1. WOX7 expression was enhanced by sugar, reduced by auxin, but did not respond to salt and mannitol. In the wox7 mutant, the effect of sugar on lateral root formation was mitigated. These results together suggest that WOX7 plays an important role in coupling the lateral root development program and sugar status in plants. PMID:26621542

  5. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  6. Mechanical elongation of the centromere in the barley metaphase chromosome.

    PubMed

    Otobe, Kazunori; Shichiri, Motoharu; Fukushi, Daisuke; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Nakao, Hidenobu; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ohtani, Toshio

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated the mechanical elongation of the centromere in the barley chromosomes by a microneedle manipulation method for the structural analysis of the chromosomes. Chromosomes were extracted from barley root cells, affixed on a cover slip by a standard preparation method, and elongated in either distilled water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), or 2 x sodium saline citrate (SSC). The mechanical property of the chromosome elongation was assessed by the measurement of the force required for the elongation of chromosomes. This assessment has shown that the chromosomes in distilled water were much firmer than those in the PBS or 2 x SSC. To confirm the elongation of the centromere, the elongated chromosomes were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a centromere probe. The fluorescence information indicated that the extent of the loosening of the centromere during elongation differed depending on the buffers used; the centromere elongated in 2 x SSC was more loosened than that in the PBS. Atomic force microscopy also revealed the structure of the unpacked centromere after the mechanical elongation, when rows of fibrous structures about 30 to 50 nm thick were clearly observed in the centromere elongated in 2 x SSC. The investigation of elongated chromosomes should prove useful for an understanding of the structural analysis of chromosomes. PMID:12680461

  7. Extensometer automatically measures elongation in elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    Extensometer, with a calibrated shaft, measures the elongation of elastomers and automatically records this distance on a chart. It is adaptable to almost any tensile testing machine and is fabricated at a relatively low cost.

  8. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  9. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C.; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R.; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  10. Soybean Lectin and Related Proteins in Seeds and Roots of Le+ and Le? Soybean Varieties 1

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, Lila O.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1986-01-01

    The localizations of soybean lectin (SBL) and antigenically related proteins in cotyledons and roots of lectin positive (Le+) and lectin negative (Le?) soybean cultivars were compared by light level immunocytochemistry using antibodies produced against the 120 kilodalton (kD) native seed lectin tetramer or its subunits. Lectin is present in the protein bodies of cotyledons cells as are two other seed proteins, the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the storage protein glycinin. Analysis of single seed extracts by immunoblotting of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using the same antibodies, reveals up to 4 milligrams of the 30 kD seed lectin protein is present per seed in the Le+ varieties. There is no detectable lectin in the protein bodies of Le? cotyledons as determined by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed this result to a sensitivity of less than 20 nanograms per seed. In contrast, the roots of both Le+ and Le? plants bind the seed lectin antibody during immunocytochemistry, with fluorescence mainly localized in vacuole-like bodies in the epidermis. Root extracts contain a 33 kD polypeptide that binds anti-SBL antibody at an estimated minimal level of 20 nanograms per 4-day seedling, or 2.0 nanograms per primary root tip. This polypeptide is also present in the embryo axis and in leaves. The latter also contain a 26 kD species that binds seed lectin antibody. The 30 kD seed lectin subunit, however, is not detectable in roots or leaves. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664856

  11. Measurement of Libby Amphibole (LA) Elongated Particle Dissolution Rates and Alteration of Size/Shape Distributions in Support of Human Dosimetry Model Development and Relative Potency Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    To maximize the value of toxicological data in development of human health risk assessment models of inhaled elongated mineral particles, improvements in human dosimetry modeling are needed. In order to extend the dosimetry model of deposited fibers (Asgharian et aI., Johnson 201...

  12. Comparison of the levels of six endogenous gibberellins in roots and shoots of spinach in relation to photoperiod

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-10-01

    This communication describes the distribution of gibberellins (GAs) in roots and shoots of spinach in relation to photoperiod. From previous work shoots were known to contain GA/sub 53/, GA/sub 44/, GA/sub 19/, GA/sub 17/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. We now show by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that roots contain gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring. Neither GA/sub 17/ nor GA/sub 20/ were detected in root extracts. Analysis by the d-5 corn bioassay also showed no effect of photoperiodic treatment on the levels of GA-like substances in root extracts. Both phloem and xylem exudates had patterns of GA-like activity similar to those found in shoots and roots, respectively. Moreover, foliar application of (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/ resulted in the transport of label from the shoot to the roots. Over half of the label in the roots represented unmetabolized (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/, indicating that part of the GA/sub 20/ in the phloem is transported to the roots. Consequently, if GA/sub 20/ is made in, or transported to the roots, it is rapidly metabolized in that organ. This is a clear indication that regulation of GA metabolism is greatly different in roots and shoots.

  13. Rice WUSCHEL-related homeobox 3A (OsWOX3A) modulates auxin-transport gene expression in lateral root and root hair development.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soo-Cheul; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2013-10-01

    Coordinated regulation of the many genes controlling leaf, flower, and root development determines the phenotypes of plants; this regulation requires exquisite control of many transcription factors, including the WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family. We recently reported that rice (Oryza sativa) WUSCHEL-related homeobox 3A (OsWOX3A) plays important roles in organ development, including lateral-axis outgrowth and vasculature patterning in leaves, lemma and palea morphogenesis in spikelets, and the numbers of tillers and lateral roots. OsWOX3A is encoded by NARROW LEAF2 (NAL2) and NAL3, a pair of duplicated genes. In this study, further analysis of nal2 nal3 (hereafter nal2/3) double mutants revealed that, in addition to its role in lateral root development, OsWOX3A also acts in the control of root hair formation. Based on this new finding, we describe a possible mechanism by which OsWOX3A regulation of auxin transport genes acts in root development. PMID:24002214

  14. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  15. Rigid motions: Action-angles, relative cohomology and polynomials with roots on the unit circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.

    2013-03-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical solid near a hyperbolic or elliptic uniform rotation, normal canonical coordinates p, q are constructed so that the Hamiltonian becomes a function ("normal form") of x+ = pq or of x- = p2 + q2: the two cases are treated simultaneously distinguishing them, respectively, by a label a = ±, in terms of various power series with coefficients which are shown to be polynomials in a variable r^2_a depending on the inertia moments. The normal forms are derived via the analysis of a relative cohomology problem and shown to be obtainable without reference to the construction of the normal coordinates via elliptic integrals (unlike the derivation of the normal coordinates p, q). Results and conjectures also emerge about the properties of the above polynomials and the location of their roots. In particular a class of polynomials with all roots on the unit circle arises.

  16. The ASH1-RELATED3 SET-Domain Protein Controls Cell Division Competence of the Meristem and the Quiescent Center of the Arabidopsis Primary Root1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kumpf, Robert; Thorstensen, Tage; Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Heyman, Jefri; Nenseth, H. Zeynep; Lammens, Tim; Herrmann, Ullrich; Swarup, Ranjan; Veiseth, Silje Veie; Emberland, Gitika; Bennett, Malcolm J.; De Veylder, Lieven; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell niche of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organizing) center surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit-amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating and differentiating. It is unclear whether these divisions occur stochastically or in an orderly manner. Using the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine to monitor DNA replication of cells of Arabidopsis root meristems, we identified a pattern of two, four, and eight neighboring cells with synchronized replication along the cortical, epidermal, and endodermal cell files, suggested to be daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of the direct progeny of each stem cell. Markers of mitosis and cytokinesis were not present in the region closest to the transition zone where the cells start to elongate, suggesting that great-granddaughter cells switch synchronously from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreduplication. Mutations in the stem cell niche-expressed ASH1-RELATED3 (ASHR3) gene, encoding a SET-domain protein conferring histone H3 lysine-36 methylation, disrupted this pattern of coordinated DNA replication and cell division and increased the cell division rate in the quiescent center. E2Fa/E2Fb transcription factors controlling the G1-to-S-phase transition regulate ASHR3 expression and bind to the ASHR3 promoter, substantiating a role for ASHR3 in cell division control. The reduced length of the root apical meristem and primary root of the mutant ashr3-1 indicate that synchronization of replication and cell divisions is required for normal root growth and development. PMID:25034019

  17. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Root Responses to Boron Deficiency Mediated by Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    González-Fontes, Agustín; Herrera-Rodríguez, M. B.; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M.; Navarro-Gochicoa, M. T.; Rexach, Jesús; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Low boron (B) supply alters the architecture of the root system in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, leading to a reduction in the primary root growth and an increase in the length and number of root hairs. At short-term (hours), B deficiency causes a decrease in the cell elongation of the primary root, resulting in a lower growth. Experimental approaches using ethylene insensitive Arabidopsis mutants, inhibitors of ethylene response, and GUS reporter lines suggest that ethylene is involved in these responses of the primary root to B deficiency. Furthermore, it has been shown that auxin participates in the inhibition of cell elongation under short-term B deprivation. These results support that an interaction between ethylene and auxin plays an important role in controlling the primary root elongation, in which a number of genes related to the synthesis, transport, and signaling of both phytohormones could modulate this effect. Evidence for a root cross-talk among both hormones and other possible intermediates (abscisic acid, calcium sensors, and reactive oxygen species) in response to B deficiency is provided and discussed. PMID:26779202

  19. Ectomycorrhizal root tips in relation to site and stand characteristics in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Ostonen, Ivika; Lõhmus, Krista; Derome, John; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Nöjd, Pekka

    2009-03-01

    Variations in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short root tips of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in 16 stands throughout Finland were studied, and their relationships with latitude, organic layer C:N ratio, temperature sum and foliage biomass were determined. There were no significant differences in EcM root tip frequency (number per milligram of fine roots) or root tip mass between tree species or between northern and southern sites. The EcM root tip number per unit area of the organic layer plus the 0-30 cm mineral soil layer varied between 0.8 and 2.4 million per m(2) for Norway spruce and between 0.7 and 2.9 million per m(2) for Scots pine, and it was higher in the northern Scots pine stands than in the southern Scots pine stands. Over 80% of the EcM root tips of both species were in the organic layer and the upper 0-10 cm mineral soil layer. We related EcM root tips to foliage mass because these two components are the most important functional units in boreal tree physiology. Both species, especially the Scots pine trees, had more EcM root tips in relation to foliage mass in northern Finland than in southern Finland. Scots pine trees had more EcM root tips in relation to foliage mass than Norway spruce in the same climatic region. The EcM root tip:foliage biomass ratio of Norway spruce was positively related to the C:N ratio in the organic layer, whereas that of Scots pine was negatively related to the temperature sum. The number of EcM root tips per milligram of fine root biomass was constant, implying that trees of both species increase nutrient uptake by increasing fine root production and hence their total number of EcM tips and the area of soil occupied by mycelia. Both tree species responded to nitrogen (N) deficiency by maintaining more EcM tips per foliage unit, and this may be related to a higher proportion of N uptake in an organic form. PMID:19203968

  20. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  1. Strigolactones stimulate internode elongation independently of gibberellins.

    PubMed

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  2. In the long term root-related priming can lead to carbon loss and chemical alterations in the deep subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenberg, Guido; Gocke, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Recent publications and reviews concern the major importance of the deep subsoil for carbon (C) storage and cycling in terrestrial environments. However, the subsoil (below A horizon) and especially the deep subsoil (> 1m) is a target not easy to study and especially the relevant processes therein. Therefore, in the current study we focussed on recent and ancient root systems extending in terrestrial sediments until 9 m depth below the present surface and more than 7 m below the present soil. We sampled rhizosphere in the direct vicinity of the roots and with increasing distance (up to 10 cm) from visible root remains, and determined the root frequency in different depths. Additionally, sedimentary material without visible root remains was sampled for each of these depth intervals, and all samples were analysed for C contents and lipid composition. Main aim of the study was to obtain information of root effects on C content and composition in the deep subsoil. The loess-paleosol sequence of Nussloch (SW Germany) with a Cambisol on its top was chosen as a key site as recent and ancient roots were easy to assess and to differentiate. Furthermore, two sites near Sopron (NW Hungary) were sampled for recent tree roots rooting deeply (at least 4 m) into loess sediment. All samples were investigated for Corg, Ccarb and extractable lipid contents and the lipid composition. The frequency of recent roots strongly decreased with depth in the Nussloch profile until zero at 2 m depth below the present soil surface as recent tree vegetation was rather young (<7 years). In comparison to this, ancient tree root remains, frequently visible as carbonate precipitates surrounding the former roots, could be observed continuously until 9 m depth with the largest frequency (~200 roots m-2) at 2-3 m depth. However, only root remains of a diameter larger than 1 mm were counted, thus highly underestimating fine root remains, which were not counted throughout the profile due to their high frequency (>>10,000 m-2). In the rhizosphere of former and recent roots, Corg tended to slightly decrease compared to reference sediment. Ccarb contents revealed in some depths slight changes in the rhizosphere. Especially the precipitates surrounding the former roots were strongly enriched in Ccarb although the investigated sediments were rich in carbonate (20-40 mass-%). Taking into account the rhizolith frequency (only of the carbonate precipitates >1 mm), the bulk density, the carbon concentrations and the estimated extension of the rhizosphere, a decrease of more than 1 kg C m-2 was determined in the rhizosphere by comparison to root-free loess. The C loss was mainly related to the more depth intervals with densely occurring large root remains (>20 m-2) at a depth of less than 5 m, whereas in larger depth intervals with a lower frequency of root remains C contents slightly increased in the rhizosphere. Despite the high C storage in deep subsoil, root related processes might alter the chemical composition in the subsoil and can result in C loss in the long term.

  3. Biosynthesis of defense-related proteins in transformed root cultures of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum (Kitam.).

    PubMed Central

    Savary, B J; Flores, H E

    1994-01-01

    We have established transformed ("hairy") root cultures from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum Kitam. (Cucurbitaceae) and four related species to study the biosynthesis of the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin (TCN) and other root-specific defense-related plant proteins. Stable, fast-growing root clones were obtained for each species by infecting in vitro grown plantlets with Agrobacterium rhizogenes American Type Culture Collection strain 15834. Each species accumulated reproducibly a discrete protein pattern in the culture medium. Analysis of the extracellular proteins from T. kirilowii var japonicum root cultures showed differential protein accumulation in the medium during the time course of growth in batch cultures. Maximum protein accumulation, approaching 20 micrograms/mL, was observed at mid-exponential phase, followed by a degradation of a specific protein subset that coincided with the onset of stationary phase. Two major extracellular proteins and one intracellular protein, purified by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, were identified as class III chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) based on N-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid composition homologies with other class III chitinases. The Trichosanthes chitinases also showed reactivity with a cucumber class III chitinase antiserum and chitinolytic activity in a glycol chitin gel assay. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis of intracellular proteins showed that normal and transformed T. kirilowii var japonicum roots accumulated only low levels of TCN (approximately 0.5% total soluble protein). Storage roots from the plant displayed protein and antigen patterns different from root cultures and produced TCN as the dominant protein. Roots undergoing secondary growth and differentiation exhibited patterns similar to those of storage roots, including increased TCN levels, indicating that high production of TCN is associated with induction of secondary growth in roots. PMID:7824645

  4. Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Döhlemann, Stefanie; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles. PMID:23918389

  5. [Identification of drought tolerant germplasm and inheritance and QTL mapping of related root traits in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Gai, Jun-Yi; Lü, Hui-Neng; Wang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2005-08-01

    Fifty nine accessions of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) selected from 301 ones in Huang-Huai-Hai and Middle-Lower Changjiang Valleys were tested in two years for their tolerance to drought by using the mean membership index value averaged over those of plant height,leave number,dry root weight and dry stem and leaf weight. Four most tolerant accessions (Rank 1) and two most sensitive ones (Rank 5) were identified. There existed very significant correlations between drought tolerance and relative values of dry root weight,total root length, and root volume (per plant dry weight basis), respectively,which could be used as root indicators of drought tolerance. The RIL population derived from Kefeng 1 x Nannong 1138-2 was used to analyze the inheritance of the three related root traits by using the segregation analysis of quantitative traits under the major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model. The results showed that between the two parents (Rank 1 x Rank 4), the relative values of dry root weight,total root length and root volume were respectively controlled by two major genes (linked together for the latter two traits, recombination value being 4.30% and 1.93%, respectively) plus polygenes with their major gene heritability values of 62.26%-91.81% and polygene heritability values 2.99%-24.75%, indicating that the major genes,especially the one with larger effect,accounted for a major part of the genetic variation between the two parents. It was identified that five, three, and five QTLs located on N6-C2, N8-D1b + W, N11-E, and N18-K linkage groups for relative dry root weight, total root length and root volume, respectively. Each of the traits appeared to have one locus (Dw1, R/1, and Rv1) with relatively large effect in comparison with their other loci, and those major ones were located near the same site of the same linkage group N6-C2. The results of segregation analysis and QTL mapping appeared pretty consistent with each other, which could be used as a demonstration of each other. PMID:16231741

  6. Root development under control of magnesium availability

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Zhang, Yong Song

    2014-01-01

    Roots are reported to be plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development in response to magnesium (Mg) availability. Here, we showed the influence of both low and high Mg availability on the development of roots including root hairs and highlighted insights into the regulatory role of Mg availability on root hair development and its mechanism in Arabidopsis with combining our published research. Mg concentration in roots decreased quickly after the removal of Mg from the nutrient solution and increased progressively with increasing exogenous Mg supply in the media. However, transcriptome analysis suggested that Mg starvation did not alter the expression of most genes potentially involved in the transport. Primary root elongation and lateral root formation in Arabidopsis were not influenced by low Mg but inhibited by high Mg after one-week period. Moreover, low Mg availability significantly increased but high Mg reduced the initiation, density and length of root hairs, which through the characterized Ca2+ and ROS signal transduction pathways. More physiological mechanisms underlying Mg-regulated root development remain to be elucidated in future researches. PMID:25763706

  7. Colloquium: Quantum root-mean-square error and measurement uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed a controversy over Heisenberg's famous error-disturbance relation. Here the conflict is resolved by way of an analysis of the possible conceptualizations of measurement error and disturbance in quantum mechanics. Two approaches to adapting the classic notion of root-mean-square error to quantum measurements are discussed. One is based on the concept of a noise operator; its natural operational content is that of a mean deviation of the values of two observables measured jointly, and thus its applicability is limited to cases where such joint measurements are available. The second error measure quantifies the differences between two probability distributions obtained in separate runs of measurements and is of unrestricted applicability. We show that there are no nontrivial unconditional joint-measurement bounds for state-dependent errors in the conceptual framework discussed here, while Heisenberg-type measurement uncertainty relations for state-independent errors have been proven.

  8. Alkamides Isolated from Plants Promote Growth and Alter Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Molina-Torres, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    To date, several classes of hormones have been described that influence plant development, including auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and, more recently, brassinosteroids. However, it is known that many fungal and bacterial species produce substances that alter plant growth that, if naturally present in plants, might represent novel classes of plant growth regulators. Alkamides are metabolites widely distributed in plants with a broad range of biological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of affinin, an alkamide naturally occurring in plants, and its derivates, N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide, on plant growth and early root development in Arabidopsis. We found that treatments with affinin in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 m alter shoot and root biomass production. This effect correlated with alteration on primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation. Low concentrations of affinin (7 × 10-6–2.8 × 10-5 m) enhanced primary root growth and root hair elongation, whereas higher concentrations inhibited primary root growth that related with a reduction in cell proliferating activity and cell elongation. N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide were found to stimulate root hair elongation at concentrations between 10-8 to 10-7 m. Although the effects of alkamides were similar to those produced by auxins on root growth and cell parameters, the ability of the root system to respond to affinin was found to be independent of auxin signaling. Our results suggest that alkamides may represent a new group of plant growth promoting substances with significant impact on root development and opens the possibility of using these compounds for improved plant production. PMID:14988477

  9. Vertex-element models for anisotropic growth of elongated plant organs

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, John A.; Lucas, Mikaël; King, John R.; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    New tools are required to address the challenge of relating plant hormone levels, hormone responses, wall biochemistry and wall mechanical properties to organ-scale growth. Current vertex-based models (applied in other contexts) can be unsuitable for simulating the growth of elongated organs such as roots because of the large aspect ratio of the cells, and these models fail to capture the mechanical properties of cell walls in sufficient detail. We describe a vertex-element model which resolves individual cells and includes anisotropic non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of cell walls and cell division whilst still being computationally efficient. We show that detailed consideration of the cell walls in the plane of a 2D simulation is necessary when cells have large aspect ratio, such as those in the root elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana, in order to avoid anomalous transverse swelling. We explore how differences in the mechanical properties of cells across an organ can result in bending and how cellulose microfibril orientation affects macroscale growth. We also demonstrate that the model can be used to simulate growth on realistic geometries, for example that of the primary root apex, using moderate computational resources. The model shows how macroscopic root shape can be sensitive to fine-scale cellular geometries. PMID:23847638

  10. Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

  11. Solvability of the Hamiltonians Related to Exceptional Root Spaces: Rational Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreskov, Konstantin G.; Turbiner, Alexander V.; Vieyra, Juan Carlos Lopez

    2005-11-01

    Solvability of the rational quantum integrable systems related to exceptional root spaces G2,F4 is re-examined and for E6,7,8 is established in the framework of a unified approach. It is shown that Hamiltonians take algebraic form being written in certain Weyl-invariant variables. It is demonstrated that for each Hamiltonian the finite-dimensional invariant subspaces are made from polynomials and they form an infinite flag. A notion of minimal flag is introduced and minimal flag for each Hamiltonian is found. Corresponding eigenvalues are calculated explicitly while the eigenfunctions can be computed by pure linear algebra means for arbitrary values of the coupling constants. The Hamiltonian of each model can be expressed in the algebraic form as a second degree polynomial in the generators of some infinite-dimensional but finitely-generated Lie algebra of differential operators, taken in a finite-dimensional representation.

  12. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Brauner, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  13. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  14. Sex-Related Responses of Populus cathayana Shoots and Roots to AM Fungi and Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Wu, Na; Liu, Ting; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of drought and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the morphological structure and physiological function of shoots and roots of male and female seedlings of the dioecious plant Populus cathayana Rehder. Pot-grown seedlings were subjected to well watered or water-limiting conditions (drought) and were grown in soil that was either inoculated or not inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. No significant differences were found in the infection rates between the two sexes. Drought decreased root and shoot growth, biomass and root morphological characteristics, whereas superoxide radical (O2–) and hydrogen peroxide content, peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and proline content were significantly enhanced in both sexes. Male plants that formed an AM fungal symbiosis showed a significant increase in shoot and root morphological growth, increased proline content of leaves and roots, and increased POD activity in roots under both watering regimes; however, MDA concentration in the roots decreased. By contrast, AM fungi either had no effect or a slight negative effect on the shoot and root growth of female plants, with lower root biomass, total biomass and root/shoot ration under drought. In females, MDA concentration increased in leaves and roots under both watering regimes, and the proline content and POD activity of roots increased under drought conditions; however, POD activity significantly decreased under well-watered conditions. These findings suggest that AM fungi enhanced the tolerance of male plants to drought by improving shoot and root growth, biomass and the antioxidant system. Further investigation is needed to unravel the complex effects of AM fungi on the growth and antioxidant system of female plants. PMID:26102587

  15. Inflammatory mediators release calcitonin gene-related peptide from dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, B; Izydorczyk, I; Kress, M

    2000-01-01

    The interactions between the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2) and acid pH were studied in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. For this purpose, the cultures were stimulated by inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2), 10(-5)M each) or acid solution (pH 6.1) for 5 min and the content of calcitonin gene-related peptide was determined in the supernatant before, during and after stimulation, using an enzyme immunoassay. Acid solution resulted in a threefold increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was entirely dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. The release could not be blocked by the addition of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M). Bradykinin (10(-5)M) caused a 50% increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was again dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) were each ineffective at 10(-5)M concentration. The combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) led to a fivefold increase of the calcitonin gene-related peptide release which could not be further enhanced by acidification. The competitive capsaicin receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M) significantly reduced the release induced by the combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2). It is suggested that the inflammatory mediators co-operate and together may act as endogenous agonists at the capsaicin receptor to cause calcium influx and consecutive neuropeptide release. PMID:10858619

  16. Development and persistence of sandsheaths of Lyginia barbata (Restionaceae): relation to root structural development and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Michael W.; McCully, Margaret E.; Canny, Martin J.; Pate, John S.; Lambers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Strongly coherent sandsheaths that envelop perennial roots of many monocotyledonous species of arid environments have been described for over a century. This study, for the first time, details the roles played by the structural development of the subtending roots in the formation and persistence of the sheaths. Methods The structural development of root tissues associated with persistent sandsheaths was studied in Lyginia barbata, native to the Western Australian sand plains. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy CSEM, optical microscopy and specific staining methods were applied to fresh, field material. The role of root hairs was clarified by monitoring sheath development in roots separated from the sand profile by fine mesh. Key Results and Conclusions The formation of the sheaths depends entirely on the numerous living root hairs which extend into the sand and track closely around individual grains enmeshing, by approx. 12 cm from the root tip, a volume of sand more than 14 times that of the subtending root. The longevity of the perennial sheaths depends on the subsequent development of the root hairs and of the epidermis and cortex. Before dying, the root hairs develop cellulosic walls approx. 3 µm thick, incrusted with ferulic acid and lignin, which persist for the life of the sheath. The dead hairs remain in place fused to a persistent platform of sclerified epidermis and outer cortex. The mature cortex comprises this platform, a wide, sclerified inner rim and a lysigenous central region – all dead tissue. We propose that the sandsheath/root hair/epidermis/cortex complex is a structural unit facilitating water and nutrient uptake while the tissues are alive, recycling scarce phosphorus during senescence, and forming, when dead, a persistent essential structure for maintenance of a functional stele in the perennial Lyginia roots. PMID:21969258

  17. Quantitative divergence of the bacterial root microbiota in Arabidopsis thaliana relatives

    PubMed Central

    Schlaeppi, Klaus; Dombrowski, Nina; Oter, Ruben Garrido; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Plants host at the contact zone with soil a distinctive root-associated bacterial microbiota believed to function in plant nutrition and health. We investigated the diversity of the root microbiota within a phylogenetic framework of hosts: three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes along with its sister species Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata, as well as Cardamine hirsuta, which diverged from the former ∼35 Mya. We surveyed their microbiota under controlled environmental conditions and of A. thaliana and C. hirsuta in two natural habitats. Deep 16S rRNA gene profiling of root and corresponding soil samples identified a total of 237 quantifiable bacterial ribotypes, of which an average of 73 community members were enriched in roots. The composition of this root microbiota depends more on interactions with the environment than with host species. Interhost species microbiota diversity is largely quantitative and is greater between the three Arabidopsis species than the three A. thaliana ecotypes. Host species-specific microbiota were identified at the levels of individual community members, taxonomic groups, and whole root communities. Most of these signatures were observed in the phylogenetically distant C. hirsuta. However, the branching order of host phylogeny is incongruent with interspecies root microbiota diversity, indicating that host phylogenetic distance alone cannot explain root microbiota diversification. Our work reveals within 35 My of host divergence a largely conserved and taxonomically narrow root microbiota, which comprises stable community members belonging to the Actinomycetales, Burkholderiales, and Flavobacteriales. PMID:24379374

  18. Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorrell, B.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Woods, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the potential for inter-specific differences in root aeration to determine wetland plant distribution in nature. We compared aeration in species that differ in the type of sediment and depth of water they colonize. Differences in root anatomy, structure and physiology were applied to aeration models that predicted the maximum possible aerobic lengths and development of anoxic zones in primary adventitious roots. Differences in anatomy and metabolism that provided higher axial fluxes of oxygen allowed deeper root growth in species that favour more reducing sediments and deeper water. Modelling identified factors that affected growth in anoxic soils through their effects on aeration. These included lateral root formation, which occurred at the expense of extension of the primary root because of the additional respiratory demand they imposed, reducing oxygen fluxes to the tip and stele, and the development of stelar anoxia. However, changes in sediment oxygen demand had little detectable effect on aeration in the primary roots due to their low wall permeability and high surface impedance, but appeared to reduce internal oxygen availability by accelerating loss from laterals. The development of pressurized convective gas flow in shoots and rhizomes was also found to be important in assisting root aeration, as it maintained higher basal oxygen concentrations at the rhizome-root junctions in species growing into deep water. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  20. Derivation of a simplified relation for assessing aortic root pressure drop incorporating wall compliance.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Hossein; Cartier, Raymond; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2015-03-01

    Aging and some pathologies such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia cause some geometrical and mechanical changes in the aortic valve microstructure which contribute to the development of aortic stenosis (AS). Because of the high rate of mortality and morbidity, assessing the impact and progression of this disease is essential. Systolic transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG) and the effective orifice area are commonly used to grade the severity of valvular dysfunction. In this study, a theoretical model of the transient viscous blood flow across the AS is derived by taking into account the aorta compliance. The derived relation of the new TPG is expressed in terms of clinically available surrogate variables (anatomical and hemodynamic data). The proposed relation includes empirical constants which need to be empirically determined. We used a numerical model including an anatomically 3D geometrical model of the aortic root including the sinuses of Valsalva for their identification. The relation was evaluated using clinical values of pressure drops for cases for which the modified Gorlin equation is problematic (low flow, low gradient AS). PMID:25430422

  1. The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and Its Revolutionary Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German "Naturphilosophie" and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the…

  2. The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and Its Revolutionary Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German "Naturphilosophie" and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the

  3. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l(-1) fresh weight, 1.78 g l(-1) dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g(-1)). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  4. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l-1 sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l-1 fresh weight, 1.78 g l-1 dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g-1). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  5. Ultrastructural studies of Phellinus sulphurascens infection of Douglas-fir roots and immunolocalization of host pathogenesis-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Sturrock, R N; Holmes, T A; Ekramoddoullah, A K M

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between roots of Douglas-fir (DF; Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings and the laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunogold labelling techniques. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that P. sulphurascens hyphae colonize root surfaces and initiate the penetration of root epidermal tissues by developing appressoria within 2 d postinoculation (dpi). During early colonization, intra- and intercellular fungal hyphae were detected. They efficiently disintegrate cellular components of the host including cell walls and membranes. P. sulphurascens hyphae penetrate host cell walls by forming narrow hyphal tips and a variety of haustoria-like structures which may play important roles in pathogenic interactions. Ovomucoid-WGA (wheat germ agglutinin) conjugated gold particles (10 nm) confirmed the occurrence and location of P. sulphurascens hyphae, while four specific host pathogenesis-related (PR) protein antibodies conjugated with protein A-gold complex (20 nm) showed the localization and abundance of these PR proteins in infected root tissues. A thaumatin-like protein and an endochitinase-like protein were both strongly evident and localized in host cell membranes. A DF-PR10 protein was localized in the cell walls and cytoplasm of host cells while an antimicrobial peptide occurred in host cell walls. A close association of some PR proteins with P. sulphurascens hyphae suggests their potential antifungal activities in DF roots. PMID:19249366

  6. Different Relative Orientation of Static and Alternative Magnetic Fields and Cress Roots Direction of Growth Changes Their Gravitropic Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykina, Nadiia; Bogatina, Nina

    The following variants of roots location relatively to static and alternative components of magnetic field were studied. At first variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields’ components and gravitation vector. At the variant the negative gravitropysm for cress roots was observed. At second variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed parallel to alternative magnetic field. At third variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields components and gravitation vector; At forth variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed parallel to static magnetic field. In all cases studied the alternative magnetic field frequency was equal to Ca ions cyclotron frequency. In 2, 3 and 4 variants gravitropism was positive. But the gravitropic reaction speeds were different. In second and forth variants the gravitropic reaction speed in error limits coincided with the gravitropic reaction speed under Earth’s conditions. At third variant the gravitropic reaction speed was slowed essentially.

  7. The root epidermis-specific pea gene RH2 is homologous to a pathogenesis-related gene.

    PubMed

    Mylona, P; Moerman, M; Yang, W C; Gloudemans, T; Van de Kerckhove, J; van Kammen, A; Bisseling, T; Franssen, H J

    1994-10-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pea root and root hair proteins revealed the existence of at least 10 proteins present at elevated levels in root hairs. One of these, named RH2, was isolated and a partial amino acid sequence was determined from two tryptic peptides. Using this sequence information oligonucleotides were designed to isolate by PCR an RH2 cDNA clone. In situ hybridization studies with this cDNA clone showed that rh2 is not only expressed in root hairs, but also in root epidermal cells lacking these tubular outgrowths. During post-embryonic development the gene is switched on after the transition of protoderm into epidermis and since rh2 is already expressed in a globular pea embryo in the protoderm at the side attached to the suspensor, we conclude that the expression of rh2 is developmentally regulated. At the amino acid level RH2 is 95% homologous to the pea PR protein I49a. These gene encoding I49a is induced in pea pods upon inoculation with the pathogen Fusarium solani [12]. We postulate that rh2 contributes to a constitutive defence barrier in the root epidermis. A similar role has been proposed for chalcone synthase (CHS) and chitinase, pathogenesis-related protein that are also constitutively present in certain epidermal tissues. PMID:7948884

  8. EVALUATION OF VITIS AESTIVALIS AND RELATED TAXA AS SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of rootstocks with resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) is a top priority in grape breeding. Accessions of Vitis aestivalis resistant to root-knot nematodes have been identified. This species is very difficult to propagate from cuttings, essentially precluding its direct...

  9. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  10. Induction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues Inoculated with Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Benhamou, N.; Kloepper, J. W.; Quadt-Hallman, A.; Tuzun, S.

    1996-01-01

    The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural level using an in vitro system in which root-inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbacterized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissue including the vascular stele, whereas in prebacterized roots, pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex In these prebacterized roots, typical host reactions included strengthening the epidermal and cortical cell walls and deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. Wall appositions were found to contain large amounts of callose in addition to being infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with the gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged, bacterized roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and the intercellular spaces as well as at the surface or even inside of the invading hyphae of the pathogen. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing bacterized roots was preserved even when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations confirm that endophytic bacteria may function as potential inducers of plant disease resistance. PMID:12226427

  11. Seedling root responses to soil moisture and the identification of a belowground trait spectrum across three growth forms.

    PubMed

    Larson, Julie E; Funk, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Root trait variation and plasticity could be key factors differentiating plant performance under drought. However, water manipulation and root measurements are rarely coupled empirically across growth forms to identify whether belowground strategies are generalizable across species. We measured seedling root traits across three moisture levels in 18 Mediterranean forbs, grasses, and woody species. Drought increased the root mass fraction (RMF) and decreased the relative proportion of thin roots (indicated by increased root diameters and decreased specific root length (SRL)), rates of root elongation and growth, plant nitrogen uptake, and plant growth. Although responses varied across species, plasticity was not associated with growth form. Woody species differed from forbs and grasses in many traits, but herbaceous groups were similar. Across water treatments, trait correlations suggested a single spectrum of belowground trade-offs related to resource acquisition and plant growth. While effects of SRL and RMF on plant growth shifted with drought, root elongation rate consistently represented this spectrum. We demonstrate that general patterns of root morphology and plasticity are identifiable across diverse species. Root trait measurements should enhance our understanding of belowground strategy and performance across growth forms, but it will be critical to incorporate plasticity and additional aspects of root function into these efforts. PMID:26765506

  12. Root and Nodule Respiration in Relation to Acetylene Reduction in Intact Nodulated Peas 1

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Inoculated pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were grown with N-free nutrients in a controlled environment room and rates of respiratory CO2 evolution and C2H2 reduction by the intact nodulated roots were determined. Experiments followed changes related to diurnal cycles, light and dark treatments, partial defoliation, aging of plants and NH4NO3 addition. In all experiments, changes in C2H2 reduction were associated with parallel changes in the respiration rate, although in all but the defoliation experiment there was a basal level of respiration which was independent of the rate of C2H2 reduction. In conditions which affected growth or plant size as well as C2H2 reduction, respiration changed by an average of 0.42 mg CO2 (μmol C2H2 reduced)−1. However, some treatments decreased C2H2 reduction without greatly changing the growth and in these conditions respiration was decreased by an average of 0.27 mg CO2 (μmol C2H2 reduced)−1. While this value may also include some respiration associated with other processes, it is proposed that it more closely estimates respiration directly associated with energy utilization for acetylene reduction; whereas the higher value includes respiration related to maintenance and growth processes as well. PMID:16660191

  13. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  14. Roots and Root Function: Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

  15. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. PMID:27136172

  16. Gravitropic response of adventitious roots cultivated in light and darkness on sucrose-free medium.

    PubMed

    Vinterhalter, D V; Vinterhalter, B S

    1999-11-30

    Elongation of adventitious roots of Dracaena fragrans was investigated under photoautotrophic conditions. Root elongation decreased and stopped when cultures were transferred to darkness. Upon return to light roots renewed growth after a 5 day lag period. During the first two days of intensive new growth roots were agravitropic elongating in random directions. Investigation showed that transient absence of geotropic response was connected with disappearance of starch grains in root tip which occurred due to sucrose starvation of cultures in continuous darkness. PMID:11543427

  17. Defective root growth triggered by oxidative stress is controlled through the expression of cell cycle-related genes.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2012-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have many functions in aerobic organisms. High levels of ROS can have a negative impact on plant cells leading to senescence and cell death. ROS accumulates in cells subjected to environmental stress and induces a cellular response to this external stimulus. To protect cells from the negative impacts of excess ROS, plants also possess a ROS detoxifying system to maintain normal ROS levels. The regulation of ROS levels is particularly important as ROS also functions as an important signal molecule and can regulate plant growth by modulating gene expression. Despite the functional importance of ROS signaling, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression through ROS. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a ROS compound, on cell cycle-related gene expression. Gene expression analyses coupled with microdissected sections of the developmental zone of Arabidopsis root tips revealed that H(2)O(2) affects the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Additionally, ROS scavenging enzymes were found to play an important role in the root growth phenotype induced by H(2)O(2). Specifically, root growth inhibition by H(2)O(2) was diminished in transgenic Arabidopis overexpressing peroxidase but increased in a catalase2 (cat2) mutant. The strong root growth inhibition observed in the cat2 mutant upon H(2)O(2) treatment indicated that CAT2 has an essential role in maintaining root meristem activity in the presence of oxidative stress. Overall, these results confirm that ROS function not only as stress-related compounds but that they also function as signaling molecules to regulate the progression of the cell cycle in root tips. PMID:23116669

  18. Apical root resorption of upper first molars as related to anchorage system.

    PubMed

    Alwali, S; Marklund, M; Persson, M

    2000-01-01

    Night-time use of extra-oral traction for anchorage may cause jiggling, rotational and extrusional forces. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that headgear forces in an anchorage system may increase the risk of radiographically detectable root resorptions on molar teeth. Twenty-one patients were selected among patients planned for orthodontic treatment, in which there was a need of anchorage in a full-bond appliance during a period of at least 6 months. An experimental group of 11 patients was given reinforcement anchorage in the maxilla with an extra-oral traction (cervical-pull) during night. Ten patients in a control group was given anchorage by a Goshgarian palatal bar, or by Class II-elastics. Periapical radiographs were taken of the upper first molars according to a standardised technique at the start of treatment, and at 3 and 6 months. Recordings included also patient compliance, force evaluation and the measurement of tooth movement. Significant reduction of root length was shown for some roots already after 3 months. However, mean root resorption after 6 months did not exceed 0.6 millimeter in any upper first molar root of the present sample. The degree of root resorption was similar in the experimental and the control groups. The hypothesis of a significant effect on root resorption of upper first molars by night-time use of extra-oral traction for a 6 month period was rejected. It is concluded that patients given anchorage by night-time use of extra-oral traction will show similar degrees of root resorption of the upper molars as those in which anchorage is given by a Goshgarian bar or Class II elastics. PMID:11140541

  19. Root Suberin Forms an Extracellular Barrier That Affects Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan; Hosmani, Prashant S.; Rus, Ana; Lahner, Brett; Borevitz, Justin O.; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus B.; Salt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Though central to our understanding of how roots perform their vital function of scavenging water and solutes from the soil, no direct genetic evidence currently exists to support the foundational model that suberin acts to form a chemical barrier limiting the extracellular, or apoplastic, transport of water and solutes in plant roots. Using the newly characterized enhanced suberin1 (esb1) mutant, we established a connection in Arabidopsis thaliana between suberin in the root and both water movement through the plant and solute accumulation in the shoot. Esb1 mutants, characterized by increased root suberin, were found to have reduced day time transpiration rates and increased water-use efficiency during their vegetative growth period. Furthermore, these changes in suberin and water transport were associated with decreases in the accumulation of Ca, Mn, and Zn and increases in the accumulation of Na, S, K, As, Se, and Mo in the shoot. Here, we present direct genetic evidence establishing that suberin in the roots plays a critical role in controlling both water and mineral ion uptake and transport to the leaves. The changes observed in the elemental accumulation in leaves are also interpreted as evidence that a significant component of the radial root transport of Ca, Mn, and Zn occurs in the apoplast. PMID:19461889

  20. Computer-based video digitizer analysis of surface extension in maize roots: kinetics of growth rate changes during gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to measure surface extension and curvature in gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.). Downward curvature began about 25 +/- 7 min after gravistimulation and resulted from a combination of enhanced growth along the upper surface and reduced growth along the lower surface relative to growth in vertically oriented controls. The roots curved at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.5 degrees min-1 but the pattern of curvature varied somewhat. In about 35% of the samples the roots curved steadily downward and the rate of curvature slowed as the root neared 90 degrees. A final angle of about 90 degrees was reached 110 +/- 35 min after the start of gravistimulation. In about 65% of the samples there was a period of backward curvature (partial reversal of curvature) during the response. In some cases (about 15% of those showing a period of reverse bending) this period of backward curvature occurred before the root reached 90 degrees. Following transient backward curvature, downward curvature resumed and the root approached a final angle of about 90 degrees. In about 65% of the roots showing a period of reverse curvature, the roots curved steadily past the vertical, reaching maximum curvature about 205 +/- 65 min after gravistimulation. The direction of curvature then reversed back toward the vertical. After one or two oscillations about the vertical the roots obtained a vertical orientation and the distribution of growth within the root tip became the same as that prior to gravistimulation. The period of transient backward curvature coincided with and was evidently caused by enhancement of growth along the concave and inhibition of growth along the convex side of the curve, a pattern opposite to that prevailing in the earlier stages of downward curvature. There were periods during the gravitropic response when the normally unimodal growth-rate distribution within the elongation zone became bimodal with two peaks of rapid elongation separated by a region of reduced elongation rate. This occurred at different times on the convex and concave sides of the graviresponding root. During the period of steady downward curvature the elongation zone along the convex side extended farther toward the tip than in the vertical control. During the period of reduced rate of curvature, the zone of elongation extended farther toward the tip along the concave side of the root. The data show that the gravitropic response pattern varies with time and involves changes in localized elongation rates as well as changes in the length and position of the elongation zone. Models of root gravitropic curvature based on simple unimodal inhibition of growth along the lower side cannot account for these complex growth patterns.

  1. Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability. PMID:23559495

  2. Tungsten disrupts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by PIN targeting.

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-15

    Tungsten is a heavy metal with increasing concern over its environmental impact. In plants it is extensively used to deplete nitric oxide by inhibiting nitrate reductase, but its presumed toxicity as a heavy metal has been less explored. Accordingly, its effects on Arabidopsis thaliana primary root were assessed. The effects on root growth, mitotic cell percentage, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide levels, the cytoskeleton, cell ultrastructure, auxin and cytokinin activity, and auxin carrier distribution were investigated. It was found that tungsten reduced root growth, particularly by inhibiting cell expansion in the elongation zone, so that root hairs emerged closer to the root tip than in the control. Although extensive vacuolation was observed, even in meristematic cells, cell organelles were almost unaffected and microtubules were not depolymerized but reoriented. Tungsten affected auxin and cytokinin activity, as visualized by the DR5-GFP and TCS-GFP expressing lines, respectively. Cytokinin fluctuations were similar to those of the mitotic cell percentage. DR5-GFP signal appeared ectopically expressed, while the signals of PIN2-GFP and PIN3-GFP were diminished even after relatively short exposures. The observed effects were not reminiscent of those of any nitric oxide scavengers. Taken together, inhibition of root growth by tungsten might rather be related to a presumed interference with the basipetal flow of auxin, specifically affecting cell expansion in the elongation zone. PMID:24973590

  3. Genome-wide analysis reveals phytohormone action during cassava storage root initiation.

    PubMed

    Sojikul, Punchapat; Saithong, Treenut; Kalapanulak, Saowalak; Pisuttinusart, Nuttapat; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Tanaka, Maho; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-08-01

    Development of storage roots is a process associated with a phase change from cell division and elongation to radial growth and accumulation of massive amounts of reserve substances such as starch. Knowledge of the regulation of cassava storage root formation has accumulated over time; however, gene regulation during the initiation and early stage of storage root development is still poorly understood. In this study, transcription profiling of fibrous, intermediate and storage roots at eight weeks old were investigated using a 60-mer-oligo microarray. Transcription and gene expression were found to be the key regulating processes during the transition stage from fibrous to intermediate roots, while homeostasis and signal transduction influenced regulation from intermediate roots to storage roots. Clustering analysis of significant genes and transcription factors (TF) indicated that a number of phytohormone-related TF were differentially expressed; therefore, phytohormone-related genes were assembled into a network of correlative nodes. We propose a model showing the relationship between KNOX1 and phytohormones during storage root initiation. Exogeneous treatment of phytohormones N (6) -benzylaminopurine and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid were used to induce the storage root initiation stage and to investigate expression patterns of the genes involved in storage root initiation. The results support the hypothesis that phytohormones are acting in concert to regulate the onset of cassava storage root development. Moreover, MeAGL20 is a factor that might play an important role at the onset of storage root initiation when the root tip becomes swollen. PMID:26118659

  4. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huisha; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Fengzhi; Diao, Wentao; Dong, Chunming; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Xingqiao; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2015-08-25

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation. The molecular hallmark of familial dysautonomia (FD) is the splicing mutation of Elp1 [also known as IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP)] in the nervous system that is believed to be the primary cause of the devastating symptoms of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that disease-related mutations in Elp1 affect Elongator assembly, and we have determined the structure of the C-terminal portion of human Elp1 (Elp1-CT), which is sufficient for full-length Elp1 dimerization, as well as the structure of the cognate dimerization domain of yeast Elp1 (yElp1-DD). Our study reveals that the formation of the Elp1 dimer contributes to its stability in vitro and in vivo and is required for the assembly of both the human and yeast Elongator complexes. Functional studies suggest that Elp1 dimerization is essential for yeast viability. Collectively, our results identify the evolutionarily conserved dimerization domain of Elp1 and suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of Elp1 mutation-related disease may result from impaired Elongator activities. PMID:26261306

  5. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huisha; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Fengzhi; Diao, Wentao; Dong, Chunming; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Xingqiao; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation. The molecular hallmark of familial dysautonomia (FD) is the splicing mutation of Elp1 [also known as IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP)] in the nervous system that is believed to be the primary cause of the devastating symptoms of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that disease-related mutations in Elp1 affect Elongator assembly, and we have determined the structure of the C-terminal portion of human Elp1 (Elp1-CT), which is sufficient for full-length Elp1 dimerization, as well as the structure of the cognate dimerization domain of yeast Elp1 (yElp1-DD). Our study reveals that the formation of the Elp1 dimer contributes to its stability in vitro and in vivo and is required for the assembly of both the human and yeast Elongator complexes. Functional studies suggest that Elp1 dimerization is essential for yeast viability. Collectively, our results identify the evolutionarily conserved dimerization domain of Elp1 and suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of Elp1 mutation-related disease may result from impaired Elongator activities. PMID:26261306

  6. Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction. PMID:23299674

  7. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Changma; Yin, Zongsheng; Yu, Defu; Yang, Zuhua

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sciatic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene- related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:25206633

  8. Soybean root growth in acid subsoils in relation to magnesium additions and soil solution ionic strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroponic studies with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have shown that µM additions of Mg2+ were as effective in ameliorating Al rhizotoxicity as additions of Ca2+ in the mM concentration range. The objectives of this study were to assess ameliorative effects of Mg on soybean root growth in acidic...

  9. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ROOT CONTROL, AND BACKWATER FLOW CONTROL AS RELATED TO INFILTRATION/INFLOW CONTROL. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to identify and analyze present practices for determining and controlling infiltration and inflow (I/I) and investigate the role of roots and tide or backwater gates in the I/I problem. It was found through on-site investigations and questionnaires that loca...

  10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ROOT CONTROL, AND BACKWATER FLOW CONTROL AS RELATED TO INFILTRATION/INFLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to identify and analyze present practices for determining and controlling infiltration and inflow (I/I) and investigate the role of roots and tide or backwater gates in the I/I problem. It was found through on-site investigations and questionnaires that loca...

  11. The Mutual Adaptation Concept: Its Roots and Relatives. Documentation and Technical Assistance in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Hannah

    This paper explores the roots of the concept of mutual adaptation in the literature of cognitive psychology, anthropology, biology, organizational behavior, and policy analysis. It is said that while educational researchers use the concept, their neglect of the literature on it is due, in part, to contradictory definitions of mutual adaptation as…

  12. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  13. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  14. The Arabidopsis glutamate receptor-like gene GLR3.6 controls root development by repressing the Kip-related protein gene KRP4.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi Kant; Chien, Ching-Te; Chang, Ing-Feng

    2016-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, 20 genes encode putative glutamate receptor-like proteins (AtGLRs). However, the functions of most genes are unknown. In this study, our results revealed that loss of function of AtGLR3.6 (atglr3.6-1) leads to reduced primary root growth and fewer lateral roots, whereas AtGLR3.6 overexpression induced both primary and lateral root growth. The glr3.6-1 mutant exhibited a smaller root meristem size compared with the wild type, indicating that AtGLR3.6 controls root meristem size. In addition, atglr3.6-1 roots show a decreased mitotic activity accounting for the reduced root meristem size. Furthermore, expression of a gene encoding a cell cycle inhibitor, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Kip-related protein 4 (KRP4), was significantly up-regulated in the mutant and down-regulated in AtGLR3.6-overexpressing roots, suggesting a role for KRP4 in AtGLR3.6-mediated root meristem maintenance. Importantly, the atglr3.6-1 mutant recovered most of its root growth when KRP4 expression is down-regulated, whereas elevated KRP4 expression in AtGLR3.6-overexpressing plants phenocopied the wild-type root growth, implying an underlying relationship between AtGLR3.6 and KRP4 genes. Cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation is reduced in atglr3.6-1 roots, suggesting impaired calcium signaling. Moreover, calcium treatment reduced the level of KRP4 and hence induced root growth. Collectively, we reveal that AtGLR3.6 is required for primary and lateral root development, and KRP4 functions as a downstream signaling element in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:26773810

  15. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  16. Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; Zechman, Frederick W; Sabbe, Koen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background Two key genes of the translational apparatus, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1?) and elongation factor-like (EFL) have an almost mutually exclusive distribution in eukaryotes. In the green plant lineage, the Chlorophyta encode EFL except Acetabularia where EF-1? is found, and the Streptophyta possess EF-1? except Mesostigma, which has EFL. These results raise questions about evolutionary patterns of gain and loss of EF-1? and EFL. A previous study launched the hypothesis that EF-1? was the primitive state and that EFL was gained once in the ancestor of the green plants, followed by differential loss of EF-1? or EFL in the principal clades of the Viridiplantae. In order to gain more insight in the distribution of EF-1? and EFL in green plants and test this hypothesis we screened the presence of the genes in a large sample of green algae and analyzed their gain-loss dynamics in a maximum likelihood framework using continuous-time Markov models. Results Within the Chlorophyta, EF-1? is shown to be present in three ulvophycean orders (i.e., Dasycladales, Bryopsidales, Siphonocladales) and the genus Ignatius. Models describing gene gain-loss dynamics revealed that the presence of EF-1?, EFL or both genes along the backbone of the green plant phylogeny is highly uncertain due to sensitivity to branch lengths and lack of prior knowledge about ancestral states or rates of gene gain and loss. Model refinements based on insights gained from the EF-1? phylogeny reduce uncertainty but still imply several equally likely possibilities: a primitive EF-1? state with multiple independent EFL gains or coexistence of both genes in the ancestor of the Viridiplantae or Chlorophyta followed by differential loss of one or the other gene in the various lineages. Conclusion EF-1? is much more common among green algae than previously thought. The mutually exclusive distribution of EF-1? and EFL is confirmed in a large sample of green plants. Hypotheses about the gain-loss dynamics of elongation factor genes are hard to test analytically due to a relatively flat likelihood surface, even if prior knowledge is incorporated. Phylogenetic analysis of EFL genes indicates misinterpretations in the recent literature due to uncertainty regarding the root position. PMID:19216746

  17. Differential Two-Dimensional Protein Patterns as Related to Tissue Specificity and Water Conditions in Brassica napus var oleifera Root System

    PubMed Central

    Damerval, Catherine; Vartanian, Nicole; de Vienne, Dominique

    1988-01-01

    Differential two-dimensional protein patterns as related to tissue specificity and water conditions were investigated within Brassica napus var oleifera root system. The different parts of the root system (tap root, lateral roots, and drought-induced short roots) were analyzed under various moisture regimes (regular watering at field capacity, progressive drought stress, and rewatering). Tissue specificity was evident from 25 differences in protein patterns (qualitative and quantitative) between well-watered lateral and tap roots. Twice as many polypeptides (52) were drought-affected and the response to the water stress was shown to be similar in both root types. In addition, more than half of the polypeptides detected as organ-specific were affected by drought. Based upon the trend of variation observed under drought and rehydration, three categories of polypeptides could be defined that might be differently involved in drought susceptibility or tolerance. A highly differentiated protein pattern characterized the drought-induced short roots. This pattern appeared as far from the watered as from the water-stressed normal roots. In particular, 13 unique polypeptides were detected which could be relevant to their adaptive morphogenesis and/or their specific drought tolerance induction. Upon rehydration, their polypeptide pattern and their specific morphology returned to a normal well-watered lateral root type. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16666071

  18. Photomorphogenesis and pigment induction in lentil seedling roots exposed to low light conditions.

    PubMed

    Vollsnes, A V; Melø, T B; Futsaether, C M

    2012-05-01

    Although roots are normally hidden in soil, they may inadvertently be exposed to low light levels in experiments or in natural conditions through cracks or light transmittance through the soil. Light has been implicated in root morphogenesis. Thus, effects of low light conditions on lentil (Lens culinaris L. cv. Verte du Puy) root morphology and root pigmentation were studied. Lentil seedlings were grown in peat or transparent, nutrient-fortified agar at a 12-h light (PAR 240 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1)), 12-h dark cycle. Roots were exposed to low levels (≈ 1-10 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1)) of broadband white light, either directly or indirectly by aboveground light penetrating the growth medium. Control roots were grown in darkness. In situ spectroscopy was used to measure transmittance and reflectance spectra of intact root tissue by mounting the upper part of the primary root directly in a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere attachment. The transmittance and reflectance spectra were used to calculate the in situ root absorbance spectrum. Absorbance bands were found in the regions 480-500 nm and 650-680 nm, possibly due to low levels of root-localised carotenoids and chlorophylls, respectively. Low light levels (≈ 1-10 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) transmitted through the growth medium significantly increased root pigment concentration and root biomass, and altered root morphology by enhancing lateral root formation and inhibiting root elongation relative to roots grown in complete darkness. The light-induced changes in root morphogenesis and pigmentation appear to be primarily due to upper root light perception. PMID:22117590

  19. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed. PMID:26700030

  20. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed similar correlations, i.e. that ?' of low density soil material (~15.5 kN/m³) increased by the same amount whether by planting with White Alder or by compaction to ~19.0 kN/m³. Based on this coincidence the method to quantify soil aggregate produced satisfying results which indicate that soil aggregate stability is a potential proxy for ?' and the joint impact of mycorrhizal fungi and plant roots increase the resistance against superficial soil failure. It is concluded that soil aggregate stability mirrors biological effects on soil stability reasonably well and may be used as an indicator to quantify the effectiveness of ecological restoration and stabilisation measures.

  1. Analysis of perspective elongation for sodium laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Tianjiang; Zhou, Wenchao; Yan, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optical systems become an established technique at telescope facilities with large apertures. At these aperture diameters, such as 8m class telescope facilities, the finite distance and vertical extend of an artificial excited guide star result in perspective elongation, which produces errors in wave-front reconstruction and could influence the performance of adaptive optical systems seriously. In this paper, we shall briefly introduce and explain the effect of the perspective elongation, and show some results of theoretical simulation and experiment. First of all, we analyzed how the perspective elongation of sodium LGS changes, and gave the results of simulation which indicated the relation between the perspective elongation and some related parameters. The aberration caused by the elongation was analyzed, and the possibility of aberration correction was discussed. Based on the results of the theoretical simulation, we designed an experiment to observe the perspective elongation. A transmitting and receiving system has been set up. The system consisted of a 300mJ sodium LGS laser, a telescope with an aperture diameter of 450mm, a beam expander with an aperture diameter of 200mm, a LGS detecting device, etc. Based on the pulsed laser and the mobile LGS projector, we operated the experiment at different distance between the telescope and the laser projector. A series of elongated images, corresponding the distance from 5m to 30m, was obtained. The analytic results of the image data agreed with the theoretical simulation. Based on the experimental data, we deduced the aberration of wave-front at 30m separation. According to theoretical simulation of the perspective elongation, the effects including the aberration of wave-front could be achieved, which had been partially verified in the experiment. We suggest that one could improve the reconstruction accuracy in a sodium or Rayleigh LGS adaptive optical system by eliminating the influence of the perspective elongation in advance.

  2. Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Cosma, Salvatore; Eramo, Stefano; Gallottini, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer. Methodology Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Conclusion The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated. PMID:25506413

  3. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

  4. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Smith, H S

    1990-06-01

    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage. PMID:11537494

  5. Gibberellin biosynthesis mutations and root development in pea.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, J R; Ross, J J; Sherriff, L J; Reid, J B

    2001-02-01

    Dwarf mutants of pea (Pisum sativum), with impaired gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in the shoot, were studied to determine whether the roots of these genotypes had altered elongation and GA levels. Mutations na, lh-2, and ls-1 reduced GA levels in root tips and taproot elongation, although in lh-2 and ls-1 roots the reduction in elongation was small (less than 15%). The na mutation reduced taproot length by about 50%. The roots of na plants elongated in response to applied GA(1) and recombining na with mutation sln (which blocks GA catabolism) increased GA(1) levels in root tips and completely restored normal root development. In shoots, Mendel's le-1 mutation impairs the 3beta-hydroxylation of GA(20) to the bioactive GA(1), resulting in dwarfism. However, GA(1) and GA(20) levels were normal in le-1 roots, as was root development. The null mutation le-2 also did not reduce root GA levels or elongation. The results support the theory that GAs are important for normal root elongation in pea, and indicate that a 3beta-hydroxylase gene other than LE operates in pea roots. PMID:11161020

  6. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  7. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    PubMed

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. PMID:26397200

  8. Capturing Arabidopsis root architecture dynamics with ROOT-FIT reveals diversity in responses to salinity.

    PubMed

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2014-11-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked. PMID:25271266

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases relative apoplastic water flow in roots of the host plant under both well-watered and drought stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Paz, José Antonio; Chaumont, François; Martinez-Ballesta, Mari Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The movement of water through mycorrhizal fungal tissues and between the fungus and roots is little understood. It has been demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis regulates root hydraulic properties, including root hydraulic conductivity. However, it is not clear whether this effect is due to a regulation of root aquaporins (cell-to-cell pathway) or to enhanced apoplastic water flow. Here we measured the relative contributions of the apoplastic versus the cell-to-cell pathway for water movement in roots of AM and non-AM plants. Methods We used a combination of two experiments using the apoplastic tracer dye light green SF yellowish and sodium azide as an inhibitor of aquaporin activity. Plant water and physiological status, root hydraulic conductivity and apoplastic water flow were measured. Key Results Roots of AM plants enhanced significantly relative apoplastic water flow as compared with non-AM plants and this increase was evident under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. The presence of the AM fungus in the roots of the host plants was able to modulate the switching between apoplastic and cell-to-cell water transport pathways. Conclusions The ability of AM plants to switch between water transport pathways could allow a higher flexibility in the response of these plants to water shortage according to the demand from the shoot. PMID:22294476

  10. Response and tolerance of root border cells to aluminum toxicity in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cai, Miao-Zhen; Wang, Fang-Mei; Li, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Shu-Na; Wang, Ning; Xu, Gen-Di

    2011-07-01

    Root border cells (RBCs) and their secreted mucilage are suggested to participate in the resistance against toxic metal cations, including aluminum (Al), in the rhizosphere. However, the mechanisms by which the individual cell populations respond to Al and their role in Al resistance still remain unclear. In this research, the response and tolerance of RBCs to Al toxicity were investigated in the root tips of two soybean cultivars [Zhechun No. 2 (Al-tolerant cultivar) and Huachun No. 18 (Al-sensitive cultivar)]. Al inhibited root elongation and increased pectin methylesterase (PME) activity in the root tip. Removal of RBCs from the root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation, especially in Huachun No. 18. Increasing Al levels and treatment time decreased the relative percent viability of RBCs in situ and in vitro in both soybean cultivars. Al application significantly increased mucilage layer thickness around the detached RBCs of both cultivars. Additionally, a significantly higher relative percent cell viability of attached and detached RBCs and thicker mucilage layers were observed in Zhechun No. 2. The higher viability of attached and detached RBCs, as well as the thickening of the mucilage layer in separated RBCs, suggest that RBCs play an important role in protecting root apices from Al toxicity. PMID:21549660

  11. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  12. Roles of syndecan-4 and relative kinases in dorsal root ganglion neuron adhesion and mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Jou; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Cheng, Chao-Min; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-04-10

    Mechanical stimuli elicit a biological response and initiate complex physiological processes, including neural feedback schemes associated with senses such as pain, vibration, touch, and hearing. The syndecans (SDCs), a group of adhesion receptors, can modulate adhesion and organize the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on controlled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates coated with poly-l-lysine (poly) or fibronectin (FN) to investigate cell adhesion and mechanotransduction mechanisms by mechanical stretching on PDMS using DRG neurons. Our results demonstrated that neuronal density, neurite length, and neurite branching were lower in the PDMS group and could be further reversed through activating SDC-4 by FN. The expression of the SDC-4 pathway decreased but with increased pPKCα in the PDMS-poly group. After mechanical stretching, pPKCα-FAKpTyr397-pERK1/2 expression was increased in both poly- and FN-coated PDMS. These results indicate that SDC4-pPKCα-FAKpTyr397-pERK1/2 may play a crucial role in DRG adhesion and mechanotransduction. PMID:25757361

  13. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box protein(S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B)-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses. PMID:26198256

  14. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box proteinS-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses. PMID:26198256

  15. Changes in root cap pH are required for the gravity response of the Arabidopsis root

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, J. M.; Swanson, S. J.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Dowd, P. E.; Kao, T. H.; Gilroy, S.

    2001-01-01

    Although the columella cells of the root cap have been identified as the site of gravity perception, the cellular events that mediate gravity signaling remain poorly understood. To determine if cytoplasmic and/or wall pH mediates the initial stages of root gravitropism, we combined a novel cell wall pH sensor (a cellulose binding domain peptide-Oregon green conjugate) and a cytoplasmic pH sensor (plants expressing pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein) to monitor pH dynamics throughout the graviresponding Arabidopsis root. The root cap apoplast acidified from pH 5.5 to 4.5 within 2 min of gravistimulation. Concomitantly, cytoplasmic pH increased in columella cells from 7.2 to 7.6 but was unchanged elsewhere in the root. These changes in cap pH preceded detectable tropic growth or growth-related pH changes in the elongation zone cell wall by 10 min. Altering the gravity-related columella cytoplasmic pH shift with caged protons delayed the gravitropic response. Together, these results suggest that alterations in root cap pH likely are involved in the initial events that mediate root gravity perception or signal transduction.

  16. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  17. Gibberellic acid and dwarfism effects on the growth dynamics of B73 maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades: a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity precedes cessation of cell elongation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, I R; MacAdam, J W

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between apoplastic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and cessation of growth in maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades was investigated by altering elongation zone length. Apoplastic peroxidase activity in the elongation and secondary cell wall deposition zones of elongating leaf blades of the maize inbred line B73 was used as a control and compared to leaves of the dwarf mutant D8-81127, a near-isogenic line of B73 unresponsive to gibberellins, and to leaves of B73 plants to which gibberellic acid (GA(3)) had been applied via root uptake. Elongation zone length was increased by treatment with GA(3) through an increase in cell number as well as increased final cell length. The shorter elongation zone of dwarf leaves occurred primarily through reduced final cell length. Although elongation zone length differed among dwarf, control, and GA(3)-treated leaf blades, in all three treatments a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity preceded a reduction in the segmental elongation rate in leaves. A peroxidase isoenzyme with pI 7.0 occurred in the leaf elongation zone during growth deceleration in all three treatments, and its activity decreased as growth displaced tissue into the region of secondary cell wall deposition. Growth cessation for all treatments coincided with the first appearance of peroxidase isozymes with pIs of 5.6 and 5.7. Based on the activity of particular isozymes relative to growth and differentiation, the pI 7.0 isoenzyme is most likely to be involved in cessation of cell elongation, while isozymes with pIs 5.6 and 5.7 are likely to be active in lignification. PMID:11479332

  18. Complexity and coordination of root growth at low water potentials: recent advances from transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mineo; Sharp, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    Progress in understanding root growth regulation and adaptation under water-stressed conditions is reviewed, with emphasis on recent advances from transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of maize and soybean primary roots. In both systems, kinematic characterization of the spatial patterns of cell expansion within the root elongation zone showed that at low water potentials, elongation rates are preferentially maintained towards the root apex but are progressively inhibited at more basal locations resulting in a shortened growth zone. This characterization provided an essential foundation for extensive research into the physiological mechanisms of growth regulation in the maize primary root at low water potentials. Recently, these studies were expanded to include transcriptomic and cell wall proteomic analyses of the maize primary root, and a proteomic analysis of total soluble proteins in the soybean primary root. This review focuses on findings related to protection from oxidative damage, the potential roles of increased apoplastic reactive oxygen species in regulation of wall extension properties and other processes, region-specific phenylpropanoid metabolism as related to accumulation of (iso)flavonoids and wall phenolics and amino acid metabolism. The results provide novel insights into the complexity and coordination of the processes involved in root growth at low water potentials. PMID:19895398

  19. CORN-RESIDUE TRANSFORMATIONS INTO ROOT AND SOIL CARBON AS RELATED TO NITROGEN, TILLAGE, AND STOVER MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is sensitive to management schemes of tillage, residue (stover) harvest, and N fertilization. Most of these estimates use long term field trials but a major problem is to estimate SOC responses to the unharvestable root, root exudates, and crown. Most often a shoot-to-root-...

  20. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  1. Prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in a Central Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Morais, Sylvania De; Musis, Carlo Ralph De; Albuquerque, Paulo Artur Andrade De; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Eagle’s syndrome comprises a rare disorder caused by compression of an elongated or deformed styloid process or ossified/calcified stylohyoid ligament on neural and vascular structures. It is characterized by facial and neck pain and can be confused with a wide variety of facial neuralgias, oral and dental diseases and temporomandibular disorders. An imaging evaluation associated with a careful clinical examination, are mandatory in structuring a correct differential diagnosis and in the establishment of a proper therapeutic protocol. Aim To investigate the prevalence of the elongated styloid process in a Central Brazilian population and its relation to gender, age and side. Materials and Methods Digital panoramic radiographs of 736 patients (412 female and 324 male, with a mean age of 35.03 years) were consecutively selected from a private radiology clinic’s secondary database. The apparent length of the styloid process was measured from the point where the styloid left the tympanic plate to the tip of the process by two specialists in dental radiology, with the help of the measuring tools on the accompanying software. Styloid process measuring more than 30 mm was considered elongated. The statistical analysis included frequency distribution and cross tabulation. The data were analysed by using Chi-squared tests. The level of significance was set at 5% for all analyses. Results A total of 323 (43.89%) radiographic images were suggestive of elongated styloid process. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders, although a higher prevalence was noticed in female participants. Approximately, 31% of the elongated styloid process was observed in 18-53-year-old participants (p < 0.05). Two hundred and sixty seven styloid processes (36.28%) were elongated on both right and left sides. Conclusion The prevalence of elongated styloid process was high and no statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of elongated styloid process and the studied variables with the exception of the age. PMID:26501021

  2. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  3. Identification of the primary lesion of toxic aluminum in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, Peter M; Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Ferguson, Brett J; Blamey, F Pax C; Menzies, Neal W; Nicholson, Timothy M; McKenna, Brigid A; Wang, Peng; Gresshoff, Peter M; Kourousias, George; Webb, Richard I; Green, Kathryn; Tollenaere, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Despite the rhizotoxicity of aluminum (Al) being identified over 100 years ago, there is still no consensus regarding the mechanisms whereby root elongation rate is initially reduced in the approximately 40% of arable soils worldwide that are acidic. We used high-resolution kinematic analyses, molecular biology, rheology, and advanced imaging techniques to examine soybean (Glycine max) roots exposed to Al. Using this multidisciplinary approach, we have conclusively shown that the primary lesion of Al is apoplastic. In particular, it was found that 75 µm Al reduced root growth after only 5 min (or 30 min at 30 µm Al), with Al being toxic by binding to the walls of outer cells, which directly inhibited their loosening in the elongation zone. An alteration in the biosynthesis and distribution of ethylene and auxin was a second, slower effect, causing both a transient decrease in the rate of cell elongation after 1.5 h but also a longer term gradual reduction in the length of the elongation zone. These findings show the importance of focusing on traits related to cell wall composition as well as mechanisms involved in wall loosening to overcome the deleterious effects of soluble Al. PMID:25670815

  4. The Interaction between Rice ERF3 and WOX11 Promotes Crown Root Development by Regulating Gene Expression Involved in Cytokinin Signaling[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yaling; Huang, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Crown roots are the main components of the fibrous root system in rice (Oryza sativa). WOX11, a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene specifically expressed in the emerging crown root meristem, is a key regulator in crown root development. However, the nature of WOX11 function in crown root development has remained elusive. Here, we identified a rice AP2/ERF protein, ERF3, which interacts with WOX11 and was expressed in crown root initials and during crown root growth. Functional analysis revealed that ERF3 was essential for crown root development and acts in auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene expression. Downregulation of ERF3 in wox11 mutants produced a more severe root phenotype. Also, increased expression of ERF3 could partially complement wox11, indicating that the two genes functioned cooperatively to regulate crown root development. ERF3 and WOX11 shared a common target, the cytokinin-responsive gene RR2. The expression of ERF3 and WOX11 only partially overlapped, underlining a spatio-temporal control of RR2 expression and crown root development. Furthermore, ERF3-regulated RR2 expression was involved in crown root initiation, while the ERF3/WOX11 interaction likely repressed RR2 during crown root elongation. These results define a mechanism regulating gene expression involved in cytokinin signaling during different stages of crown root development in rice. PMID:26307379

  5. The Interaction between Rice ERF3 and WOX11 Promotes Crown Root Development by Regulating Gene Expression Involved in Cytokinin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Cheng, Saifeng; Song, Yaling; Huang, Yulan; Zhou, Shaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    Crown roots are the main components of the fibrous root system in rice (Oryza sativa). WOX11, a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene specifically expressed in the emerging crown root meristem, is a key regulator in crown root development. However, the nature of WOX11 function in crown root development has remained elusive. Here, we identified a rice AP2/ERF protein, ERF3, which interacts with WOX11 and was expressed in crown root initials and during crown root growth. Functional analysis revealed that ERF3 was essential for crown root development and acts in auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene expression. Downregulation of ERF3 in wox11 mutants produced a more severe root phenotype. Also, increased expression of ERF3 could partially complement wox11, indicating that the two genes functioned cooperatively to regulate crown root development. ERF3 and WOX11 shared a common target, the cytokinin-responsive gene RR2. The expression of ERF3 and WOX11 only partially overlapped, underlining a spatio-temporal control of RR2 expression and crown root development. Furthermore, ERF3-regulated RR2 expression was involved in crown root initiation, while the ERF3/WOX11 interaction likely repressed RR2 during crown root elongation. These results define a mechanism regulating gene expression involved in cytokinin signaling during different stages of crown root development in rice. PMID:26307379

  6. 4sUDRB-seq: measuring genomewide transcriptional elongation rates and initiation frequencies within cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II is coupled with many RNA-related processes, genomewide elongation rates remain unknown. We describe a method, called 4sUDRB-seq, based on reversible inhibition of transcription elongation coupled with tagging newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine and high throughput sequencing to measure simultaneously with high confidence genome-wide transcription elongation rates in cells. We find that most genes are transcribed at about 3.5 Kb/min, with elongation rates varying between 2 Kb/min and 6 Kb/min. 4sUDRB-seq can facilitate genomewide exploration of the involvement of specific elongation factors in transcription and the contribution of deregulated transcription elongation to various pathologies. PMID:24887486

  7. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Frantiek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  8. Developmental Nuclear Localization and Quantification of GFP-Tagged EB1c in Arabidopsis Root Using Light-Sheet Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Novk, Dominik; Kucha?ov, Anna; Ove?ka, Miroslav; Komis, George; amaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The development of the root apex is determined by progress of cells from the meristematic region to the successive post-mitotic developmental zones for transition, cell elongation and final cell differentiation. We addressed root development, tissue architecture and root developmental zonation by means of light-sheet microscopic imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings expressing END BINDING protein 1c (EB1c) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of native EB1c promoter. Unlike the other two members of the EB1 family, plant-specific EB1c shows prominent nuclear localization in non-dividing cells in all developmental zones of the root apex. The nuclear localization of EB1c was previously mentioned solely in meristematic cells, but not further addressed. With the help of advanced light-sheet microscopy, we report quantitative evaluations of developmentally-regulated nuclear levels of the EB1c protein tagged with GFP relatively to the nuclear size in diverse root tissues (epidermis, cortex, and endodermis) and root developmental zones (meristem, transition, and elongation zones). Our results demonstrate a high potential of light-sheet microscopy for 4D live imaging of fluorescently-labeled nuclei in complex samples such as developing roots, showing capacity to quantify parameters at deeper cell layers (e.g., endodermis) with minimal aberrations. The data presented herein further signify the unique role of developmental cell reprogramming in the transition from cell proliferation to cell differentiation in developing root apex. PMID:26779221

  9. Developmental Nuclear Localization and Quantification of GFP-Tagged EB1c in Arabidopsis Root Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Novák, Dominik; Kuchařová, Anna; Ovečka, Miroslav; Komis, George; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The development of the root apex is determined by progress of cells from the meristematic region to the successive post-mitotic developmental zones for transition, cell elongation and final cell differentiation. We addressed root development, tissue architecture and root developmental zonation by means of light-sheet microscopic imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings expressing END BINDING protein 1c (EB1c) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of native EB1c promoter. Unlike the other two members of the EB1 family, plant-specific EB1c shows prominent nuclear localization in non-dividing cells in all developmental zones of the root apex. The nuclear localization of EB1c was previously mentioned solely in meristematic cells, but not further addressed. With the help of advanced light-sheet microscopy, we report quantitative evaluations of developmentally-regulated nuclear levels of the EB1c protein tagged with GFP relatively to the nuclear size in diverse root tissues (epidermis, cortex, and endodermis) and root developmental zones (meristem, transition, and elongation zones). Our results demonstrate a high potential of light-sheet microscopy for 4D live imaging of fluorescently-labeled nuclei in complex samples such as developing roots, showing capacity to quantify parameters at deeper cell layers (e.g., endodermis) with minimal aberrations. The data presented herein further signify the unique role of developmental cell reprogramming in the transition from cell proliferation to cell differentiation in developing root apex. PMID:26779221

  10. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  11. Effects of co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia on soybean growth as related to root architecture and availability of N and P.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Qiang; Chen, Fengxian; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Soybean plants can form tripartite symbiotic associations with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known about effects of co-inoculation with rhizobia and AM fungi on plant growth, or their relationships to root architecture as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. In the present study, two soybean genotypes contrasting in root architecture were grown in a field experiment to evaluate relationships among soybean root architecture, AMF colonization, and nodulation under natural conditions. Additionally, a soil pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted to investigate the effects of co-inoculation with rhizobia and AM fungi on soybean growth, and uptake of N and P. Our results indicated that there was a complementary relationship between root architecture and AMF colonization in the field. The deep root soybean genotype had greater AMF colonization at low P, but better nodulation with high P supply than the shallow root genotype. A synergistic relationship dependent on N and P status exists between rhizobia and AM fungi on soybean growth. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AM fungi significantly increased soybean growth under low P and/or low N conditions as indicated by increased shoot dry weight, along with plant N and P content. There were no significant effects of inoculation under adequate N and P conditions. Furthermore, the effects of co-inoculation were related to root architecture. The deep root genotype, HN112, benefited more from co-inoculation than the shallow root genotype, HN89. Our results elucidate new insights into the relationship between rhizobia, AM fungi, and plant growth under limitation of multiple nutrients, and thereby provides a theoretical basis for application of co-inoculation in field-grown soybean. PMID:20544230

  12. The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and its Revolutionary Meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

    2009-06-01

    The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German Naturphilosophie and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the relativistic dynamics of Poincaré of 1905. Einstein, on the contrary, after some years, linked relativistic dynamics to a semi-mechanist conception of Nature. He developed general relativity theory on the same ground, but Hilbert formulated it starting from the electromagnetic conception of Nature. Here, a comparison between these two conceptions is proposed in order to understand the conceptual foundations of special relativity within the context of the changing world views. The whole history of physics as well as history of science can be considered as a conflict among different worldviews. Every theory, as well as every different formulation of a theory implies a different worldview: a particular image of Nature implies a particular image of God (atheism too has a particular image of God) as well as of mankind and of their relationship. Thus, it is very relevant for scientific education to point out which image of Nature belongs to a particular formulation of a theory, which image comes to dominate and for which ideological reason.

  13. Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poff, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

  14. Salt Stress Affects the Redox Status of Arabidopsis Root Meristems

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Keni; Moe-Lange, Jacob; Hennet, Lauriane; Feldman, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the redox status (profiles) for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3–5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays) the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5–10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off, and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl) results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (<100 mM) are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3–6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2), which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport. PMID:26904053

  15. Light modulates the root tip excision induced lateral root formation in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sherinmol; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2014-01-01

    During plant growth and development, root tip performs multifarious functions integrating diverse external and internal stimuli to regulate root elongation and architecture. It is believed that a signal originating from root tip inhibits lateral root formation (LRF). The excision of root tip induced LRF in tomato seedlings associated with accumulation of auxin in pericycle founder cells. The excision of cotyledons slightly reduced LRF, whereas severing shoot from root completely abolished LRF. Exogenous ethylene application did not alter LRF. The response was modulated by light with higher LRF in seedlings exposed to light. Our results indicate that light plays a role in LRF in seedlings by likely modulating shoot derived auxin. PMID:25482798

  16. How does undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding, in regard to the role of the seed plant root system, relate to their level of understanding of photosynthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njeng'ere, James Gicheha

    This research study investigated how undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding of the role of the seed plant root system relates to their level of understanding of photosynthesis. This research was conducted with 65 undergraduate non-majors biology who had completed 1 year of biology at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond. A root probe instrument was developed from some scientifically acceptable propositional statements about the root system, the process of photosynthesis, as well as the holistic nature of the tree. These were derived from research reviews of the science education and the arboriculture literature. This was administered to 65 students selected randomly from class lists of the two institutions. Most of the root probe's items were based on the Live Oak tree. An in-depth, clinical interview-based analysis was conducted with 12 of those tested students. A team of root experts participated by designing, validating and answering the same questions that the students were asked. A "systems" lens as defined by a team of college instructors, root experts (Shigo, 1991), and this researcher was used to interpret the results. A correlational coefficient determining students' level of understanding of the root system and their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis was established by means of Pearson's r correlation (r = 0.328) using the SAS statistical analysis (SAS, 1987). From this a coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.104) was determined. Students' level of understanding of the Live Oak root system (mean score 5.94) was not statistically different from their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis (mean score 5.54) as assessed by the root probe, t (129) = 0.137, p > 0.05 one tailed-test. This suggests that, to some degree, level of the root system limits level of understanding of photosynthesis and vice versa. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed that students who applied principles of systems thinking performed better than those who did not. Students' understanding of the root system of the Live Oak tree was hindered by understanding of, plant food, the nonwoody roots, and the tree as a system.

  17. Relativity in Transylvania and Patusan: Finding the roots of Einstein's theories of relativity in "Dracula" and "Lord Jim"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Brian Shane

    This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.

  18. Wild soybean roots depend on specific transcription factors and oxidation reduction related genesin response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    DuanMu, Huizi; Wang, Yang; Bai, Xi; Cheng, Shufei; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Li, Dan; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Soil alkalinity is an important environmental problem limiting agricultural productivity. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) shows strong alkaline stress tolerance, so it is an ideal plant candidate for studying the molecular mechanisms of alkaline tolerance and identifying alkaline stress-responsive genes. However, limited information is available about G. soja responses to alkaline stress on a genomic scale. Therefore, in the present study, we used RNA sequencing to compare transcript profiles of G. soja root responses to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at six time points, and a total of 68,138,478 pairs of clean reads were obtained using the Illumina GAIIX. Expression patterns of 46,404 G. soja genes were profiled in all six samples based on RNA-seq data using Cufflinks software. Then, t12 transcription factors from MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, C2H2, HB, and TIFY families and 12 oxidation reduction related genes were chosen and verified to be induced in response to alkaline stress by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The GO functional annotation analysis showed that besides "transcriptional regulation" and "oxidation reduction," these genes were involved in a variety of processes, such as "binding" and "response to stress." This is the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling analysis of wild soybean root under alkaline stress by RNA sequencing. Our results highlight changes in the gene expression patterns and identify a set of genes induced by NaHCO3 stress. These findings provide a base for the global analyses of G. soja alkaline stress tolerance mechanisms. PMID:25874911

  19. An optical solution to the LGS spot elongation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Laura; Lombini, Matteo; Foppiani, Italo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Conan, Jean-Marc; Marchetti, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    In the last years an increasing consideration has been given to the study of Laser Guide Stars (LGS) for the measurement of the disturbance introduced by the atmosphere. Due to the finite distance of the artificial reference source and its vertical extension (the Sodium layer occurs at approximately 90 km, with a vertical thickness of about 10 km), the source itself looks elongated, when observed from the edge of a large aperture. On a 40 m class telescope, for instance, the maximum elongation varies between 4 and 6 arcseconds, depending on the Sodium layer properties and on the launching position. This spot elongation strongly limits the performance of the most common wavefront sensors. A straightforward solution for a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is to increase the laser power, in order to balance the loss of centroiding accuracy due to the elongation. This solution, although appealing in principle, presents drawbacks related, for instance, to the availability of very powerful lasers. We propose in this paper a wavefront sensor concept that provides an optical solution to the perspective elongation problem. It is based on an array of bi-prisms placed in the focal plane of a lenslet array; each bi-prism is aligned to the elongated spot produced by the corresponding lenslet; the spot is split into two beams, that are re-imaged into two micro-images of the sub-aperture itself; the difference in the integrated intensity of these two micro-images is proportional to the local wavefront slope. This method is sensitive only to the slope information in the direction locally orthogonal to the bi-prisms (and to the elongation) and the full information has to be recovered by combining the signals coming from different LGSs launched from different positions at the telescope edge. The pros and cons of this technique, in terms of hardware requirements and photon budget, are discussed in this paper.

  20. High-resolution analysis of tomato leaf elongation: the application of novel time-series analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Price, L E; Bacon, M A; Young, P C; Davies, W J

    2001-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a novel suite of data-based, recursive modelling techniques for the investigation of biological and other time-series data, including high resolution leaf elongation. The Data-Based Mechanistic (DBM) modelling methodology rejects the common practice of empirical curve fitting for a more objective approach where the model structure is not assumed a priori, but instead is identified directly from the data series in a stochastic form. Further, this novel approach takes advantage of the latest techniques in optimal recursive estimation of non-stationary and non-linear time-series. Here, the utility and ease of use of these techniques is demonstrated in the examination of two time-series of leaf elongation in an expanding leaf of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) growing in a root pressure vessel (RPV). Using this analysis, the component signals of the elongation series are extracted and considered in relation to physiological processes. It is hoped that this paper will encourage the wider use of these new techniques, as well as the associated Data-Based Mechanistic (DBM) modelling strategy, in analytical plant physiology. PMID:11520881

  1. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Tyrovola, Joanna B; Perrea, Despoina; Halazonetis, Dimitrios J; Dontas, Ismene; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Makou, Margarita

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. PMID:20587957

  2. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about -0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  3. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  4. Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by twofold at Day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at Day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3α-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at Day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced about twice alkaloids than H2 O2 -treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 -treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-ω-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. PMID:23606578

  5. Pyocyanin, a virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alters root development through reactive oxygen species and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Campos-García, Jesús; López-Bucio, José

    2014-04-01

    Pyocyanin acts as a virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant and animal pathogen. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pyocyanin on growth and development of Arabidopsis seedlings. Root inoculation with P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain inhibited primary root growth in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis seedlings. In contrast, single lasI- and double rhlI-/lasI- mutants of P. aeruginosa defective in pyocyanin production showed decreased root growth inhibition concomitant with an increased phytostimulation. Treatment with pyocyanin modulates root system architecture, inhibiting primary root growth and promoting lateral root and root hair formation without affecting meristem viability or causing cell death. These effects correlated with altered proportions of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in root tips and with an inhibition of cell division and elongation. Mutant analyses showed that pyocyanin modulation of root growth was likely independent of auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid but required ethylene signaling because the Arabidopsis etr1-1, ein2-1, and ein3-1 ethylene-related mutants were less sensitive to pyocyanin-induced root stoppage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution. Our findings suggest that pyocyanin is an important factor modulating the interplay between ROS production and root system architecture by an ethylene-dependent signaling. PMID:24224532

  6. Deepwater rice: A model plant to study stem elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Kende, H.; Knaap, E. van der; Cho, H.T.

    1998-12-01

    Semiaquatic plants grow mostly in flood plains and along river beds and are adapted to survive partial submergence during periods of flooding. Among their adaptive features are the development of internal air channels (aerenchyma) that facilitate aeration of submerged organs and the capacity for rapid elongation when the plants become partially covered by floodwaters. In addition to its importance as a crop plant, deepwater rice is also excellent for studying basic aspects of plant growth. The growth response is induced by an environmental signal and is mediated by at least three interacting hormones, namely ethylene, ABA, and GA. Internodal elongation is based on increased cell-division activity and enhanced cell elongation in well-delineated zones of the internode. This allows one to study both processes of growth in an integrated manner. Also, the unusually high growth rates magnify growth-related cellular, physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes, thereby facilitating their analysis. In addition to yielding fundamental insights into the growth process, studies of internodal elongation in deepwater rice may ultimately help to identify genes that could confer at least limited elongation capacity onto modern, high-yielding cultivars.

  7. Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

  8. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  9. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  10. Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Julkowska, Magdalena M.; Hoefsloot, Huub C.J.; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A.; Testerink, Christa

    2014-01-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na+/K+ ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked. PMID:25271266

  11. The role of strigolactones in root development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huwei; Tao, Jinyuan; Gu, Pengyuan; Xu, Guohua; Zhang, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) and their derivatives were recently defined as novel phytohormones that orchestrate shoot and root growth. Levels of SLs, which are produced mainly by plant roots, increase under low nitrogen and phosphate levels to regulate plant responses. Here, we summarize recent work on SL biology by describing their role in the regulation of root development and hormonal crosstalk during root deve-lopment. SLs promote the elongation of seminal/primary roots and adventitious roots (ARs) and they repress lateral root formation. In addition, auxin signaling acts downstream of SLs. AR formation is positively or negatively regulated by SLs depending largely on the plant species and experimental conditions. The relationship between SLs and auxin during AR formation appears to be complex. Most notably, this hormonal response is a key adaption that radically alters rice root architecture in response to nitrogen- and phosphate-deficient conditions. PMID:26515106

  12. Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2011-09-01

    Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

  13. Genotype-Specific Variation in the Structure of Root Fungal Communities Is Related to Chickpea Plant Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of variations in the association of plant roots with symbiotic fungi that can improve plant growth and inhibit pathogens. However, it is unclear whether intraspecific variations in the symbiosis exist among plant cultivars and if they can be used to improve crop productivity. In this study, we determined genotype-specific variations in the association of chickpea roots with soil fungal communities and evaluated the effect of root mycota on crop productivity. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in southwestern Saskatchewan, the central zone of the chickpea growing region of the Canadian prairie. The effects of 13 cultivars of chickpea, comprising a wide range of phenotypes and genotypes, were tested on the structure of root-associated fungal communities based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene markers using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Chickpea cultivar significantly influenced the structure of the root fungal community. The magnitude of the effect varied with the genotypes evaluated, and effects were consistent across years. For example, the roots of CDC Corrine, CDC Cory, and CDC Anna hosted the highest fungal diversity and CDC Alma and CDC Xena the lowest. Fusarium sp. was dominant in chickpea roots but was less abundant in CDC Corrine than the other cultivars. A bioassay showed that certain of these fungal taxa, including Fusarium species, can reduce the productivity of chickpea, whereas Trichoderma harzianum can increase chickpea productivity. The large variation in the profile of chickpea root mycota, which included growth-promoting and -inhibiting species, supports the possibility of improving the productivity of chickpea by improving its root mycota in chickpea genetic improvement programs using traditional breeding techniques. PMID:25616789

  14. Quantifying and Comparing the Relative Effects of Riparian Root Networks on the Geotechnical, Hydrologic and Hydraulic Processes Acting on a Streambank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankhead, N. L.; Simon, A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian vegetation can both positively and negatively affect streambank stability. Previous research has shown that the effect of mechanical root-reinforcement on soil stability can be considerable, and can be successfully quantified and included in streambank stability models. However, root networks contained within a soil-matrix also have effects on the hydrologic and hydraulic processes acting on a streambank. Although these effects are often discussed they have generally been difficult to quantify. The work presented here summarizes the results of fieldwork, laboratory testing and computer simulations carried out to better quantify the effects of riparian vegetation on hydrologic and hydraulic processes occurring along streambanks. First, the evapotranspiration potentials of different riparian species were isolated by setting up an experiment to grow young riparian trees and switch grass in separate soil columns instrumented with tensiometers. The hydrological reinforcement provided to the soil from increased apparent cohesion as a result of enhanced matric suction was estimated to range from 1.0 to 3.1 kPa in spring when bank stability was most critical and up to a maximum of 5.0 kPa in the summer. Second, a vertical jet-test device was used to measure rates and volumes of scour in soils permeated by switch grass roots. Calculation of relative soil detachment rates (RSD) showed that with the highest rooting densities measured in the field jet-tests, eroded soil volume was 10 % of that in the tests with no roots. Third, the effects of enhanced matric suction due to evapotranspiration, and decreased soil erodibility because of the presence of plant roots were modeled using BSTEM 5.1 to quantify their effects on streambank factor of safety (Fs), and to compare with the effects of mechanical root-reinforcement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the change in soil matric suction due to evapotranspiration provided the greatest potential benefit to Fs but only during the summer months. During the winter and spring months, root-reinforcement remained the most important contributor to Fs. The sensitivity analysis conducted here also showed that whilst roots are capable of reducing the volume of hydraulic scour, the resulting effect on streambank geometry did not increase Fs as much as changes in soil matric suction and/or mechanical root-reinforcement.

  15. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  16. WUSCHEL-related Homeobox genes in Populus tomentosa: diversified expression patterns and a functional similarity in adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) protein family members play important roles in the maintenance and proliferation of the stem cell niche in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), and cambium (CAM). Although the roles of some WOXs in meristematic cell regulation have been well studied in annual plants such as Arabidopsis and rice, the expression and function of WOX members in woody plant poplars has not been systematically investigated. Here, we present the identification and comprehensive analysis of the expression and function of WOXs in Populus tomentosa. Results A genome-wide survey identified 18 WOX encoding sequences in the sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa (PtrWOXs). Phylogenetic and gene structure analysis revealed that these 18 PtrWOXs fall into modern/WUS, intermediate, and ancient clades, but that the WOX genes in P. trichocarpa may have expanded differently from the WOX genes in Arabidopsis. In the P. trichocarpa genome, no WOX members could be closely classified as AtWOX3, AtWOX6, AtWOX7, AtWOX10, and AtWOX14, but there were two copies of WOX genes that could be classified as PtrWUS, PtrWOX2, PtrWOX4, PtrWOX5, PtrWOX8/9, and PtrWOX11/12, and three copies of WOX genes that could be classified as PtrWOX1 and PtrWOX13. The use of primers specific for each PtrWOX gene allowed the identification and cloning of 18 WOX genes from P. tomentosa (PtoWOXs), a poplar species physiologically close to P. trichocarpa. It was found that PtoWOXs and PtrWOXs shared very high amino acid sequence identity, and that PtoWOXs could be classified identically to PtrWOXs. We revealed that the expression patterns of some PtoWOXs were different to their Arabidopsis counterparts. When PtoWOX5a and PtoWOX11/12a, as well as PtoWUSa and PtoWOX4a were ectopically expressed in transgenic hybrid poplars, the regeneration of adventitious root (AR) was promoted, indicating a functional similarity of these four WOXs in AR regeneration. Conclusions This is the first attempt towards a systematical analysis of the function of WOXs in P. tomentosa. A diversified expression, yet functional similarity of PtoWOXs in AR regeneration is revealed. Our findings provide useful information for further elucidation of the functions and mechanisms of WOXs in the development of poplars. PMID:24750781

  17. Elongator and its epigenetic role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yezhang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-01-01

    Elongator, a six-subunit protein complex, was initially isolated as an interactor of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II in yeast, and was subsequently identified in animals and plants. Elongator has been implicated in multiple cellular activities or biological processes including tRNA modification, histone modification, DNA demethylation or methylation, tubulin acetylation, and exocytosis. Studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that the structure of Elongator and its functions are highly conserved between plants and yeast. Disruption of the Elongator complex in plants leads to aberrant growth and development, resistance to abiotic stresses, and susceptibility to plant pathogens. The morphological and physiological phenotypes of Arabidopsis Elongator mutants are associated with decreased histone acetylation and/or altered DNA methylation. This review summarizes recent findings related to the epigenetic function of Elongator in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:25972888

  18. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting. PMID:21807692

  19. Specialized zones of development in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose using the term "distal elongation zone" (DEZ) rather than "postmitotic isodiametric growth zone" to refer to the group of cells between the apical meristem and the elongation zone in plant roots. Reasons presented for the change are that the proposed DEZ includes many cells that are still dividing, most cells in the region are not isodiametric, and the pattern of cell expansion in this region varies with position in the region. Cells in the DEZ respond to gravistimulation, mechanical impedance, electrotropic stimulation, water stress, and auxin. Differences in gene expression patterns between DEZ cells and cells in the main elongation zone are noted.

  20. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  1. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  2. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  3. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin- B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (~9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  4. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K+ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin-B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (∼9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  5. Genetic and treatment-related risk factors associated with external apical root resorption (EARR) concurrent with orthodontia

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, J.; Falcão-Alencar, G.; Mason, A.; Jacobson, E.; Kluemper, G. T.; Macri, J. V.; Hartsfield, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective As genetic variation accounts for two-thirds of the variation in external apical root resorption (EARR) concurrent with orthodontic treatment, we analyzed the association of selected genetic and treatment-related factors with EARR concurrent with orthodontic treatment. Setting and sample population This case–control study of 134 unrelated, orthodontically treated Caucasian individuals was conducted in part at an Indiana Private Practice, Indiana University and the University of Kentucky. Methods Utilizing a research data bank containing information from ~1450 orthodontically treated patients, pre- and post-treatment radiographs from 460 individuals were evaluated for EARR of the four permanent maxillary incisors. Sixty-seven unrelated Caucasians with moderate to severe EARR were identified and were age-/sex-matched with orthodontically treated Caucasian controls yielding 38 females and 29 males per group. Factors tested for an association with EARR included the following: 1) treatment duration, 2) extraction of maxillary premolars, 3) numerous cephalometric measurements, and 4) DNA polymorphisms within/near candidate genes in a pathway previously implicated in EARR such as the purinergic-receptor-P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2RX7; rs208294, rs1718119, and rs2230912), caspase-1 (CASP1; rs530537, rs580253, and rs554344), interleukin-1 beta (IL1B; rs1143634), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A; rs1800587), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA; rs419598) genes. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to identify the factors significantly associated (significance taken at or less than the layered Bonferroni correction alpha) with the occurrence of EARR. Results A long length of treatment and the presence of specific genotypes for P2RX7 SNP rs208294 were significantly associated with EARR. Conclusion EARR occurrence was associated with both genetic and treatment-related variables, which together explained 25% of the total variation associated with EARR in the sample tested. PMID:25865535

  6. Multilayered Organization of Jasmonate Signalling in the Regulation of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Acosta, Ivan F.; Goossens, Jonas; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Dreos, René; Alfonso, Esteban; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical damage can strongly affect plant growth, reducing the biomass of developing organs situated at a distance from wounds. These effects, previously studied in leaves, require the activation of jasmonate (JA) signalling. Using a novel assay involving repetitive cotyledon wounding in Arabidopsis seedlings, we uncovered a function of JA in suppressing cell division and elongation in roots. Regulatory JA signalling components were then manipulated to delineate their relative impacts on root growth. The new transcription factor mutant myc2-322B was isolated. In vitro transcription assays and whole-plant approaches revealed that myc2-322B is a dosage-dependent gain-of-function mutant that can amplify JA growth responses. Moreover, myc2-322B displayed extreme hypersensitivity to JA that totally suppressed root elongation. The mutation weakly reduced root growth in undamaged plants but, when the upstream negative regulator NINJA was genetically removed, myc2-322B powerfully repressed root growth through its effects on cell division and cell elongation. Furthermore, in a JA-deficient mutant background, ninja1 myc2-322B still repressed root elongation, indicating that it is possible to generate JA-responses in the absence of JA. We show that NINJA forms a broadly expressed regulatory layer that is required to inhibit JA signalling in the apex of roots grown under basal conditions. By contrast, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 displayed cell layer-specific localisations and MYC3 and MYC4 were expressed in mutually exclusive regions. In nature, growing roots are likely subjected to constant mechanical stress during soil penetration that could lead to JA production and subsequent detrimental effects on growth. Our data reveal how distinct negative regulatory layers, including both NINJA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, restrain JA responses to allow normal root growth. Mechanistic insights from this work underline the importance of mapping JA signalling components to specific cell types in order to understand and potentially engineer the growth reduction that follows physical damage. PMID:26070206

  7. Two WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX genes, PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b, are involved in adventitious root formation of poplar.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Wenfan; Huang, Minren

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX (WOX) transcription factors play important roles in key developmental processes, but knowledge regarding functional characterization of WOX genes in poplar remains limited. To reveal genes and signaling pathways associated with adventitious rooting in poplar, here we isolated and characterized two WOX genes through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), sequence aligning, expression profiling, protoplast transfection and poplar transformation. Detailed information about the sequence similarity, structural features, evolutionary relationships, expression patterns and subcellular localization of the two genes were revealed. Overexpression of either PeWOX11a or PeWOX11b not only increased the number of adventitious roots on the cuttings but also induced ectopic roots in the aerial parts of transgenic poplars. Meanwhile, their overexpression in transgenic poplars affected axillary bud and leaf development. These results suggest that PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b were involved in multiple developmental processes of poplar, especially in adventitious root formation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation of poplar. PMID:25998748

  8. The Compact Root Architecture1 Gene Regulates Lignification, Flavonoid Production, and Polar Auxin Transport in Medicago truncatula1[W

    PubMed Central

    Laffont, Carole; Blanchet, Sandrine; Lapierre, Catherine; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Crespi, Martin; Mathesius, Ulrike; Frugier, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The root system architecture is crucial to adapt plant growth to changing soil environmental conditions and consequently to maintain crop yield. In addition to root branching through lateral roots, legumes can develop another organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule, upon a symbiotic bacterial interaction. A mutant, cra1, showing compact root architecture was identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula. cra1 roots were short and thick due to defects in cell elongation, whereas densities of lateral roots and symbiotic nodules were similar to the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that a lengthened life cycle in cra1 was due to the smaller root system and not to the pleiotropic shoot phenotypes observed in the mutant. Analysis of the cra1 transcriptome at a similar early developmental stage revealed few significant changes, mainly related to cell wall metabolism. The most down-regulated gene in the cra1 mutant encodes a Caffeic Acid O-Methyl Transferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis; accordingly, whole lignin content was decreased in cra1 roots. This correlated with differential accumulation of specific flavonoids and decreased polar auxin transport in cra1 mutants. Exogenous application of the isoflavone formononetin to wild-type plants mimicked the cra1 root phenotype, whereas decreasing flavonoid content through silencing chalcone synthases restored the polar auxin transport capacity of the cra1 mutant. The CRA1 gene, therefore, may control legume root growth through the regulation of lignin and flavonoid profiles, leading to changes in polar auxin transport. PMID:20522723

  9. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. “K-31”) plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2− content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water stress, which could be attributed by increasing non-enzymatic antioxidant production, suppressing ROS toxicity and up-regulating gene expression of cell-wall loosening proteins controlling cell expansion. PMID:26483821

  10. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. "K-31") plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O[Formula: see text] content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water stress, which could be attributed by increasing non-enzymatic antioxidant production, suppressing ROS toxicity and up-regulating gene expression of cell-wall loosening proteins controlling cell expansion. PMID:26483821

  11. Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature of plants was -12‰, enabling us to differentiate between root-derived C and native SOM-C respiration. We found that the relative abundance of fine, medium and coarse roots were significantly different among cultivars. Root systems of Alamo, Kanlow and Cave-in-Rock were characterized by a large abundance of coarse-, relative to fine roots, whereas Carthage, Forestburg and Blackwell had a large abundance of fine, relative to coarse roots. Fine roots had a 28% lower C:N ratio than medium and coarse roots. These differences led to different root decomposition rates. We conclude that root architecture should be taken into account when predicting root decomposition rates; enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of root decomposition will improve model predictions of C input to soil organic matter.

  12. The root economics spectrum: divergence of absorptive root strategies with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D.; Wang, J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X.; Deng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Plant roots usually vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum (RES), depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root strategies as predicted from the RES shift with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven contrasting plant species for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (< 247 μm diameter) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a~range of root traits closely related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed that trait relationships for thin absorptive roots followed the expectations from the RES while no clear trait relationships were found in support of the RES for thick absorptive roots. Our results suggest divergence of absorptive root strategies in relation to root diameter, which runs against a single economics spectrum for absorptive roots.

  13. Rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals coordinate MYB72 expression in Arabidopsis roots during onset of induced systemic resistance and iron-deficiency responses.

    PubMed

    Zamioudis, Christos; Korteland, Jolanda; Van Pelt, Johan A; van Hamersveld, Muriël; Dombrowski, Nina; Bai, Yang; Hanson, Johannes; Van Verk, Marcel C; Ling, Hong-Qing; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synthesis and excretion of iron-mobilizing phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere, a process that is involved in both iron acquisition and ISR signaling. Here, we show that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ISR-inducing Pseudomonas bacteria are important elicitors of MYB72. In response to VOC treatment, MYB72 is co-expressed with the iron uptake-related genes FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 2 (FRO2) and IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) in a manner that is dependent on FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT), indicating that MYB72 is an intrinsic part of the plant's iron-acquisition response that is typically activated upon iron starvation. However, VOC-induced MYB72 expression is activated independently of iron availability in the root vicinity. Moreover, rhizobacterial VOC-mediated induction of MYB72 requires photosynthesis-related signals, while iron deficiency in the rhizosphere activates MYB72 in the absence of shoot-derived signals. Together, these results show that the ISR- and iron acquisition-related transcription factor MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots is activated by rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals, and enhances the iron-acquisition capacity of roots independently of the iron availability in the rhizosphere. This work highlights the role of MYB72 in plant processes by which root microbiota simultaneously stimulate systemic immunity and activate the iron-uptake machinery in their host plants. PMID:26307542

  14. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial variability and risk areas of southern root-knot nematodes in relation to soil properties

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, B.V.; Perry, C.; Goovaerts, P.; Vellidis, G.; Sullivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the spatial variability and risk areas for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) is key for site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the soil properties that influence RKN occurrence at different scales; and (ii) delineate risk areas of RKN by indicator kriging. The study site was a cotton field located in the southeastern coastal plain region of the USA. Nested semivariograms indicated that RKN samples, collected from a 50×50 m grid, exhibited a local and regional scale of variation describing small and large clusters of RKN population density. Factorial kriging decomposed RKN and soil properties variability into different spatial components. Scale dependent correlations between RKN data showed that the areas with high RKN population remained stable though the growing season. RKN data were strongly correlated with slope (SL) at local scale and with apparent soil electrical conductivity deep (ECa-d) at both local and regional scales, which illustrate the potential of these soil physical properties as surrogate data for RKN population. The correlation between RKN data and soil chemical properties was soil texture mediated. Indicator kriging (IK) maps developed using either RKN, the relation between RKN and soil electrical conductivity or a combination of both, depicted the probability for RKN population to exceed the threshold of 100 second stage juveniles/100 cm3 of soil. Incorporating ECa-d as soft data improved predictions favoring the reduction of the number of RKN observations required to map areas at risk for high RKN population. PMID:20717481

  15. Osterix Regulates Tooth Root Formation in a Site-specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, T.H.; Bae, C.H.; Lee, J.C.; Kim, J.E.; Yang, X.; de Crombrugghe, B.

    2015-01-01

    Bone and dentin share similar biochemical compositions and physiological properties. Dentin, a major tooth component, is formed by odontoblasts; in contrast, bone is produced by osteoblasts. Osterix (Osx), a zinc finger-containing transcription factor, has been identified as an essential regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, it has been difficult to establish whether Osx functions in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. To understand the role of Osx in dentin formation, we analyzed mice in which Osx was subjected to tissue-specific ablation under the control of either the Col1a1 or the OC promoter. Two independent Osx conditional knockout mice exhibited similar molar abnormalities. Although no phenotype was found in the crowns of these teeth, both mutant lines exhibited short molar roots due to impaired root elongation. Furthermore, the interradicular dentin in these mice showed severe hypoplastic features, which were likely caused by disruptions in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. These phenotypes were closely related to the temporospatial expression pattern of Osx during tooth development. These findings indicate that Osx is required for root formation by regulating odontoblast differentiation, maturation, and root elongation. Cumulatively, our data strongly indicate that Osx is a site-specific regulator in tooth root formation. PMID:25568170

  16. Anisotropic rigidity sensing on grating topography directs human mesenchymal stem cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sum Thai; Teo, Soo-Kng; Park, Sungsu; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Yim, Evelyn K F

    2014-01-01

    Through mechanotransduction, cells can sense physical cues from the extracellular environment and convert them into internal signals that affect various cellular functions. For example, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on topographical gratings have been shown to elongate and differentiate to different extents depending on grating width. Using a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling, the physical parameters of substrate topography that direct cell elongation were determined. On a variety of topographical gratings with different grating widths, heights and rigidity, elongation of hMSCs was measured and a monotonic increase was observed for grating aspect ratio (crosssectional height to line-width ratio) between 0.035 and 2. The elongation was also dependent on the grating substrate rigidity over a range of 0.18-1.43 MPa. A mathematical model was developed to explain our observations by relating cell elongation to the anisotropic deformation of the gratings and how this anisotropy depends on the aspect ratio and rigidity of the gratings. Our model was in good agreement with the experimental data for the range of grating aspect ratio and substrate rigidity studied. In addition, we also showed that the percentage of aligned cells, which had a strong linear correlation with elongation for slightly elongated cells, saturated toward 100 % at higher level of cell elongation. Our results may be useful in designing gratings to elicit specific cellular responses that may depend on the extent of cell elongation. PMID:23529613

  17. ROOT WEEVILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of root weevil, Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infest hop. The black vine weevil, O. sulcatus (F.), is the dominant species infesting hop followed by the strawberry root weevil, O. ovatus (L.), rough strawberry root weevil, O. rugosostriatus Goeze, and O. meridional...

  18. Effects of elongation delay in transcription dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Jin, Huiqin; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

    2014-12-01

    In the transcription process, elongation delay is induced by the movement of RNA polymerases (RNAP) along the DNA sequence, and can result in changes in the transcription dynamics. This paper studies the transcription dynamics that involved the elongation delay and effects of cell division and DNA replication. The stochastic process of gene expression is modeled with delay chemical master equation with periodic coefficients, and is studied numerically through the stochastic simulation algorithm with delay. We show that the average transcription level approaches to a periodic dynamics over cell cycles at homeostasis, and the elongation delay can reduce the transcription level and increase the transcription noise. Moreover, the transcription elongation can induce bimodal distribution of mRNA levels that can be measured by the techniques of flow cytometry. PMID:25365608

  19. Elongated Deposits in Southern Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J. W.

    2012-03-01

    In the Elysium Planitia region, deposits have elongated elevations that resemble terrestrial drumlins or yardangs. Drumlins and drumlin clusters are glacial landforms that have been extensively studied. In contrast, Yardangs are formed by wind.

  20. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Tomioka, Rie; Kurata, Rie; Fukao, Yoichiro; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1-PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels. PMID:24501179

  1. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  2. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Musgrave, M E

    1998-09-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen. PMID:11536884

  3. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca2+-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1–PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels. PMID:24501179

  4. Water and solute permeabilities of Arabidopsis roots in relation to the amount and composition of aliphatic suberin

    PubMed Central

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Schreiber, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Although it is implied that suberized apoplastic barriers of roots negatively correlate with water and solute permeabilities, direct transport measurements across roots with altered amounts and compositions of aliphatic suberin are scarce. In the present study, hydroponically grown Arabidopsis wild types (Col8 and Col0) and different suberin mutants with altered amounts and/or compositions (horst, esb1-1, and esb1-2) were used to test this hypothesis. Detailed histochemical studies revealed late development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in the horst mutant compared with wild types and esb mutants. Suberin analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the horst mutant had ∼33% lower amounts of aliphatic monomers than Col8 and Col0. In contrast, enhanced suberin mutants (esb1-1 and esb1-2) had twice the amount of suberin as the wild types. Correlative permeability measurements, which were carried out for the first time with a root pressure probe for Arabidopsis, revealed that the hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and NaCl permeability (Psr) of the whole root system of the horst mutant were markedly greater than in the respective wild types. This was reflected by the total amounts of aliphatic suberin determined in the roots. However, increased levels of aliphatic suberin in esb mutants failed to reduce either water or NaCl permeabilities below those of the wild types. It was concluded that the simple view and the conventional assumption that the amount of root suberin negatively correlates with permeability may not always be true. The aliphatic monomer arrangement in the suberin biopolymer and its microstructure also play a role in apoplastic barrier formation. PMID:21421706

  5. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  6. Impact of copper oxide nanoparticles exposure on Arabidopsis thaliana growth, root system development, root lignificaion, and molecular level changes.

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Chung, Ill Min

    2014-11-01

    The effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on physiological and molecular level responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. The seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of CuONPs (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) for 21 days in half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The plant biomass significantly reduced under different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) of CuONPs stress. Exposure to 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of CuONPs has resulted in significant reduction of total chlorophyll content. The anthocyanin content significantly increased upon exposure to 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of CuONPs. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed upon exposure to 5, 10, and 20 mg/L of CuONPs and amino acid proline content was significantly high in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mg/L of CuONPs. Significant reduction in root elongation was observed upon exposure to 0.5-100 mg/L of CuONPs for 21 days. Exposure to CuONPs has resulted in retardation of primary root growth, enhanced lateral root formation, and also resulted in loss of root gravitropism. Staining with phloroglucionol detected the deposition of lignin in CuONPs-treated roots. Histochemical staining of leaves and roots of CuONPs-exposed plants with nitroblue tetrazolium and 3'3'-diaminobenzidine showed a concentration-dependant increase in superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in leaves and roots of CuONPs-exposed plants. Cytotoxicity was observed in root tips of CuONPs-exposed plants as evidenced by increased propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative stress responses, sulfur assimilation, glutathione, and proline biosynthesis under CuONPs stress. PMID:24965006

  7. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. PMID:21410712

  8. Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic responses in root traits and biomass allocation. PMID:25742175

  9. Root plasticity of Populus euphratica seedlings in response to different water table depths and contrasting sediment types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic responses in root traits and biomass allocation. PMID:25742175

  10. Organization of cortical microtubules in graviresponding maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1993-01-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling of cortical microtubules (MTs) was used to investigate the relationship between MT arrangement and changes in growth rate of the upper and lower sides of horizontally placed roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit). Cap cells and cells of the elongation zone of roots grown vertically in light or darkness showed MT arrangements that were transverse (perpendicular) to the growth direction. Microtubules of cells basal to the elongation zone typically showed oblique orientation. Two hours after horizontal reorientation, cap cells of gravicompetent, light-grown and curving roots contained MTs parallel to the gravity vector. The MT arrangement on the upper side of the elongation zone remained transverse but the MTs of the outer four to five layers of cortical cells along the lower side of the elongation zone showed reorientation parallel to the axis of the root. The MTs of the lower epidermis retained their transverse orientation. Dark-grown roots did not curve and did not show reorientation of MTs in cells of the root cap or elongation zone. The data indicate that MT depolymerization and reorientation is correlated with reduction in growth rate, and that MT reorientation is one of the steps of growth control of graviresponding roots.

  11. Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-01-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  12. Root growth and enzymes related to the lignification of maize seedlings exposed to the allelochemical L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Siqueira-Soares, Rita; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; de Lourdes Lucio Ferrarese, Maria; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a known allelochemical exuded from the roots of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. Fabaceae). In the current work, we analyzed the effects of L-DOPA on the growth, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL), and peroxidase (POD), and the contents of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin in maize (Zea mays) roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without 0.1 to 2.0 mM L-DOPA in a growth chamber (25°C, light/dark photoperiod of 12/12, and photon flux density of 280  μ mol m(-2) s(-1)) for 24 h. The results revealed that the growth (length and weight) of the roots, the PAL, TAL, and soluble and cell wall-bound POD activities decreased, while phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin contents increased after L-DOPA exposure. Together, these findings showed the susceptibility of maize to L-DOPA. In brief, these results suggest that the inhibition of PAL and TAL can accumulate phenylalanine and tyrosine, which contribute to enhanced lignin deposition in the cell wall followed by a reduction of maize root growth. PMID:24348138

  13. Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, H. G.; Roberts, JKM.; Jordan, W. R.; Drew, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 100 mM NaCl. By contrast, salt shock rapidly inhibited extension, followed by a gradual recovery, so that by 24 h extension rates were the same as for controls, even at 150 mM NaCl. Salt shock caused a rapid decrease in root water and solute potentials for the apical zones, and the estimated turgor potential showed only a small decline; similar but more gradual changes occurred with salt acclimation. The 5-bar decrease in root solute potential with salt shock (150 mM NaCl) during the initial 10 min of exposure could not be accounted for by dehydration, indicating that substantial osmotic adjustment occurred rapidly. Changes in concentration of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and organic solutes (proline, sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were measured during salt shock. The contribution of these solutes to changes in root solute potential with salinization was estimated. PMID:12223650

  14. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  15. Root Growth and Enzymes Related to the Lignification of Maize Seedlings Exposed to the Allelochemical L-DOPA

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio

    2013-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a known allelochemical exuded from the roots of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. Fabaceae). In the current work, we analyzed the effects of L-DOPA on the growth, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL), and peroxidase (POD), and the contents of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin in maize (Zea mays) roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without 0.1 to 2.0 mM L-DOPA in a growth chamber (25°C, light/dark photoperiod of 12/12, and photon flux density of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. The results revealed that the growth (length and weight) of the roots, the PAL, TAL, and soluble and cell wall-bound POD activities decreased, while phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin contents increased after L-DOPA exposure. Together, these findings showed the susceptibility of maize to L-DOPA. In brief, these results suggest that the inhibition of PAL and TAL can accumulate phenylalanine and tyrosine, which contribute to enhanced lignin deposition in the cell wall followed by a reduction of maize root growth. PMID:24348138

  16. Jasmonic acid does not increase oxidative defense mechanisms or common defense-related enzymes in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) treatment significantly reduces rot due to several sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage pathogens. However, the mechanisms by which JA protects postharvest sugarbeet roots from disease are unknown. In other plant species and organs, alterations in antioxidant defense mechanisms ...

  17. Characterization of the root transcriptome for iron and zinc homeostasis-related genes in indica rice (Oryza sativa L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient malnutrition is the most common form of nutrient deficiency among populations having a cereal based-diet. Rice is the staple food for one third of the world’s population, but is a poor source of iron and zinc concentration. We have characterized the root transcriptome of diverse indica...

  18. Soybean root defense responses to Fusarium virguliforme infection reveals a role of defense related genes during resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome of soybean is an important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium virguliforme. This fungus colonizes soybean roots causing rot, and releases a phytotoxin that is translocated to leaves causing interveinal chlorosis and possible defoliation. In this study, we re...

  19. Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kollárová, K.; Zelko, I.; Henselová, M.; Capek, P.; Lišková, D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. PMID:22666154

  20. The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the roots of a ruderal forb is not related to the forest fragmentation process.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Gabriel; Urcelay, Carlos; Galetto, Leonardo; Davison, John; Vasar, Martti; Saks, Ülle; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja

    2015-08-01

    Land-use changes and forest fragmentation have strong impact on biodiversity. However, little is known about the influence of new landscape configurations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. We used 454 pyrosequencing to assess AMF diversity in plant roots from a fragmented forest. We detected 59 virtual taxa (VT; phylogenetically defined operational taxonomic units) of AMF - including 10 new VT - in the roots of Euphorbia acerensis. AMF communities were mainly composed of members of family Glomeraceae and were similar throughout the fragmented landscape, despite variation in forest fragment size (i.e. small, medium and large) and isolation (i.e. varying pairwise distances). AMF communities in forest fragments were phylogenetically clustered compared with the global, but not regional and local AMF taxon pools. This indicates that non-random community assembly processes possibly related to dispersal limitation at a large scale, rather than habitat filtering or biotic interactions, may be important in structuring the AMF communities. In this system, forest fragmentation did not appear to influence AMF community composition in the roots of the ruderal plant. Whether this is true for AMF communities in soil and the roots of other ecological groups of host plants or in other habitats deserves further study. PMID:25243926

  1. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically < 10 h. An intriguing observation is a paucity of chaotic secondary rotations; with an exception of (35107) 1991 VH, the secondary rotations are single-periodic with no signs of chaotic rotation and their periods are constant on timescales from weeks to years. The secondary equatorial elongations show an upper limit of a2 /b2 ∼ 1.5 . The lack of synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the secondary elongation. Sharma (Sharma, I. [2014]. Icarus 229, 278-294) found that rubble-pile satellites with a2 /b2 ≲ 1.5 are more stable to finite structural perturbations than more elongated ones. It appears that more elongated secondaries, if they originally formed in spin fission of parent asteroid, are less likely to survive intact and they more frequently fail or fission.

  2. Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting

    PubMed Central

    Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260). PMID:22593551

  3. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    PubMed

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260). PMID:22593551

  4. Mammary epithelial tubes elongate through MAPK-dependent coordination of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Robert J; Neumann, Neil M; Ewald, Andrew J

    2016-03-15

    Mammary branching morphogenesis is regulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We sought to determine how these RTK signals alter proliferation and migration to accomplish tube elongation in mouse. Both behaviors occur but it has been difficult to determine their relative contribution to elongation in vivo, as mammary adipocytes scatter light and limit the depth of optical imaging. Accordingly, we utilized 3D culture to study elongation in an experimentally accessible setting. We first used antibodies to localize RTK signals and discovered that phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK) was spatially enriched in cells near the front of elongating ducts, whereas phosphorylated AKT was ubiquitous. We next observed a gradient of cell migration speeds from rear to front of elongating ducts, with the front characterized by both high pERK and the fastest cells. Furthermore, cells within elongating ducts oriented both their protrusions and their migration in the direction of tube elongation. By contrast, cells within the organoid body were isotropically protrusive. We next tested the requirement for proliferation and migration. Early inhibition of proliferation blocked the creation of migratory cells, whereas late inhibition of proliferation did not block continued duct elongation. By contrast, pharmacological inhibition of either MEK or Rac1 signaling acutely blocked both cell migration and duct elongation. Finally, conditional induction of MEK activity was sufficient to induce collective cell migration and ductal elongation. Our data suggest a model for ductal elongation in which RTK-dependent proliferation creates motile cells with high pERK, the collective migration of which acutely requires both MEK and Rac1 signaling. PMID:26839364

  5. Response to non-uniform salinity in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia: growth, photosynthesis, water relations and tissue ion concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Colmer, Timothy D.; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Soil salinity is often heterogeneous, yet the physiology of halophytes has typically been studied with uniform salinity treatments. An evaluation was made of the growth, net photosynthesis, water use, water relations and tissue ions in the halophytic shrub Atriplex nummularia in response to non-uniform NaCl concentrations in a split-root system. Methods Atriplex nummularia was grown in a split-root system for 21 d, with either the same or two different NaCl concentrations (ranging from 10 to 670 mm), in aerated nutrient solution bathing each root half. Key Results Non-uniform salinity, with high NaCl in one root half (up to 670 mm) and 10 mm in the other half, had no effect on shoot ethanol-insoluble dry mass, net photosynthesis or shoot pre-dawn water potential. In contrast, a modest effect occurred for leaf osmotic potential (up to 30 % more solutes compared with uniform 10 mm NaCl treatment). With non-uniform NaCl concentrations (10/670 mm), 90 % of water was absorbed from the low salinity side, and the reduction in water use from the high salinity side caused whole-plant water use to decrease by about 30 %; there was no compensatory water uptake from the low salinity side. Leaf Na+ and Cl− concentrations were 1·9- to 2·3-fold higher in the uniform 670 mm treatment than in the 10/670 mm treatment, whereas leaf K+ concentrations were 1·2- to 2·0-fold higher in the non-uniform treatment. Conclusions Atriplex nummularia with one root half in 10 mm NaCl maintained net photosynthesis, shoot growth and shoot water potential even when the other root half was exposed to 670 mm NaCl, a concentration that inhibits growth by 65 % when uniform in the root zone. Given the likelihood of non-uniform salinity in many field situations, this situation would presumably benefit halophyte growth and physiology in saline environments. PMID:19556265

  6. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide. PMID:26982619

  7. Extracellular Proteins in Pea Root Tip and Border Cell Exudates1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D.; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C.

    2007-01-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% ± 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection. PMID:17142479

  8. Transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1) regulates competent RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation of HIV-1 transcription and facilitates efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) release from pausing has been proposed as a checkpoint mechanism to ensure optimal RNAPII activity, especially in large, highly regulated genes. HIV-1 gene expression is highly regulated at the level of elongation, which includes transcriptional pausing that is mediated by both viral and cellular factors. Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the elongation-related factor TCERG1 in regulating the extent of HIV-1 elongation and viral replication in vivo. Results We show that TCERG1 depletion diminishes the basal and viral Tat-activated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of HIV-1, we found that TCERG1 modifies the levels of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of HIV-1. Most importantly, TCERG1 directly affects the elongation rate of RNAPII transcription in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcription by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation through the phosphorylation of serine 2 within the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII and suggest a mechanism for the involvement of TCERG1 in relieving pausing. Finally, we show that TCERG1 is required for HIV-1 replication. Conclusions Our study reveals that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcriptional elongation by increasing the elongation rate of RNAPII and phosphorylation of Ser 2 within the CTD. Based on our data, we propose a general mechanism for TCERG1 acting on genes that are regulated at the level of elongation by increasing the rate of RNAPII transcription through the phosphorylation of Ser2. In the case of HIV-1, our evidence provides the basis for further investigation of TCERG1 as a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication PMID:24165037

  9. SIZ1 regulation of phosphate starvation-induced root architecture remodeling involves the control of auxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning. PMID:21156857

  10. Root contact responses and the positive relationship between intraspecific diversity and ecosystem productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixue; Callaway, Ragan M.; Atwater, Daniel Z.

    2015-01-01

    High species and functional group richness often has positive effects on ecosystem function including increasing productivity. Recently, intraspecific diversity has been found to have similar effects, but because traits vary far less within a species than among species we have a much poorer understanding of the mechanisms by which intraspecific diversity affects ecosystem function. We explored the potential for identity recognition among the roots of different Pseudoroegneria spicata accessions to contribute to previously demonstrated overyielding in plots with high intraspecific richness of this species relative to monocultures. First, we found that when plants from different populations were planted together in pots the total biomass yield was 30 % more than in pots with two plants from the same population. Second, we found that the elongation rates of roots of Pseudoroegneria plants decreased more after contact with roots from another plant from the same population than after contact with roots from a plant from a different population. These results suggest the possibility of some form of detection and avoidance mechanism among more closely related Pseudoroegneria plants. If decreased growth after contact results in reduced root overlap, and reduced root overlap corresponds with reduced growth and productivity, then variation in detection and avoidance among related and unrelated accessions may contribute to how ecotypic diversity in Pseudoroegneria increases productivity. PMID:25990363

  11. The Interaction of Calcium and Auxin in the Gravitropic Response of Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The role of calcium redistribution in the responding region of the root is examined, however, the potential connection between calcium and auxin redistribution in the elongation zone is not found. The following items are examined: (1) the effect of gravity on calcium movement across the elongation zone; (2) the effect of gravity on auxin movement across the elongation zone; and (3) the effect of calcium on auxin movement across the elongation zone. It is indicated that gravistimulation induces a physiological asymmetry in the auxin transport system of maize roots and that calcium increases the total transport of auxin across the root. Gravistimulation is apparently necessary for the enhancing effect of calcium on lateral auxin movement, and it is possible that the preferential downward movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots plays a role in establishing the auxin asymmetry proposed to cause positive gravitropic curvature.

  12. Roles of proteome dynamics and cytokinin signaling in root to hypocotyl ratio changes induced by shading roots of Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Novák, Jan; Černý, Martin; Pavlů, Jaroslav; Zemánková, Jana; Skalák, Jan; Plačková, Lenka; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2015-05-01

    In nature, root systems of most terrestrial plants are protected from light exposure by growing in a dark soil environment. Hence, in vitro cultivation in transparent Petri dishes leads to physiological perturbations, but the mechanisms underlying root-mediated light perception and responses have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we compared Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development in transparent and darkened Petri dishes at low light intensity (20 µmol m(-2) s(-1)), allowing us to follow (inter alia) hypocotyl elongation, which is an excellent process for studying interactions of signals involved in the regulation of growth and developmental responses. To obtain insights into molecular events underlying differences in seedling growth under these two conditions, we employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) shotgun proteomics (available via the PRIDE deposit PXD001612). In total, we quantified the relative abundances of peptides representing 1,209 proteins detected in all sample replicates of LC-MS analyses. Comparison of MS spectra after manual validation revealed 48 differentially expressed proteins. Functional classification, analysis of available gene expression data and literature searches revealed alterations associated with root illumination (inter alia) in autotrophic CO2 fixation, C compound and carbohydrate metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. The results also indicate a previously unreported role for cytokinin plant hormones in the escape-tropism response to root illumination. We complemented these results with reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), chlorophyll fluorescence and detailed cytokinin signaling analyses, detecting in the latter a significant increase in the activity of the cytokinin two-component signaling cascade in roots and implicating the cytokinin receptor AHK3 as the major mediator of root to hypocotyl signaling in responses to root illumination. PMID:25700275

  13. Auxin redistribution modulates plastic development of root system architecture under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Li, Xia

    2009-10-15

    Auxin plays an important role in the modulation of root system architecture. The effect of salinity on primary root growth has been extensively studied. However, how salinity affects lateral root development and its underlying molecular mechanisms is still unclear. Here, we report that high salt exposure suppresses lateral root initiation and organogenesis, resulting in the abortion of lateral root development. In contrast, salt stress markedly promotes lateral root elongation. Histochemical staining showed that the quantity of auxin and its patterning in roots were both greatly altered by exposure to high concentrations of salt, as compared with those found in the untreated control. Physiological experiments using transport inhibitors and genetic analysis revealed that the auxin transport pathway is important for salt-induced root development. These results demonstrate that auxin transport activities are required for remodeling lateral root formation and elongation and for adaptive root system development under salt stress. PMID:19457582

  14. Enhanced delivery of nano- and submicron particles using elongated microparticles.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Anthony P; Sisney, John P; Liu, David C; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    Nanodermatology is a rapidly emerging field of study receiving significant interest because of its potential application in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. However, nanoparticulate penetration into and through the skin is not feasible through topical application alone. Many physical and chemical approaches have been developed to enhance particulate penetration into skin. The most successful have been physical penetration enhancers. We have found that elongated microparticles can significantly improve topical nano- and microsphere delivery in an in vivo porcine model. The delivery efficiency was inversely related to the diameter of the payload. These data support a role for elongated microparticle enhanced delivery of nano- and submicron particulate cosmeceutical or therapeutic applications. PMID:25176162

  15. New insights on plant cell elongation: a role for acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  16. Mapping the Escherichia coli transcription elongation complex with exonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaokun; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters; induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein-DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in transcription initiation and elongation complexes and to infer the translocation register of the enzyme. In this chapter, we describe probing the location and the conformation of transcription elongation complexes formed by walking of the RNA polymerase along an immobilized template. PMID:25665555

  17. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  18. Molecular characterization and temporal expression analyses indicate the MIC (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton) gene family represents a novel group of root-specific defense-related genes in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular events underlying the resistance of Upland cotton to the root-knot nematode (RKN) are largely unknown. In this report, we further characterize the previously identified MIC3 gene including the identification of fourteen related MIC cDNAs in nematode-infected roots of allotetraploid co...

  19. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    PubMed Central

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p < 0.01), with waxy clones having a 0.8% lower content than their wild type counterparts. There was no effect of starch type on fresh root yield (FRY), adjusted FRY and harvest index. It is not clear if lower DMC is a pleiotropic effect of the waxy starch mutation or else the result of linked genes introgressed along with the mutation. It is expected that commercial waxy cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops.

  20. Peroxidase Activity in Relation to Suberization and Respiration in White Spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) Seedling Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Flanagan, Anne M.; Owens, John N.

    1985-01-01

    Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity is associated with suberization during endodermal development and metacutization in roots of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings. Histochemical analysis indicates a relationship between suberization and peroxidase activity, but peroxidase is ubiquitous. Increased peroxidase activity results from the induction of four anodic peroxidase isozymes in addition to quantitative increases in two anodic peroxidase isozymes. Four of these polymerized eugenol. Cold temperatures induce formation of two anodic isozymes and result in suberization. The increased peroxidase activity associated with suberization is correlated to residual respiration. In an attempt to elucidate this relationship, the effect of respiratory inhibitors on respiration and peroxidase activity are compared. PMID:16664352

  1. Electrorheological fluid under elongation, compression, and shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Meng, Y.; Mao, H.; Wen, S.

    2002-03-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluid based on zeolite and silicone oil under elongation, compression, and shearing was investigated at room temperature. Dc electric fields were applied on the ER fluid when elongation and compression were carried out on a self-constructed test system. The shear yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of shearing and perpendicular to the direction of the electric field, was also obtained by a HAAKE RV20 rheometer. The tensile yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of the electric field, was achieved as the peak value in the elongating curve with an elongating yield strain of 0.15-0.20. A shear yield angle of about 15°-18.5° reasonably connected tensile yield stress with shear yield stress, agreeing with the shear yield angle tested well by other researchers. The compressing tests showed that the ER fluid has a high compressive modulus under a small compressive strain lower than 0.1. The compressive stress has an exponential relationship with the compressive strain when it is higher than 0.1, and it is much higher than shear yield stress.

  2. Electrorheological fluid under elongation, compression, and shearing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y; Meng, Y; Mao, H; Wen, S

    2002-03-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluid based on zeolite and silicone oil under elongation, compression, and shearing was investigated at room temperature. Dc electric fields were applied on the ER fluid when elongation and compression were carried out on a self-constructed test system. The shear yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of shearing and perpendicular to the direction of the electric field, was also obtained by a HAAKE RV20 rheometer. The tensile yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of the electric field, was achieved as the peak value in the elongating curve with an elongating yield strain of 0.15-0.20. A shear yield angle of about 15 degrees -18.5 degrees reasonably connected tensile yield stress with shear yield stress, agreeing with the shear yield angle tested well by other researchers. The compressing tests showed that the ER fluid has a high compressive modulus under a small compressive strain lower than 0.1. The compressive stress has an exponential relationship with the compressive strain when it is higher than 0.1, and it is much higher than shear yield stress. PMID:11909066

  3. Natural H+ Currents Traverse Growing Roots and Root Hairs of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Weisenseel, Manfred H.; Dorn, Alfred; Jaffe, Lionel F.

    1979-01-01

    With the aid of an extracellular vibrating electrode, natural electric fields were detected and measured in the medium near growing roots and root hairs of barley seedlings. An exploration of these fields indicates that both the root as a whole, as well as individual root hairs, drive large steady currents through themselves. Current consistently enters both the main elongation zone of the root as well as the growing tips of elongating root hairs; it leaves the surface of the root beneath the root hairs. These currents enter with a density of about 2 microamperes per square centimeter, leave with a density of about 0.5 to 1 microampere per square centimeter, and total about 30 nanoamperes. Responses of the natural fields to changes in the ionic composition of the medium as well as observations of the pH pattern in the medium near the roots (made with bromocresol purple) together indicate that much of the current consists of hydrogen ions. Altogether, H+ ions seem to leak into growing cells or cell parts and to be pumped out of nongrowing ones. Images PMID:16661000

  4. Cadmium-Induced Changes in Antioxidative Systems, Hydrogen Peroxide Content, and Differentiation in Scots Pine Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Schützendübel, Andres; Schwanz, Peter; Teichmann, Thomas; Gross, Kristina; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Godbold, Douglas L.; Polle, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether Cd induces common plant defense pathways or unspecific necrosis, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, changes in ascorbate-glutathione-related antioxidant systems, secondary metabolism (peroxidases, phenolics, and lignification), and developmental changes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Cd (50 μm, 6 h) initially increased superoxide dismutase, inhibited the systems involved in H2O2 removal (glutathione/glutathione reductase, catalase [CAT], and ascorbate peroxidase [APX]), and caused H2O2 accumulation. Elongation of the roots was completely inhibited within 12 h. After 24 h, glutathione reductase activities recovered to control levels; APX and CAT were stimulated by factors of 5.5 and 1.5. Cell death was increased. After 48 h, nonspecific peroxidases and lignification were increased, and APX and CAT activities were decreased. Histochemical analysis showed that soluble phenolics accumulated in the cytosol of Cd-treated roots but lignification was confined to newly formed protoxylem elements, which were found in the region of the root tip that normally constitutes the elongation zone. Roots exposed to 5 μm Cd showed less pronounced responses and only a small decrease in the elongation rate. These results suggest that in cells challenged by Cd at concentrations exceeding the detoxification capacity, H2O2 accumulated because of an imbalance of redox systems. This, in turn, may have triggered the developmental program leading to xylogenesis. In conclusion, Cd did not cause necrotic injury in root tips but appeared to expedite differentiation, thus leading to accelerated aging. PMID:11706171

  5. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. PMID:20851467

  6. Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul J; Teakle, Grahams R; Bending, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    Brassicas are among the most widely grown and important crops worldwide. Phosphorus (P) is a key mineral element in the growth of all plants and is largely supplied as inorganic rock-phosphate, a dwindling resource, which is likely to be an increasingly significant factor in global agriculture. In order to develop crops which can abstract P from the soil, utilize it more efficiently, require less of it or obtain more from other sources such as soil organic P reservoirs, a detailed understanding the factors that influence P metabolism and cycling in plants and associated soil is required. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of root traits, rhizodeposition and rhizosphere community interaction as it applies to P solubilization and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica species. Physical root characteristics, exudation of organic acids (particularly malate and citrate) and phosphatase enzymes are considered and the potential mechanisms of control of these responses to P deficiency examined. The influence of rhizodeposits on the development of the rhizosphere microbial community is discussed and the specific features of this community in response to P deficiency are considered; specifically production of phosphatases, phytases and phosphonate hydrolases. Finally various potential approaches for improving overall P use efficiency in Brassica production are discussed. PMID:24575103

  7. Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Paul J.; Teakle, Grahams R.; Bending, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicas are among the most widely grown and important crops worldwide. Phosphorus (P) is a key mineral element in the growth of all plants and is largely supplied as inorganic rock-phosphate, a dwindling resource, which is likely to be an increasingly significant factor in global agriculture. In order to develop crops which can abstract P from the soil, utilize it more efficiently, require less of it or obtain more from other sources such as soil organic P reservoirs, a detailed understanding the factors that influence P metabolism and cycling in plants and associated soil is required. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of root traits, rhizodeposition and rhizosphere community interaction as it applies to P solubilization and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica species. Physical root characteristics, exudation of organic acids (particularly malate and citrate) and phosphatase enzymes are considered and the potential mechanisms of control of these responses to P deficiency examined. The influence of rhizodeposits on the development of the rhizosphere microbial community is discussed and the specific features of this community in response to P deficiency are considered; specifically production of phosphatases, phytases and phosphonate hydrolases. Finally various potential approaches for improving overall P use efficiency in Brassica production are discussed. PMID:24575103

  8. Disruption of AtOCT1, an organic cation transporter gene, affects root development and carnitine-related responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Jovanovic, Mariana; Torres, Gisèle A M; Perrin, Yolande; Lemoine, Rémi; Corre-Menguy, Fabienne; Hartmann, Caroline

    2007-07-01

    In animals, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTs) are involved in homeostasis and distribution of various small endogenous amines (e.g. carnitine, choline) and detoxification of xenobiotics such as nicotine. Here, we describe the characterization of AtOCT1, an Arabidopsis protein that shares most of the conserved features of mammalian plasma membrane OCTs. Transient expression of an AtOCT1::GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis protoplasts supported localization in the plasmalemma. AtOCT1 functionally complemented the Deltacit2/Deltaagp2p yeast strain that is defective in plasma membrane carnitine transport. Disruption of AtOCT1 in an Arabidopsis oct1-1 knockout mutant affected both the expression of carnitine-related genes and the developmental defects induced by exogenous carnitine. RT-PCR and promoter-uidA fusion analysis showed that AtOCT1 was expressed in vascular tissues of various organs and at sites of lateral root formation. Correlating with this expression pattern, oct1-1 seedlings grown in vitro exhibited a higher degree of root branching than the wild-type, showing that the disruption of AtOCT1 affected root development under certain conditions. PMID:17521409

  9. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  10. Parameterizing complex root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However they suffer from a lack of information in important parameters, especially distribution of root hydraulic properties. In this paper we explore the role that arrangement of root hydraulic properties and root system topology play for modelled uptake dynamics. We apply microscopic models of single root structures to investigate the mechanisms shaping uptake dynamics and demonstrate the effects in a complex three dimensional root water uptake model. We introduce two efficiency indices, for (a) overall plant resistance and (b) water stress and show that an appropriate arrangement of root hydraulic properties can increase modelled efficiency of root water uptake in single roots, branched roots and entire root systems. The average uptake depth of the complete root system was not influenced by parameterization. However, other factors such as evolution of collar potential, which is related to the plant resistance, root bleeding and redistribution patterns were strongly affected by the parameterization. Root systems are more efficient when they are assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (short young) roots and transport (longer mature) roots. Results become similar, as soon as this composition is accounted for to some degree (between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). Overall resistance to root water uptake was decreased up to 40% and total transpiration was increased up to 25% in these composed root systems, compared to homogenous root systems. Also, one parameterization (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which was accompanied by lowest efficiency. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component of complex three dimensional uptake models. Efficiency measures together with information on critical xylem potentials may be useful in parameterizing root property distribution.

  11. Origins of improved carrier multiplication efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sills, Andrew; Califano, Marco

    2015-01-28

    Nanorod solar cells have been attracting a lot of attention recently, as they have been shown to exhibit a lower carrier multiplication onset and a higher quantum efficiency than quantum dots with similar bandgaps. The underpinning theory for this phenomenon is not yet completely understood, and is still the subject of ongoing study. Here we conduct a theoretical investigation into CM efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures with square cross section made of different materials (GaAs, GaSb, InAs, InP, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si and PbSe), using a single-band effective mass model. Following Luo, Franceschetti and Zunger we adopt the CM figure of merit (the ratio between biexciton and single-exciton density of states) as a measure of CM efficiency and investigate its dependence on the aspect ratio for both (a) constant cross section (i.e. varying the volume) and (b) constant volume (i.e., varying the cross section), by decoupling electronic structure effects from surface-related effects, increased absorption and Coulomb coupling effects. The results show that in both (a) and (b) cases elongation causes an increase in both single- and bi-exciton density of states, with the latter, however, growing much faster with increasing energy. This leads to the availability of more bi-exciton states than single-exciton states for photon energies just above the bi-exciton ground state and therefore suggests a higher probability of CM at these energies for elongated structures. Our results therefore show that the origin of the observed decrease of the CM threshold in elongated structures can be attributed purely to electronic structure effects, paving the way to the implementation of CM-efficiency-boosting strategies in nanostructures based on the lowering of the CM onset. PMID:25493662

  12. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal elongation are likely adaptations for more effective acrobatic leaping, highlighting the importance of this behavior in early euprimate evolution. PMID:23844094

  13. Underground tuning: quantitative regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Plants display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that allows them to tune their form and function to changing environments. The plant root system has evolved mechanisms to anchor the plant and to efficiently explore soils to forage for soil resources. Key to this is an enormous capacity for plasticity of multiple traits that shape the distribution of roots in the soil. Such root system architecture-related traits are determined by root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching. In this review, we describe how the root system is constituted, and which mechanisms, pathways, and genes mainly regulate plasticity of the root system in response to environmental variation. PMID:25628329

  14. Licorice Root

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweet root, gan zao (Chinese licorice) Latin Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice) Introduction This fact sheet provides ... References Armanini D, Fiore C, Bielenberg J. Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ). In: Coates P, Blackman M, Cragg G, ...

  15. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  16. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  17. The multiple contributions of phytochromes to the control of internode elongation in rice.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Iwamoto M; Kiyota S; Hanada A; Yamaguchi S; Takano M

    2011-11-01

    Although phyAphyBphyC phytochrome-null mutants in rice (Oryza sativa) have morphological changes and exhibit internode elongation, even as seedlings, it is unknown how phytochromes contribute to the control of internode elongation. A gene for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO1), which is an ethylene biosynthesis gene contributing to internode elongation, was up-regulated in phyAphyBphyC seedlings. ACO1 expression was controlled mainly by phyA and phyB, and a histochemical analysis showed that ACO1 expression was localized to the basal parts of leaf sheaths of phyAphyBphyC seedlings, similar to mature wild-type plants at the heading stage, when internode elongation was greatly promoted. In addition, the transcription levels of several ethylene- or gibberellin (GA)-related genes were changed in phyAphyBphyC mutants, and measurement of the plant hormone levels indicated low ethylene production and bioactive GA levels in the phyAphyBphyC mutants. We demonstrate that ethylene induced internode elongation and ACO1 expression in phyAphyBphyC seedlings but not in the wild type and that the presence of bioactive GAs was necessary for these effects. These findings indicate that phytochromes contribute to multiple steps in the control of internode elongation, such as the expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsGA3ox2, ACO1 expression, and the onset of internode elongation.

  18. The multiple contributions of phytochromes to the control of internode elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masao; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Takano, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Although phyAphyBphyC phytochrome-null mutants in rice (Oryza sativa) have morphological changes and exhibit internode elongation, even as seedlings, it is unknown how phytochromes contribute to the control of internode elongation. A gene for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO1), which is an ethylene biosynthesis gene contributing to internode elongation, was up-regulated in phyAphyBphyC seedlings. ACO1 expression was controlled mainly by phyA and phyB, and a histochemical analysis showed that ACO1 expression was localized to the basal parts of leaf sheaths of phyAphyBphyC seedlings, similar to mature wild-type plants at the heading stage, when internode elongation was greatly promoted. In addition, the transcription levels of several ethylene- or gibberellin (GA)-related genes were changed in phyAphyBphyC mutants, and measurement of the plant hormone levels indicated low ethylene production and bioactive GA levels in the phyAphyBphyC mutants. We demonstrate that ethylene induced internode elongation and ACO1 expression in phyAphyBphyC seedlings but not in the wild type and that the presence of bioactive GAs was necessary for these effects. These findings indicate that phytochromes contribute to multiple steps in the control of internode elongation, such as the expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsGA3ox2, ACO1 expression, and the onset of internode elongation. PMID:21911595

  19. Theoretical Modeling and Experimental High-Speed Imaging of Elongated Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Regner, Michael F.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of vocal fold elongation in governing glottal movement dynamics was theoretically and experimentally investigated. A theoretical model was first proposed to incorporate vocal fold elongation into the two-mass model. This model predicted the direct and nondirect components of the glottal time series as a function of vocal fold elongation. Furthermore, high-speed digital imaging was applied in excised larynx experiments to visualize vocal fold vibrations with variable vocal fold elongation from –10% to 50% and subglottal pressures of 18- and 24-cm H2O. Comparison between theoretical model simulations and experimental observations showed good agreement. A relative maximum was seen in the nondirect component of glottal area, suggesting that an optimal elongation could maximize the vocal fold vibratory power. However, sufficiently large vocal fold elongations caused the nondirect component to approach zero and the direct component to approach a constant. These results showed that vocal fold elongation plays an important role in governing the dynamics of glottal area movement and validated the applicability of the proposed theoretical model and high-speed imaging to investigate laryngeal activity. PMID:21118763

  20. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  1. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  2. Translating cell polarity into tissue elongation

    PubMed Central

    Vichas, Athea; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity, the orientation of single-cell asymmetries within the plane of a multicellular tissue, is essential to generating the shape and dimensions of organs and organisms. Planar polarity systems align cell behavior with the body axes and orient the cellular processes that lead to tissue elongation. Using Drosophila as a model system, significant progress has been made toward understanding how planar polarity is generated by biochemical and mechanical signals. Recent studies using time-lapse imaging reveal that cells engage in a number of active behaviors whose orientation and dynamics translate planar cell polarity into tissue elongation. Here we review recent progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms that link planar polarity to large-scale changes in tissue structure. PMID:21983030

  3. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  4. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  5. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  6. Tunneling currents that increase with molecular elongation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ignacio; Solomon, Gemma C; Schatz, George C; Ratner, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    We present a model molecular system with an unintuitive transport-extension behavior in which the tunneling current increases with forced molecular elongation. The molecule consists of two complementary aromatic units (1,4-anthracenedione and 1,4-anthracenediol) hinged via two ether chains and attached to gold electrodes through thiol-terminated alkenes. The transport properties of the molecule as it is mechanically elongated in a single-molecule pulling setting are computationally investigated using a combination of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the pulling with gDFTB computations of the transport properties in the Landauer limit. Contrary to the usual exponential decay of tunneling currents with increasing molecular length, the simulations indicate that upon elongation electronic transport along the molecule increases 10-fold. The structural origin of this inverted trend in the transport is elucidated via a local current analysis that reveals the dual role played by H-bonds in both stabilizing π-stacking for selected extensions and introducing additional electronic couplings between the complementary aromatic rings that also enhance tunneling currents across the molecule. The simulations illustrate an inverted electromechanical single-molecule switch that is based on a novel class of transport-extension behavior that can be achieved via mechanical manipulation and highlight the remarkable sensitivity of conductance measurements to the molecular conformation. PMID:21853998

  7. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  8. Gravitropism and Lateral Root Emergence are Dependent on the Trans-Golgi Network Protein TNO1

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rahul; Bassham, Diane C.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a dynamic organelle that functions as a relay station for receiving endocytosed cargo, directing secretory cargo, and trafficking to the vacuole. TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein (TNO1) is a large, TGN-localized, coiled-coil protein that associates with the membrane fusion protein SYP41, a target SNARE, and is required for efficient protein trafficking to the vacuole. Here, we show that a tno1 mutant has auxin transport-related defects. Mutant roots have delayed lateral root emergence, decreased gravitropic bending of plant organs and increased sensitivity to the auxin analog 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the natural auxin 3-indoleacetic acid. Auxin asymmetry at the tips of elongating stage II lateral roots was reduced in the tno1 mutant, suggesting a role for TNO1 in cellular auxin transport during lateral root emergence. During gravistimulation, tno1 roots exhibited delayed auxin transport from the columella to the basal epidermal cells. Endocytosis to the TGN was unaffected in the mutant, indicating that bulk endocytic defects are not responsible for the observed phenotypes. Together these studies demonstrate a role for TNO1 in mediating auxin responses during root development and gravistimulation, potentially through trafficking of auxin transport proteins. PMID:26617617

  9. Gravitropism and Lateral Root Emergence are Dependent on the Trans-Golgi Network Protein TNO1.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rahul; Bassham, Diane C

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a dynamic organelle that functions as a relay station for receiving endocytosed cargo, directing secretory cargo, and trafficking to the vacuole. TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein (TNO1) is a large, TGN-localized, coiled-coil protein that associates with the membrane fusion protein SYP41, a target SNARE, and is required for efficient protein trafficking to the vacuole. Here, we show that a tno1 mutant has auxin transport-related defects. Mutant roots have delayed lateral root emergence, decreased gravitropic bending of plant organs and increased sensitivity to the auxin analog 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the natural auxin 3-indoleacetic acid. Auxin asymmetry at the tips of elongating stage II lateral roots was reduced in the tno1 mutant, suggesting a role for TNO1 in cellular auxin transport during lateral root emergence. During gravistimulation, tno1 roots exhibited delayed auxin transport from the columella to the basal epidermal cells. Endocytosis to the TGN was unaffected in the mutant, indicating that bulk endocytic defects are not responsible for the observed phenotypes. Together these studies demonstrate a role for TNO1 in mediating auxin responses during root development and gravistimulation, potentially through trafficking of auxin transport proteins. PMID:26617617

  10. H+ Cotransports in Corn Roots as Related to the Surface pH Shift Induced by Active H+ Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Soler, André; Grignon, Claude

    1988-01-01

    The surface pH shift induced by active H+ excretion in corn (Zea mays L.) roots was estimated using acetic acid influx as a pH probe (H Sentenac, C Grignon 1987 Plant Physiol 84: 1367-1372). At constant bulk pH, buffering the medium strongly reduced the magnitude of the surface pH shift. This was used to study the effect of surface pH shift on H+ cotransports. In the absence of buffers, the surface pH shift increased with the bulk pH. Buffers decreased 32Pi influx and this effect was stronger at pH 7.2 than at pH 5.8, and stronger in the absence than in the presence of an inhibitor of the proton pump (vanadate). Buffers exerted a similar depressive and pH-dependent effect on net NO3− uptake. They hyperpolarized the cell membrane, and stimulated 86Rb+ influx, K+:H+ net exchange, and malate accumulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that H+ accumulation at the cell surface is effective in driving H+ reentry. We concluded that the surface pH shift due to proton pump activity is involved in the energetic coupling of H+ cotransports. PMID:16666482

  11. Application of Natural Blends of Phytochemicals Derived from the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis to the Soil Reveal That Phenolic-related Compounds Predominantly Modulate the Soil Microbiome*

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The roots of plants have the ability to influence its surrounding microbiology, the so-called rhizosphere microbiome, through the creation of specific chemical niches in the soil mediated by the release of phytochemicals. Here we report how these phytochemicals could modulate the microbial composition of a soil in the absence of the plant. For this purpose, root exudates of Arabidopsis were collected and fractionated to obtain natural blends of phytochemicals at various relative concentrations that were characterized by GC-MS and applied repeatedly to a soil. Soil bacterial changes were monitored by amplifying and pyrosequencing the 16 S ribosomal small subunit region. Our analyses reveal that one phytochemical can culture different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mixtures of phytochemicals synergistically culture groups of OTUs, and the same phytochemical can act as a stimulator or deterrent to different groups of OTUs. Furthermore, phenolic-related compounds showed positive correlation with a higher number of unique OTUs compared with other groups of compounds (i.e. sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids). For instance, salicylic acid showed positive correlations with species of Corynebacterineae, Pseudonocardineae and Streptomycineae, and GABA correlated with species of Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Frankineae, Variovorax, Micromonosporineae, and Skermanella. These results imply that phenolic compounds act as specific substrates or signaling molecules for a large group of microbial species in the soil. PMID:23293028

  12. Root Cohesion Controls on Shallow Landslide Size, Shape and Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M.; Bellugi, D. G.; Perron, J.; Coe, J. A.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many environmental factors, including ground cover, local hydrology, and recent weather events interact to cause shallow landslides and determine landslide characteristics. Vegetation is of particular interest, because changes in vegetation density, age, and composition are expected consequences of human land use and climate change. These changes alter effective cohesion due to root reinforcement, which is known to impact landslide abundance, but the effects of root cohesion on landslide size, shape and location have not been quantified. The Elliott State Forest, a 376 km2 managed forest in Douglas County, Oregon, provides an ideal venue to study these effects. There, a single storm in November 1996 triggered 154 shallow landslides, which were subsequently mapped using aerial images onto laser altimetry data, in an area with a range of vegetation ages but relatively uniform soil properties, topography, and lithology. We used aerial imagery to categorize areas with different land use histories into 3 vegetation classes, ranging from clear-cuts to forest with mature trees over 100 years old. Each mapped landslide was then assigned to a class, and its size, shape and location was recorded. Our results show that, in addition to the expected decrease in landslide abundance in more-vegetated areas (which could be influenced by a bias against detecting landslides under trees), landslides in those areas were also larger and more elongated in the down-slope direction. Although landslides in all three classes generally occurred at locations with similar drainage area and slope, we observed that slides with a larger ratio of drainage area to slope were slightly more abundant in areas with lower vegetation cover. To investigate the causes of these variations, we used a new shallow landslide model calibrated for the Oregon Coast Range to predict the size, shape and location of landslides triggered by the 1996 storm under a range of root cohesion values in a subset of the study area. Although this exploratory model did not successfully predict the locations of specific landslides, it correctly predicted the sign of trends in landslide size and aspect ratio with increasing root cohesion. The model indicates that landslides in more densely vegetated areas must be larger to overcome increased root reinforcement, and grow by elongation (rather than widening) as a result of topographic effects on soil depth, pore pressure and basal cohesion. These results give insight into the impacts of changes in root cohesion on shallow landslide characteristics and provide a benchmark for testing the accuracy of regional-scale, shallow landslide models.

  13. Effects of water deficit on radicle apex elongation and solute accumulation in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Márquez, S; Conde-Martínez, V; Trejo, C; Delgado-Alvarado, A; Carballo, A; Suárez, R; Mascorro, J O; Trujillo, A R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of water deficit on the elongation of radicles of maize seedlings and on the accumulation of solutes in the radicle apices of two maize varieties: VS-22 (tolerant) and AMCCG-2 (susceptible). Sections of radicle corresponding to the first 2 mm of the primary roots were marked with black ink, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for 24, 48, and 72 h in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes filled with vermiculite at three different water potentials (Ψ(w), -0.03, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa). The radicle elongation, sugar accumulation, and proline accumulation were determined after each of the growth periods specified above. The Ψ(w) of the substrate affected the dynamics of primary root elongation in both varieties. In particular, the lowest Ψ(w) (-1.5 MPa) inhibited root development by 72% and 90% for the VS-22 and AMCCG-2 varieties, respectively. The osmotic potential (Ψ(o)) was reduced substantially in both varieties to maintain root turgor; however, VS-22 had a higher root turgor (0.67 MPa) than AMCCG-2 (0.2 MPa). These results suggest that both varieties possess a capacity for osmotic adjustment. Sugar began to accumulate within the first 24 h of radicle apex growth. The sugar concentration was higher in VS-22 root apices compared to AMCCG-2, and the amount of sugar accumulation increased with a decrease in Ψ(w). Significant amounts of trehalose accumulated in VS-22 and AMCCG-2 (29.8 μmol/g fresh weight [FW] and 5.24 μmol/g FW, respectively). Starch accumulation in the root apices of these two maize varieties also differed significantly, with a lower level in VS-22. In both varieties, the proline concentration also increased as a consequence of the water deficit. At 72 h, the proline concentration in VS-22 (16.2 μmol/g FW) was almost 3 times greater than that in AMCCG-2 (5.19 μmol/g FW). Trehalose also showed a 3-fold increase in the tolerant variety. Accumulation of these solutes in the root growth zone may indicate an osmotic adjustment (OA) to maintain turgor pressure. PMID:26218550

  14. Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A. ); Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S. )

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and {ell}{sub i} is decreased that the n = 0 mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior; first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode.

  15. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    SciTech Connect

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-05-15

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  16. Aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Hiroki; Kitamoto, Kazuki

    2014-05-01

    Plant nuclei are known to differentiate into various shapes within a single plant. However, little is known about the mechanisms of nuclear morphogenesis. We found that nuclei of tobacco BY-2 cells were highly elongated on long-term treatment with 5 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear length was correlated with the cell length. During culture in the presence of aphidicolin, the nuclei were elongated in parallel with cell elongation. Nuclear elongation was inhibited by the inhibition of cell elongation with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. However, cell elongation induced in the auxin-depleted medium in the absence of aphidicolin did not cause nuclear elongation, indicating that cell elongation alone is not sufficient for nuclear elongation. Treatment with either latrunculin B or propyzamide inhibited the aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation, indicating that both actin filaments and microtubules (MTs) are required for nuclear elongation. Observations using BY-YTHCLR2 cells, in which actin filaments, MTs and nuclei were simultaneously visualized, revealed that the longitudinally arranged MT bundles associated with the nucleus play an important role in nuclear elongation, and that actin filaments affect the formation of these MT bundles. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear DNA contents of the elongated nuclei exceeded 4C, and the nuclear length was highly correlated with the nuclear DNA content. In cells treated with 50 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, cells were elongated and nucleus-associated longitudinal MT bundles were formed, but the nuclear DNA contents did not exceed 4C and the nuclei did not elongate. These results indicate that an increase in the nuclear DNA content above 4C is also required for nuclear elongation. PMID:24492257

  17. SIZ1 Regulation of Phosphate Starvation-Induced Root Architecture Remodeling Involves the Control of Auxin Accumulation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning. PMID:21156857

  18. Impact of a short-term heat event on C and N relations in shoots vs. roots of the stress-tolerant C4 grass, Andropogon gerardii.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kumar P; Heckathorn, Scott A; Wang, Dan; Weintraub, Michael N; Frantz, Jonathan M; Hamilton, E William

    2014-07-15

    Global warming will increase heat waves, but effects of abrupt heat stress on shoot-root interactions have rarely been studied in heat-tolerant species, and abrupt heat-stress effects on root N uptake and shoot C flux to roots and soil remains uncertain. We investigated effects of a high-temperature event on shoot vs. root growth and function, including transfer of shoot C to roots and soil and uptake and translocation of soil N by roots in the warm-season drought-tolerant C4 prairie grass, Andropogon gerardii. We heated plants in the lab and field (lab=5.5days at daytime of 30+5 or 10°C; field=5days at ambient (up to 32°C daytime) vs. ambient +10°C). Heating had small or no effects on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and shoot mass, but increased root mass and decreased root respiration and exudation per g. (13)C-labeling indicated that heating increased transfer of recently-fixed C from shoot to roots and soil (the latter likely via increased fine-root turnover). Heating decreased efficiency of N uptake by roots (uptake/g root), but did not affect total N uptake or the transfer of labeled soil (15)N to shoots. Though heating increased soil temperature in the lab, it did not do so in the field (10cm depth); yet results were similar for lab and field. Hence, acute heating affected roots more than shoots in this stress-tolerant species, increasing root mass and C loss to soil, but decreasing function per g root, and some of these effects were likely independent of direct effects from soil heating. PMID:24974323

  19. Rooting depth, water relations and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics in three woody angiosperms differentially affected by an extreme summer drought.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Casolo, Valentino; Dal Borgo, Anna; Savi, Tadeja; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Zini, Luca; McDowell, Nathan G

    2016-03-01

    In 2012, an extreme summer drought induced species-specific die-back in woody species in Northeastern Italy. Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia were heavily impacted, while Prunus mahaleb was largely unaffected. By comparing seasonal changes in isotopic composition of xylem sap, rainfall and deep soil samples, we show that P. mahaleb has a deeper root system than the other two species. This morphological trait allowed P  mahaleb to maintain higher water potential (Ψ), gas exchange rates and non-structural carbohydrates content (NSC) throughout the summer, when compared with the other species. More favourable water and carbon states allowed relatively stable maintenance of stem hydraulic conductivity (k) throughout the growing season. In contrast, in Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia, decreasing Ψ and NSC were associated with significant hydraulic failure, with spring-to-summer k loss averaging 60%. Our data support the hypothesis that drought-induced tree decline is a complex phenomenon that cannot be modelled on the basis of single predictors of tree status like hydraulic efficiency, vulnerability and carbohydrate content. Our data highlight the role of rooting depth in seasonal progression of water status, gas exchange and NSC, with possible consequences for energy-demanding mechanisms involved in the maintenance of vascular integrity. PMID:26437327

  20. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented. PMID:24088584

  1. A Pollen-Specific RALF from Tomato That Regulates Pollen Tube Elongation12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Paul A.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Parsons, Ronald L.; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Ryan, Clarence A.; Bedinger, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 μm peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 μm in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window. PMID:20388667

  2. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  3. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  4. Dynamic strength tests for low elongation lanyards.

    PubMed

    Baszczyński, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Lanyards are still important and common components of personal systems protecting against falls from a height. Experience with dynamic strength tests of lanyards indicates that test methods based on EN and ISO standards do not make objective assessment possible. This paper presents the results of theoretical and laboratory investigations of the performance of adjustable lanyards during fall arrest. The obtained results indicate that methods of testing and assessment based on those standards demonstrate considerable shortcomings when applied to low elongation lanyards. The assumptions for improved requirements and test methods of lanyards made of, e.g., steel wire and aramid ropes are also presented. PMID:17362657

  5. Hektor - The largest highly elongated asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    New observations of Trojan asteroid 624, Hektor, in April 1979 establish that the high amplitude of the rotational light curve of this object is caused by its elongated shape and not by patches of dark and light albedo on opposing hemispheres. These observations confirm the fact that Hektor is a very unusual object and are consistent with the hypothesis that it may be a compound asteroid formed when two Trojans of comparable size fell together - a rare fossilized example of a planetary accretion process.

  6. Agravitropic mutant for the study of hydrotropism in seedling roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Takano, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Yamashita, M.; Hirasawa, T.; Nishitani, K.

    1999-01-01

    Roots have been shown to respond to a moisture gradient by positive hydrotropism. Agravitropic mutant plants are useful for the study of the hydrotropism in roots because on Earth hydrotropism is obviously altered by the gravity response in the roots of normally gravitropic plants. The roots are able to sense water potential gradient as small as 0.5 MPa mm-1. The root cap includes the sensing apparatus that causes a differential growth at the elongation region of roots. A gradient in apoplastic calcium and calcium influx through plasmamembrane in the root cap is somehow involved in the signal transduction mechanism in hydrotropism, which may cause a differential change in cell wall extensibility at the elongation region. We have isolated an endoxy loglucan transferase (EXGT) gene that is strongly expressed in pea roots and appears to be involved in the differential growth in hydrotropically responding roots. Thus, it is now possible to study hydrotropism in roots by comparing with or separate from gravitropism. These results also imply that microgravity conditions in space are useful for the study of hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism.

  7. Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Regier, J C; Shultz, J W

    2001-07-01

    Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always <5%. With additional nonarthropod sequences included, one indel supports monophyly of Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater attention. PMID:11421654

  8. Hypocrea/Trichoderma: species with conidiophore elongations and green conidia.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Priscila; Castlebury, Lisa A; Overton, Barrie E; Samuels, Gary J

    2003-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma and Hypocrea that have green conidia and sterile or fertile elongations of their conidiophores are described or redescribed and their phylogenetic position explored. The described species include T. crassum, T. fasciculatum, T. fertile, T. hamatum, T. longipile, T. oblongisporum, T. pubescens, T. spirale, T. strictipile, T. strigosum, T. stromaticum, T. tomentosum, Hypocrea aureoviridis f. macrospora, H. ceramica. and H. semiorbis. Trichoderma fasciculatum originally was described from cultures from ascospores of an unidentified Hypocrea specimen; it is considered to be a synonym of T. strictipile. The remaining species of Trichoderma considered here have not been linked to teleomorphs, and the Trichoderma anamorphs of H. aureoviridis f. macrospora and H. semiorbis have not been named. Five new species of Hypocrea are described, viz. H. cremea, H. cuneispora, H. estonica, H. strictipilosa and H. surrotunda. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were inferred based on partial RPB2 and EF-1α DNA sequence data and phenotypic characteristics, including teleomorph, anamorph, colony and growth rates. Trichoderma crassum was found to be a sister species to T. virens, based on molecular sequences and phenotypic data. Hypocrea surrotunda and H. cremea, H. cuneispora and T. longipile, T. fertile and T. oblongisporum, T. tomentosum and H. atrogelatinosa, and T. hamatum and T. pubescens, respectively, were found to be closely related phylogenetically, based on RPB2 and EF-1α gene genealogies. Anamorph and teleomorph phenotype, including conidiophore elongations, phialide morphology, conidial morphology, stroma anatomy and ascospore morphology are not useful predictors of relationships. Despite the shared phenotypic characters of these Trichoderma and Hypocrea species, they are distributed between two major clades of Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Redescriptions and a key to species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma with green conidia and conidiophore elongations are presented. PMID:21149016

  9. Validation of Uniaxial Data Beyond Uniform Elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadicola, Mark A.

    2011-08-01

    Uniaxial testing is one of the simplest methods used to determining mechanical properties for sheet metals, but the classic test does not determine properties to sufficiently high strain levels for use in models of very large deformations such as forming operations. This limitation is primarily due to the classical test requiring uniform deformation in the gage length. Full-field optical techniques are now being used to extend the applicable strain range of uniaxial testing to strains beyond uniform elongation and well into diffuse necking, but assumptions must be made as to the multi-axial state of stress in this regime. In order to determine if such assumptions are correct, uniaxial experiments are performed combined with a unique combination of digital image correlation to measure plastic strains and stress tensor measurement through X-ray diffraction methods. The combination of metrology permits determination of the true stress-strain response to strains four times uniform elongation and the associated multi-axial stresses at the highest strain levels.

  10. Nonlinear deformations of microcapsules in elongation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Julien; de Loubens, Clément; Boedec, Gwenn; Georgelin, Marc; Leonetti, Marc; Soft Matter; Biophysics Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Soft microcapsules are drops bounded by a thin elastic shell made of cross-linked proteins. They have numerous applications for drug delivery in bioengineering, pharmaceutics and medicine, where their mechanical stability and their dynamics under flow are crucial. They can also be used as red blood cells models. Here, we investigate the mechanical behaviour of microcapsules made of albumine in strong elongational flow, up to a stretching of 180% just before breaking. The set-up allows us to visualize the deformed shape in the two perpendicular main fields of view, to manage high capillary number and to manipulate soft microcapsules. The steady-state shape of a capsule in the planar elongational flow is non-axisymmetric. In each cross section, the shape is an ellipse but with different small axis which vary in opposite sense with the stretching. Whatever the degree of cross-linking and the size of the capsules, the deformations followed the same master-curve. Comparisons between numerical predictions and experimental results permit to conclude unambiguously that the more properly strain-energy model of membrane is the generalized Hooke model.

  11. Water relations and leaf expansion: importance of time scale.

    PubMed

    Munns, R; Passioura, J B; Guo, J; Chazen, O; Cramer, G R

    2000-09-01

    The role of leaf water relations in controlling cell expansion in leaves of water-stressed maize and barley depends on time scale. Sudden changes in leaf water status, induced by sudden changes in humidity, light and soil salinity, greatly affect leaf elongation rate, but often only transiently. With sufficiently large changes in salinity, leaf elongation rates are persistently reduced. When plants are kept fully turgid throughout such sudden environmental changes, by placing their roots in a pressure chamber and raising the pressure so that the leaf xylem sap is maintained at atmospheric pressure, both the transient and persistent changes in leaf elongation rate disappear. All these responses show that water relations are responsible for the sudden changes in leaf elongation rate resulting from sudden changes in water stress and putative root signals play no part. However, at a time scale of days, pressurization fails to maintain high rates of leaf elongation of plants in either saline or drying soil, indicating that root signals are overriding water relations effects. In both saline and drying soil, pressurization does raise the growth rate during the light period, but a subsequent decrease during the dark results in no net effect on leaf growth over a 24 h period. When transpirational demand is very high, however, growth-promoting effects of pressurization during the light period outweigh any reductions in the dark, resulting in a net increase in growth of pressurized plants over 24 h. Thus leaf water status can limit leaf expansion rates during periods of high transpiration despite the control exercised by hormonal effects on a 24 h basis. PMID:11006301

  12. Alteration of root growth by lettuce, wheat, and soybean in response to wear debris from automotive brake pads.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Misty D; Ebbs, Stephen D; Gibson, David J; Filip, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Brakes from motor vehicles release brake pad wear debris (BPWD) with increased concentrations of heavy metals. Germination and root-elongation assays with lettuce, wheat, and soybean were used to provide an initial evaluation of the phytotoxicity of either a water extract of BPWD or BPWD particulates. In terms of germination, the only effect observed was that lettuce germination decreased significantly in the BPWD particulate treatment. Lettuce and wheat showed decreased root length and root-elongation rate in the presence of the BPWD particulates, whereas lettuce produced a significantly greater number of lateral roots in response to BPWD extract. There was no significant effect of either BPWD treatment on soybean root elongation or lateral roots. Treatment with BPWD extracts or particulates caused significant alterations in the bending pattern of the plant roots. These initial results suggest that BPWD may have effects on the early growth and development of plants. PMID:24957180

  13. Family Roots of Empathy-Related Characteristics: The Role of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Need Support in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal

  14. Family Roots of Empathy-Related Characteristics: The Role of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Need Support in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal…

  15. The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably plays a role in efflux to the columella. Pin4 mutants showed no deficiencies in gravitropism, in fact responding at a greater rate than wild-type roots over the first hour (22 deg h-1 ). PIN7 has been localized to the vascular tissue of the elongation zone and to the central columella. Like pin4 mutants, pin7 mutants did not show a significantly reduced gravitropic response relative to wild-type roots. Interestingly, roots of pin3pin7 double mutants showed curvature and growth rates similar to pin7 single mutants and wild-type roots, suggesting a genetic interaction between PIN3 and PIN7 in this pathway. These results suggest a significant degree of redundancy in the regulation of directional auxin transport and perhaps in the gravity signaling pathway in roots in general.

  16. A subgroup of MATE transporter genes regulates hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Liang, Shuang; Ge, Qing; Li, Yuanfeng; Shao, Jingxia; Qi, Yafei; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The growth of higher plants is under complex regulation to ensure the elaboration of developmental programmes under a changing environment. To dissect these regulatory circuits, we carried out genetic screens for Arabidopsis abnormal shoot (abs) mutants with altered shoot development. Here, we report the isolation of two dominant mutants, abs3-1D and abs4-1D, through activation tagging. Both mutants showed a 'bushy' loss of apical dominance phenotype. ABS3 and ABS4 code for two closely related putative Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family of efflux transporters, respectively. ABS3 and ABS4, as well as two related MATE genes, ABS3-Like1 (ABS3L1) and ABS3L2, showed diverse tissue expression profiles but their gene products all localized to the late endosome/prevacuole (LE/PVC) compartment. The over-expression of these four genes individually led to the inhibition of hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. On the other hand, the quadruple knockout mutant (mateq) showed the opposite phenotype of an enhanced hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. Hypocotyl cell elongation and de-etiolation processes in the dark were also affected by the mutations of these genes. Exogenously applied sucrose attenuated the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation caused by abs3-1D and abs4-1D in the dark, and enhanced the hypocotyl elongation of mateq under prolonged dark treatment. We determined that ABS3 genetically interacts with the photoreceptor gene PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB). Our results demonstrate that ABS3 and related MATE family transporters are potential negative regulators of hypocotyl cell elongation and support a functional link between the endomembrane system, particularly the LE/PVC, and the regulation of plant cell elongation. PMID:26160579

  17. Novel temporal, fine-scale and growth variation phenotypes in roots of adult-stage maize (Zea mays L.) in response to low nitrogen stress.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amelie C M; McClymont, Sarah A; Holmes, Bridget M; Lyons, Eric; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-12-01

    There is interest in discovering root traits associated with acclimation to nutrient stress. Large root systems, such as in adult maize, have proven difficult to be phenotyped comprehensively and over time, causing target traits to be missed. These challenges were overcome here using aeroponics, a system where roots grow in the air misted with a nutrient solution. Applying an agriculturally relevant degree of low nitrogen (LN) stress, 30-day-old plants responded by increasing lengths of individual crown roots (CRs) by 63%, compensated by a 40% decline in CR number. LN increased the CR elongation rate rather than lengthening the duration of CR growth. Only younger CR were significantly responsive to LN stress, a novel finding. LN shifted the root system architectural balance, increasing the lateral root (LR)-to-CR ratio, adding ∼70 m to LR length. LN caused a dramatic increase in second-order LR density, not previously reported in adult maize. Despite the near-uniform aeroponics environment, LN induced increased variation in the relative lengths of opposing LR pairs. Large-scale analysis of root hairs (RHs) showed that LN decreased RH length and density. Time-course experiments suggested the RH responses may be indirect consequences of decreased biomass/demand under LN. These results identify novel root traits for genetic dissection. PMID:21848860

  18. Root gravitropism: a complex response to a simple stimulus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, E.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Roots avoid depleting their immediate environment of essential nutrients by continuous growth. Root growth is directed by environmental cues, including gravity. Gravity sensing occurs mainly in the columella cells of the root cap. Upon reorientation within the gravity field, the root-cap amyloplasts sediment, generating a physiological signal that promotes the development of a curvature at the root elongation zones. Recent molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have allowed the identification of genes that play important roles in root gravitropism. Among them, the ARG1 gene encodes a DnaJ-like protein involved in gravity signal transduction, whereas the AUX1 and AGR1 genes encode proteins involved in polar auxin transport. These studies have important implications for understanding the intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes that underlie root gravitropism.

  19. High-resolution quantification of root dynamics in split-nutrient rhizoslides reveals rapid and strong proliferation of maize roots in response to local high nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    in ‘t Zandt, Dina; Le Marié, Chantal; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Visser, Eric J.W.; Hund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The plant’s root system is highly plastic, and can respond to environmental stimuli such as high nitrogen (N) in patches. A root may respond to an N patch by selective placement of new lateral roots, and therewith increases root N uptake. This may be a desirable trait in breeding programmes, since it decreases NO3 - leaching and N2O emission. Roots of maize (Zea mays L.) were grown without N in split-nutrient rhizoslides. One side of the slides was exposed to high N after 15 d of root development, and root elongation was measured for another 15 d, described in a time course model and parameterized. The elongation rates of crown axile roots on the N-treated side of the plant followed a logistic increase to a maximum of 5.3cm d-1; 95% of the maximum were reached within 4 d. At the same time, on the untreated side, axile root elongation dropped linearly to 1.2cm d-1 within 6.4 d and stayed constant thereafter. Twice as many lateral roots were formed on the crown axis on the N side compared to the untreated side. Most strikingly, the elongation rates of laterals of the N side increased linearly with most of the roots reaching an asymptote ~8 d after start of the N treatment. By contrast, laterals on the side without N did not show any detectable elongation beyond the first day after their emergence. We conclude that split-nutrient rhizoslides have great potential to improve our knowledge about nitrogen responsiveness and selection for contrasting genotypes. PMID:26105997

  20. Seasonal Patterns of Fine Root Production and Turnover in a Mature Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) Stand- Differentiation with Soil Depth and Implications for Soil Carbon Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Maeght, Jean-Luc; Gonkhamdee, Santimaitree; Clément, Corentin; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Stokes, Alexia; Pierret, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Fine root dynamics is a main driver of soil carbon stocks, particularly in tropical forests, yet major uncertainties still surround estimates of fine root production and turnover. This lack of knowledge is largely due to the fact that studying root dynamics in situ, particularly deep in the soil, remains highly challenging. We explored the interactions between fine root dynamics, soil depth, and rainfall in mature rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) exposed to sub-optimal edaphic and climatic conditions. A root observation access well was installed in northern Thailand to monitor root dynamics along a 4.5 m deep soil profile. Image-based measurements of root elongation and lifespan of individual roots were carried out at monthly intervals over 3 years. Soil depth was found to have a significant effect on root turnover. Surprisingly, root turnover increased with soil depth and root half-life was 16, 6–8, and only 4 months at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 3.0 m deep, respectively (with the exception of roots at 4.5 m which had a half-life similar to that found between depths of 1.0 and 2.5 m). Within the first two meters of the soil profile, the highest rates of root emergence occurred about 3 months after the onset of the rainy season, while deeper in the soil, root emergence was not linked to the rainfall pattern. Root emergence was limited during leaf flushing (between March and May), particularly within the first two meters of the profile. Between soil depths of 0.5 and 2.0 m, root mortality appeared independent of variations in root emergence, but below 2.0 m, peaks in root emergence and death were synchronized. Shallow parts of the root system were more responsive to rainfall than their deeper counterparts. Increased root emergence in deep soil toward the onset of the dry season could correspond to a drought acclimation mechanism, with the relative importance of deep water capture increasing once rainfall ceased. The considerable soil depth regularly explored by fine roots, even though significantly less than in surface layers in terms of root length density and biomass, will impact strongly the evaluation of soil carbon stocks. PMID:26640467

  1. Seasonal Patterns of Fine Root Production and Turnover in a Mature Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) Stand- Differentiation with Soil Depth and Implications for Soil Carbon Stocks.

    PubMed

    Maeght, Jean-Luc; Gonkhamdee, Santimaitree; Clément, Corentin; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Stokes, Alexia; Pierret, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Fine root dynamics is a main driver of soil carbon stocks, particularly in tropical forests, yet major uncertainties still surround estimates of fine root production and turnover. This lack of knowledge is largely due to the fact that studying root dynamics in situ, particularly deep in the soil, remains highly challenging. We explored the interactions between fine root dynamics, soil depth, and rainfall in mature rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) exposed to sub-optimal edaphic and climatic conditions. A root observation access well was installed in northern Thailand to monitor root dynamics along a 4.5 m deep soil profile. Image-based measurements of root elongation and lifespan of individual roots were carried out at monthly intervals over 3 years. Soil depth was found to have a significant effect on root turnover. Surprisingly, root turnover increased with soil depth and root half-life was 16, 6-8, and only 4 months at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 3.0 m deep, respectively (with the exception of roots at 4.5 m which had a half-life similar to that found between depths of 1.0 and 2.5 m). Within the first two meters of the soil profile, the highest rates of root emergence occurred about 3 months after the onset of the rainy season, while deeper in the soil, root emergence was not linked to the rainfall pattern. Root emergence was limited during leaf flushing (between March and May), particularly within the first two meters of the profile. Between soil depths of 0.5 and 2.0 m, root mortality appeared independent of variations in root emergence, but below 2.0 m, peaks in root emergence and death were synchronized. Shallow parts of the root system were more responsive to rainfall than their deeper counterparts. Increased root emergence in deep soil toward the onset of the dry season could correspond to a drought acclimation mechanism, with the relative importance of deep water capture increasing once rainfall ceased. The considerable soil depth regularly explored by fine roots, even though significantly less than in surface layers in terms of root length density and biomass, will impact strongly the evaluation of soil carbon stocks. PMID:26640467

  2. The cytokinin response factors modulate root and shoot growth and promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Raines, Tracy; Shanks, Carly; Cheng, Chia-Yi; McPherson, Duncan; Argueso, Cristiana T; Kim, Hyo J; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Vaňková, Radomíra; Schaller, G Eric; Kieber, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinin response factors (CRFs) are a group of related AP2/ERF transcription factors that are transcriptionally induced by cytokinin. Here we explore the role of the CRFs in Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development by analyzing lines with decreased and increased CRF function. While single crf mutations have no appreciable phenotypes, disruption of multiple CRFs results in larger rosettes, delayed leaf senescence, a smaller root apical meristem (RAM), reduced primary and lateral root growth, and, in etiolated seedlings, shorter hypocotyls. In contrast, overexpression of CRFs generally results in the opposite phenotypes. The crf1,2,5,6 quadruple mutant is embryo lethal, indicating that CRF function is essential for embryo development. Disruption of the CRFs results in partially insensitivity to cytokinin in a root elongation assay and affects the basal expression of a significant number of cytokinin-regulated genes, including the type-A ARRs, although it does not impair the cytokinin induction of the type-A ARRs. Genes encoding homeobox transcription factors are mis-expressed in the crf1,3,5,6 mutant, including STIMPY/WOX9 that is required for root and shoot apical meristem maintenance roots and which has previously been linked to cytokinin. These results indicate that the CRF transcription factors play important roles in multiple aspects of plant growth and development, in part through a complex interaction with cytokinin signaling. PMID:26662515

  3. Molecular Mobility of Soft Segment of Polyurethane Elastomers under Elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojio, Ken; Shimada, Makoto; Motokucho, Suguru; Furukawa, Mutsuhisa

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we investigated molecular mobility of a soft segment in the poly(oxypropylene) glycol (PPG), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butane diol (BD)-based polyurethane elastomers (PUE) with and without elongation by dynamic viscoelastic property measurement and pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement. The peak position of the loss tangent (tand) curves shifted to the lower temperature region with increasing elongation. In the pulse NMR measurement, the long spin-spin relaxation time (T2) component appeared at -18.0(ɛ = 0) and -26.0 °C(ɛ = 1.5), respectively, with increasing temperature. Since this temperature seems to be related to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the soft segment in the PUE, it is likely to consider that the Tg decreased with increasing strain. These results might be attributed that the size of cooperative motion during the glass transition decrease due to the orientation of the soft segment, and the soft segment phase approach to a pure phase on account of the extraction of the hard segment from the soft segment phase.

  4. Cellulose Orientation in the Outer Epidermal Wall of Angiosperm Roots: Implications for Biosystematics

    PubMed Central

    KERSTENS, SVEN; VERBELEN, JEAN‐PIERRE

    2002-01-01

    The net orientation of cellulose fibrils in the outer epidermal wall of the root elongation zone of 57 angiosperm species belonging to 29 families was determined by means of Congo Red fluorescence and polarization confocal microscopy. The angiosperms can be divided in three groups. In all but four plant families, the net orientation of the cellulose fibrils is transverse to the root axis. Three families, the Poaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, have a totally different organization. In the root elongation zone of these plants, the net orientation of cellulose fibrils in the outer epidermal wall is parallel with the root axis. In roots of one family, the Arecaceae, an elongation zone in the literal sense of the word is absent and cellulose fibrils are randomly oriented. PMID:12466108

  5. BYPASS1: synthesis of the mobile root-derived signal requires active root growth and arrests early leaf development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis bypass1 (bps1) mutant root produces a biologically active mobile compound that induces shoot growth arrest. However it is unknown whether the root retains the capacity to synthesize the mobile compound, or if only shoots of young seedlings are sensitive. It is also unknown how this compound induces arrest of shoot growth. This study investigated both of these questions using genetic, inhibitor, reporter gene, and morphological approaches. Results Production of the bps1 root-synthesized mobile compound was found to require active root growth. Inhibition of postembryonic root growth, by depleting glutathione either genetically or chemically, allowed seedlings to escape shoot arrest. However, the treatments were not completely effective, as the first leaf pair remained radialized, but elongated. This result indicated that the embryonic root transiently synthesized a small amount of the mobile substance. In addition, providing glutathione later in vegetative development caused shoot growth arrest to be reinstated, revealing that these late-arising roots were still capable of producing the mobile substance, and that the older vegetative leaves were still responsive. To gain insight into how leaf development responds to the mobile signal, leaf development was followed morphologically and using the CYCB1,1::GUS marker for G2/M phase cells. We found that arrest of leaf growth is a fully penetrant phenotype, and a dramatic decrease in G2/M phase cells was coincident with arrest. Analyses of stress phenotypes found that late in development, bps1 cotyledons produced necrotic lesions, however neither hydrogen peroxide nor superoxide were abundant as leaves underwent arrest. Conclusions bps1 roots appear to require active growth in order to produce the mobile bps1 signal, but the potential for this compound's synthesis is present both early and late during vegetative development. This prolonged capacity to synthesize and respond to the mobile compound is consistent with a possible role for the mobile compound in linking shoot growth to subterranean conditions. The specific growth-related responses in the shoot indicated that the mobile substance prevents full activation of cell division in leaves, although whether cell division is a direct response remains to be determined. PMID:21291559

  6. Very elongated nuclei near A = 194

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Yates, S.W.; Wang, T.F.; Kuhnert, A. ); Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A. ); Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Azaiez, F.; Korten, W.; Draper, J.E. )

    1990-10-01

    A {gamma}-ray cascade in {sup 191}Hg of 12 members with average energy spacing 37 keV and Q{sub t} {equals} 18(3)eb was reported by Moore, and coworkers in 1989. This was the first report of very elongated nuclei (superdeformation) in this mass region. Since then, some 25 {gamma}-ray cascades have been observed in 11 (slightly neutron deficient) Hg, Pb and Tl nuclei. The bands have similar dynamic moments-of-inertia. Some nuclei exhibit multiple bands, and the backbending phenomena has been observed. Level spins can be obtained from comparison of transition energies to rotational model formulas. Selected bands (in different nuclei) have equal transition energies (within 0.1%). Alignment in integer multiples of {h bar} has been observed. Properties of these bands will be described. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  8. Intermediate electrostatic field for the elongation method.

    PubMed

    Kuźniarowicz, Piotr; Liu, Kai; Aoki, Yuriko; Gu, Feng Long; Stachowicz, Anna; Korchowiec, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    A simple way to improve the accuracy of the fragmentation methods is proposed. The formalism was applied to the elongation (ELG) method at restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) level of theory. The α-helix conformer of polyglycine was taken as a model system. The modified ELG method includes a simplified electrostatic field resulting from point-charge distribution of the system's environment. In this way the long-distance polarization is approximately taken into account. The field attenuates during the ELG process to eventually disappear when the final structure is reached. The point-charge distributions for each ELG step are obtained from charge sensitivity analysis (CSA) in force-field atoms resolution. The presence of the intermediate field improves the accuracy of ELG calculations. The errors in total energy and its kinetic and potential contributions are reduced by at least one-order of magnitude. In addition the SCF convergence of ROHF scheme is improved. PMID:24878802

  9. Biophysical Limitation of Cell Elongation in Cereal Leaves

    PubMed Central

    FRICKE, WIELAND

    2002-01-01

    Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall‐yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

  10. The barberplaid illusion: plaid motion is biased by elongated apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Mulligan, J. B.; Stone, L. S.

    1996-01-01

    The perceived direction of motion of plaids windowed by elongated spatial Gaussians is biased toward the window's long axis. The bias increases as the relative angle between the plaid motion and the long axis of the window increases, peaks at a relative angle of approximately 45 deg, and then decreases. The bias increases as the window is made narrower (at fixed height) and decreases as the component spatial frequency increases (at fixed aperture size). We examine several models of human motion processing (cross-correlation, motion-energy, intersection-of-constraints, and vector-sum), and show that none of these standard models can predict our data. We conclude that spatial integration of motion signals plays a crucial role in plaid motion perception and that current models must be explicitly expanded to include such spatial interactions.

  11. A coordinated codon-dependent regulation of translation by Elongator

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Fanelie; Hermand, Damien

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the purification of the form of the RNA polymerase II (PolII) engaged in elongation led to the discovery of an associated, multi-subunit (Elp1-6) complex named Elongator by the Svejstrup lab. Although further evidence supported the original notion that Elongator is involved in transcription, Elongator lacked some of the expected features for a regulator of the elongating PolII. The discovery by the Bystrm lab, based on genetic dissection, that Elongator is pivotal for tRNA modifications, and that all the reported phenotypes of Elongator mutants are suppressed by the overexpression of two tRNAs added to the confusion. The increasing range of both potential substrates and biological processes regulated by Elongator in higher eukaryotes indicates that the major challenge of the field is to determine the biologically relevant function of Elongator. Our recent proteome-wide study in fission yeast supports a coordinated codon-dependent regulation of translation by Elongator. Here we provide additional analyses extending this hypothesis to budding yeast and worm. PMID:23165209

  12. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. PMID:27018398

  13. Abscisic Acid: Hidden Architect of Root System Structure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeanne M

    2015-01-01

    Plants modulate root growth in response to changes in the local environment, guided by intrinsic developmental genetic programs. The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the soil, water stress and salt, shaping the structure of the root system by regulating the production of lateral roots as well as controlling root elongation by modulating cell division and elongation. Curiously, ABA controls different aspects of root architecture in different plant species, perhaps providing some insight into the great diversity of root architecture in different plants, both from different taxa and from different environments. ABA is an ancient signaling pathway, acquired well before the diversification of land plants. Nonetheless, how this ancient signaling module is implemented or interacts within a larger signaling network appears to vary in different species. This review will examine the role of ABA in the control of root architecture, focusing on the regulation of lateral root formation in three plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Oryza sativa. We will consider how the implementation of the ABA signaling module might be a target of natural selection, to help contribute to the diversity of root architecture in nature. PMID:27135341

  14. Abscisic Acid: Hidden Architect of Root System Structure

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants modulate root growth in response to changes in the local environment, guided by intrinsic developmental genetic programs. The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the soil, water stress and salt, shaping the structure of the root system by regulating the production of lateral roots as well as controlling root elongation by modulating cell division and elongation. Curiously, ABA controls different aspects of root architecture in different plant species, perhaps providing some insight into the great diversity of root architecture in different plants, both from different taxa and from different environments. ABA is an ancient signaling pathway, acquired well before the diversification of land plants. Nonetheless, how this ancient signaling module is implemented or interacts within a larger signaling network appears to vary in different species. This review will examine the role of ABA in the control of root architecture, focusing on the regulation of lateral root formation in three plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Oryza sativa. We will consider how the implementation of the ABA signaling module might be a target of natural selection, to help contribute to the diversity of root architecture in nature. PMID:27135341

  15. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Steep, vegetation free slopes are a common feature in alpine areas. The material covering these slopes is prone to all kind of erosional processes, resulting in a high risk potential for population and infrastructure. This risk potential is likely to increase with the predicted change in the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation events. A potential increase in extreme precipitation events will also result in a higher magnitude and frequency of erosional processes. In the Swiss Alps as in many other mountainous areas, there is a need to stabilize these slopes to reduce their direct or indirect hazard potential. In this regard, eco-engineering is a very promising and sustainable approach for slope stabilization. Planting trees and shrubs is a central task in eco-engineering. A developing vegetation cover will on one hand reduce the mechanical effects of rainfall by an increased interception, on the other hand, the root systems cause modifications of soil properties. Roots not only provide anchorage for the plants, they also promote soil aggregation and are able to penetrate possible shear horizons. Overall, anchorage of plants is at the same extend also stabilizing the near subsurface. When rainfall occurs, the saturated soil exerts downhill pressure to a tree or shrub. As long as the root distribution supports anchorage, the respective slope area remains stable. At this point, the tensile strength of the roots is a critical measure, because it is more likely that the supporting roots break than the entire root system being pulled out of the soil completely. As a consequence, root tensile strength is an important parameter in characterizing the soil stabilization potential of trees and shrubs. It is known that tree roots show a high variability in their anatomical structure depending on their depth below soil surface as well as their distance to the main stem. Therefore, we assume that these structural changes affect the tensile strength of every single root. In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  16. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-05-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 μL) outperforming the 400 μL, and 320 μL volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean = 2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions.

  18. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. PMID:22078384

  19. Aluminium Toxicity in Rye (Secale cereale): Root Growth and Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Intact Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    MA, QIFU; RENGEL, ZDENKO; KUO, JOHN

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity in rye (Secale cereale L.), an Al‐resistant crop, was examined by measuring root elongation and cytoplasmic free activity of calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) in intact root apical cells. Measurement of [Ca2+]cyt was achieved by loading a Ca2+‐sensitive fluorescent probe, Fluo‐3/AM ester, into root apical cells followed by detection of intracellular fluorescence using a confocal laser scanning microscope. After 20 min of exposure to 50 µm Al (pH 4·2) a slight increase in [Ca2+]cyt of root apical cells was observed, while the response of [Ca2+]cyt to 100 µm Al (pH 4·2) was faster and larger ([Ca2+]cyt increased by 46 % in 10 min). Increases in [Ca2+]cyt were correlated with inhibition of root growth, generally measurable after 2 h. Addition of 400 µm malic acid (pH 4·2) largely ameliorated the effect of 100 µm Al on [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells and protected root growth from Al toxicity. These results suggest that an increase in [Ca2+]cyt in root apical cells in rye is an early effect of Al toxicity and is followed by the secondary effect on root elongation. PMID:12099355

  20. Change in Apoplastic Aluminum during the Initial Growth Response to Aluminum by Roots of a Tolerant Maize Variety1

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, María Dolores; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan

    1999-01-01

    Root elongation, hematoxylin staining, and changes in the ultrastructure of root-tip cells of an Al-tolerant maize variety (Zea mays L. C 525 M) exposed to nutrient solutions with 20 μm Al (2.1 μm Al3+ activity) for 0, 4, and 24 h were investigated in relation to the subcellular distribution of Al using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis on samples fixed by different methods. Inhibition of root-elongation rates, hematoxylin staining, cell wall thickening, and disturbance of the distribution of pyroantimoniate-stainable cations, mainly Ca, was observed only after 4 and not after 24 h of exposure to Al. The occurrence of these transient, toxic Al effects on root elongation and in cell walls was accompanied by the presence of solid Al-P deposits in the walls. Whereas no Al was detectable in cell walls after 24 h, an increase of vacuolar Al was observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h, a higher amount of electron-dense deposits containing Al and P or Si was observed in the vacuoles. These results indicate that in this tropical maize variety, tolerance mechanisms that cause a change in apoplastic Al must be active. Our data support the hypothesis that in Al-tolerant plants, Al can rapidly cross the plasma membrane; these data clearly contradict the former conclusions that Al mainly accumulates in the apoplast and enters the symplast only after severe cell damage has occurred. PMID:9952438

  1. Effect of peripheral axotomy on pain-related behavior and dorsal root ganglion neurons excitability in NPY transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Sapunar, Damir; Modric-Jednacak, Ksenija; Grkovic, Ivica; Michalkiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Hogan, Quinn H

    2005-11-23

    In order to clarify the physiologic role of NPY in sensory processing, we obtained intracellular recordings of DRG neurons from wild type (WT) and NPY overexpressing transgenic rats (NPY-TG) before and after injury. We investigated medium and large diameter DRG neurons since upregulation of NPY peptide following the nerve injury occurs primarily in those cells. Neurons were classified as Aalpha/beta and Adelta using conduction velocity and action potential duration. Prior to the injury, Aalpha/beta neurons of NPY-TG rats conducted more slowly and had a more brief AHP than similar cells from the WT group. Adelta neurons at baseline conducted faster in TG animals compared to WT. Ligation of the 5th lumbar spinal nerve (SNL) produced certain changes in Aalpha/beta cells that were evident only in the TG group. These include increased refractory period, increased input resistance, AHP prolongation and a depolarizing shift in threshold for AP initiation. The expected injury-induced CV slowing was not seen in NPY-TG Aalpha/beta cells. In the Adelta cell group, injury produced a depolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential, an increase in AP duration and decrease in AHP and refractory period duration only in WT rats, while NPY-TG cells lacked these injury-induced changes. Behavior tests showed diminished sensory response to nerve injury in NPY-TG rats, i.e., shorter duration of enhanced pain-related behavior and attenuation of contralateral effect. In conclusion, our observations suggest that NPY overexpression leads to reduced neuronal activity following nerve injury in a cell-specific manner. PMID:16259969

  2. Using stable isotopes to reconcile differences in nitrogen uptake efficiency relative to late season fertilization of northern red oak seedlings in Wisconsin bare-root nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinuma, R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Cultural applications (e.g., timing, amount) of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in bareroot tree nurseries have been assessed for some time. However, the use of different metrologies to quantify the efficient use of fertilizer N and its allocation within biomass has confounded comparisons between fertilization regimes. This inconsistency is especially problematic when quantifying N fertilizer uptake efficiency (NFUE) of late season N fertilization in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) seedlings characterized by episodic flushes in growth and N storage in perennial tissue to support spring growth. The use of isotopic tracers could help elucidate these differences. We therefore hypothesized that: 1) calculations of NFUE using isotopically enriched fertilizer would yield lower, more precise estimates of NFUE relative to traditional methods due to differences in the accounting of mineralized and reabsorbed N, and 2) a significant fraction of leaf N in older leaves (early flushes) would be reabsorbed into root and shoot tissue before abscission relative to leaves produced toward the end of the growing season (late flushes). To test these hypotheses, we conducted an experiment in two-year old NRO seedlings at two bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We applied a total of 147 mg N seedling-1 in pulses from early July after the seedlings completed their second leaf flush until late August. The treatments consisted of three replicated plots of 15N enriched (1.000 atom%) ammonium sulfate, three non-enriched plots, and three unfertilized plots (controls) at each nursery. Subsequent changes in plant N uptake and N allocation were quantified from destructively harvested samples taken at 40, 60, and 120 days after the fertilization began. We evaluated three common methods currently used to estimate NFUE (total N without control, total N with control, and isotopic difference). The total N without control method overestimated mean NFUE by 3.2 times relative to the isotope method, because mineralized N uptake and reabsorption of leaf N was unaccounted for. The total N with control method also overestimated mean NFUE, but only by 20% relative to the isotope method; variation associated with the effects of N fertilization on mineralization and immobilization was large enough to preclude significant difference between these methods. The difference of non-labeled N between day 60 and day 120 revealed that the roots and shoots absorbed 95% and 5%, respectively, of initial leaf N. However, isotopic mass balance between day 60 and day 120 indicated that the NRO seedlings did not reabsorb leaf fertilized N from the youngest leaves before abscission. This study shows that using stable isotopes to understand plant-soil interactions in response to fertilization will help elucidate the contribution of additional N fluxes (e.g., N reabsorption) within perennial plants and thus improve fertility management of production systems.

  3. An attempt to estimate out-of-plane lung nodule elongation in tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Arvidsson, Jonathan; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica; Johnsson, Šse A.; Bâth, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    In chest tomosynthesis (TS) the most commonly used reconstruction methods are based on Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the limited angular range of x-ray projections, FBP reconstructed data is typically associated with a low spatial resolution in the out-of-plane dimension. Lung nodule measures that depend on depth information such as 3D shape and volume are therefore difficult to estimate. In this paper the relation between features from FBP reconstructed lung nodules and the true out-of-plane nodule elongation is investigated and a method for estimating the out-of-plane nodule elongation is proposed. In order to study these relations a number of steps that include simulation of spheroidal-shaped nodules, insertion into synthetic data volumes, construction of TS-projections and FBP-reconstruction were performed. In addition, the same procedure was used to simulate nodules and insert them into clinical chest TS projection data. The reconstructed nodule data was then investigated with respect to in-plane diameter, out-of-plane elongation, and attenuation coefficient. It was found that the voxel value in each nodule increased linearly with nodule elongation, for nodules with a constant attenuation coefficient. Similarly, the voxel value increased linearly with in-plane diameter. These observations indicate the possibility to predict the nodule elongation from the reconstructed voxel intensity values. Such a method would represent a quantitative approach to chest tomosynthesis that may be useful in future work on volume and growth rate estimation of lung nodules.

  4. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

    PubMed Central

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial–caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe. PMID:26587249

  5. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck.

    PubMed

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial-caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calcu