These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

1998-01-01

2

Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

2000-01-01

3

Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

1992-01-01

4

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM, AND ALUMINUM ON SOYBEAN ROOT ELONGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alleviation of Al rhizotoxicity by Ca and Mg can differ among species and genotypes. Root elongation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] line N93-S-179 and cvs. Young and Ransom exposed to varying concentrations of Al, Ca and Mg were compared in two experiments using a vertically split root system. ...

5

Soil strength and macropore volume limit root elongation rates in many UK agricultural soils  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Simple indicators of crop and cultivar performance across a range of soil types and management are needed for designing and testing sustainable cropping practices. This paper determined the extent to which soil chemical and physical properties, particularly soil strength and pore-size distribution influences root elongation in a wide range of agricultural top soils, using a seedling-based indicator. Methods Intact soil cores were sampled from the topsoil of 59 agricultural fields in Scotland, representing a wide geographic spread, range of textures and management practices. Water release characteristics, dry bulk density and needle penetrometer resistance were measured on three cores from each field. Soil samples from the same locations were sieved, analysed for chemical characteristics, and packed to dry bulk density of 1·0 g cm?3 to minimize physical constraints. Root elongation rates were determined for barley seedlings planted in both intact field and packed soil cores at a water content close to field capacity (–20 kPa matric potential). Key Results Root elongation in field soil was typically less than half of that in packed soils. Penetrometer resistance was typically between 1 and 3 MPa for field soils, indicating the soils were relatively hard, despite their moderately wet condition (compared with <0·2 MPa for packed soil). Root elongation was strongly linked to differences in physical rather than chemical properties. In field soil root elongation was related most closely to the volume of soil pores between 60 µm and 300 µm equivalent diameter, as estimated from water-release characteristics, accounting for 65·7 % of the variation in the elongation rates. Conclusions Root elongation rate in the majority of field soils was slower than half of the unimpeded (packed) rate. Such major reductions in root elongation rates will decrease rooting volumes and limit crop growth in soils where nutrients and water are scarce. PMID:22684682

Valentine, Tracy A.; Hallett, Paul D.; Binnie, Kirsty; Young, Mark W.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Hawes, Cathy; Bengough, A. Glyn

2012-01-01

6

Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

1999-01-01

7

Inhibition of root elongation in microgravity by an applied electric field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roots grown in an applied electric field demonstrate a bidirectional curvature. To further understand the nature of this response and its implications for the regulation of differential growth, we applied an electric field to roots growing in microgravity. We found that growth rates of roots in microgravity were higher than growth rates of ground controls. Immediately upon application of the electric field, root elongation was inhibited. We interpret this result as an indication that, in the absence of a gravity stimulus, the sensitivity of the root to an applied electric stimulus is increased. Further space experiments are required to determine the extent to which this sensitivity is shifted. The implications of this result are discussed in relation to gravitropic signaling and the regulation of differential cell elongation in the root.

Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Aizawa, S.; Yoshizaki, I.; Kamigaichi, S.; Mukai, C.; Shimazu, T.; Fukui, K.; Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.

1999-01-01

8

Hyphal Elongation of Glomus fasciculatus in Response to Root Exudates †  

PubMed Central

The spore germination rates on water agar of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatus were highest at water potentials of ?4 to ?6 bars. Root exudates from plants grown in a sterile nutrient solution, with or without phosphorus, did not affect germination. Root exudates collected from 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old Trifolium repens cv. `Ladino' seedlings that were deprived of P enabled hyphal growth from germinated Glomus fasciculatus spores of 21.4, 14.7, and 7.6 mm, respectively. Hyphal elongation in the presence of exudates from plants grown with P, or in the absence of exudates, was negligible (<1 mm). Root P at 2 weeks was not significantly different between plants grown with and without P. There were no significant differences between the quantities of exudates from plants grown with or without P at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The data suggest that it is the quality of exudates from plants experiencing P deprivation that is important in stimulating vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal elongation. PMID:16347418

Elias, Karol S.; Safir, Gene R.

1987-01-01

9

Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending  

PubMed Central

Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

2014-01-01

10

HDG11 upregulates cell-wall-loosening protein genes to promote root elongation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The gain-of-function mutant edt1 shows significantly enhanced drought tolerance and a well-developed root system including deeper primary roots and more lateral roots. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the improved root system of edt1, we performed transcriptome comparison between the wild-type and edt1 roots. One of the interesting findings from the analysis was that several gene families of cell-wall-loosening proteins were upregulated in the mutant roots, including expansins, extensins, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), pectin-related enzymes, and cellulases. Most of these genes contain HD-binding cis-elements in their promoters predominantly with the TTTAATTT sequence, which can be bound by HDG11 in vitro and in vivo. The coordinated expression of these gene families overlaps fast root elongation. Furthermore, overexpression of AtEXPA5, which was dramatically upregulated in edt1, resulted in longer primary roots because cells were more extended longitudinally. When combined by crossing the AtEXPA5-overexpression lines with one pectin methylesterase inhibitor family protein (PMEI) gene (At5g62360)- or one cellulase (CEL) gene (At2g32990)-overexpression lines, the primary roots of the progeny even exceeded both parents in length. Our results demonstrate that HDG11 directly upregulates cell-wall-loosening protein genes, which is correlated with altered root system architecture, and confirm that cell-wall-loosening proteins play important roles in coordinating cell-wall extensibility with root development. The results of transgene experiments showed that expansin works together with PMEI and CEL to generate synergistic effects on primary root elongation, suggesting that different cell-wall-loosening protein families may function in combination to generate optimal effects on root extensibility. PMID:24821957

Xu, Ping; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Wang, Yao; Xing, Lu; Chen, Qiong; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

2014-08-01

11

4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

2002-01-01

12

Multiple signaling pathways control nitrogen-mediated root elongation in maize  

PubMed Central

Response of root system architecture to nutrient availability is an essential way for plants to adapt to soil environments. Nitrogen can affect root development either as a result of changes in the external concentration, or through changes in the internal nutrient status of the plant. Low soil N stimulates root elongation in maize. Recent evidence suggests that plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, as well as NO signaling pathway, are involved in the regulation of root elongation by low nitrogen nutrition. PMID:19704443

Chen, Fanjun; Zhang, Fusuo

2008-01-01

13

Multiple signaling pathways control nitrogen-mediated root elongation in maize.  

PubMed

Response of root system architecture to nutrient availability is an essential way for plants to adapt to soil environments. Nitrogen can affect root development either as a result of changes in the external concentration, or through changes in the internal nutrient status of the plant. Low soil N stimulates root elongation in maize. Recent evidence suggests that plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, as well as NO signaling pathway, are involved in the regulation of root elongation by low nitrogen nutrition. PMID:19704443

Mi, Guohua; Chen, Fanjun; Zhang, Fusuo

2008-11-01

14

Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

1985-01-01

15

Effect of auxins and plant oligosaccharides on root formation and elongation growth of mung bean hypocotyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of auxins – IAA, IBA or NAA – with galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) on adventitious root formation and elongation growth of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings was studied. GGMOs induced adventitious roots in the absence of auxins; however, their effect was lower compared with IBA or NAA. On the other hand, in the presence of auxins, GGMOs inhibited adventitious root

Karin Kollárová; Mária Henselová; Desana Lišková

2005-01-01

16

Arabidopsis thaliana RALF1 opposes brassinosteroid effects on root cell elongation and lateral root formation.  

PubMed

Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a peptide signal that plays a basic role in cell biology and most likely regulates cell expansion. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines with high and low levels of AtRALF1 transcripts were used to investigate this peptide's mechanism of action. Overexpression of the root-specific isoform AtRALF1 resulted in reduced cell size. Conversely, AtRALF1 silencing increased root length by increasing the size of root cells. AtRALF1-silenced plants also showed an increase in the number of lateral roots, whereas AtRALF1 overexpression produced the opposite effect. In addition, four AtRALF1-inducible genes were identified: two genes encoding proline-rich proteins (AtPRP1 and AtPRP3), one encoding a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (AtHRPG2), and one encoding a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (TCH4). These genes were expressed in roots and involved in cell-wall rearrangement, and their induction was concentration dependent. Furthermore, AtRALF1-overexpressing plants were less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide (BL); upon BL treatment, the plants showed no increase in root length and a compromised increase in hypocotyl elongation. In addition, the treatment had no effect on the number of emerged lateral roots. AtRALF1 also induces two brassinosteroid (BR)-downregulated genes involved in the BR biosynthetic pathway: the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHISM AND DWARFISM (CPD) and DWARF4 (DWF4). Simultaneous treatment with both AtRALF1 and BL caused a reduction in AtRALF1-inducible gene expression levels, suggesting that these signals may compete for components shared by both pathways. Taken together, these results indicate an opposing effect of AtRALF1 and BL, and suggest that RALF's mechanism of action could be to interfere with the BR signalling pathway. PMID:24620000

Bergonci, Tábata; Ribeiro, Bianca; Ceciliato, Paulo H O; Guerrero-Abad, Juan Carlos; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Moura, Daniel S

2014-05-01

17

Genetic variability of oxalate oxidase activity and elongation in water-stressed primary roots of diverse maize and rice lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous work on maize primary roots under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. In association with these responses, several proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, part...

18

The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

1993-01-01

19

Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length  

PubMed Central

Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations. Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

2014-01-01

20

Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length.  

PubMed

Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations.   Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

2014-01-01

21

Root elongation against a constant force: experiment with a computerized feedback-controlled device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axial force was applied to the root tip of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) seedlings using a computerized, feedback-controlled mechanical device. The system's feedback capability allowed continuous control of a constant tip load, and the attached displacement transducer provided the time course of root elongation. Loads up to 7.5 g decreased the root elongation rate by 0.13 mm h-1 g-1, but loads 7.5 to 17.5 g decreased the growth rate by only 0.04 mm h-1 g-1. Loads higher than 18 g stopped root elongation completely. Measurement of the cross-sectional areas of the root tips indicated that the 18 g load had applied about 0.98 MPa of axial pressure to the root, thereby exceeding the root's ability to respond with increased turgor pressure. Recorded time-lapse images of loaded roots showed that radial thickening (swelling) occurred behind the root cap, whose cross-sectional area increased with tip load.

Kuzeja, P. S.; Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.

2001-01-01

22

Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2010-01-01

23

Gibberellins accumulate in the elongating endodermal cells of Arabidopsis root  

E-print Network

involved in all aspects of plant growth and develop- ment. Unlike animals, plants actively regulate of the other plant hormones, including gibberellic acid (GA), is largely unknown. To address this, we generated development | ethylene | root growth | fluorescent labeling | hormone labeling Adaptive growth of plants

Tsien, Roger Y.

24

The Regulation of Growth in the Distal Elongation Zone of Maize Roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goals of the proposed research were 1. To develop specialized software for automated whole surface root expansion analysis and to develop technology for controlled placement of surface electrodes for analysis of relationships between root growth and root pH and electrophysiological properties. 2. To measure surface pH patterns and determine the possible role of proton flux in gravitropic sensing or response, and 3. To determine the role of auxin transport in establishment of patterns of proton flux and electrical gradients during the gravitropic response of roots with special emphasis on the role of the distal elongation zone in the early phases of the gravitropic response.

Evans, Michael L.

1998-01-01

25

Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

1994-01-01

26

Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

1990-01-01

27

Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root indole-3-acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with numerous biological functions. However, the influence of sulfur nutrient availability on the regulation of root development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. root development and growth to different levels of sulfate, demonstrating that low sulfate levels promote the primary root elongation. By using various reporter lines, we examined in vivo IAA level and distribution, cell division, and root meristem in response to different sulfate levels. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of in vivo cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels were measured. Root cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels are positively correlated with external sulfate levels in the physiological range, which eventually affect root system architecture. Low sulfate levels also downregulate the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and transport, and elevate the accumulation of PLT1 and PLT2. This study suggests that sulfate level affects the primary root elongation by regulating the endogenous auxin level and root stem cell niche maintenance. PMID:24831283

Zhao, Qing; Wu, Yu; Gao, Lei; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan-You; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

2014-12-01

28

SEED GERMINATION AND ROOT ELONGATION TOXICITY TESTS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE EVALUATION: METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seed germination tests measure soil toxicity directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents which may be present in site-samples. n the seed germination toxicity test, site-soil is mixed with a reference soil to yield exposure co...

29

Root-Localized Phytochrome Chromophore Synthesis Is Required for Photoregulation of Root Elongation and Impacts Root Sensitivity to Jasmonic Acid in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants exhibit organ- and tissue-specific light responses. To explore the molecular basis of spatial-specific phytochrome-regulated responses, a transgenic approach for regulating the synthesis and accumulation of the phytochrome chromophore phytochromobilin (P?B) was employed. In prior experiments, transgenic expression of the BILIVERDIN REDUCTASE (BVR) gene was used to metabolically inactivate biliverdin IX?, a key precursor in the biosynthesis of P?B, and thereby render cells accumulating BVR phytochrome deficient. Here, we report analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines with distinct patterns of BVR accumulation dependent upon constitutive or tissue-specific, promoter-driven BVR expression that have resulted in insights on a correlation between root-localized BVR accumulation and photoregulation of root elongation. Plants with BVR accumulation in roots and a P?B-deficient elongated hypocotyl2 (hy2-1) mutant exhibit roots that are longer than those of wild-type plants under white illumination. Additional analyses of a line with root-specific BVR accumulation generated using a GAL4-dependent bipartite enhancer-trap system confirmed that P?B or phytochromes localized in roots directly impact light-dependent root elongation under white, blue, and red illumination. Additionally, roots of plants with constitutive plastid-localized or root-specific cytosolic BVR accumulation, as well as phytochrome chromophore-deficient hy1-1 and hy2-1 mutants, exhibit reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) in JA-dependent root inhibition assays, similar to the response observed for the JA-insensitive mutants jar1 and myc2. Our analyses of lines with root-localized phytochrome deficiency or root-specific phytochrome depletion have provided novel insights into the roles of root-specific P?B, or phytochromes themselves, in the photoregulation of root development and root sensitivity to JA. PMID:21875894

Costigan, Stephanie E.; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N.; Humphries, Brock A.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

2011-01-01

30

Rare earth elements and plant growth: I. Effects of lanthanum and cerium on root elongation of corn and mungbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root elongation of corn (Zea mays cv. Hycorn 82) and mungbean (Vigna radiata cv. Berken) seedlings was measured in dilute complete nutrient solutions to which varying amounts of lanthanum (La) or cerium (Ce) had been added. The nutrient solutions were aged for 9 d prior to conducting the root elongation experiments and solution samples ultra?filtered to 0.025 ?m before chemical

E. Diatloff; F. W. Smith; C. J. Asher

1995-01-01

31

Distribution of electrolytes in cells of the tomato root elongation zone during a gravitropic response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that gravitropic response of etiolated seedlings is accompanied with asymmetrical distribution of auxins. The higher amount of auxins in the tissues of the lower sides of gravistimulated organs induces cell elongation in shoots and inhibits cell elongation in roots. In spite on the progress in understanding of the auxin-mediated effects on plant growth and development, there is no a complete conception concerning of gravitropic response mechanism. This investigation aims to determine whether the growth response of tomato seedlings on reorientation to the horizontal induces alterations in distribution of electrolytes in cells of the main root elongation zone, the site where induction of the curvature takes place. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Rio Grande) seedlings were grown on agar surface in 10 cm Petri dishes. The gravitropic response of seedlings was evaluated by the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90° from the vertical. Root segments of several mm basipetal to the root tip were fixed in liquid nitrogen, freeze-substituted with Lowicril K11M at -35° C. Sections 100 and 1000 nm thick were cut using LKB Ultrotome V, collected by dry method and analyzed in the 6060 LA SEM at accelerating voltage 15 kV. Using different modes of X-ray microanalysis (X-ray map, - line and -point analysis), distribution of the physiologically relevant ions (Na, P, K, Ca) in cells of surface layers of the upper and lower root sides were investigated. The peculiarities in localization of the electrolytes in different subcellular compartments as well as distribution in the direction between upper and lower sides of the root curvature are discussed.

Klymchuk, Dmytro

32

NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*  

PubMed Central

Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

Quaggiotti, Silvia

2014-01-01

33

Seed germination and root elongation as indicators of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals  

SciTech Connect

Wetland ecosystems have often been impacted by the addition of hazardous waste materials. Methods are needed to evaluate the effect of these substances on wetland ecosystems and the organisms within them. This study evaluates the response of various wetland plant species to representative contaminants (cadmium, nickel, atrazine, anthracene, and tetrachloroethylene). Species tested include Caphalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Sparganium americanum (bur-reed), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash). To the authors` knowledge these species have rarely if ever been used in toxicological assays. The endpoints used are germination and root elongation. Preliminary studies using a petri dish system have shown decreased germination at the highest metal concentration (50mg/L) and decreased root elongation in the higher metal concentrations (10, 25, and 50mg/L). Interference from the carrier was observed in the organic tests. Root elongation studies using the metals are being continued using tubes with various sand and vermiculite mixes into which freshly germinated seeds are placed. Species with the best responses will be tested in the field at the Savannah River Site, SC, and also with fuel oil. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which tests are well established.

Sutton, H.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hook, D.D.; Klaine, S.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

34

Lipid Peroxidation Is an Early Symptom Triggered by Aluminum, But Not the Primary Cause of Elongation Inhibition in Pea Roots1  

PubMed Central

Pea (Pisum sativum) roots were treated with aluminum in a calcium solution, and lipid peroxidation was investigated histochemically and biochemically, as well as other events caused by aluminum exposure. Histochemical stainings were observed to distribute similarly on the entire surface of the root apex for three events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and callose production), but the loss of plasma membrane integrity (detected by Evans blue uptake) was localized exclusively at the periphery of the cracks on the surface of root apex. The enhancement of four events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, callose production, and root elongation inhibition) displayed similar aluminum dose dependencies and occurred by 4 h. The loss of membrane integrity, however, was enhanced at lower aluminum concentrations and after longer aluminum exposure (8 h). The addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (a lipophilic antioxidant) during aluminum treatment completely prevented lipid peroxidation and callose production by 40%, but did not prevent or slow the other events. Thus lipid peroxidation is a relatively early symptom induced by the accumulation of aluminum and appears to cause, in part, callose production, but not the root elongation inhibition; by comparison, the loss of plasma membrane integrity is a relatively late symptom caused by cracks in the root due to the inhibition of root elongation. PMID:11154329

Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki

2001-01-01

35

Characterisation of the oxygen fluxes in the division, elongation and mature zones of Vitis roots: influence of oxygen availability.  

PubMed

Oxygen fluxes into and from root cells of Vitis rupestris (flooding sensitive), V. riparia (flooding tolerant) and V. vinifera (medium tolerance to flooding) were measured under different levels of O2 availability using a recently developed polarographic O2-selective, vibrating-microelectrode system. The system enables fluxes to be measured with a spatial resolution of 2-3 microm and a temporal resolution of 10 s. No difference in root porosity was found among the genotypes when grown for 30 days in an aerated solution. Under normoxic conditions, O2 influx was characterised by two distinct peaks, one in the division zone and the other in the elongation zone of the roots. This pattern was found in all three species studied, although the fluxes showed a different magnitude. The peak in the elongation zone coincided with maximum relative elemental growth rates. When the energetics of the cell was disturbed by cyanide, both growth and oxygen O2 influxes ceased at the same time. Under hypoxic conditions, V. riparia plants showed a precise strategy directed toward the maintenance of enough O2 for the respiratory needs of mitosis in the apical meristem of the roots. Thus, whereas in the division zone of V. rupestris and V. vinifera, at bulk O2 concentrations of 0.094 mol x m(-3), the O2 influx was reduced by 70.5 and 38.5%, respectively, for V. riparia no variation in the O2 influx was detected down to bulk O2 concentrations of 0.078 mol x m(-3). Moreover, in accordance with the different tolerances of the plants, the Vitis genotypes were found to differ in their radial O2 loss from the adventitious roots when in an O2-free environment. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of response to anoxia in Vitis species with different tolerances to flooding. PMID:11882946

Mancuso, Stefano; Boselli, Maurizio

2002-03-01

36

Elongation changes of exploratory and root hair systems induced by aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine affect nitrate uptake and BnNrt2.1 and BnNrt1.1 transporter gene expression in oilseed rape.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a major role in the elongation of both exploratory and root hair systems. Here, we demonstrate in Brassica napus seedlings that treatments with the ethylene precursor, aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) and the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), cause modification of the dynamic processes of primary root and root hair elongation in a dose-dependent way. Moreover, restoration of root elongation in AVG-treated seedlings by 1 mm l-glutamate suggested that high concentrations of AVG affect root elongation through nonoverlapping ethylene metabolic pathway involving pyridoxal 5'-P-dependent enzymes of nitrate (N) metabolism. In this respect, treatments with high concentrations of ACC and AVG (10 mum) over 5 d revealed significant differences in relationships between root growth architecture and N uptake capacities. Indeed, if these treatments decreased severely the elongation of the exploratory root system (primary root and lateral roots) they had opposing effects on the root hair system. Although ACC increased the length and number of root hairs, the rate of N uptake and the transcript level of the N transporter BnNrt2.1 were markedly reduced. In contrast, the decrease in root hair length and number in AVG-treated seedlings was overcompensated by an increase of N uptake and BnNrt2.1 gene expression. These root architectural changes demonstrated that BnNrt2.1 expression levels were more correlated to the changes of the exploratory root system than the changes of the root hair system. The difference between treatments in N transporters BnNrt1.1 and BnNrt2.1 gene expression is discussed with regard to presumed transport functions of BnNrt1.1 in relation to root elongation. PMID:18287493

Leblanc, Antonin; Renault, Hugues; Lecourt, Julien; Etienne, Philippe; Deleu, Carole; Le Deunff, Erwan

2008-04-01

37

Cytoplasmic calcium levels in protoplasts from the cap and elongation zone of maize roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium has been implicated as a key component in the signal transduction process of root gravitropism. We measured cytoplasmic free calcium in protoplasts isolated from the elongation zone and cap of primary roots of light-grown, vertically oriented seedlings of Zea mays L. Protoplasts were loaded with the penta-potassium salts of fura-2 and indo-1 by incubation in acidic solutions of these calcium indicators. Loading increased with decreasing pH but the pH dependence was stronger for indo-1 than for fura-2. In the case of fura-2, loading was enhanced only at the lowest pH (4.5) tested. Dyes loaded in this manner were distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm as indicated by fluorescence patterns. As an alternative method of loading, protoplasts were incubated with the acetoxymethylesters of fura-2 and indo-1. Protoplasts loaded by this method exhibited fluorescence both in the cytoplasm and in association with various organelles. Cytoplasmic calcium levels measured using spectrofluorometry, were found to be 160 +/- 40 nM and 257 +/- 27 nM, respectively, in populations of protoplasts from the root cap and elongation zone. Cytoplasmic free calcium did not increase upon addition of calcium to the incubation medium, indicating that the passive permeability to calcium was low.

Kiss, H. G.; Evans, M. L.; Johnson, J. D.

1991-01-01

38

Role of Apoplastic and Cell-Wall Peroxidases on the Stimulation of Root Elongation by Ascorbate.  

PubMed Central

Elongation of onion (Allium cepa L.) roots was highly stimulated by ascorbate (ASC) and its natural precursor I-galactone-[gamma]-lactone (GL). When incubation media were supplemented with lycorine (Lyc), an inhibitor of the ASC biosynthesis, root growth was negligible even in the presence of ASC or GL. ASC completely inhibited in vitro guaiacol peroxidase activities that were isolated from both the apoplast and the cell wall. However, ferulic-acid-dependent peroxidase from the cell wall was partially inhibited by ASC, whereas ferulic acid peroxidase activity from the apoplastic fluid was completely inhibited by ASC as long as ASC was present in the assay medium. ASC content in cells was increased by preincubations with ASC or GL, whereas Lyc reduced it. On the other hand, ASC or GL treatments decreased both apoplast and cell-wall-bound peroxidase activities, whereas Lyc had a slight stimulating effect. These results are discussed on the basis of a possible control of root elongation by ASC via its action on peroxidases that are involved in the regulation of cell-wall extensibility. PMID:12226436

Cordoba-Pedregosa, MdC.; Gonzalez-Reyes, J. A.; Canadillas, MdS.; Navas, P.; Cordoba, F.

1996-01-01

39

Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations  

PubMed Central

Background Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Methods Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a ‘free-running’ state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. Key Results and Conclusions The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ?4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate. PMID:23532042

Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A.; Khabarova, Olga V.; Gallep, Cristiano M.

2013-01-01

40

An automatic image analyzing system for evaluation of elongating behavior of plant hairy roots exposed to herbicidal stimuli.  

PubMed

The elongating behavior of pak-bung hairy roots was evaluated by automatic tracing of the root tip point employing computer-aided image analysis. Though the root elongation rate in the absence of herbicides was approximately constant, the addition of 1.0 pmol/dm3 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or pyributicarb to the culture led to gradual deterioration of the elongation rate during measurements over a 25 h period. The saturated value of the elongation rate (R(G)sat) was determined as a measure to predict herbicidal toxicity to the roots by formulating the time profiles of the elongation rate. Under the conditions of 0.2-1.0 pmol/dm3 2,4-D and 0.110 micromol/dm3 pyributicarb, the dose-response profiles based on the R(G)sat values overlapped closely with those based on the manually determined elongation rate in prolonged cultures for 168 h. It was concluded that the system developed could be a useful tool for the assessment of herbicidal toxicity in the hairy roots. PMID:16233493

Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Tsushima, Yuki; King-Oka, Masahiro; Taya, Masahito

2003-01-01

41

Proline-rich protein-like PRPL1 controls elongation of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The synthesis and composition of cell walls is dynamically adapted in response to many developmental and environmental signals. In this respect, cell wall proteins involved in controlling cell elongation are critical for cell development. Transcriptome analysis identified a gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, which was named proline-rich protein-like, AtPRPL1, based on sequence similarities from a phylogenetic analysis. The most resemblance was found to AtPRP1 and AtPRP3 from Arabidopsis, which are known to be involved in root hair growth and development. In A. thaliana four proline-rich cell wall protein genes, playing a role in building up the cross-connections between cell wall components, can be distinguished. AtPRPL1 is a small gene that in promoter::GUS (?-glucuronidase) analysis has high expression in trichoblast cells and in the collet. Chemical or mutational interference with root hair formation inhibited this expression. Altered expression levels in knock-out or overexpression lines interfered with normal root hair growth and etiolated hypocotyl development, but Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis did not identify consistent changes in cell wall composition of root hairs and hypocotyl. Co-localization analysis of the AtPRPL1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein and different red fluorescent protein (RFP)-labelled markers confirmed the presence of AtPRPL1-GFP in small vesicles moving over the endoplasmic reticulum. Together, these data indicate that the AtPRPL1 protein is involved in the cell's elongation process. How exactly this is achieved remains unclear at present. PMID:25147272

Boron, Agnieszka Karolina; Van Orden, Jürgen; Nektarios Markakis, Marios; Mouille, Grégory; Adriaensen, Dirk; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman; Vissenberg, Kris

2014-10-01

42

Reductions in Maize Root-tip Elongation by Salt and Osmotic Stress do not Correlate with Apoplastic O2•? Levels  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Experimental evidence in the literature suggests that O2•? produced in the elongation zone of roots and leaves by plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is required for growth. This study explores whether growth changes along the root tip induced by hyperosmotic treatments in Zea mays are associated with the distribution of apoplastic O2•?. Methods Stress treatments were imposed using 150 mm NaCl or 300 mm sorbitol. Root elongation rates and the spatial distribution of growth rates in the root tip were measured. Apoplastic O2•? was determined using nitro blue tetrazolium, and H2O2 was determined using 2?, 7?-dichlorofluorescin. Key Results In non-stressed plants, the distribution of accelerating growth and highest O2•? levels coincided along the root tip. Salt and osmotic stress of the same intensity had similar inhibitory effects on root elongation, but O2•? levels increased in sorbitol-treated roots and decreased in NaCl-treated roots. Conclusions The lack of association between apoplastic O2•? levels and root growth inhibition under hyper-osmotic stress leads us to hypothesize that under those conditions the role of apoplastic O2•? may be to participate in signalling processes, that convey information on the nature of the substrate that the growing root is exploring. PMID:18703541

Bustos, Dolores; Lascano, Ramiro; Villasuso, Ana Laura; Machado, Estela; Senn, María Eugenia; Córdoba, Alicia; Taleisnik, Edith

2008-01-01

43

Spatial distribution of transcript changes in the maize primary root elongation zone at low water potential  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work showed that the maize primary root adapts to low ?w (-1.6 MPa) by maintaining longitudinal expansion in the apical 3 mm (region 1), whereas in the adjacent 4 mm (region 2) longitudinal expansion reaches a maximum in well-watered roots but is progressively inhibited at low ?w. To identify mechanisms that determine these responses to low ?w, transcript expression was profiled in these regions of water-stressed and well-watered roots. In addition, comparison between region 2 of water-stressed roots and the zone of growth deceleration in well-watered roots (region 3) distinguished stress-responsive genes in region 2 from those involved in cell maturation. Results Responses of gene expression to water stress in regions 1 and 2 were largely distinct. The largest functional categories of differentially expressed transcripts were reactive oxygen species and carbon metabolism in region 1, and membrane transport in region 2. Transcripts controlling sucrose hydrolysis distinguished well-watered and water-stressed states (invertase vs. sucrose synthase), and changes in expression of transcripts for starch synthesis indicated further alteration in carbon metabolism under water deficit. A role for inositols in the stress response was suggested, as was control of proline metabolism. Increased expression of transcripts for wall-loosening proteins in region 1, and for elements of ABA and ethylene signaling were also indicated in the response to water deficit. Conclusion The analysis indicates that fundamentally different signaling and metabolic response mechanisms are involved in the response to water stress in different regions of the maize primary root elongation zone. PMID:18387193

Spollen, William G; Tao, Wenjing; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Kegui; Hejlek, Lindsey G; Kim, Jong-Joo; LeNoble, Mary E; Zhu, Jinming; Bohnert, Hans J; Henderson, David; Schachtman, Daniel P; Davis, Georgia E; Springer, Gordon K; Sharp, Robert E; Nguyen, Henry T

2008-01-01

44

MPK6 controls H2 O2-induced root elongation by mediating Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane of root cells in Arabidopsis seedlings.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play critical roles in signalling and growth, and Ca(2+) and H2 O2 control plant growth processes associated with abscisic acid (ABA). However, it remains unclear how MPKs are involved in H2 O2 - and Ca(2+) -mediated root elongation. Root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutant Atmpk6 (Arabidopsis thaliana MPK6) was less sensitive to moderate H2 O2 or ABA than that in wild-type (WT) plants. The enhanced elongation was a result of root cell expansion. This effect disappeared when ABA-induced H2 O2 accumulation or the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase were defective. Molecular and biochemical evidence showed that increased expression of the cell wall peroxidase PRX34 in Atmpk6 root cells enhanced apoplastic H2 O2 generation; this promoted a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane damage caused by high levels of H2 O2 was ameliorated in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. These results suggested that there was intensified PRX34-mediated H2 O2 generation in the apoplast and increased Ca(2+) flux into the cytosol of Atmpk6 root cells; that is, the spatial separation of apoplastic H2 O2 from cytosolic Ca(2+) in root cells prevented H2 O2 -induced inhibition of root elongation in Atmpk6 seedlings. PMID:25145265

Han, Shuan; Fang, Lin; Ren, Xuejian; Wang, Wenle; Jiang, Jing

2015-01-01

45

Cell wall integrity controls root elongation via a general 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-dependent, ethylene-independent pathway.  

PubMed

Cell expansion in plants requires cell wall biosynthesis and rearrangement. During periods of rapid elongation, such as during the growth of etiolated hypocotyls and primary root tips, cells respond dramatically to perturbation of either of these processes. There is growing evidence that this response is initiated by a cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism and dedicated signaling pathway rather than being an inevitable consequence of lost structural integrity. However, the existence of such a pathway in root tissue and its function in a broader developmental context have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that various types of cell wall stress rapidly reduce primary root elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This response depended on the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In agreement with the established ethylene signaling pathway in roots, auxin signaling and superoxide production are required downstream of ACC to reduce elongation. However, this cell wall stress response unexpectedly does not depend on the perception of ethylene. We show that the short-term effect of ACC on roots is partially independent of its conversion to ethylene or ethylene signaling and that this ACC-dependent pathway is also responsible for the rapid reduction of root elongation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This acute response to internal and external stress thus represents a novel, noncanonical signaling function of ACC. PMID:21508182

Tsang, Dat L; Edmond, Clare; Harrington, Jennifer L; Nühse, Thomas S

2011-06-01

46

The rib1 mutant of Arabidopsis has alterations in indole-3-butyric acid transport, hypocotyl elongation, and root architecture.  

PubMed

Polar transport of the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has recently been shown to occur in Arabidopsis (Arabidopis thaliana) seedlings, yet the physiological importance of this process has yet to be fully resolved. Here we describe the first demonstration of altered IBA transport in an Arabidopsis mutant, and show that the resistant to IBA (rib1) mutation results in alterations in growth, development, and response to exogenous auxin consistent with an important physiological role for IBA transport. Both hypocotyl and root IBA basipetal transport are decreased in rib1 and root acropetal IBA transport is increased. While indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport levels are not different in rib1 compared to wild type, root acropetal IAA transport is insensitive to the IAA efflux inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid in rib1, as is the dependent physiological process of lateral root formation. These observed changes in IBA transport are accompanied by altered rib1 phenotypes. Previously, rib1 roots were shown to be less sensitive to growth inhibition by IBA, but to have a wild-type response to IAA in root elongation. rib1 is also less sensitive to IBA in stimulation of lateral root formation and in hypocotyl elongation under most, but not all, light and sucrose conditions. rib1 has wild-type responses to IAA, except under one set of conditions, low light and 1.5% sucrose, in which both hypocotyl elongation and lateral root formation show altered IAA response. Taken together, our results support a model in which endogenous IBA influences wild-type seedling morphology. Modifications in IBA distribution in seedlings affect hypocotyl and root elongation, as well as lateral root formation. PMID:16258013

Poupart, Julie; Rashotte, Aaron M; Muday, Gloria K; Waddell, Candace S

2005-11-01

47

Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone). Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream signaling cascade, these are converged to a ’common pathway’. Furthermore, several potential keyplayers, such as transcription factors and auxin-responsive genes, were identified by the microarray analysis. They await further analysis to reveal their exact role in the control of cell elongation. PMID:23134674

2012-01-01

48

Effect of Inhibition of Abscisic Acid Accumulation on the Spatial Distribution of Elongation in the Primary Root and Mesocotyl of Maize at Low Water Potentials 1  

PubMed Central

Previous work showed that accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) acts both to maintain primary root growth and inhibit shoot growth in maize seedlings at low water potentials (?w) (IN Saab, RE Sharp, J Pritchard, GS Voetberg [1990] Plant Physiol 93: 1329-1336). In this study, we have characterized the growth responses of the primary root and mesocotyl of maize (Zea mays L. cv FR27 × FRMo 17) to manipulation of ABA levels at low ?w with a high degree of spatial resolution to provide the basis for studies of the mechanism(s) of ABA action. In seedlings growing at low ?w and treated with fluridone to inhibit carotenoid (and ABA) biosynthesis, ABA levels were decreased in all locations of the root and mesocotyl growing zones compared with untreated seedlings growing at the same ?w. In the root, low ?w (?1.6 megapascals) caused a shortening of the growing zone, as reported previously. The fluridone treatment was associated with severe inhibition of root elongation rate, which resulted from further shortening of the growing zone. In the mesocotyl, low ?w (?0.3 megapascal) also resulted in a shortened growing zone. In contrast with the primary root, however, fluridone treatment prevented most of the inhibition of elongation and the shortening of the growing zone. Final cell length measurements indicated that the responses of both root and mesocotyl elongation to ABA manipulation at low ?w involve large effects on cell expansion. Measurements of the relative changes in root and shoot water contents and dry weights after transplanting to a ?w of ?0.3 megapascal showed that the maintenance of shoot elongation in fluridone-treated seedlings was not attributable to increased water or seed-reserve availability resulting from inhibition of root growth. The results suggest a developmental gradient in tissue responsiveness to endogenous ABA in both the root and mesocotyl growing zones. In the root, the capacity for ABA to protect cell expansion at low ?w appears to decrease with increasing distance from the apex. In the mesocotyl, in contrast, the accumulation of ABA at low ?w appears to become increasingly inhibitory to expansion as cells are displaced away from the meristematic region. PMID:16668859

Saab, Imad N.; Sharp, Robert E.; Pritchard, Jeremy

1992-01-01

49

The Effect of Iron on the Primary Root Elongation of Arabidopsis during Phosphate Deficiency1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Root architecture differences have been linked to the survival of plants on phosphate (P)-deficient soils, as well as to the improved yields of P-efficient crop cultivars. To understand how these differences arise, we have studied the root architectures of P-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0) plants. A striking aspect of the root architecture of these plants is that their primary root elongation is inhibited when grown on P-deficient medium. Here, we present evidence suggesting that this inhibition is a result of iron (Fe) toxicity. When the Fe concentration in P-deficient medium is reduced, we observe elongation of the primary root without an increase in P availability or a corresponding change in the expression of P deficiency-regulated genes. Recovery of the primary root elongation is associated with larger plant weights, improved ability to take up P from the medium, and increased tissue P content. This suggests that manipulating Fe availability to a plant could be a valuable strategy for improving a plant's ability to tolerate P deficiency. PMID:18467463

Ward, James T.; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Salt, David E.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.

2008-01-01

50

THE EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONALIZED AND NON-FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBES ON ROOT ELONGATION OF SELECTED CROP SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have many potential beneficial uses with additional applications constantly being investigated. However, these unique properties create a potential cause for concern of toxicity, not only in humans and animals, but also in plants. Root elong...

51

Water Deficit Rapidly Stimulates the Activity of a Protein Kinase in the Elongation Zone of the Maize Primary Root.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which plants detect water deficit and transduce that signal into adaptive responses is unknown. In maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, primary roots adapt to low water potentials such that substantial rates of elongation continue when shoot growth is completely inhibited. In this study, in-gel protein kinase assays were used to determine whether protein kinases in the elongation zone of the primary root undergo activation or inactivation in response to water deficit. Multiple differences were detected in the phosphoprotein content of root tips of water-stressed compared with well-watered seedlings. Protein kinase assays identified water-deficit-activated protein kinases, including a 45-kD, Ca2+-independent serine/threonine protein kinase. Water-deficit activation of this kinase occurred within 30 min after transplanting seedlings to conditions of low water potential and was localized to the elongation zone, was independent of ABA accumulation, and was unaffected by cycloheximide-mediated inhibition of protein translation. These results provide evidence that the 45-kD protein kinase acts at an early step in the response of maize primary roots to water deficit and is possibly involved in regulating the adaptation of root growth to low water potential. PMID:12223602

Conley, T. R.; Sharp, R. E.; Walker, J. C.

1997-01-01

52

Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).  

PubMed

We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar. PMID:25028322

Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

2014-10-01

53

Immobilization of aluminum with mucilage secreted by root cap and root border cells is related to aluminum resistance in Glycine max L.  

PubMed

The root cap and root border cells (RBCs) of most plant species produced pectinaceous mucilage, which can bind metal cations. In order to evaluate the potential role of root mucilage on aluminum (Al) resistance, two soybean cultivars differing in Al resistance were aeroponic cultured, the effects of Al on root mucilage secretion, root growth, contents of mucilage-bound Al and root tip Al, and the capability of mucilage to bind Al were investigated. Increasing Al concentration and exposure time significantly enhanced mucilage excretion from both root caps and RBCs, decreased RBCs viability and relative root elongation except roots exposed to 400 ?M Al for 48 h in Al-resistant cultivar. Removal of root mucilage from root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation. Of the total Al accumulated in root, mucilage accounted 48-72 and 12-27 %, while root tip accounted 22-52 and 73-88 % in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars, respectively. A (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the Al-adsorbed mucilage showed Al tightly bound to mucilage. Higher capacity to exclude Al in Al-resistant soybean cultivar is related to the immobilization and detoxification of Al by the mucilage secreted from root cap and RBCs. PMID:23749363

Cai, Miaozhen; Wang, Ning; Xing, Chenghua; Wang, Fangmei; Wu, Kun; Du, Xing

2013-12-01

54

GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system  

PubMed Central

As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from –2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

Zhang, Xianlong

2012-01-01

55

GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system.  

PubMed

As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from -2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

Hao, Juan; Tu, Lili; Hu, Haiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Tang, Wenxin; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2012-10-01

56

Root hair elongation is inhibited by hypaphorine, the indole alkaloid from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius , and restored by indole-3-acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius, controls the elongation rate of root hairs. At inhibitory concentrations (100??M), hypaphorine induced a transitory swelling\\u000a of root hair tips of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. bicostata. When the polar tip growth resumed, a characteristic deformation was still visible on elongating hairs. At higher hypaphorine\\u000a concentrations (500??M and

Franck Anicet Ditengou; Thierry Béguiristain; Frédéric Lapeyrie

2000-01-01

57

Involvement of calmodulin in regulation of primary root elongation by N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria use signal molecules of low molecular weight to monitor their local population density and to coordinate their collective behavior in a process called “quorum sensing” (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the primary QS signals among Gram-negative bacteria. AHL-mediated QS plays an essential role in diverse bacterial physiological processes. Recent evidence shows that plants are able to sense bacterial AHLs and respond to them appropriately. However, little is known about the mechanism by which plants perceive and transduce the bacterial AHLs within cells. In this study, we found that the stimulatory effect of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) on primary root elongation of Arabidopsis was abolished by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7) and trifluoperazine (TFP). Western-blot and ELISA analysis revealed that the concentration of CaM protein in Arabidopsis roots increased after treatment with 1 ?M 3OC6-HSL. Results from quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of all nine CaM genes in Arabidopsis genome was up-regulated in the plants treated with 3OC6-HSL. The loss-of-function mutants of each AtCaM gene (AtCaM1-9) were insensitive to 3OC6-HSL-stimulation of primary root elongation. On the other hand, the genetic evidence showed that CaM may not participates the inhibition of primary root length caused by application of long-chained AHLs such as C10-HSL and C12-HSL. Nevertheless, our results suggest that CaM is involved in the bacterial 3OC6-HSL signaling in plant cells. These data offer new insight into the mechanism of plant response to bacterial QS signals.

Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Chao; Jia, Zhenhua; Huang, Yali; Li, Haili; Song, Shuishan

2015-01-01

58

Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials  

SciTech Connect

Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

1996-01-01

59

Selenium inhibits root elongation by repressing the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

Chen, Yi; Mo, Hai-Zhen; Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

60

Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in water status measurement techniques using the psychrometer, the pressure probe, the osmometer and pressure\\u000a chamber are reviewed, and the process of cell elongation from the viewpoint of plant-water relations is discussed for plants\\u000a subjected to various environmental stress conditions. Under water-deficient conditions, cell elongation of higher plants can\\u000a be inhibited by interruption of water flow from the

Hiroshi Nonami

1998-01-01

61

Cell Wall Integrity Controls Root Elongation via a General 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid-Dependent, Ethylene-Independent Pathway1[W  

PubMed Central

Cell expansion in plants requires cell wall biosynthesis and rearrangement. During periods of rapid elongation, such as during the growth of etiolated hypocotyls and primary root tips, cells respond dramatically to perturbation of either of these processes. There is growing evidence that this response is initiated by a cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism and dedicated signaling pathway rather than being an inevitable consequence of lost structural integrity. However, the existence of such a pathway in root tissue and its function in a broader developmental context have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that various types of cell wall stress rapidly reduce primary root elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This response depended on the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In agreement with the established ethylene signaling pathway in roots, auxin signaling and superoxide production are required downstream of ACC to reduce elongation. However, this cell wall stress response unexpectedly does not depend on the perception of ethylene. We show that the short-term effect of ACC on roots is partially independent of its conversion to ethylene or ethylene signaling and that this ACC-dependent pathway is also responsible for the rapid reduction of root elongation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This acute response to internal and external stress thus represents a novel, noncanonical signaling function of ACC. PMID:21508182

Tsang, Dat L.; Edmond, Clare; Harrington, Jennifer L.; Nühse, Thomas S.

2011-01-01

62

Hyper, a hydrogen peroxide sensor, indicates the sensitivity of the Arabidopsis root elongation zone to aluminum treatment.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that some reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are central regulators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the cellular levels of ROS are thought to be tightly regulated by an efficient and elaborate pro- and antioxidant system that modulates the production and scavenging of ROS. Until recently, studies of ROS in plant cells have been limited to biochemical assays and the use of fluorescent probes; however, the irreversible oxidation of these fluorescent probes makes it impossible to visualize dynamic changes in ROS levels. In this work, we describe the use of Hyper, a recently developed live cell probe for H2O2 measurements in living cells, to monitor oxidative stress in Arabidopsis roots subjected to aluminum treatment. Hyper consists of a circularly permuted YFP (cpYFP) inserted into the regulatory domain of the Escherichia coli hydrogen peroxide-binding protein (OxyR), and is a H2O2-specific ratiometric, and therefore quantitative, probe that can be expressed in plant and animal cells. Now we demonstrate that H2O2 levels drop sharply in the elongation zone of roots treated with aluminum. This response could contribute to root growth arrest and provides evidence that H2O2 is involved in early Al sensing. PMID:25569758

Hernández-Barrera, Alejandra; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Zepeda, Isaac; Sanchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen; Sánchez-Lopez, Rosana; Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cardenas, Luis

2015-01-01

63

Lettuce seed germination and root elongation toxicity evaluation of the F-Area seepline soils  

SciTech Connect

This study is a continuation of similar studies conducted by Easton and Murphy (1993) and Loehle (1990). The objectives of these studies are to: (1) assess the toxicity of the water-soluble constituents of soil in a seepline adjacent to the F-Area Seepage Basins and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of rainwater movements in reducing the toxicity of the soil. Soils from the F-Area seepline that were found to inhibit lettuce seed germination and radical elongation in 1990 were not found to be significantly different from soils from an uncontaminated control site in this test. After six washings of the soil, the toxicity of the leachate was comparable to that of de-ionized water. This indicates that natural water movements may have rendered the F-Area seepline soils less toxic to lettuce seedlings than in previous tests.

Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

1994-09-01

64

Potassium transporter TRH1 subunits assemble regulating root-hair elongation autonomously from the cell fate determination pathway.  

PubMed

Trichoblasts of trh1 plants form root-hair initiation sites that fail to undergo tip growth resulting in a tiny root-hair phenotype. TRH1 belongs to Arabidopsis KT/KUP/HAK potassium transporter family controlling root-hair growth and gravitropism. Double mutant combinations between trh1 and root-hair mutants affecting cell fate or root-hair initiation exhibited additive phenotypes, suggesting that TRH1 acts independently and developmentally downstream of root-hair initiation. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC), upon TRH1-YFP(C) and TRH1-YFP(N) co-transformation into tobacco epidermal cells, led to fluorescence emission indicative of TRH1 subunit homodimerization. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed two types of interactions. The hydrophilic segment between the second and the third transmembrane domain extending from residues Q105 to T141 is competent for a relatively weak interaction, whereas the region at the C-terminal beyond the last transmembrane domain, extending from amino acids R565 to A729, strongly self-interacts. These domains likely facilitate the co-assembly of TRH1 subunits forming an active K(+) transport system within cellular membrane structures. The results support the role of TRH1 acting as a convergence point between the developmental root-hair pathway and the environmental/hormonal signaling pathway to preserve auxin homeostasis ensuring plant adaptation in changing environments. PMID:25575998

Daras, Gerasimos; Rigas, Stamatis; Tsitsekian, Dikran; Iacovides, Tefkros A; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2015-02-01

65

Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

1984-11-01

66

Roles of BOR2, a Boron Exporter, in Cross Linking of Rhamnogalacturonan II and Root Elongation under Boron Limitation in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

Boron (B) is required for cross linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and is consequently essential for the maintenance of cell wall structure. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOR1 is an efflux B transporter for xylem loading of B. Here, we describe the roles of BOR2, the most similar paralog of BOR1. BOR2 encodes an efflux B transporter localized in plasma membrane and is strongly expressed in lateral root caps and epidermis of elongation zones of roots. Transfer DNA insertion of BOR2 reduced root elongation by 68%, whereas the mutation in BOR1 reduced it by 32% under low B availability (0.1 µm), but the reduction in shoot growth was not as obvious as that in the BOR1 mutant. A double mutant of BOR1 and BOR2 exhibited much more severe growth defects in both roots and shoots under B-limited conditions than the corresponding single mutants. All single and double mutants grew normally under B-sufficient conditions. These results suggest that both BOR1 and BOR2 are required under B limitation and that their roles are, at least in part, different. The total B concentrations in roots of BOR2 mutants were not significantly different from those in wild-type plants, but the proportion of cross-linked RG-II was reduced under low B availability. Such a reduction in RG-II cross linking was not evident in roots of the BOR1 mutant. Thus, we propose that under B-limited conditions, transport of boric acid/borate by BOR2 from symplast to apoplast is required for effective cross linking of RG-II in cell wall and root cell elongation. PMID:24114060

Miwa, Kyoko; Wakuta, Shinji; Takada, Shigeki; Ide, Koji; Takano, Junpei; Naito, Satoshi; Omori, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Toru

2013-01-01

67

Transcription of DWARF4 Plays a Crucial Role in Auxin-Regulated Root Elongation in Addition to Brassinosteroid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The expression of DWARF4 (DWF4), which encodes a C-22 hydroxylase, is crucial for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and for the feedback control of endogenous BR levels. To advance our knowledge of BRs, we examined the effects of different plant hormones on DWF4 transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR showed that the amount of the DWF4 mRNA precursor either decreased or increased, similarly with its mature form, in response to an exogenously applied bioactive BR, brassinolide (BL), and a BR biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz), respectively. The response to these chemicals in the levels of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNA and its enzymatic activity is similar to the response of native DWF4 mRNA in DWF4::GUS plants. Contrary to the effects of BL, exogenous auxin induced GUS activity, but this enhancement was suppressed by anti-auxins, such as ?-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA and ?-tert-butoxycarbonylaminohexyl-IAA, suggesting the involvement of SCFTIR1-mediated auxin signaling in auxin-induced DWF4 transcription. Auxin-enhanced GUS activity was observed exclusively in roots; it was the most prominent in the elongation zones of both primary and lateral roots. Furthermore, auxin-induced lateral root elongation was suppressed by both Brz application and the dwf4 mutation, and this suppression was rescued by BL, suggesting that BRs act positively on root elongation under the control of auxin. Altogether, our results indicate that DWF4 transcription plays a novel role in the BR-auxin crosstalk associated with root elongation, in addition to its role in BR homeostasis. PMID:21909364

Yoshimitsu, Yuya; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Fukuda, Wataru; Asami, Tadao; Yoshida, Shigeo; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Shigeta, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa

2011-01-01

68

Experimental and mathematical methods for representing relative surface elongation of the ACL.  

PubMed

The common approach to assess the stabilizing role of the ACL in the knee has been to measure the elongation of a few marked fibers in the ligament. A comparison of the relative elongation (RE) of these marked fibers between different specimens and studies is delicate due to the difficulty of marking the same fibers. More consistent comparisons would be achieved if the RE of the whole ligament surface was presented. Hence, we developed a mathematical method leading to a continuous description of the relative elongation of the ligament's surface based on experimental measurements of the RE of five fibers. The ligament fibers of two knee specimens were marked by radiopaque markers and a Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis system was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional positions of these artificial landmarks. The mathematical procedure used isoparametric cubic splines to interpolate the contours of the insertion sites. The results showed that the general pattern of the RE for both specimens was similar, characterized by an undulation near full flexion. In fact, close to full flexion all the RE of the fibers increased. Such a representation describes the changes in the RE for a given fiber during knee flexion and at the same time characterizes the RE distribution at a given flexion angle. PMID:7559683

Pioletti, D P; Heegaard, J H; Rakotomanana, R L; Leyvraz, P F; Blankevoort, L

1995-09-01

69

PROCUSTE1 Encodes a Cellulose Synthase Required for Normal Cell Elongation Specifically in Roots and Dark-Grown Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Mutants at the PROCUSTE1 (PRC1) locus show decreased cell elongation, specifically in roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Cell elongation defects are correlated with a cellulose deficiency and the presence of gapped walls. Map-based cloning of PRC1 reveals that it encodes a member (CesA6) of the cellulose synthase catalytic subunit family, of which at least nine other members exist in Arabidopsis. Mutations in another family member, RSW1 (CesA1), cause similar cell wall defects in all cell types, including those in hypocotyls and roots, suggesting that cellulose synthesis in these organs requires the coordinated expression of at least two distinct cellulose synthase isoforms. PMID:11148287

Fagard, Mathilde; Desnos, Thierry; Desprez, Thierry; Goubet, Florence; Refregier, Guislaine; Mouille, Gregory; McCann, Maureen; Rayon, Catherine; Vernhettes, Samantha; Höfte, Herman

2000-01-01

70

GABA accumulation causes cell elongation defects and a decrease in expression of genes encoding secreted and cell wall-related proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

GABA (?-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, is a signaling factor in many organisms. In plants, GABA is known to accumulate under a variety of stresses. However, the consequence of GABA accumulation, especially in vegetative tissues, remains poorly understood. Moreover, gene expression changes as a consequence of GABA accumulation in plants are largely unknown. The pop2 mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism and accumulates GABA, is a good model to examine the effects of GABA accumulation on plant development. Here, we show that the pop2 mutants have pollen tube elongation defects in the transmitting tract of pistils. Additionally, we observed growth inhibition of primary root and dark-grown hypocotyl, at least in part due to cell elongation defects, upon exposure to exogenous GABA. Microarray analysis of pop2-1 seedlings grown in GABA-supplemented medium revealed that 60% of genes whose expression decreased encode secreted proteins. Besides, functional classification of genes with decreased expression in the pop2-1 mutant showed that cell wall-related genes were significantly enriched in the microarray data set, consistent with the cell elongation defects observed in pop2 mutants. Our study identifies cell elongation defects caused by GABA accumulation in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. Additionally, our results show that genes that encode secreted and cell wall-related proteins may mediate some of the effects of GABA accumulation. The potential function of GABA as a growth control factor under stressful conditions is discussed. PMID:21471118

Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Updegraff, Emily P; Yu, Agnès; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Preuss, Daphne; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

2011-05-01

71

GABA Accumulation Causes Cell Elongation Defects and a Decrease in Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted and Cell Wall-Related Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

GABA (?-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, is a signaling factor in many organisms. In plants, GABA is known to accumulate under a variety of stresses. However, the consequence of GABA accumulation, especially in vegetative tissues, remains poorly understood. Moreover, gene expression changes as a consequence of GABA accumulation in plants are largely unknown. The pop2 mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism and accumulates GABA, is a good model to examine the effects of GABA accumulation on plant development. Here, we show that the pop2 mutants have pollen tube elongation defects in the transmitting tract of pistils. Additionally, we observed growth inhibition of primary root and dark-grown hypocotyl, at least in part due to cell elongation defects, upon exposure to exogenous GABA. Microarray analysis of pop2-1 seedlings grown in GABA-supplemented medium revealed that 60% of genes whose expression decreased encode secreted proteins. Besides, functional classification of genes with decreased expression in the pop2-1 mutant showed that cell wall-related genes were significantly enriched in the microarray data set, consistent with the cell elongation defects observed in pop2 mutants. Our study identifies cell elongation defects caused by GABA accumulation in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. Additionally, our results show that genes that encode secreted and cell wall-related proteins may mediate some of the effects of GABA accumulation. The potential function of GABA as a growth control factor under stressful conditions is discussed. PMID:21471118

Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Updegraff, Emily P.; Yu, Agnès; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Preuss, Daphne; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

2011-01-01

72

Boron nutrition and mobility, and its relation to the elemental composition of greenhouse grown root crops I. Rutabaga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrition and mobility of B, and its relation to the elemental composition of two cultivars of rutabaga (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera cv. Laurentian and Wilhelmsberger) plants were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Laurentian exhibited a greater response than Wilhelmsberger to continuing B deficiency as indicated by the severity in the roots of brown heart, of external roughness and elongation and

B. J. Shelp; V. I. Shattuck

1987-01-01

73

Development of a Multi-Species Biotic Ligand Model Predicting the Toxicity of Trivalent Chromium to Barley Root Elongation in Solution Culture  

PubMed Central

Little knowledge is available about the influence of cation competition and metal speciation on trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) toxicity. In the present study, the effects of pH and selected cations on the toxicity of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation were investigated to develop an appropriate biotic ligand model (BLM). Results showed that the toxicity of Cr(III) decreased with increasing activity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ but not with K+ and Na+. The effect of pH on Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation could be explained by H+ competition with Cr3+ bound to a biotic ligand (BL) as well as by the concomitant toxicity of CrOH2+ in solution culture. Stability constants were obtained for the binding of Cr3+, CrOH2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and H+ with binding ligand: log KCrBL 7.34, log KCrOHBL 5.35, log KCaBL 2.64, log KMgBL 2.98, and log KHBL 4.74. On the basis of those estimated parameters, a BLM was successfully developed to predict Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation as a function of solution characteristics. PMID:25119269

Song, Ningning; Zhong, Xu; Li, Bo; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing

2014-01-01

74

Relations between Roots and Coefficients of Cubic Equations with One Root Negative the Reciprocal of Another  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under predetermined conditions on the roots and coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions relating the coefficients of a given cubic equation x[cubed] + ax[squared] + bx + c = 0 can be established so that the roots possess desired properties. In this note, the condition for one root of a cubic equation to be "the negative reciprocal of…

Asiru, M. A.

2007-01-01

75

Dynamics of phreatophyte root growth relative to a seasonally fluctuating water table in a Mediterranean-type environment.  

PubMed

While seasonal redistribution of fine root biomass in response to fluctuations in groundwater level is often inferred in phreatophytic plants, few studies have observed the in situ growth dynamics of deep roots relative to those near the surface. We investigated the root growth dynamics of two Banksia species accessing a seasonally dynamic water table and hypothesized that root growth phenology varied with depth, i.e. root growth closest to the water table would be influenced by water table dynamics rather than surface micro-climate. Root in-growth bags were used to observe the dynamics of root growth at different soil depths and above-ground growth was also assessed to identify whole-plant growth phenology. Root growth at shallow depths was found to be in synchrony with above-ground growth phenophases, following increases in ambient temperature and soil water content. In contrast, root growth at depth was either constant or suppressed by saturation. Root growth above the water table and within the capillary fringe occurred in all seasons, corresponding with consistent water availability and aerobic conditions. However, at the water table, a seasonal cycle of root elongation with drawdown in summer followed by trimming in response to water table rise and saturation in winter, was observed. The ability to grow roots year-round at the capillary fringe and redistribute fine root biomass in response to groundwater drawdown is considered critical in allowing phreatophytes, in seasonally water-limited environments, to maintain access to groundwater throughout the year. PMID:22692384

Canham, Caroline A; Froend, Raymond H; Stock, William D; Davies, Muriel

2012-12-01

76

Patatin-Related Phospholipase pPLAIII?-Induced Changes in Lipid Metabolism Alter Cellulose Content and Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various plant processes, and the patatin-related phospholipases (pPLAs) constitute a major enzyme family that catalyzes fatty acid release. The Arabidopsis thaliana pPLA family has 10 members that are classified into three groups. Group 3 pPLAIII has four members but lacks the canonical lipase/esterase consensus catalytic sequences, and their enzymatic activity and cellular functions have not been delineated. Here, we show that pPLAIII? hydrolyzes phospholipids and galactolipids and additionally has acyl-CoA thioesterase activity. Alterations of pPLAIII? result in changes in lipid levels and composition. pPLAIII?-KO plants have longer leaves, petioles, hypocotyls, primary roots, and root hairs than wild-type plants, whereas pPLAIII?-OE plants exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, pPLAIII?-OE plants have significantly lower cellulose content and mechanical strength than wild-type plants. Root growth of pPLAIII?-KO plants is less sensitive to treatment with free fatty acids, the enzymatic products of pPLAIII?, than wild-type plants; root growth of pPLAIII?-OE plants is more sensitive. These data suggest that alteration of pPLAIII? expression and the resulting lipid changes alter cellulose content and cell elongation in Arabidopsis. PMID:21447788

Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Guo, Liang; Musgrave, William; Berg, Howard; Welti, Ruth; Wang, Xuemin

2011-01-01

77

A higher plant extracellular vitronectin-like adhesion protein is related to the translational elongation factor-1 alpha.  

PubMed Central

Higher plant proteins immunologically related to the animal substrate adhesion molecule vitronectin have recently been observed and implicated in a variety of biological processes, such as plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion, pollen tube extension, and bacterium-plant interaction. We provide evidence that, similar to vitronectin, one of these proteins, PVN1 (plant vitronectin-like 1), isolated from 428 mM NaCl-adapted tobacco cells binds to glass surfaces an heparin. PVN1 was isolated by glass bead affinity chromatography. Isolated PVN1 has adhesive activity based on results from a baby hamster kidney cell-spreading assay. This plant adhesion protein was detected in all tissues examined but was most abundant in roots and salt-adapted cultured cells. Immunogold labeling indicated that PVN1 is localized in the cell wall of cortical and transmitting tissue cells of pollinated mature styles. A partial amino acid sequence of PVN1 revealed no similarity with vitronectin but, instead, was nearly identical to the translational elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha). A clone isolated by screening a tobacco cDNA expression library with anti-PVN1 encoded a protein with greater than 93% identity to sequences of EF-1 alpha from plants of numerous species. Immunological cross-reactivity between tobacco PVN1 and EF-1 alpha as well as the reaction between the EF-1 alpha antibody and the 65- and 75-kD vitronectin-like proteins of a fucoidal alga supported the conclusion that the plant extracellular adhesion protein PVN1 is related to EF-1 alpha. PMID:7514059

Zhu, J K; Damsz, B; Kononowicz, A K; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

1994-01-01

78

RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 Forms a Ternary Complex with JAZ and Class-C bHLH Factors and Regulates Jasmonate-Induced Gene Expression and Root Cell Elongation[C][W  

PubMed Central

Plasticity of root growth in response to environmental cues and stresses is a fundamental characteristic of land plants. However, the molecular basis underlying the regulation of root growth under stressful conditions is poorly understood. Here, we report that a rice nuclear factor, RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 (RSS3), regulates root cell elongation during adaptation to salinity. Loss of function of RSS3 only moderately inhibits cell elongation under normal conditions, but it provokes spontaneous root cell swelling, accompanied by severe root growth inhibition, under saline conditions. RSS3 is preferentially expressed in the root tip and forms a ternary complex with class-C basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN proteins, the latter of which are the key regulators of jasmonate (JA) signaling. The mutated protein arising from the rss3 allele fails to interact with bHLH factors, and the expression of a significant portion of JA-responsive genes is upregulated in rss3. These results, together with the known roles of JAs in root growth regulation, suggest that RSS3 modulates the expression of JA-responsive genes and plays a crucial role in a mechanism that sustains root cell elongation at appropriate rates under stressful conditions. PMID:23715469

Toda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kurata, Kyo; Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Habu, Yoshiki; Ando, Tsuyu; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Katoh, Etsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

2013-01-01

79

Characterisation of the oxygen fluxes in the division, elongation and mature zones of Vitis roots: influence of oxygen availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen fluxes into and from root cells of Vitis rupestris (flooding sensitive), V. riparia (flooding tolerant) and V. vinifera (medium tolerance to flooding) were measured under different levels of O2 availability using a recently developed polarographic O2-selective, vibrating-microelectrode system. The system enables fluxes to be measured with a spatial resolution of 2-3 µm and a temporal resolution of 10 s.

Stefano Mancuso; Maurizio Boselli

2002-01-01

80

Boron nutrition and mobility, and its relation to the elemental composition of greenhouse grown root crops I. rutabaga  

SciTech Connect

The nutrition and mobility of B, and its relation to the elemental composition of two cultivars of rutabaga (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera cv. Laurentian and Wilhelmsberger) plants were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Laurentian exhibited a greater response than Wilhelmsberger to continuing B deficiency as indicated by the severity in the roots of brown heart, of external roughness and elongation and of the decrease in B concentration. Signs of B deficiency were not found when the B contents of the root and young leaves were 27 and 56 ..mu..g and g/sup -1/ DM respectively. Root B levels of 14 and 17-20 ..mu..g f/sup -1/ gave moderate and slight internal signs of brown discoloration. Foliar applications of B partially restored the B concentrations of the roots; however, the mechanisms of movement was unclear. The Mg, Mn and Zn contents of roots were the only elements that consistently increased and accumulated under B deficiency. The relative element composition of the root compared to the mature leaves is consistent with the root being supplied predominantly with nutrients by the phloem.

Shelp, B.J.; Shattuck, V.I.

1987-01-01

81

The Arabidopsis CDK inhibitor ICK3/KRP5 is rate limiting for primary root growth and promotes growth through cell elongation and endoreduplication  

PubMed Central

The coordination of plant cell division and expansion controls plant morphogenesis, development, and growth. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are not only key regulators of cell division but also play an important role in cell differentiation. In plants, CDK activity is modulated by the binding of INHIBITOR OF CDK/KIP-RELATED PROTEIN (ICK/KRP). Previously, ICK2/KRP2 has been shown to mediate auxin responses in lateral root initiation. Here are analysed the roles of all ICK/KRP genes in root growth. Analysis of ick/krp null-mutants revealed that only ick3/krp5 was affected in primary root growth. ICK3/KRP5 is strongly expressed in the root apical meristem (RAM), with lower expression in the expansion zone. ick3/krp5 roots grow more slowly than wildtype controls, and this results not from reduction of division in the proliferative region of the RAM but rather reduced expansion as cells exit the meristem. This leads to shorter final cell lengths in different tissues of the ick3/krp5 mutant root, particularly the epidermal non-hair cells, and this reduction in cell size correlates with reduced endoreduplication. Loss of ICK3/KRP5 also leads to delayed germination and in the mature embryo ICK3/KRP5 is specifically expressed in the transition zone between root and hypocotyl. Cells in the transition zone were smaller in the ick3/krp5 mutant, despite the absence of endoreduplication in the embryo suggesting a direct effect of ICK3/KRP5 on cell growth. It is concluded that ICK3/KRP5 is a positive regulator of both cell growth and endoreduplication. PMID:23440171

Wen, Bo; Nieuwland, Jeroen; Murray, James A. H.

2013-01-01

82

Amylolytic activity and carbohydrate levels in relation to coleoptile anoxic elongation in Oryza sativa genotypes.  

PubMed

Among starchy seeds, rice has the unique capacity to germinate successfully under complete anaerobiosis. In this conditions, starch degradation is supported by a complete set of starch-degrading enzymes that are absent or inactive in cereals except rice. A characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and starch-degrading enzyme activity across twenty-nine genotypes of Oryza sativa L. is presented here. The zymogram of amylolytic activities present in rice embryos and endosperms under anaerobic conditions seven days after sowing (DAS) revealed marked differences among cultivars. Coleoptile elongation was positively correlated with total amylolytic activities and ?-amylase activity in embryos, and negatively correlated with ?-amylase activity in endosperm. Moreover, carbohydrate content in embryos was found to be positively correlated with total amylolytic activities under anaerobic conditions, while a negative relationship was recorded in the endosperm. Carbohydrate status in rice seedlings has a primary importance in sustaining coleoptile elongation towards the surface. The relationship between carbohydrate level in embryo and anoxic germination, as well as with total amylolytic activities present in rice embryo under anaerobic condition 7 DAS, is consistent with the role of sugar metabolism to support rice germination under oxygen-deprived environment. PMID:23748354

Pompeiano, Antonio; Fanucchi, Francesca; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

2013-11-01

83

Why fine tree roots are stronger than thicker roots: The role of cellulose and lignin in relation to slope stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant roots help to reinforce the soil, increase slope stability and decrease water erosion. Root tensile strength plays an important role in soil reinforcement and slope stabilization. The relationship between tensile strength and internal chemical composition of roots is unknown due to limited studies. Thus, it is difficult to determine why root tensile strength tends to decrease with increasing root diameter. In this study, biomechanical and biochemical tests were performed on the roots of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) to determine the relationships among tensile strength and the contents of the main chemical composition: cellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin in the roots with different diameters. Our results confirmed that the tensile strength of Chinese pine roots decreased with increasing root diameter, and this relationship might be a power function. The chemical contents of the roots and root diameter were also related to each other with significant power regression. With increasing root diameter, the cellulose content and alpha-cellulose content increased, but the lignin content decreased. In addition, the lignin content exhibited a significantly positive relationship with tensile strength. Furthermore, the ratios of lignin/cellulose and lignin/alpha-cellulose decreased with increasing root diameter following significant power regressions, and they also demonstrated a positive relationship with tensile strength. Taken together, these results may be useful for studies on root tensile strength, soil reinforcement and slope stability.

Zhang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Li-Hua; Jiang, Jing

2014-02-01

84

Asymmetric growth of root epidermal cells is related to the differentiation of root hair cells in Hordeum vulgare (L.)  

PubMed Central

The root epidermis of most vascular plants harbours two cell types, namely trichoblasts (capable of producing a root hair) and atrichoblasts. Here, in vivo analysis, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, histological analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction were used to characterize the cell types present in the barley root epidermis and their distribution in the tissue. Both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts were present in the wild-type cultivars and could be distinguished from one another at an early stage. Trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation depended on asymmetric cell expansion after a period of symmetrical cell division. After asymmetric growth, only the shorter epidermal cells could produce root hairs, whereas the longer cells became atrichoblasts. Moreover, the root epidermis did not develop root hairs at all if the epidermal cells did not differentiate into two asymmetric cell types. The root hairless phenotype of bald root barley (brb) and root hairless 1.b (rhl1.b) mutants was caused by a mutation in a gene related to the asymmetric expansion of the root epidermal cells. Additionally, the results showed that the mechanism of trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation is not evolutionally conserved across the subfamilies of the Poaceae; in the Pooideae subfamily, both asymmetric division and asymmetric cell expansion have been observed. PMID:24043851

Marzec, Marek

2013-01-01

85

Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

2002-01-01

86

Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, tree diversity and root nutrient relations in a mixed Central European forest.  

PubMed

Knowledge is limited about whether root nutrient concentrations are affected by mixtures of tree species and interspecific root competition. The goal of this field study was to investigate root nutrient element concentrations in relation to root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) diversity in six different mixtures of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lime (Tilia sp.) in an old-growth, undisturbed forest ecosystem. Root biomass and nutrient concentrations per tree taxon as well as the abundance and identity of all EM fungi were determined in soil cores of a volume of 1 L (r=40 mm, depth=200 mm). Stand-level nutrient concentrations in overall root biomass and H' (Shannon-Wiener diversity) were obtained by pooling the data per stand. At stand level, Shannon H' for roots and aboveground tree species abundance were correlated. H' for roots and EM fungi were not correlated because of the contribution of ash roots that form only arbuscular mycorrhizal but no EM associations. Nutrient element concentrations in roots showed taxon-related differences and increased in the following order: beech???lime?roots increased with increasing tree diversity because of two effects: increasing contribution of ash roots to the mixture and increasing Ca accumulation in beech roots with increasing root diversity. On a small scale, increasing root diversity, but not EM diversity, was correlated with decreasing P concentrations in beech roots pointing to interspecific tree competition. Nitrogen (N) concentrations of beech roots were unaltered in relation to root and EM diversity. Opposing behavior was observed for lime and ash: the N concentrations in lime roots increased, whereas those in ash roots decreased with increasing EM diversity in a given soil volume. This suggests that EM diversity facilitates N acquisition of lime roots at the expense of non-EM ash. PMID:21636693

Lang, Christa; Polle, Andrea

2011-05-01

87

Inactivation of Plasma Membrane–Localized CDPK-RELATED KINASE5 Decelerates PIN2 Exocytosis and Root Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5–green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane–associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling. PMID:23673979

Rigó, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Tietz, Olaf; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, Hajnalka; Páy, Anikó; Salchert, Klaus; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Szabados, László; Palme, Klaus; Koncz, Csaba; Csépl?, Ágnes

2013-01-01

88

Chemical root pruning and its effects on water relations and root morphology of photinia  

E-print Network

differences. Root pruning also induced reductions in net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance, and stomatal resistance to water loss (Arnold and Struve, 1989a). Effect of root pruning on root morphology The effect of cupric carbonate... was induced, stomatal closure appeared first in mature peach leaves. Jordan et al. (1975) and Field (1987) document examples of stomatal closure progressing from older to younger leaves in response to decreasing leaf water potential. Each square millimeter...

Vartak, Diptish Ramesh

2012-06-07

89

Is a decreased water potential after withholding oxygen to roots the cause of the decline of leaf-elongation rates in Zea mays L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf-elongation rates of Zea mays L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were measured in plants grown for 4 d in nutrient solution bubbled with N2 and in soil-grown waterlogged Phaseolus plants. Leaf water potential in both species was lower 3–4h after replacing aeration by N2-bubbling. In Zea, the water potential after 24 h or more was the same in control plants

Peter M. schildwacht

1989-01-01

90

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of ?-Expansin Gene Related to Root Hair Formation in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the ?-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

2006-01-01

91

ORIGINAL PAPER Root growth dynamics of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Root growth dynamics of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings in relation seedlings with the opposite traits, which has been linked to the production of deeper and larger root concentration on root growth dynamics and its relation to shoot elongation in Aleppo pine (Pinus halep- ensis

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

92

Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

Stinemetz, C. L.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

1992-01-01

93

TEF-7A, a transcript elongation factor gene, influences yield-related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

In this study, TaTEF-7A, a member of the transcript elongation factor gene family, and its ?anking sequences were isolated. TaTEF-7A was located on chromosome 7A and was ?anked by markers Xwmc83 and XP3156.3. Subcellular localization revealed that TaTEF-7A protein was localized in the nucleus. This gene was expressed in all organs, but the highest expression occurred in young spikes and developing seeds. Overexpression of TaTEF-7A in Arabidopsis thaliana produced pleiotropic effects on vegetative and reproductive development that enhanced grain length, silique number, and silique length. No diversity was found in the coding region of TaTEF-7A, but 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms and Indels were detected in the promoter regions of different cultivars. Markers based on sequence variations in the promoter regions (InDel-629 and InDel-604) were developed, and three haplotypes were identified based on those markers. Haplotype-trait association analysis of the Chinese wheat mini core collection revealed that TaTEF-7A was significantly associated with grain number per spike. Phenotyping of near-isogenic lines (NILs) confirmed that TaTEF-7A increases potential grain yield and yield-related traits. Frequency changes in favoured haplotypes gradually increased in cultivars released in China from the 1940s. Geographic distributions of favoured haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. The presence of Hap-7A-3, the favoured haplotype, showed a positive correlation with yield in a global set of breeding lines. These results suggest that TaTEF-7A is a functional regulatory factor for grain number per spike and provide a basis for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25056774

Zheng, Jun; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yuquan; Wang, Lanfen; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong

2014-10-01

94

Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding  

PubMed Central

Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under flooding conditions. PMID:22738296

2012-01-01

95

Control of Transcriptional Elongation  

PubMed Central

Elongation is becoming increasingly recognized as a critically controlled step in transcriptional regulation. While traditional genetic and biochemical studies have identified major players of transcriptional elongation, our understanding of the importance and roles of these factors is evolving rapidly through the recent advances in genome-wide and single-molecule technologies. Here we focus on how elongation can modulate the transcriptional outcome through the rate-liming step of RNA polymerase II pausing near promoters, and how the participating factors were identified. Among the factors we describe are NELF and DSIF, the pausing factors, and P-TEFb, the key player in pause release. We also describe non-exclusive models for how pausing is achieved by making use of high resolution genome-wide mapping of paused Pol II relative to promoter elements and the first nucleosome. We also discuss Pol II elongation through the bodies of genes and the roles of FACT and Spt6, the factors that allow Pol II to move through nucleosomes. PMID:24050178

Kwak, Hojoong; Lis, John T.

2014-01-01

96

Effects of applying stem-shortening plant growth regulators to leaves on root elongation by seedlings of wheat, oat and barley: mediation by ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant growth regulators (PGRs) commonly used in practicalfarming to restrict shoot height and control lodging were examined for theirimpact on root growth in naturally short or tall cultivars of barley (cvs.Kymppi and Saana), oat (cvs. Veli and Pal), and wheat (cvs. Mahti and Tjalve).The possible involvement of ethylene in the responses was also examined. Shootswere sprayed at the two-leaf

Ari Rajala; Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Marko Onnela; Michael Jackson

2002-01-01

97

Graviresponse and the localization of its initiating cells in roots of Phleum pratense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots of Phleum pratense L. were photographed during both vertical growth and gravitropic bending, and positions of anticlinal rhizodermal cell walls were digitized on the physically upper and lower flanks of the root in the curvature plane. By using B-splines, arc lengths of these positions, i.e. distances along the root surface, values of curvature, and relative elemental rates of elongation

Hanna E. Zieschang; Andreas Sievers

1991-01-01

98

RELATIVE RESISTANCE OF GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS TO ARMILLARIA ROOT DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapevine rootstocks were screened for resistance to infection by Armillaria mellea, the pathogen that causes Armillaria root disease. Our first objective was to determine which factors hasten colonization of grapevines by A. mellea, in order to accelerate our inoculation technique. We found that ...

99

Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots  

PubMed Central

Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45) and two reports of cases (n = 15–156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

Chan, Thomas Y. K.

2014-01-01

100

Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots.  

PubMed

Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these "food supplements", relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19-45) and two reports of cases (n = 15-156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50-500 g instead of 3-30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw "caowu" (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled "caowu" developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

Chan, Thomas Y K

2014-09-01

101

Intraspecific variation in the magnitude and pattern of flooding-induced shoot elongation in Rumex palustris  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Intraspecific variation in flooding tolerance is the basic pre-condition for adaptive flooding tolerance to evolve, and flooding-induced shoot elongation is an important trait that enables plants to survive shallow, prolonged flooding. Here an investigation was conducted to determine to what extent variation in flooding-induced leaf elongation exists among and within populations of the wetland species Rumex palustris, and whether the magnitude of elongation can be linked to habitat characteristics. Methods Offspring of eight genotypes collected in each of 12 populations from different sites (ranging from river mudflats with dynamic flooding regimes to areas with stagnant water) were submerged, and petioles, laminas and roots were harvested separately to measure traits related to elongation and plant growth. Key Results We found strong elongation of petioles upon submergence, and both among- and within-population variation in this trait, not only in final length, but also in the timing of the elongation response. However, the variation in elongation responses could not be linked to habitat type. Conclusions Spatio-temporal variation in the duration and depth of flooding in combination with a presumably weak selection against flooding-induced elongation may have contributed to the maintenance of large genetic variation in flooding-related traits among and within populations. PMID:19687030

Chen, Xin; Huber, Heidrun; de Kroon, Hans; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Poorter, Hendrik; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Visser, Eric J. W.

2009-01-01

102

ARTICLE IN PRESS Mapping the global distribution of deep roots in relation to  

E-print Network

dry semideciduous to evergreen forests. Deep roots are least likely to occur in arctic, boreal or coolARTICLE IN PRESS Mapping the global distribution of deep roots in relation to climate and soil-temperate regions and in per-humid climates such as equatorial rain forests. Under warm-temperate to tropical

Schenk, H. Jochen

103

Root Secretion of Defense-related Proteins Is Development-dependent and Correlated with Flowering Time*  

PubMed Central

Proteins found in the root exudates are thought to play a role in the interactions between plants and soil organisms. To gain a better understanding of protein secretion by roots, we conducted a systematic proteomic analysis of the root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana at different plant developmental stages. In total, we identified 111 proteins secreted by roots, the majority of which were exuded constitutively during all stages of development. However, defense-related proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, myrosinases, and others showed enhanced secretion during flowering. Defense-impaired mutants npr1-1 and NahG showed lower levels of secretion of defense proteins at flowering compared with the wild type. The flowering-defective mutants fca-1, stm-4, and co-1 showed almost undetectable levels of defense proteins in their root exudates at similar time points. In contrast, root secretions of defense-enhanced cpr5-2 mutants showed higher levels of defense proteins. The proteomics data were positively correlated with enzymatic activity assays for defense proteins and with in silico gene expression analysis of genes specifically expressed in roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, our results show a clear correlation between defense-related proteins secreted by roots and flowering time. PMID:20682788

De-la-Peña, Clelia; Badri, Dayakar V.; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Brandão, Marcelo M.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2010-01-01

104

An Analysis of the Root Causes for Opioid-Related Overdose Deaths in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveA panel of experts in pain medicine and public policy convened to examine root causes and risk factors for opioid-related poisoning deaths and to propose recommendations to reduce death rates.

Lynn R. Webster; Susan Cochella; Nabarun Dasgupta; Keri L. Fakata; Perry G. Fine; Scott M. Fishman; Todd Grey; Erin M. Johnson; Lewis K. Lee; Steven D. Passik; John Peppin; Christina A. Porucznik; Albert Ray; Sidney H. Schnoll; Richard L. Stieg; Wayne Wakeland

2011-01-01

105

Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).  

PubMed

Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be necessary to reveal their potential to enhance flooding tolerance of soybean cultivars. PMID:25268626

Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

2014-01-01

106

Root signals and stomatal closure in relation to photosynthesis, chlorophyll a fluorescence and adventitious rooting of flooded tomato plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims An investigation was carried out to determine whether stomatal closure in flooded tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) results from decreased leaf water potentials (?L), decreased photosynthetic capacity and attendant increases in internal CO2 (Ci) or from losses of root function such as cytokinin and gibberellin export. Methods Pot-grown plants were flooded when 1 month old. Leaf conductance was measured by diffusion porometry, the efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) was estimated by fluorimetry, and infrared gas analysis was used to determine Ci and related parameters. Key Results Flooding starting in the morning closed the stomata and increased ?L after a short-lived depression of ?L. The pattern of closure remained unchanged when ?`L depression was avoided by starting flooding at the end rather than at the start of the photoperiod. Raising external CO2 concentrations by 100 µmol mol?1 also closed stomata rapidly. Five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [Fq?/Fm?, Fq?/Fv?, Fv?/Fm?, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and Fv/Fm] were affected by flooding within 12–36 h and changes were linked to decreased Ci. Closing stomata by applying abscisic acid or increasing external CO2 substantially reproduced the effects of flooding on chlorophyll fluorescence. The presence of well-aerated adventitious roots partially inhibited stomatal closure of flooded plants. Allowing adventitious roots to form on plants flooded for >3 d promoted some stomatal re-opening. This effect of adventitious roots was not reproduced by foliar applications of benzyl adenine and gibberellic acid. Conclusions Stomata of flooded plants did not close in response to short-lived decreases in ?L or to increased Ci resulting from impaired PSII photochemistry. Instead, stomatal closure depressed Ci and this in turn largely explained subsequent changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Stomatal opening was promoted by the presence of well-aerated adventitious roots, implying that loss of function of root signalling contributes to closing of stomata during flooding. The possibility that this involves inhibition of cytokinin or gibberellin export was not well supported. PMID:19001430

Else, Mark A.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Atkinson, Christopher J.; Jackson, Michael B.

2009-01-01

107

Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O 2 effluxes, and Ca (2+) influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2 (•-)) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55 % maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2 (•-) and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca(2+) influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca(2+) influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca(2+) influxes under WW and DS. PMID:25085218

Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua

2015-02-01

108

The Elongation of Ovococci  

PubMed Central

The morphogenesis of ovococci has been reviewed extensively. Recent results have provided new insights concerning the mechanisms of elongation in ovoid bacteria. We present here the proteins involved in the elongation (firmly established and more or less hypothetical) and discuss the relationship between elongation and division of ovococci. PMID:24773288

Philippe, Jules; Vernet, Thierry

2014-01-01

109

Relation of the Occurrence of Cotton Root Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils.  

E-print Network

:~p$ne$$ 9 -FK~( Q9"y.a *e4*&; I * Relation of the occurrence of Cotton Root7*'. Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils -- AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Soils in which cotton root rot generally occurs.... It has been found in about 200 counties of Texas (16), including practically all of the State except the Panhandle and parts of the mountainous country near the New Mexico line. Cotton root rot affects not only cotton, but a large variety of other...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1935-01-01

110

Root Xylem Embolisms and Refilling. Relation to Water Potentials of Soil, Roots, and Leaves, and Osmotic Potentials of Root Xylem Sap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embolism and refilling of vessels was monitored directly by cryo- microscopy of field-grown corn (Zea mays L.) roots. To test the reliability of an earlier study showing embolism refilling in roots at negative leaf water potentials, embolisms were counted, and root water potentials (Croot) and osmotic potentials of exuded xylem sap from the same roots were measured by isopiestic psychrometry.

Margaret E. McCully

1999-01-01

111

Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling  

PubMed Central

Background Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein genes. Results In this study, maize seedling roots got shorter and displayed swelling after exposure to 200 mM NaCl for 48 h and 96 h. Cytological observation showed that the growth inhibition of maize roots was due to the reduction in meristematic zone cell division activity and elongation zone cell production. The enlargement of the stele tissue and cortex cells contributed to root swelling in the elongation zone. The cell wall is thought to be the major control point for cell enlargement. Cell wall related proteins include xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET), expansins (EXP), and the plasma membrane proton pump (MHA). RT-PCR results displayed an up-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPA1, ZmEXPA3, ZmEXPA5, ZmEXPB1, ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes and the down-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPB4 and ZmMHA genes as the duration of exposure was increased. Histone acetylation is regulated by HATs, which are often correlated with gene activation. The expression of histone acetyltransferase genes ZmHATB and ZmGCN5 was increased after 200 mM NaCl treatment, accompanied by an increase in the global acetylation levels of histones H3K9 and H4K5. ChIP experiment showed that the up-regulation of the ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes was associated with the elevated H3K9 acetylation levels on the promoter regions and coding regions of these two genes. Conclusions These data suggested that the up-regulation of some cell wall related genes mediated cell enlargement to possibly mitigate the salinity-induced ionic toxicity, and different genes had specific function in response to salt stress. Histone modification as a mediator may contribute to rapid regulation of cell wall related gene expression, which reduces the damage of excess salinity to plants. PMID:24758373

2014-01-01

112

Kernel elongation in rice.  

PubMed

Kernel elongation after cooking is an important character of fine rice and most rice consumers prefer length-wise elongation. Although improvement of aromatic rice began early in the 1970s, until now the mechanisms and genetics of kernel elongation has remained unrevealed. Kernel elongation is considered as a physical phenomenon and is influenced by several physicochemical and genetic factors, including genotypes, aging temperature, aging time, water uptake, amylose content and gelatinization temperature. Recently the complete genetic map of fine rice has been created and the gene responsible for kernel length identified; moreover, this gene is tightly linked with the cooked kernel elongation trait. Several molecular markers linked with cooked kernel elongation have been developed. These tools will be helpful for the improvement of this important trait. For the proper study of cooked kernel elongation of rice, this review paper will provide the basis and directional materials for further studies. PMID:23238771

Golam, Faruq; Prodhan, Zakaria H

2013-02-01

113

Complex physiological and molecular processes underlying root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitropism allows plant organs to guide their growth in relation to the gravity vector. For most roots, this response to gravity allows downward growth into soil where water and nutrients are available for plant growth and development. The primary site for gravity sensing in roots includes the root cap and appears to involve the sedimentation of amyloplasts within the columella cells. This process triggers a signal transduction pathway that promotes both an acidification of the wall around the columella cells, an alkalinization of the columella cytoplasm, and the development of a lateral polarity across the root cap that allows for the establishment of a lateral auxin gradient. This gradient is then transmitted to the elongation zones where it triggers a differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the central elongation zone, responsible for part of the gravitropic curvature. Recent findings also suggest the involvement of a secondary site/mechanism of gravity sensing for gravitropism in roots, and the possibility that the early phases of graviresponse, which involve differential elongation on opposite flanks of the distal elongation zone, might be independent of this auxin gradient. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these various phases of the gravitropic response in roots.

Chen, Rujin; Guan, Changhui; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Masson, Patrick H.

2002-01-01

114

Elongation factor G-induced structural change in helix 34 of 16S rRNA related to translocation on the ribosome.  

PubMed Central

During the translocation step of the elongation cycle, two tRNAs together with the mRNA move synchronously and rapidly on the ribosome. The movement is catalyzed by the binding of elongation factor G (EF-G) and driven by GTP hydrolysis. Here we study structural changes of the ribosome related to EF-G binding and translocation by monitoring the accessibility of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for chemical modification by dimethyl sulfate or cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fe(II)-EDTA. In the state of the ribosome that is formed upon binding of EF-G but before the movement of the tRNAs takes place, residues 1054,1196, and 1201 in helix 34 in 16S rRNA are strongly protected. The protections depend on EF-G binding, but do not require GTP hydrolysis, and are lost upon translocation. Mutants of EF-G, which are active in ribosome binding and GTP hydrolysis but impaired in translocation, do not bring about the protections. According to cryo-electron microscopy (Stark et al., Cell, 2000, 100:301-309), there is no contact of EF-G with the protected residues of helix 34 in the pretranslocation state, suggesting that the observed protections are due to an induced conformational change. Thus, the present results indicate that EF-G binding to the pretranslocation ribosome induces a structural change of the head of the 30S subunit that is essential for subsequent tRNA-mRNA movement in translocation. PMID:11780642

Matassova, A B; Rodnina, M V; Wintermeyer, W

2001-01-01

115

Water relations and root growth of two populations of Gutierrezia sarothrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesise that genotypic differences in transpiration and root growth in the southern and northern populations of Gutierrezia sarothrae are driven by growing season vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and that ecotypic differentiations are linked to corresponding variations in tissue and leaf water relations. Seedlings from an Idaho (ID) and a Texas (TX) seed source were grown either in an open

Changgui Wan; Ronald E Sosebee; Bobby L McMichael

1998-01-01

116

The Relation Between Rotation Deformity and Nerve Root Stress in Lumbar Scoliosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though several finite element models of lumbar spine were introduced, there has been no model including the neural structure. Therefore, the authors made the novel lumbar spine finite element model including neural structure. Using this model, we investigated the relation between the deformity pattern and nerve root stress. Two lumbar models with different types of curve pattern (lateral bending and lateral bending with rotation curve) were made. In the model of lateral bending curves without rotation, the principal compressive nerve root stress on the concave side was greater than the principal tensile stress on the convex side at the apex vertebra. Contrarily, in the lateral bending curve with rotational deformity, the nerve stress on the convex side was higher than that on the concave side. Therefore, this study elicit that deformity pattern could have significantly influence on the nerve root stress in the lumbar spine.

Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak

117

Developmental characteristics and aluminum resistance of root border cells in rice seedlings.  

PubMed

The developmental characteristics of root border cells (RBCs) and their role in protection of root apices of rice seedling from Al toxicity were evaluated in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in Al tolerance. Root elongation and RBCs viability were used as indicators for Al effects. The formation of RBCs and the emergence of the root tip occurred almost simultaneously. Treatment of the root with Al inhibited root elongation and increased Al accumulation in the root tips. Physical removal of RBCs from root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation and a higher Al accumulation in the root tips. These effects were more pronounced in the Al-sensitive rice cultivar (II You 6216) than that in the Al-tolerant rice cultivar (II You 838). The relative viability of attached and detached RBCs decreased with increasing Al concentrations. Al also induced a thicker mucilage layer surrounding attached RBCs of both cultivars, and detached RBCs did not. Maintaining the abundant live RBCs encapsulated root tip and enhancing their mucilage secretion, appear to be important in alleviating Al toxicity and in allowing exclusion of Al from the rice root apex. PMID:21421421

Cai, MiaoZhen; Zhang, ShuNa; Xing, ChengHua; Wang, FangMei; Ning, Wang; Lei, Zhu

2011-05-01

118

PIN2 is required for the adaptation of Arabidopsis roots to alkaline stress by modulating proton secretion.  

PubMed

Soil alkalinity is a widespread environmental problem that limits agricultural productivity. The hypothesis that an auxin-regulated proton secretion by plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase plays an important role in root adaption to alkaline stress was studied. It was found that alkaline stress increased auxin transport and PIN2 (an auxin efflux transporter) abundance in the root tip of wild-type Arabidopsis plants (WT). Compared with WT roots, the pin2 mutant roots exhibited much reduced plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, root elongation, auxin transport, and proton secretion under alkaline stress. More importantly, roots of the pks5 mutant (PKS5, a protein kinase) lacking PIN2 (a pks5/pin2 double mutant) lost the previous higher proton-secretion capacity and higher elongation rate of primary roots under alkaline stress. By using Arabidopsis natural accessions with a high proton-secretion capacity, it was found that their PIN2 transcription abundance is positively related to the elongation rate of the primary root and proton-secretion capacity under alkaline stress. Taken together, our results confirm that PIN2 is involved in the PKS5-mediated signalling cascade under alkaline-stress and suggest that PIN2 is required for the adaptation of roots to alkaline stress by modulating proton secretion in the root tip to maintain primary root elongation. PMID:23002434

Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Baluška, František; Ding, Guochang; Shi, Weiming; Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

2012-10-01

119

Respiration rate in maize roots is related to concentration of reduced nitrogen and proliferation of lateral roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between specific rate of respiration (respiration rate per unit root dry weight) and concentration of reduced nitrogen was examined for maize (Zea mays L.) roots. Plants with 2 primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 days in a split-root hydroponic system in which NO3- was supplied to both axes at 1.0 mol m-3, to one axis at 1.0 mol m-3 and the other axis at 0.0 mol m-3, or to both axes at 0.0 mol m-3. Respiration rates and root characteristics were measured at 2-day intervals. Specific rate of respiration was positively correlated in a nonlinear relationship with concentration of reduced nitrogen. The lowest specific rates of respiration occurred when neither axis received exogenous NO3- and the concentration of reduced nitrogen in the axes was less than 9 mg g-1. The greatest rates occurred in axes that were actively absorbing NO3- and contained more than 35 mg g-1 of reduced nitrogen. At 23 mg g-1 of reduced nitrogen, below which initiation of lateral branches was decreased by 30-50%, specific rate of respiration was 17% greater for roots actively absorbing NO3- than for roots not absorbing NO3-. Increases in specific rate of respiration associated with concentrations of reduced nitrogen greater than 23 mg g-1 were concluded to be attributable primarily to proliferation of lateral branches.

Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1989-01-01

120

The ASH1-RELATED3 SET-Domain Protein Controls Cell Division Competence of the Meristem and the Quiescent Center of the Arabidopsis Primary Root1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The stem cell niche of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organizing) center surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit-amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating and differentiating. It is unclear whether these divisions occur stochastically or in an orderly manner. Using the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine to monitor DNA replication of cells of Arabidopsis root meristems, we identified a pattern of two, four, and eight neighboring cells with synchronized replication along the cortical, epidermal, and endodermal cell files, suggested to be daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of the direct progeny of each stem cell. Markers of mitosis and cytokinesis were not present in the region closest to the transition zone where the cells start to elongate, suggesting that great-granddaughter cells switch synchronously from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreduplication. Mutations in the stem cell niche-expressed ASH1-RELATED3 (ASHR3) gene, encoding a SET-domain protein conferring histone H3 lysine-36 methylation, disrupted this pattern of coordinated DNA replication and cell division and increased the cell division rate in the quiescent center. E2Fa/E2Fb transcription factors controlling the G1-to-S-phase transition regulate ASHR3 expression and bind to the ASHR3 promoter, substantiating a role for ASHR3 in cell division control. The reduced length of the root apical meristem and primary root of the mutant ashr3-1 indicate that synchronization of replication and cell divisions is required for normal root growth and development. PMID:25034019

Kumpf, Robert; Thorstensen, Tage; Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Heyman, Jefri; Nenseth, H. Zeynep; Lammens, Tim; Herrmann, Ullrich; Swarup, Ranjan; Veiseth, Silje Veie; Emberland, Gitika; Bennett, Malcolm J.; De Veylder, Lieven; Aalen, Reidunn B.

2014-01-01

121

Two genes encode related cytoplasmic elongation factors 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) in Drosophila melanogaster with continuous and stage specific expression.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized two previously cloned genes, F1 and F2 (1) that code for elongation factor EF - 1 alpha of Drosophila melanogaster. Genomic Southern blot hybridization revealed that they are the only gene copies present. We isolated cDNA clones of both transcripts from embryonal and pupal stage of development that cover the entire transcription unit. The 5' ends of both genes have been determined by primer extension and for F1 also by RNA sequencing. These start sites have been shown to be used consistently during development. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that EF - 1 alpha,F1 consists of two and EF - 1 alpha,F2 of five exons. The two described elongation factor genes exhibit several regions of strong sequence conservation when compared to five recently cloned eucaryotic elongation factors. Images PMID:3131735

Hovemann, B; Richter, S; Walldorf, U; Cziepluch, C

1988-01-01

122

Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

2011-01-01

123

Hack's Law: Sinuosity, convexity, elongation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hack's law, an empirical, power law relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel, has long been taken to imply that drainage basins become more elongate (relatively longer and narrower) with increasing basin size. A study of the geometry of 38 basins from three distinct geomorphic settings shows that this geometric interpretation of Hack's law is only occasionally true: Even though Hack's power law relationship holds between basin area and main channel length, these basins do not necessarily become more elongate with increasing size. Rather, Hack's law is an expression of a balance between changes in basin shape and changes in channel planform geometry. For the basins in this study, changes in channel sinuosity play the most important role in this balance; changes in basin shape are far less regular. Local conditions appear to determine the partitioning of importance between changes in basin shape and channel sinuosity.

Willemin, James H.

2000-11-01

124

Chemical composition of apoplastic transport barriers in relation to radial hydraulic conductivity of corn roots (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The hydraulic conductivity of roots (Lp(r)) of 6- to 8-d-old maize seedlings has been related to the chemical composition of apoplastic transport barriers in the endodermis and hypodermis (exodermis), and to the hydraulic conductivity of root cortical cells. Roots were cultivated in two different ways. When grown in aeroponic culture, they developed an exodermis (Casparian band in the hypodermal layer), which was missing in roots from hydroponics. The development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae was observed by staining with berberin-aniline-blue and Sudan-III. The compositions of suberin and lignin were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively after depolymerization (BF(3)/methanol-transesterification, thioacidolysis) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Root Lp(r) was measured using the root pressure probe, and the hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells (Lp) using the cell pressure probe. Roots from the two cultivation methods differed significantly in (i) the Lp(r) evaluated from hydrostatic relaxations (factor of 1.5), and (ii) the amounts of lignin and aliphatic suberin in the hypodermal layer of the apical root zone. Aliphatic suberin is thought to be the major reason for the hydrophobic properties of apoplastic barriers and for their relatively low permeability to water. No differences were found in the amounts of suberin in the hypodermal layers of basal root zones and in the endodermal layer. In order to verify that changes in root Lp(r) were not caused by changes in hydraulic conductivity at the membrane level, cell Lp was measured as well. No differences were found in the Lp values of cells from roots cultivated by the two different methods. It was concluded that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the apoplastic rather than of the cell-to-cell path were causing the observed changes in root Lp(r). PMID:10664137

Zimmermann, H M; Hartmann, K; Schreiber, L; Steudle, E

2000-01-01

125

Root gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

Masson, P. H.

1995-01-01

126

Measurement of Libby Amphibole (LA) Elongated Particle Dissolution Rates and Alteration of Size/Shape Distributions in Support of Human Dosimetry Model Development and Relative Potency Determinations  

EPA Science Inventory

To maximize the value of toxicological data in development of human health risk assessment models of inhaled elongated mineral particles, improvements in human dosimetry modeling are needed. In order to extend the dosimetry model of deposited fibers (Asgharian et aI., Johnson 201...

127

Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after surgery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is still unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical nociception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n = 32) and sham surgery (n = 8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group received anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3-5) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on small- and medium-sized neurons (diameter < 20 ?m and 20-40 ?m) and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3-5) in the sham surgery group. By contrast, in the surgery group, high expression of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor appeared in large-sized neurons (diameter > 40 ?m) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to mechanical stimulus in the hind paw following incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws. PMID:25206654

Yuan, Xiuhong; Liu, Xiangyan; Tang, Qiuping; Deng, Yunlong

2013-12-15

128

The delayed initiation and slow elongation of fuzz-like short fibre cells in relation to altered patterns of sucrose synthase expression and plasmodesmata gating in a lintless mutant of cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed develops single-celled long fibres (lint) from the seed-coat epidermis at anthesis. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and rapid elongation of these fibres requires the expression of sucrose synthase (Sus) and, potentially, a transient closure of plasmodesmata. This study extends the previous work to examine the patterns of Sus expression and plasmodesmata gating in fuzz-like short fibres of a mutant that shows delayed initiation and much slower and reduced elongation of the fibre cells. Immunolocalization studies revealed delayed expression of Sus in the mutant seed-coat epidermis that correlates temporally and spatially with the initiation of the fibre cells. Anatomically, these short fibres differed from the normal lint in that their basal ends enlarged immediately after initiation, while the majority of the normal lint on wild-type seed did not show this enlargement until the end of elongation. Suppression of Sus expression in the seed-coat epidermis of the transgenic plants reduced the length of both lint and short fuzz fibres at maturity, suggesting that the growth of short fibres also requires high levels of Sus expression. Confocal imaging of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent solute carboxyfluorescein (CF) revealed no closure of plasmodesmata during the entire elongation period of short fibres from the mutant seed. These results show (i) the delayed initiation of fuzz-like short fibres from the mutant seed correlates with delayed or insufficient expression of Sus in a subset of seed-coat epidermal cells destined to become fibres and (ii) the much shortened elongation of the fibres from the mutant may be related to their inability to close plasmodesmata. PMID:15710635

Ruan, Yong-Ling; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Chourey, Prem S

2005-03-01

129

Biosynthesis of defense-related proteins in transformed root cultures of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum (Kitam.).  

PubMed Central

We have established transformed ("hairy") root cultures from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum Kitam. (Cucurbitaceae) and four related species to study the biosynthesis of the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin (TCN) and other root-specific defense-related plant proteins. Stable, fast-growing root clones were obtained for each species by infecting in vitro grown plantlets with Agrobacterium rhizogenes American Type Culture Collection strain 15834. Each species accumulated reproducibly a discrete protein pattern in the culture medium. Analysis of the extracellular proteins from T. kirilowii var japonicum root cultures showed differential protein accumulation in the medium during the time course of growth in batch cultures. Maximum protein accumulation, approaching 20 micrograms/mL, was observed at mid-exponential phase, followed by a degradation of a specific protein subset that coincided with the onset of stationary phase. Two major extracellular proteins and one intracellular protein, purified by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, were identified as class III chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) based on N-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid composition homologies with other class III chitinases. The Trichosanthes chitinases also showed reactivity with a cucumber class III chitinase antiserum and chitinolytic activity in a glycol chitin gel assay. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis of intracellular proteins showed that normal and transformed T. kirilowii var japonicum roots accumulated only low levels of TCN (approximately 0.5% total soluble protein). Storage roots from the plant displayed protein and antigen patterns different from root cultures and produced TCN as the dominant protein. Roots undergoing secondary growth and differentiation exhibited patterns similar to those of storage roots, including increased TCN levels, indicating that high production of TCN is associated with induction of secondary growth in roots. PMID:7824645

Savary, B J; Flores, H E

1994-01-01

130

Root development under control of magnesium availability.  

PubMed

Roots are reported to be plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development in response to magnesium (Mg) availability. Here, we showed the influence of both low and high Mg availability on the development of roots including root hairs and highlighted insights into the regulatory role of Mg availability on root hair development and its mechanism in Arabidopsis with combining our published research. Mg concentration in roots decreased quickly after the removal of Mg from the nutrient solution and increased progressively with increasing exogenous Mg supply in the media. However, transcriptome analysis suggested that Mg starvation did not alter the expression of most genes potentially involved in the transport. Primary root elongation and lateral root formation in Arabidopsis were not influenced by low Mg but inhibited by high Mg after one-week period. Moreover, low Mg availability significantly increased but high Mg reduced the initiation, density and length of root hairs, which through the characterized Ca (2+) and ROS signal transduction pathways. More physiological mechanisms underlying Mg-regulated root development remain to be elucidated in future researches. PMID:25029279

Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Zhang, Yong Song

2014-07-16

131

[Effects of exogenous NO3- on cherry root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism under hypoxia stress].  

PubMed

A water culture experiment with controlled dissolved oxygen concentration was conducted to explore the effects of exogenous NO3- on the root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism of cherry (Prunun cerasus x P. canescens) seedlings under hypoxia stress. Comparing with the control (7.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), treatments 15 and 22.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1) made the materials for plant metabolism abundant, ensured the synthesis of enzyme proteins, increased root activity, maintained root respiration, improved the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthethase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) in roots, and thereby, supplied enough energy for root respiration and NAD+ to glycolytic pathway, ensured electron transfer, and avoid ammonium toxicity under hypoxia stress. As a result, the injury of hypoxia stress to cherry plant was alleviated. Applying NO3- at the concentration of 22.5 mmol x L(-1) was more advisable. However, NO3- deficiency (0 mmol x L(-1)) showed opposite results. The above results suggested that applying exogenous NO3- to growth medium could regulate cherry root function and nitrogen metabolism, and antagonize the damage of hypoxia stress on cherry roots. PMID:21443020

Feng, Li-guo; Sheng, Li-xi; Shu, Huai-rui

2010-12-01

132

Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

Evans, Michael L.

1993-01-01

133

The distribution and strength of riparian tree roots in relation to riverbank reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main influences of plants on the mass stability of riverbanks are those that affect the strength of bank sediments. Plants enhance bank strength by reducing pore-water pressures and by directly reinforcing bank material with their roots. In this paper we do not consider bank hydrology but focus on quantifying increases in sediment strength due to root reinforcement. Root reinforcement

Bruce Abernethy; Ian D. Rutherfurd

2001-01-01

134

Vertex-element models for anisotropic growth of elongated plant organs  

PubMed Central

New tools are required to address the challenge of relating plant hormone levels, hormone responses, wall biochemistry and wall mechanical properties to organ-scale growth. Current vertex-based models (applied in other contexts) can be unsuitable for simulating the growth of elongated organs such as roots because of the large aspect ratio of the cells, and these models fail to capture the mechanical properties of cell walls in sufficient detail. We describe a vertex-element model which resolves individual cells and includes anisotropic non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of cell walls and cell division whilst still being computationally efficient. We show that detailed consideration of the cell walls in the plane of a 2D simulation is necessary when cells have large aspect ratio, such as those in the root elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana, in order to avoid anomalous transverse swelling. We explore how differences in the mechanical properties of cells across an organ can result in bending and how cellulose microfibril orientation affects macroscale growth. We also demonstrate that the model can be used to simulate growth on realistic geometries, for example that of the primary root apex, using moderate computational resources. The model shows how macroscopic root shape can be sensitive to fine-scale cellular geometries. PMID:23847638

Fozard, John A.; Lucas, Mikaël; King, John R.; Jensen, Oliver E.

2013-01-01

135

Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

136

Inflammatory mediators release calcitonin gene-related peptide from dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat.  

PubMed

The interactions between the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2) and acid pH were studied in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. For this purpose, the cultures were stimulated by inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2), 10(-5)M each) or acid solution (pH 6.1) for 5 min and the content of calcitonin gene-related peptide was determined in the supernatant before, during and after stimulation, using an enzyme immunoassay. Acid solution resulted in a threefold increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was entirely dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. The release could not be blocked by the addition of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M). Bradykinin (10(-5)M) caused a 50% increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was again dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) were each ineffective at 10(-5)M concentration. The combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) led to a fivefold increase of the calcitonin gene-related peptide release which could not be further enhanced by acidification. The competitive capsaicin receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M) significantly reduced the release induced by the combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2). It is suggested that the inflammatory mediators co-operate and together may act as endogenous agonists at the capsaicin receptor to cause calcium influx and consecutive neuropeptide release. PMID:10858619

Averbeck, B; Izydorczyk, I; Kress, M

2000-01-01

137

Phytochrome regulation of endogenous bud development in root cultures of Convolvulus arvensis.  

PubMed

Buds produced endogenously from dark-grown Convolvulus root segments do not elongate more than a few millimeters. Red-light exposures given repeatedly during the culture period induce the buds to elongate and to develop a morphology characteristic of etiolated shoots. Far-red light exposure following each red exposure completely reverses the promotive effect of red light. The role of light in regulating both root geotropism and bud development is discussed as it relates to the developmental pattern of Convolvulus. PMID:24477306

Bonnett, H T

1972-12-01

138

RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control  

PubMed Central

Regulation of the elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is utilized extensively to generate the pattern of mRNAs needed to specify cell types and to respond to environmental changes. After Pol II initiates, negative elongation factors cause it to pause in a promoter proximal position. These polymerases are poised to respond to the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, and then enter productive elongation only under the appropriate set of signals to generate full length properly processed mRNAs. Recent global analyses of Pol II and elongation factors, mechanisms that regulate P-TEFb involving the 7SK snRNP, factors that control both the negative and positive elongation properties of Pol II and the mRNA processing events that are coupled with elongation are discussed. PMID:22404626

Zhou, Qiang; Li, Tiandao; Price, David H.

2014-01-01

139

The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and Its Revolutionary Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German "Naturphilosophie" and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the…

Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

2009-01-01

140

Derivation of a simplified relation for assessing aortic root pressure drop incorporating wall compliance.  

PubMed

Aging and some pathologies such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia cause some geometrical and mechanical changes in the aortic valve microstructure which contribute to the development of aortic stenosis (AS). Because of the high rate of mortality and morbidity, assessing the impact and progression of this disease is essential. Systolic transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG) and the effective orifice area are commonly used to grade the severity of valvular dysfunction. In this study, a theoretical model of the transient viscous blood flow across the AS is derived by taking into account the aorta compliance. The derived relation of the new TPG is expressed in terms of clinically available surrogate variables (anatomical and hemodynamic data). The proposed relation includes empirical constants which need to be empirically determined. We used a numerical model including an anatomically 3D geometrical model of the aortic root including the sinuses of Valsalva for their identification. The relation was evaluated using clinical values of pressure drops for cases for which the modified Gorlin equation is problematic (low flow, low gradient AS). PMID:25430422

Mohammadi, Hossein; Cartier, Raymond; Mongrain, Rosaire

2014-11-28

141

Development and persistence of sandsheaths of Lyginia barbata (Restionaceae): relation to root structural development and longevity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Strongly coherent sandsheaths that envelop perennial roots of many monocotyledonous species of arid environments have been described for over a century. This study, for the first time, details the roles played by the structural development of the subtending roots in the formation and persistence of the sheaths. Methods The structural development of root tissues associated with persistent sandsheaths was studied in Lyginia barbata, native to the Western Australian sand plains. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy CSEM, optical microscopy and specific staining methods were applied to fresh, field material. The role of root hairs was clarified by monitoring sheath development in roots separated from the sand profile by fine mesh. Key Results and Conclusions The formation of the sheaths depends entirely on the numerous living root hairs which extend into the sand and track closely around individual grains enmeshing, by approx. 12 cm from the root tip, a volume of sand more than 14 times that of the subtending root. The longevity of the perennial sheaths depends on the subsequent development of the root hairs and of the epidermis and cortex. Before dying, the root hairs develop cellulosic walls approx. 3 µm thick, incrusted with ferulic acid and lignin, which persist for the life of the sheath. The dead hairs remain in place fused to a persistent platform of sclerified epidermis and outer cortex. The mature cortex comprises this platform, a wide, sclerified inner rim and a lysigenous central region – all dead tissue. We propose that the sandsheath/root hair/epidermis/cortex complex is a structural unit facilitating water and nutrient uptake while the tissues are alive, recycling scarce phosphorus during senescence, and forming, when dead, a persistent essential structure for maintenance of a functional stele in the perennial Lyginia roots. PMID:21969258

Shane, Michael W.; McCully, Margaret E.; Canny, Martin J.; Pate, John S.; Lambers, Hans

2011-01-01

142

Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.  

PubMed

Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection. PMID:17142479

Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

2007-02-01

143

Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the potential for inter-specific differences in root aeration to determine wetland plant distribution in nature. We compared aeration in species that differ in the type of sediment and depth of water they colonize. Differences in root anatomy, structure and physiology were applied to aeration models that predicted the maximum possible aerobic lengths and development of anoxic zones in primary adventitious roots. Differences in anatomy and metabolism that provided higher axial fluxes of oxygen allowed deeper root growth in species that favour more reducing sediments and deeper water. Modelling identified factors that affected growth in anoxic soils through their effects on aeration. These included lateral root formation, which occurred at the expense of extension of the primary root because of the additional respiratory demand they imposed, reducing oxygen fluxes to the tip and stele, and the development of stelar anoxia. However, changes in sediment oxygen demand had little detectable effect on aeration in the primary roots due to their low wall permeability and high surface impedance, but appeared to reduce internal oxygen availability by accelerating loss from laterals. The development of pressurized convective gas flow in shoots and rhizomes was also found to be important in assisting root aeration, as it maintained higher basal oxygen concentrations at the rhizome-root junctions in species growing into deep water. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company.

Sorrell, B.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Woods, R.A.

2000-01-01

144

Quantitative divergence of the bacterial root microbiota in Arabidopsis thaliana relatives  

PubMed Central

Plants host at the contact zone with soil a distinctive root-associated bacterial microbiota believed to function in plant nutrition and health. We investigated the diversity of the root microbiota within a phylogenetic framework of hosts: three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes along with its sister species Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata, as well as Cardamine hirsuta, which diverged from the former ?35 Mya. We surveyed their microbiota under controlled environmental conditions and of A. thaliana and C. hirsuta in two natural habitats. Deep 16S rRNA gene profiling of root and corresponding soil samples identified a total of 237 quantifiable bacterial ribotypes, of which an average of 73 community members were enriched in roots. The composition of this root microbiota depends more on interactions with the environment than with host species. Interhost species microbiota diversity is largely quantitative and is greater between the three Arabidopsis species than the three A. thaliana ecotypes. Host species-specific microbiota were identified at the levels of individual community members, taxonomic groups, and whole root communities. Most of these signatures were observed in the phylogenetically distant C. hirsuta. However, the branching order of host phylogeny is incongruent with interspecies root microbiota diversity, indicating that host phylogenetic distance alone cannot explain root microbiota diversification. Our work reveals within 35 My of host divergence a largely conserved and taxonomically narrow root microbiota, which comprises stable community members belonging to the Actinomycetales, Burkholderiales, and Flavobacteriales. PMID:24379374

Schlaeppi, Klaus; Dombrowski, Nina; Oter, Ruben Garrido; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

2014-01-01

145

Different Relative Orientation of Static and Alternative Magnetic Fields and Cress Roots Direction of Growth Changes Their Gravitropic Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following variants of roots location relatively to static and alternative components of magnetic field were studied. At first variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields’ components and gravitation vector. At the variant the negative gravitropysm for cress roots was observed. At second variant the static magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the alternative magnetic field was directed perpendicular to static one; roots were directed parallel to alternative magnetic field. At third variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed perpendicular to both two fields components and gravitation vector; At forth variant the alternative magnetic field was directed parallel to the gravitation vector, the static magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the gravitation vector, roots were directed parallel to static magnetic field. In all cases studied the alternative magnetic field frequency was equal to Ca ions cyclotron frequency. In 2, 3 and 4 variants gravitropism was positive. But the gravitropic reaction speeds were different. In second and forth variants the gravitropic reaction speed in error limits coincided with the gravitropic reaction speed under Earth’s conditions. At third variant the gravitropic reaction speed was slowed essentially.

Sheykina, Nadiia; Bogatina, Nina

146

De novo assembly of Euphorbia fischeriana root transcriptome identifies prostratin pathway related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Euphorbia fischeriana is an important medicinal plant found in Northeast China. The plant roots contain many medicinal compounds including 12-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate, commonly known as prostratin that is a phorbol ester from the tigliane diterpene series. Prostratin is a protein kinase C activator and is effective in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by acting as a latent HIV activator. Latent HIV is currently the biggest limitation for viral eradication. The aim of this study was to sequence, assemble and annotate the E. fischeriana transcriptome to better understand the potential biochemical pathways leading to the synthesis of prostratin and other related diterpene compounds. Results In this study we conducted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to sequence the root transcriptome of E. fischeriana. We assembled 18,180 transcripts, of these the majority encoded protein-coding genes and only 17 transcripts corresponded to known RNA genes. Interestingly, we identified 5,956 protein-coding transcripts with high similarity (> = 75%) to Ricinus communis, a close relative to E. fischeriana. We also evaluated the conservation of E. fischeriana genes against EST datasets from the Euphorbeacea family, which included R. communis, Hevea brasiliensis and Euphorbia esula. We identified a core set of 1,145 gene clusters conserved in all four species and 1,487 E. fischeriana paralogous genes. Furthermore, we screened E. fischeriana transcripts against an in-house reference database for genes implicated in the biosynthesis of upstream precursors to prostratin. This identified 24 and 9 candidate transcripts involved in the terpenoid and diterpenoid biosyntehsis pathways, respectively. The majority of the candidate genes in these pathways presented relatively low expression levels except for 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) and isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate synthase (IDS), which are required for multiple downstream pathways including synthesis of casbene, a proposed precursor to prostratin. Conclusion The resources generated in this study provide new insights into the upstream pathways to the synthesis of prostratin and will likely facilitate functional studies aiming to produce larger quantities of this compound for HIV research and/or treatment of patients. PMID:22151917

2011-01-01

147

Computer-based video digitizer analysis of surface extension in maize roots: kinetics of growth rate changes during gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We used a video digitizer system to measure surface extension and curvature in gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.). Downward curvature began about 25 +/- 7 min after gravistimulation and resulted from a combination of enhanced growth along the upper surface and reduced growth along the lower surface relative to growth in vertically oriented controls. The roots curved at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.5 degrees min-1 but the pattern of curvature varied somewhat. In about 35% of the samples the roots curved steadily downward and the rate of curvature slowed as the root neared 90 degrees. A final angle of about 90 degrees was reached 110 +/- 35 min after the start of gravistimulation. In about 65% of the samples there was a period of backward curvature (partial reversal of curvature) during the response. In some cases (about 15% of those showing a period of reverse bending) this period of backward curvature occurred before the root reached 90 degrees. Following transient backward curvature, downward curvature resumed and the root approached a final angle of about 90 degrees. In about 65% of the roots showing a period of reverse curvature, the roots curved steadily past the vertical, reaching maximum curvature about 205 +/- 65 min after gravistimulation. The direction of curvature then reversed back toward the vertical. After one or two oscillations about the vertical the roots obtained a vertical orientation and the distribution of growth within the root tip became the same as that prior to gravistimulation. The period of transient backward curvature coincided with and was evidently caused by enhancement of growth along the concave and inhibition of growth along the convex side of the curve, a pattern opposite to that prevailing in the earlier stages of downward curvature. There were periods during the gravitropic response when the normally unimodal growth-rate distribution within the elongation zone became bimodal with two peaks of rapid elongation separated by a region of reduced elongation rate. This occurred at different times on the convex and concave sides of the graviresponding root. During the period of steady downward curvature the elongation zone along the convex side extended farther toward the tip than in the vertical control. During the period of reduced rate of curvature, the zone of elongation extended farther toward the tip along the concave side of the root. The data show that the gravitropic response pattern varies with time and involves changes in localized elongation rates as well as changes in the length and position of the elongation zone. Models of root gravitropic curvature based on simple unimodal inhibition of growth along the lower side cannot account for these complex growth patterns.

Ishikawa, H.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

1991-01-01

148

Root Suberin Forms an Extracellular Barrier That Affects Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though central to our understanding of how roots perform their vital function of scavenging water and solutes from the soil, no direct genetic evidence currently exists to support the foundational model that suberin acts to form a chemical barrier limiting the extracellular, or apoplastic, transport of water and solutes in plant roots. Using the newly characterized enhanced suberin1 (esb1) mutant,

Ivan Baxter; Prashant S. Hosmani; Ana Rus; Brett Lahner; Justin O. Borevitz; Balasubramaniam Muthukumar; Michael V. Mickelbart; Lukas Schreiber; Rochus B. Franke; David E. Salt

2009-01-01

149

Role of roots in winter water relations of Engelmann spruce saplings.  

PubMed

Roots play a role in maintaining foliar water balance in subalpine conifer saplings during winter. We used deuterium-labeled water to demonstrate that roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry) take up water during the late-winter-early spring period. Based on a root severing experiment, we conclude that small, snow-covered saplings were largely dependent on root water uptake to meet winter transpiration needs, whereas larger saplings relied more on water stored in stem sapwood. Both water uptake and water stored in roots appeared to be critical for the survival of saplings exposed above the snowpack during the late-winter-early spring period, when sap reserves were insufficient to meet increasing transpirational demands. PMID:10562407

Boyce; Lucero

1999-11-01

150

Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants.  

PubMed

The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L(-1)) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg(-1)). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O2 kg(-1) root d.w.d(-1)), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg(-1) in shoots in 0.8 mg As L(-1) treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L(-1)) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L(-1)). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. PMID:20970900

Li, H; Ye, Z H; Wei, Z J; Wong, M H

2011-01-01

151

Total deletion of in vivo telomere elongation capacity: an ambitious but possibly ultimate cure for all age-related human cancers.  

PubMed

Despite enormous effort, progress in reducing mortality from cancer remains modest. Can a true cancer "cure" ever be developed, given the vast versatility that tumors derive from their genomic instability? Here we consider the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of a therapy that, unlike any available or in development, could never be escaped by spontaneous changes of gene expression: the total elimination from the body of all genetic potential for telomere elongation, combined with stem cell therapies administered about once a decade to maintain proliferative tissues despite this handicap. We term this therapy WILT, for whole-body interdiction of lengthening of telomeres. We first argue that a whole-body gene-deletion approach, however bizarre it initially seems, is truly the only way to overcome the hypermutation that makes tumors so insidious. We then identify the key obstacles to developing such a therapy and conclude that, while some will probably be insurmountable for at least a decade, none is a clear-cut showstopper. Hence, given the absence of alternatives with comparable anticancer promise, we advocate working toward such a therapy. PMID:15247008

de Grey, Aubrey D N J; Campbell, F Charles; Dokal, Inderjeet; Fairbairn, Leslie J; Graham, Gerry J; Jahoda, Colin A B; Porterg, Andrew C G

2004-06-01

152

Root gravitropism: a complex response to a simple stimulus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots avoid depleting their immediate environment of essential nutrients by continuous growth. Root growth is directed by environmental cues, including gravity. Gravity sensing occurs mainly in the columella cells of the root cap. Upon reorientation within the gravity field, the root-cap amyloplasts sediment, generating a physiological signal that promotes the development of a curvature at the root elongation zones. Recent

Elizabeth Rosen; Rujin Chen; Patrick H Masson

1999-01-01

153

Breaking barriers to transcription elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of protein factors participate in transcription and its regulation in eukaryotes. Many of these proteins regulate specific genes by targeting upstream promoter regions, whereas a smaller but mechanistically diverse set of factors functions at most genes during RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation. These elongation factors can affect mRNA production at particular stages and in different ways during transcription.

Abbie Saunders; Leighton J. Core; John T. Lis

2006-01-01

154

QTL analysis of root traits as related to phosphorus efficiency in soybean  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint to soybean growth and production, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Root traits have been shown to play critical roles in P efficiency in crops. Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring superior root systems could significantly enhance genetic improvement in soybean P efficiency. Methods A population of 106 F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between BD2 and BX10, which contrast in both P efficiency and root architecture, was used for mapping and QTL analysis. Twelve traits were examined in acid soils. A linkage map was constructed using 296 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with the Kosambi function, and the QTLs associated with these traits were detected by composite interval mapping and multiple-QTL mapping. Key Results The first soybean genetic map based on field data from parental genotypes contrasting both in P efficiency and root architecture was constructed. Thirty-one putative QTLs were detected on five linkage groups, with corresponding contribution ratios of 9·1–31·1 %. Thirteen putative QTLs were found for root traits, five for P content, five for biomass and five for yield traits. Three clusters of QTLs associated with the traits for root and P efficiency at low P were located on the B1 linkage group close to SSR markers Satt519 and Satt519-Sat_128, and on the D2 group close to Satt458; and one cluster was on the B1 linkage group close to Satt519 at high P. Conclusions Most root traits in soybean were conditioned by more than two minor QTLs. The region closer to Satt519 on the B1 linkage group might have great potential for future genetic improvement for soybean P efficiency through root selection. PMID:20472699

Liang, Quan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Mei, Mantong; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

2010-01-01

155

Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.  

PubMed

Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability. PMID:23559495

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

2013-10-01

156

Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.  

PubMed

Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction. PMID:23299674

Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

2013-01-01

157

Effects of root medium pH on water transport in paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings in relation to root temperature and abscisic acid treatments.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of root medium pH on water transport in whole-plant and detached roots of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Exposure of seedling roots to pH 4 and 8 significantly decreased root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and stomatal conductance (gs), compared with pH 6. When roots of solution-culture-grown (pH 6) seedlings were transferred to pH 4 or 8, their steady-state water flow (Qv) declined within minutes, followed by a decline in gs. The root oxygen uptake rates were not significantly affected by the pH treatments. Treatment of roots with mercuric chloride resulted in a large decrease in Qv at pH 6; the extent of this decrease was similar to that brought about by pH 4 and 8. Lowering root temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C decreased Qv irrespective of medium pH. Low root temperatures did not offset the effects of medium pH 4 on Qv and the roots in this treatment had a high activation energy for water flow. Conversely, roots exposed to pH 8 had a low activation energy, similar to that at pH 6. When 2 micro M abscisic acid, (+/-)-cis-trans-ABA, was added to the root medium, Qv increased in roots that were incubated at pH 6. It also increased slightly in roots incubated at pH 4, but not at pH 8. The increase at pH 4 and 6 was temperature-dependent, occurring at 21 degrees C, but not 4 degrees C. We suggest that the pH treatments are responsible for altering root water flow properties through their effects on the activity of water channels. These results support the concept that ABA effects on water channels are modulated by other, possibly metabolic- and pH-dependent factors. PMID:15294764

Kamaluddin, M; Zwiazek, Janusz J

2004-10-01

158

Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots  

PubMed Central

Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

1988-01-01

159

Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions  

E-print Network

Reciprocation, Square Root, Inverse Square Root, and Some Elementary Functions Using Small with the computation of reciprocals, square roots, inverse square roots, and some elementary functions using small/number of multipliers and compare with other related methods. Index TermsÐReciprocal, square root, inverse square root

Muller, Jean-Michel

160

The novel expression of Oct3/4 and Bmi1 in the root development of mouse molars.  

PubMed

The root apex of the tooth elongates until the completion of root development. Although the signaling molecules inducing root elongation have been studied, the characteristic of the cells having the ability to maintain the root elongation remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the cells involved in the root elongation. Octamer-binding factor 3/4 (Oct3/4) is known as one of the key regulators in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of embryonic stem cells. Bmi1, the polycomb-group transcriptional repressor, has emerged as a key regulator in several cellular processes including stem cell self-renewal and cancer cell proliferation. At the beginning of root formation, ameloblasts expressed Oct3/4 in the nucleus, except in the apex of the cervical loop, in which Bmi1and cyclinD were expressed. At PN6, the expression of Oct3/4 in the ameloblasts shifted from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, whereas ameloblastin-negative Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells expressed Bmi1 and cyclinD. By PN10, the cells in the apex of HERS began to express Oct3/4 in their nucleus, whereas Bmi1 and cyclinD began to decrease in their expressions. The odontoblasts consistently expressed Oct3/4 in their cytoplasm. Our results suggest that (1) Oct3/4 creates the border between the ameloblasts from the proliferative region of HERS, (2) Bmi1-positive cells would be one of the candidates resulting in root elongation and (3) the Oct3/4 expression in the cytoplasm of odontoblasts may be related to maintain the odontoblastic characteristics. PMID:22287043

Nakagawa, Eizo; Zhang, Li; Shin, Jeong-Oh; Kim, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sung-Won; Ohshima, Hayato; Chen, Zhi; Jung, Han-Sung

2012-02-01

161

On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

2012-01-01

162

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ROOT CONTROL, AND BACKWATER FLOW CONTROL AS RELATED TO INFILTRATION/INFLOW CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to identify and analyze present practices for determining and controlling infiltration and inflow (I/I) and investigate the role of roots and tide or backwater gates in the I/I problem. It was found through on-site investigations and questionnaires that loca...

163

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ROOT CONTROL, AND BACKWATER FLOW CONTROL AS RELATED TO INFILTRATION/INFLOW CONTROL. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to identify and analyze present practices for determining and controlling infiltration and inflow (I/I) and investigate the role of roots and tide or backwater gates in the I/I problem. It was found through on-site investigations and questionnaires that loca...

164

Effects of Plant Root Oxygen Deprivation in Relation to Water and Nitrate Uptake for Rose  

E-print Network

cellular respiration. Plants absorb oxygen through their roots. Past research has shown that reducing concentration in the rootzone became a limiting factor on the plants' ability to perform cellular respiration a limiting factor on cellular respiration. INTRODUCTION The commercial use of hydroponics for production

Lieth, J. Heinrich

165

Spatial Variability of Root Knot Nematodes in Relation to within Field Variability of Soil Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields under risk of southern root-knot nematode [M. incognita] (RKN) infection may offer producers better management of on-farm resources and optimization of profitability. However, it requires the study of RKN spatio-temporal variabi...

166

Characterization of Azospirillum and related diazotrophs associated with roots of plants growing in saline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diazotrophs, especially of genusAzospirillum were readily isolated from roots of many plants using semi-solid nitrogen free malate medium (NFM). These isolates formed fine, white sub-surface pellicle in nitrogen-free malate medium within 24h, which gradually moved to the surface, and exhibited high acetylene reduction rates. Using selected cultural and biochemical tests, most of the isolates were identified asAzospirillum brasilense. Four isolates

Rakhshanda Bilal; Ghulam Rasul; Javed A. Qureshi; Kauser A. Malik

1990-01-01

167

Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.

1990-01-01

168

Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1990-01-01

169

Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae  

PubMed Central

Background Two key genes of the translational apparatus, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1?) and elongation factor-like (EFL) have an almost mutually exclusive distribution in eukaryotes. In the green plant lineage, the Chlorophyta encode EFL except Acetabularia where EF-1? is found, and the Streptophyta possess EF-1? except Mesostigma, which has EFL. These results raise questions about evolutionary patterns of gain and loss of EF-1? and EFL. A previous study launched the hypothesis that EF-1? was the primitive state and that EFL was gained once in the ancestor of the green plants, followed by differential loss of EF-1? or EFL in the principal clades of the Viridiplantae. In order to gain more insight in the distribution of EF-1? and EFL in green plants and test this hypothesis we screened the presence of the genes in a large sample of green algae and analyzed their gain-loss dynamics in a maximum likelihood framework using continuous-time Markov models. Results Within the Chlorophyta, EF-1? is shown to be present in three ulvophycean orders (i.e., Dasycladales, Bryopsidales, Siphonocladales) and the genus Ignatius. Models describing gene gain-loss dynamics revealed that the presence of EF-1?, EFL or both genes along the backbone of the green plant phylogeny is highly uncertain due to sensitivity to branch lengths and lack of prior knowledge about ancestral states or rates of gene gain and loss. Model refinements based on insights gained from the EF-1? phylogeny reduce uncertainty but still imply several equally likely possibilities: a primitive EF-1? state with multiple independent EFL gains or coexistence of both genes in the ancestor of the Viridiplantae or Chlorophyta followed by differential loss of one or the other gene in the various lineages. Conclusion EF-1? is much more common among green algae than previously thought. The mutually exclusive distribution of EF-1? and EFL is confirmed in a large sample of green plants. Hypotheses about the gain-loss dynamics of elongation factor genes are hard to test analytically due to a relatively flat likelihood surface, even if prior knowledge is incorporated. Phylogenetic analysis of EFL genes indicates misinterpretations in the recent literature due to uncertainty regarding the root position. PMID:19216746

Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; Zechman, Frederick W; Sabbe, Koen; De Clerck, Olivier

2009-01-01

170

Response and tolerance of root border cells to aluminum toxicity in soybean seedlings.  

PubMed

Root border cells (RBCs) and their secreted mucilage are suggested to participate in the resistance against toxic metal cations, including aluminum (Al), in the rhizosphere. However, the mechanisms by which the individual cell populations respond to Al and their role in Al resistance still remain unclear. In this research, the response and tolerance of RBCs to Al toxicity were investigated in the root tips of two soybean cultivars [Zhechun No. 2 (Al-tolerant cultivar) and Huachun No. 18 (Al-sensitive cultivar)]. Al inhibited root elongation and increased pectin methylesterase (PME) activity in the root tip. Removal of RBCs from the root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation, especially in Huachun No. 18. Increasing Al levels and treatment time decreased the relative percent viability of RBCs in situ and in vitro in both soybean cultivars. Al application significantly increased mucilage layer thickness around the detached RBCs of both cultivars. Additionally, a significantly higher relative percent cell viability of attached and detached RBCs and thicker mucilage layers were observed in Zhechun No. 2. The higher viability of attached and detached RBCs, as well as the thickening of the mucilage layer in separated RBCs, suggest that RBCs play an important role in protecting root apices from Al toxicity. PMID:21549660

Cai, Miao-Zhen; Wang, Fang-Mei; Li, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Shu-Na; Wang, Ning; Xu, Gen-Di

2011-07-01

171

Ultrastructure of Rhizobium japonicum in relation to its attachment to root hairs.  

PubMed Central

In Rhizobium japonicum strain Nitragin 61A76, morphologically distinct types of bacteria were found to occur in yeast extract-mannitol broth cultures, at both mid-log and stationary phases. Of these only the capsular form, characterized by a smooth cell envelope, storage granules (glycogen and poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid), and an amorphous extracellular capsule, bound soybean lectin. The binding site was localized in the capsular material. Less than 1% of the bacterial population differentiated into these capsular forms, which were also able to attach to the soybean root hair surface. Images PMID:565352

Bal, A K; Shantharam, S; Ratnam, S

1978-01-01

172

Elongation of moving noncommutative solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the characteristic properties of noncommutative solitons moving with constant velocity. As noncommutativity breaks the Lorentz symmetry, the shape of moving solitons is affected not just by the Lorentz contraction along the velocity direction, but also sometimes by additional `elongation' transverse to the velocity direction. We explore this in two examples: noncommutative solitons in a scalar field theory on two spatial dimension and `long stick' shaped noncommutative /U(2) magnetic monopoles. However the elongation factors of these two cases are different, and so not universal.

Bak, D.; Lee, K.

2000-12-01

173

Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer. Methodology Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Conclusion The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated. PMID:25506413

Migliau, Guido; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Cosma, Salvatore; Eramo, Stefano; Gallottini, Livio

2014-01-01

174

Simulations of tremor-related creep reveal a weak crustal root of the San Andreas Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep aseismic roots of faults play a critical role in transferring tectonic loads to shallower, brittle crustal faults that rupture in large earthquakes. Yet, until the recent discovery of deep tremor and creep, direct inference of the physical properties of lower-crustal fault roots has remained elusive. Observations of tremor near Parkfield, CA provide the first evidence for present-day localized slip on the deep extension of the San Andreas Fault and triggered transient creep events. We develop numerical simulations of fault slip to show that the spatiotemporal evolution of triggered tremor near Parkfield is consistent with triggered fault creep governed by laboratory-derived friction laws between depths of 20-35 km on the fault. Simulated creep and observed tremor northwest of Parkfield nearly ceased for 20-30 days in response to small coseismic stress changes of order 104 Pa from the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon Earthquake. Simulated afterslip and observed tremor following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake show a coseismically induced pulse of rapid creep and tremor lasting for 1 day followed by a longer 30 day period of sustained accelerated rates due to propagation of shallow afterslip into the lower crust. These creep responses require very low effective normal stress of ~1 MPa on the deep San Andreas Fault and near-neutral-stability frictional properties expected for gabbroic lower-crustal rock.

Johnson, Kaj M.; Shelly, David R.; Bradley, Andrew M.

2013-04-01

175

Identifying root traits among MAR and non-MAR cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars that relate to performance under limited moisture conditions  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING ROOT TRAITS AMONG MAR AND NON-MAR COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. CULTIVARS THAT RELATE TO PERFOMANCE UNDER LIMITED MOISTURE CONDITIONS. A Thesis by CHARLES GARLAND COOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University zn... partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Plant Breeding IDENTIFYING ROOT TRAITS AMONG MAR AND NON-MAR COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. CULTIVARS THAT RELATE TO PERFOMANCE UNDER LIMITED...

Cook, Charles Garland

2012-06-07

176

Changes in root cap pH are required for the gravity response of the Arabidopsis root  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the columella cells of the root cap have been identified as the site of gravity perception, the cellular events that mediate gravity signaling remain poorly understood. To determine if cytoplasmic and/or wall pH mediates the initial stages of root gravitropism, we combined a novel cell wall pH sensor (a cellulose binding domain peptide-Oregon green conjugate) and a cytoplasmic pH sensor (plants expressing pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein) to monitor pH dynamics throughout the graviresponding Arabidopsis root. The root cap apoplast acidified from pH 5.5 to 4.5 within 2 min of gravistimulation. Concomitantly, cytoplasmic pH increased in columella cells from 7.2 to 7.6 but was unchanged elsewhere in the root. These changes in cap pH preceded detectable tropic growth or growth-related pH changes in the elongation zone cell wall by 10 min. Altering the gravity-related columella cytoplasmic pH shift with caged protons delayed the gravitropic response. Together, these results suggest that alterations in root cap pH likely are involved in the initial events that mediate root gravity perception or signal transduction.

Fasano, J. M.; Swanson, S. J.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Dowd, P. E.; Kao, T. H.; Gilroy, S.

2001-01-01

177

Waterlogging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mung bean (Vigna radiata).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting mung bean genotypes. An experiment was conducted with two cultivated mung bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes viz., T44 (tolerant) and Pusa Baisakhi (PB) (susceptible), and a wild Vigna species Vigna luteola under pot-culture to study the physiological and molecular mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) in root and leaf tissues, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves, while the Chl a/b ratio increased. Waterlogging-induced decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and increase in Chl a/b ratio was greater in PB than V. luteola and T44. Waterlogging caused decline in total and non-reducing sugars in all the genotypes and reducing sugars in PB, while the content of reducing sugar increased in V. luteola and T44. The pattern of variation in reducing sugar content in the 3 genotypes was parallel to sucrose synthase (SS) activity. V. luteola and T44 also showed fewer declines in total and non-reducing sugars and greater increase in reducing sugar and SS activity than PB. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) increased up to 8d of waterlogging in V. luteola and T44, while in PB a marginal increase was observed only up to 4d of treatment. Gene expression studies done by RT-PCR in 24h waterlogged plants showed enhanced expression of ADH and SS in the roots of V. luteola and T44, while in PB there was no change in expression level in control or treated plants. PCR band products were cloned and sequenced, and partial cDNAs of 531, 626, and 667; 702, 736, and 744bp of SS and ADH, respectively were obtained. The partial cDNA sequences of cloned SS genes showed 93-100 homologies among different genotypes and with D10266, while in case of ADH the similarity was in the range of 97-100% amongst each other and with Z23170. The results suggest that the availability of sufficient sugar reserve in the roots, activity of SS to provide reducing sugars for glycolytic activity and ADH for the recycling of NADH, and for the continuation of glycolysis, could be one of the important mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance of V. radiata genotype T44 and wild species V. luteola. This was reflected in better RWC and Chl content in leaves, and membrane stability of leaf and root tissue in V. luteola and T44. PMID:18947901

Sairam, Raj K; Dharmar, Kumutha; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Meena, Ramesh C

2009-04-01

178

Aluminium-induced alteration of ion homeostasis in root tip vacuoles of two maize varieties differing in Al tolerance.  

PubMed

Root elongation is a primary target of Al toxicity in plants. The objective of this study was to see whether Al-induced disturbance of ion homeostasis is related to the inhibition of root elongation. For this purpose, root growth rate, free cytoplasmic calcium (Ca²+) and vacuolar content of phosphate (P(i)), potassium (K+), nitrate (NO??) and malate, as well as malate and citrate exudation and nitrate reductase activity were analysed in tips of two Zea mays L. varieties differing in Al resistance. Aluminium treatment affected root growth and cytoplasmic Ca²+ in the Al sensitive variety Bakero, but not in the Al tolerant variety Sikuani. However, both varieties suffered Al-induced decrease of vacuolar K+, and phosphate concentrations. Vacuolar malate concentrations were more affected by Al in Bakero than in Sikuani. Vacuolar nitrate concentrations increased upon Al exposure in both varieties. Only in Sikuani rhizosphere, pH slightly increased upon Al exposure. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbance of Ca²+ homeostasis is an early event in the Al toxicity syndrome. However, Al-induced alterations of the root tip homeostasis of major ions seem unrelated to Al-induced inhibition of root elongation. PMID:21421422

Garzón, Teresa; Gunsé, Benet; Moreno, Ana Rodrigo; Tomos, A Deri; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

2011-05-01

179

Structure of human mitochondrial RNA polymerase elongation complex  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) transcription elongation complex was determined at 2.65 Å resolution. The structure reveals a 9–base pair hybrid formed between the DNA template and the RNA transcript and one turn of DNA both upstream and downstream of the hybrid. Comparisons with the distantly related RNAP from bacteriophage T7 indicates conserved mechanisms for substrate binding and nucleotide incorporation, but also strong mechanistic differences. Whereas T7 RNAP refolds during the transition from initiation to elongation, mtRNAP adopts an intermediary conformation that is capable of elongation without refolding. The intercalating hairpin that melts DNA during T7 RNAP initiation separates RNA from DNA during mtRNAP elongation. Newly synthesized RNA exits towards the PPR domain, a unique feature of mtRNAP with conserved RNA recognition motifs. PMID:24096365

Schwinghammer, Kathrin; Cheung, Alan C.M.; Morozov, Yaroslav I.; Agaronyan, Karen; Temiakov, Dmitry; Cramer, Patrick

2015-01-01

180

Temperature Interactions with Growth Regulators and Endogenous Gibberellin-like Activity during Seedstalk Elongation in Carrots 1  

PubMed Central

Stecklings (roots) of three cultivars of carrots (Daucus carota L.) were vernalized 10 weeks at 5 C and subsequently grown at each of three greenhouse night/day temperature regimes: high (27/32 C), medium (21/27 C), and low (15/21 C). Floral differentiation occurred first in the easy bolting cv. Scarlet Nantes, intermediate in cv. Danvers 126, and last in cv. Royal Chantenay. Stem elongation arising from the subapical meristematic region always preceded floral differentiation. Extractable gibberellin-like activity in carrot stem apices increased from harvest during the 10-week vernalization period, then remained constant even though floral differentiation and stem elongation occurred during an additional 20-week cold storage period. Low temperature had both an inductive and a direct effect on reproductive development depending on length of low temperature exposure. After 10 weeks vernalization at 5 C, high greenhouse temperature severely reduced ultimate seedstalk height and the endogenous gibberellinlike activity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks in the greenhouse. At the low greenhouse temperature, activity remained fairly constant during the 10-week sampling period. Changes in endogenous gibberellinlike activity were related with stem elongation, but not with floral initiation. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) applied following vernalization prevented the inhibitory effect of high greenhouse temperature on seedstalk elongation and resulted in seedstalk heights comparable to untreated controls grown at the low greenhouse temperature. Exogenous applications of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide and chlormequat reduced seedstalk height of carrot plants grown at the medium and low greenhouse temperatures to that of untreated controls grown at high temperature. Exogenous growth regulators and greenhouse temperature affected seedstalk elongation, but did not affect the number of plants that flowered. Images PMID:16660856

Hiller, Larry K.; Kelly, William C.; Powell, Loyd E.

1979-01-01

181

Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

1985-01-01

182

F-box proteins elongate translation during stress recovery.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis is energetically costly and is tightly regulated by evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Under restrictive growth conditions and in response to various stresses, such as DNA damage, cells inhibit protein synthesis to redirect available adenosine triphosphate to more essential processes. Conversely, proliferating cells, such as cancer cells, increase protein synthetic rates to support growth-related anabolic processes. mRNA translation occurs in three separate phases, consisting of initiation, elongation, and termination. Although all three phases are highly regulated, most of the translational control occurs at the rate-limiting initiation step. New evidence has described a molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of translation elongation. DNA damage initially slowed down elongation rates by activating the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) through an adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism. However, during checkpoint recovery, the SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-box-containing) ?TrCP (?-transducin repeat-containing protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase promoted degradation of eEF2K, thereby allowing the restoration of peptide chain elongation. These findings establish an important link between DNA damage signaling and the regulation of translation elongation. PMID:22669843

Meloche, Sylvain; Roux, Philippe P

2012-06-01

183

F-Box Proteins Elongate Translation During Stress Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein synthesis is energetically costly and is tightly regulated by evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Under restrictive growth conditions and in response to various stresses, such as DNA damage, cells inhibit protein synthesis to redirect available adenosine triphosphate to more essential processes. Conversely, proliferating cells, such as cancer cells, increase protein synthetic rates to support growth-related anabolic processes. mRNA translation occurs in three separate phases, consisting of initiation, elongation, and termination. Although all three phases are highly regulated, most of the translational control occurs at the rate-limiting initiation step. New evidence has described a molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of translation elongation. DNA damage initially slowed down elongation rates by activating the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) through an adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK)–dependent mechanism. However, during checkpoint recovery, the SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-box–containing) βTrCP (β-transducin repeat–containing protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase promoted degradation of eEF2K, thereby allowing the restoration of peptide chain elongation. These findings establish an important link between DNA damage signaling and the regulation of translation elongation.

Sylvain Meloche (Universite de Montreal;Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer REV); Philippe P. Roux (Universite de Montreal;Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer REV)

2012-06-05

184

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

185

Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival rate and the root characteristics of a sample of 1-year old transplanted cuttings. Despite limited in number, the investigated sample suggests that roots are shot from different points of the cuttings, which seem to reflect their location on the island and the direction of major resistance to flow erosion, also in agreement with the inundation maps.

Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

2009-04-01

186

Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

Poff, K. L.

1990-01-01

187

Fertilizer-induced changes in rhizosphere electrical conductivity: relation to forest tree seedling root  

E-print Network

-1 Fertilizer-induced changes in rhizosphere electrical conductivity: relation to forest tree-765-494-3608/9461) Received 1 July 2004; accepted in revised form 19 April 2005 Key words: Controlled-release fertilizer, Ion toxicity, Mineral nutrition, Reforestation, Salinity, Soil osmotic potential Abstract. Fertilization

188

Mechanosensitive channel candidate MCA2 is involved in touch-induced root responses in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive (MS) channel is a mechanical stress sensor. We previously reported that Arabidopsis MCA1 and its paralog MCA2 functioned individually as Ca2+-permeable MS channels. In the present study, we showed that the primary roots of the mca2-null mutant behaved abnormally on the surface of hard medium. First, primary roots are known to exhibit a skewing growth pattern on the surface of vertically placed agar medium. On such surface, the primary roots of mca2-null skewed more than those of the wild type. Second, when seedlings were grown on a tilted agar surface, the primary root of mca2-null showed abnormal waving patterns. Third, wild-type seedlings eventually died when grown on horizontally placed 3.2% gelrite medium, which was too hard to allow the primary roots of the wild type to penetrate, because their primary roots sprang from the surface of the medium and may have been unable to absorb water and nutrients. In contrast, the primary roots of mca2-null, but not those of mca1-null, were able to creep over the surface of the medium and grow. Fourth, when grown on the surface of 3.2% agar medium supplemented with 30 mM CaCl2, only mca2-null grew with a root that coiled in a clockwise direction. Lastly, on the surface of vertically placed rectangular plates that allowed primary roots to grow vertically down to the frame of the plate, wild-type primary roots grew horizontally after touching the frame at an angle of 90?. During the horizontal growth, only the extreme root tips maintained contact with the frame. In contrast, the primary roots of mca2-null allowed not only the extreme root tips, but also the meristem and elongation zones to maintain contact with the frame during horizontal growth. These results suggest that MCA2 is involved in touch-related root responses. PMID:25191336

Nakano, Masataka; Samejima, Rika; Iida, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

189

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Copper compounds influence in vitro rooting of birch microcuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of woody plant medium (WPM) with various formulations and concentrations of Cu[sup 2+] on in vitro rooting and subsequent shoot growth of microcuttings of a Betula pubescens x papyrifera clone were monitored for 28 days. Adventitious root initiation and elongation were reduced in magnitude and slowed in development by moderate to high Cu concentrations, with near zero root

M. A. Arnold; R. D. Lineberger; D. K. Struve

1994-01-01

191

Gas exchange characteristics and nitrogen relations of two Mediterranean root hemiparasites: Bartsia trixago and Parentucellia viscosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant height, light-saturated rates of photosynthesis (Amax) and foliar nitrogen concentration (N1) were measured forBartsia trixago under field conditions in Mallorca. All three variables were postively correlated, and were also positively related to the abundance of nitrogen-fixing legumes in the associated vegetation (putative host species).Amax forB. trixago ranged from 7.7 to 18.8 µmol m-2 s-1; similar rates were measured for

A. N. Parsons; A. W. Mackay; C. A. Vincent; V. Cochrane; W. E. Seel

1993-01-01

192

Relativity in Transylvania and Patusan: Finding the roots of Einstein's theories of relativity in "Dracula" and "Lord Jim"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.

Tatum, Brian Shane

193

Root hair length and rhizosheath mass depend on soil porosity, strength and water content in barley genotypes.  

PubMed

Selecting plants with improved root hair growth is a key strategy for improving phosphorus-uptake efficiency in agriculture. While significant inter- and intra-specific variation is reported for root hair length, it is not known whether these phenotypic differences are exhibited under conditions that are known to affect root hair elongation. This work investigates the effect of soil strength, soil water content (SWC) and soil particle size (SPS) on the root hair length of different root hair genotypes of barley. The root hair and rhizosheath development of five root hair genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was compared in soils with penetrometer resistances ranging from 0.03 to 4.45 MPa (dry bulk densities 1.2-1.7 g cm(-3)). A "short" (SRH) and "long" root hair (LRH) genotype was selected to further investigate whether differentiation of these genotypes was related to SWC or SPS when grown in washed graded sand. In low-strength soil (<1.43 MPa), root hairs of the LRH genotype were on average 25 % longer than that of the SRH genotype. In high-strength soil, root hair length of the LRH genotype was shorter than that in low-strength soil and did not differ from that of the SRH genotype. Root hairs were shorter in wetter soils or soils with smaller particles, and again SRH and LRH did not differ in hair length. Longer root hairs were generally, but not always, associated with larger rhizosheaths, suggesting that mucilage adhesion was also important. The root hair growth of barley was found to be highly responsive to soil properties and this impacted on the expression of phenotypic differences in root hair length. While root hairs are an important trait for phosphorus acquisition in dense soils, the results highlight the importance of selecting multiple and potentially robust root traits to improve resource acquisition in agricultural systems. PMID:24318401

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Valentine, Tracy A; White, Philip J; Young, Iain M; George, Timothy S

2014-03-01

194

Respiration and nitrogen fixation by bacteroids from soybean root nodules : substrate transport and metabolism in relation to intracellular conditions .  

E-print Network

??Bacteroids of B. japonicum from nodules of soybean roots were isolated using differential centrifugation (the standard bench method) and density gradient centrifugation methods (either sucrose-… (more)

Li, Youzhong

2008-01-01

195

Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in root mineral uptake under CaCO3 stress.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of increasing CaCO(3) concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis establishment as well as on chicory root growth and mineral nutrient uptake in a monoxenic system. Although CaCO(3) treatments significantly decreased root growth and altered the symbiosis-related development steps of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (germination, germination hypha elongation, root colonization rate, extraradical hyphal development, sporulation), the fungus was able to completely fulfill its life cycle. Even when root growth decreased more drastically in mycorrhizal roots than in non-mycorrhizal ones in the presence of high CaCO(3) levels, the AM symbiosis was found to be beneficial for root mineral uptake. Significant increases in P, N, Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations were recorded in the mycorrhizal roots. Whereas acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activities remained constant in mycorrhizal roots, they were affected in non-mycorrhizal roots grown in the presence of CaCO(3) when compared with the control. PMID:21866363

Labidi, Sonia; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Tisserant, Benoit; Debiane, Djouher; Rezgui, Salah; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

2012-07-01

196

www.plantroot.org Qi X, Qi J, Wu Y 2007 RootLM: a simple color image analysis program for length measurement of primary roots in  

E-print Network

root elongation of these mutants in comparison with wild-type plants, when grown on a Phytagel medium roots in Arabidopsis. Plant Root 1: 10-16. doi:10.3117/plantroot.1.10 Copyrights 2007, Plant Root (JSRR University, Logan, UT 84322, USA 2 Department of Plants, Soils, and Biometeorology, Utah State University

Qi, Xiaojun

197

Characterization of a wheat pathogenesis-related protein, TaBWPR-1.2, in seminal roots in response to waterlogging stress.  

PubMed

We examined the role of pathogenesis-related protein TaBWPR-1.2 in the context of molecular and physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seminal roots under waterlogging stress. Two cDNAs corresponding to the TaBWPR-1.2 gene, TaBWPR-1.2#2 and TaBWPR-1.2#13 were cloned from seminal roots. These cDNAs were predicted to encode proteins of 173 and 172 amino acids, respectively. In a time-course experiment, TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression was highest in whole seminal roots after 1 day of waterlogging treatment and higher than the control for at least 10 days; significantly increased protein abundance was observed after 7 days of waterlogging. Drought, another abiotic stress, did not influence TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression in wheat seminal roots at 5-d-old seedlings. Tissue-specific studies revealed that the highest TaBWPR-1.2 gene expression and protein levels were in the aerenchymatous root zone. TaBWPR-1.2 expression in seminal roots was also increased by the signalling molecules 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor), H2O2, jasmonic acid (JA), and nitric oxide (NO); however, treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and ethanol did not alter its expression. Interestingly, aerenchyma formation in the seminal root cortex was induced only by ACC and H2O2. Taken together, these results indicate that TaBWPR-1.2 is a waterlogging-responsive gene that might be associated with root cortex tissue alteration in wheat plants through ACC and/or H2O2 regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24709151

Haque, Md Emdadul; Abe, Fumitaka; Mori, Masahiko; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Kawaguchi, Kentaro

2014-05-01

198

Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by twofold at Day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at Day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3?-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at Day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced about twice alkaloids than H2 O2 -treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 -treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-?-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. PMID:23606578

Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

2013-01-01

199

Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by 2-fold at day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3?-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1- and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced ca. twice alkaloids than H2 O2 treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-?-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23475777

Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

2013-03-01

200

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

201

Rooting characteristics of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) in relation to soil fragipans in the flatwoods section of southeast Texas  

E-print Network

on plant growth. Most of the research included observations of few or no roots within the pan except in the cleavage planes. The roots of mature scarlet oak (guercus Coccinea Muenchh. ) were found to be restricted to the cleavage planes of the fragipan...

Batte, Charles David

2012-06-07

202

Sensitivity of growth of roots versus leaves to water stress: biophysical analysis and relation to water transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

moisture depletion. The model simulation also showed that roots behave as reversibly leaky cable in water Water transport is an integral part of the process of uptake. Some field data on root water extraction and growth by cell expansion and accounts for most of the vertical profiles of Y in shoots are viewed as mani- increase in cell volume characterizing

Theodore C. Hsiao; Liu-Kang Xu

2000-01-01

203

Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na+/K+ ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked. PMID:25271266

Julkowska, Magdalena M.; Hoefsloot, Huub C.J.; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A.; Testerink, Christa

2014-01-01

204

Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

Dupuy, Lionel X.

2011-09-01

205

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

206

The Compact Root Architecture1 Gene Regulates Lignification, Flavonoid Production, and Polar Auxin Transport in Medicago truncatula1[W  

PubMed Central

The root system architecture is crucial to adapt plant growth to changing soil environmental conditions and consequently to maintain crop yield. In addition to root branching through lateral roots, legumes can develop another organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule, upon a symbiotic bacterial interaction. A mutant, cra1, showing compact root architecture was identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula. cra1 roots were short and thick due to defects in cell elongation, whereas densities of lateral roots and symbiotic nodules were similar to the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that a lengthened life cycle in cra1 was due to the smaller root system and not to the pleiotropic shoot phenotypes observed in the mutant. Analysis of the cra1 transcriptome at a similar early developmental stage revealed few significant changes, mainly related to cell wall metabolism. The most down-regulated gene in the cra1 mutant encodes a Caffeic Acid O-Methyl Transferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis; accordingly, whole lignin content was decreased in cra1 roots. This correlated with differential accumulation of specific flavonoids and decreased polar auxin transport in cra1 mutants. Exogenous application of the isoflavone formononetin to wild-type plants mimicked the cra1 root phenotype, whereas decreasing flavonoid content through silencing chalcone synthases restored the polar auxin transport capacity of the cra1 mutant. The CRA1 gene, therefore, may control legume root growth through the regulation of lignin and flavonoid profiles, leading to changes in polar auxin transport. PMID:20522723

Laffont, Carole; Blanchet, Sandrine; Lapierre, Catherine; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Crespi, Martin; Mathesius, Ulrike; Frugier, Florian

2010-01-01

207

The plant embryo is a relatively simple structure consisting of a primordial shoot and root, whose development is frozen in the  

E-print Network

138 The plant embryo is a relatively simple structure consisting of a primordial shoot and root, whose development is frozen in the form of a seed. Most development of the mature plant takes place post that control the plant cell cycle at a molecular level, and the first attempts have been made to control plant

Murray, J.A.H.

208

Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

2007-01-01

209

Specialized zones of development in roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors propose using the term "distal elongation zone" (DEZ) rather than "postmitotic isodiametric growth zone" to refer to the group of cells between the apical meristem and the elongation zone in plant roots. Reasons presented for the change are that the proposed DEZ includes many cells that are still dividing, most cells in the region are not isodiametric, and the pattern of cell expansion in this region varies with position in the region. Cells in the DEZ respond to gravistimulation, mechanical impedance, electrotropic stimulation, water stress, and auxin. Differences in gene expression patterns between DEZ cells and cells in the main elongation zone are noted.

Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

1995-01-01

210

Root gravitropism in response to a signal originating outside of the cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed image analysis software linked to a rotating stage, allowing constraint of any user-selected region of a root at a prescribed angle during root gravitropism. This device allows the cap of a graviresponding root to reach vertical while maintaining a selected region within the elongation zone at a gravistimulated angle. Under these conditions gravitropic curvature of roots of

Chris Wolverton; Jack L. Mullen; Hideo Ishikawa; Michael L. Evans

2002-01-01

211

Redox-related peroxidative responses evoked by methyl-jasmonate in axenically cultured aeroponic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling roots.  

PubMed

Methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) has been proposed to be involved in the evocation of defense reactions, as the oxidative burst in plants, substituting the elicitors or enhancing their effect. 48 h dark- and sterilely cultured (axenic) aeroponic sunflower seedling roots excised and treated with different concentrations of MeJA showed a strong and quick depression of the H(+) efflux rate, 1.80 microM MeJA totally stopping it for approximately 90 min and then reinitiating it again at a lower rate than controls. These results were wholly similar to those obtained with nonsterilely cultured roots and have been interpreted as mainly based on H(+) consumption for O(2)(*-) dismutation to H(2)O(2). Also K(+) influx was strongly depressed by MeJA, even transitorily reverting to K(+) efflux. These results were consistent with those associated to the oxidative burst in plants. MeJA induced massive H(2)O(2) accumulation in the middle lamella and intercellular spaces of both the root cap cells and the inside tissues of the roots. The native acidic extracellular peroxidase activity of the intact (nonexcised) seedling roots showed a sudden enhancement (by about 52%) after 5 min of MeJA addition, maintained for approximately 15 min and then decaying again to control rates. O(2) uptake by roots gave similar results. These and other results for additions of H(2)O(2) or horseradish peroxidase, diphenylene iodonium, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate to the reaction mixture with roots were all consistent with the hypothesis that MeJA induced an oxidative burst, with the generation of H(2)O(2) being necessary for peroxidase activity. Results with peroxidase activity of the apoplastic fluid were in accordance with those of the whole root. Finally, MeJA enhanced NADH oxidation and inhibited hexacyanoferrate(III) reduction by axenic roots, and diphenylene iodonium cancelled out these effects. Redox activities by CN(-)- preincubated roots were also studied. All these results are consistent with the hypothesis that MeJA enhanced the NAD(P)H oxidase of a redox chain linked to the oxidative burst, so enhancing the generation of O(2)(*-) and H(2)O(2), O(2) uptake, and peroxidase activity by roots. PMID:12768345

Garrido, I; Espinosa, F; Córdoba-Pedregosa, M C; González-Reyes, J A; Alvarez-Tinaut, M C

2003-05-01

212

Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (?leaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. ?leaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in ?leaf. ?leaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower ?leaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting. PMID:21807692

Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

2011-01-01

213

The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

1998-01-01

214

Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane-associated Ca2+-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1–PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels. PMID:24501179

Maeshima, Masayoshi

2014-01-01

215

Change in Apoplastic Aluminum during the Initial Growth Response to Aluminum by Roots of a Tolerant Maize Variety1  

PubMed Central

Root elongation, hematoxylin staining, and changes in the ultrastructure of root-tip cells of an Al-tolerant maize variety (Zea mays L. C 525 M) exposed to nutrient solutions with 20 ?m Al (2.1 ?m Al3+ activity) for 0, 4, and 24 h were investigated in relation to the subcellular distribution of Al using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis on samples fixed by different methods. Inhibition of root-elongation rates, hematoxylin staining, cell wall thickening, and disturbance of the distribution of pyroantimoniate-stainable cations, mainly Ca, was observed only after 4 and not after 24 h of exposure to Al. The occurrence of these transient, toxic Al effects on root elongation and in cell walls was accompanied by the presence of solid Al-P deposits in the walls. Whereas no Al was detectable in cell walls after 24 h, an increase of vacuolar Al was observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h, a higher amount of electron-dense deposits containing Al and P or Si was observed in the vacuoles. These results indicate that in this tropical maize variety, tolerance mechanisms that cause a change in apoplastic Al must be active. Our data support the hypothesis that in Al-tolerant plants, Al can rapidly cross the plasma membrane; these data clearly contradict the former conclusions that Al mainly accumulates in the apoplast and enters the symplast only after severe cell damage has occurred. PMID:9952438

Vázquez, María Dolores; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan

1999-01-01

216

Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface.  

PubMed

Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short-term experiments were conducted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solutions to examine the alleviation of Cu and Pb toxicities by Al, Ca, H, Mg, and Na. For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of ?(0)(o) (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM) and thereby decreased {Cu(2+)}(0)(o) (activity of Cu(2+) at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb(2+) in the bulk solution than to {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). However, we propose that the addition of cations resulted in a decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o) but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of E(m,surf), the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). In addition, Ca was found to alleviate Pb toxicity through a specific effect. Although our data do not preclude site-specific competition (as incorporated in the BLM), we suggest that electrostatic effects have an important role. PMID:21563792

Kopittke, Peter M; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

2011-06-01

217

Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature of plants was -12‰, enabling us to differentiate between root-derived C and native SOM-C respiration. We found that the relative abundance of fine, medium and coarse roots were significantly different among cultivars. Root systems of Alamo, Kanlow and Cave-in-Rock were characterized by a large abundance of coarse-, relative to fine roots, whereas Carthage, Forestburg and Blackwell had a large abundance of fine, relative to coarse roots. Fine roots had a 28% lower C:N ratio than medium and coarse roots. These differences led to different root decomposition rates. We conclude that root architecture should be taken into account when predicting root decomposition rates; enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of root decomposition will improve model predictions of C input to soil organic matter.

de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2010-12-01

218

Light-activation of teleost rod photoreceptor elongation.  

PubMed

Rod photoreceptors in the retinas of teleost fish undergo changes in cell length in response to changing ambient light intensities. In the dark rods shorten and in the light rods elongate. These movements are mediated by actin-dependent processes which occur in the ellipsoid and myoid of the inner segment. As an approach to examining the underlying intracellular signaling pathways that link light absorption to actin-dependent motility in the inner segment, we have investigated the quantitative aspects of the light stimulus required to activate elongation in isolated rod inner/outer segments (RIS-ROS) of the green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). The intensity thresholds and strength-duration characteristics of the light stimulus required to activate teleost rod elongation were found to differ from those reported to activate vertebrate rod membrane hyperpolarization. In response to brief pulses of light, RIS-ROS elongated in a graded manner, both as a function of increasing light pulse intensity and light pulse duration. Half maximal activation of light-induced RIS-ROS elongation was produced by a stimulus of roughly 6 x 10(15) photons cm-2, which is calculated to bleach approximately 20% of the photopigment molecules in green sunfish rod outer segments. This degree of photopigment bleach is approximately 6-7 orders of magnitude greater than that required to elicit half maximal changes in membrane potential in other vertebrate rod preparations. Furthermore, the reciprocal relationship between light pulse intensity and duration in eliciting an equal elongation response held for relatively long light pulse durations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8405167

Liepe, B A; Burnside, B

1993-07-01

219

Growth and anatomical parameters of adventitious roots formed on mung bean hypocotyls are correlated with galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides structure.  

PubMed

The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. PMID:22666154

Kollárová, K; Zelko, I; Henselová, M; Capek, P; Lišková, D

2012-01-01

220

Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

1985-01-01

221

Links between root developmental traits and foraging performance.  

PubMed

We designed a simple dynamic and stochastic architectural model with six parameters to link the foraging performance of root systems to their developmental processes. Soil foraging was quantified by the volume enveloping the roots until a given uptake distance. Many simulated architectures were obtained by combining four different values for each parameter. The rate of soil colonization was mainly defined by individual root elongation rates and interbranch distances. Less intuitively, we showed that differentiation of elongation rates among the roots increased this colonization rate. Uptake efficiency--the ratio of the actual colonized volume to the volume of a unique cylinder with the same length and a radius corresponding to the uptake distance--declined with root system size. Nevertheless, large variations in efficiency existed among root systems for a given size, typically in a 4- to 10-fold range. Therefore, the 'efficiency gain' was defined as the deviation from the average trend in efficiency versus size. Between-root differentiation in elongation rates increased this gain. The level of hierarchy between mother and lateral roots, as well as the variation of elongation rates among lateral roots, was also shown to contribute to this optimization. Several parameter combinations could lead to similar efficiency gains. PMID:21631538

Pagès, Loïc

2011-10-01

222

Organization of cortical microtubules in graviresponding maize roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immunofluorescence labeling of cortical microtubules (MTs) was used to investigate the relationship between MT arrangement and changes in growth rate of the upper and lower sides of horizontally placed roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit). Cap cells and cells of the elongation zone of roots grown vertically in light or darkness showed MT arrangements that were transverse (perpendicular) to the growth direction. Microtubules of cells basal to the elongation zone typically showed oblique orientation. Two hours after horizontal reorientation, cap cells of gravicompetent, light-grown and curving roots contained MTs parallel to the gravity vector. The MT arrangement on the upper side of the elongation zone remained transverse but the MTs of the outer four to five layers of cortical cells along the lower side of the elongation zone showed reorientation parallel to the axis of the root. The MTs of the lower epidermis retained their transverse orientation. Dark-grown roots did not curve and did not show reorientation of MTs in cells of the root cap or elongation zone. The data indicate that MT depolymerization and reorientation is correlated with reduction in growth rate, and that MT reorientation is one of the steps of growth control of graviresponding roots.

Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

1993-01-01

223

A Cotton Annexin Protein AnxGb6 Regulates Fiber Elongation through Its Interaction with Actin 1  

PubMed Central

Annexins are assumed to be involved in regulating cotton fiber elongation, but direct evidence remains to be presented. Here we cloned six Annexin genes (AnxGb) abundantly expressed in fiber from sea-island cotton (G. barbadense). qRT-PCR results indicated that all six G. barbadense annexin genes were expressed in elongating cotton fibers, while only the expression of AnxGb6 was cotton fiber-specific. Yeast two hybridization and BiFC analysis revealed that AnxGb6 homodimer interacted with a cotton fiber specific actin GbAct1. Ectopic-expressed AnxGb6 in Arabidopsis enhanced its root elongation without increasing the root cell number. Ectopic AnxGb6 expression resulted in more F-actin accumulation in the basal part of the root cell elongation zone. Analysis of AnxGb6 expression in three cotton genotypes with different fiber length confirmed that AnxGb6 expression was correlated to cotton fiber length, especially fiber elongation rate. Our results demonstrated that AnxGb6 was important for fiber elongation by potentially providing a domain for F-actin organization. PMID:23750279

Huang, Yiqun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lida; Zuo, Kaijing

2013-01-01

224

Phosphorus and Aluminum Interactions in Soybean in Relation to Aluminum Tolerance. Exudation of Specific Organic Acids from Different Regions of the Intact Root System1[W  

PubMed Central

Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency often coexist in acid soils that severely limit crop growth and production, including soybean (Glycine max). Understanding the physiological mechanisms relating to plant Al and P interactions should help facilitate the development of more Al-tolerant and/or P-efficient crops. In this study, both homogeneous and heterogeneous nutrient solution experiments were conducted to study the effects of Al and P interactions on soybean root growth and root organic acid exudation. In the homogenous solution experiments with a uniform Al and P distribution in the bulk solution, P addition significantly increased Al tolerance in four soybean genotypes differing in P efficiency. The two P-efficient genotypes appeared to be more Al tolerant than the two P-inefficient genotypes under these high-P conditions. Analysis of root exudates indicated Al toxicity induced citrate exudation, P deficiency triggered oxalate exudation, and malate release was induced by both treatments. To more closely mimic low-P acid soils where P deficiency and Al toxicity are often much greater in the lower soil horizons, a divided root chamber/nutrient solution approach was employed to impose elevated P conditions in the simulated upper soil horizon, and Al toxicity/P deficiency in the lower horizon. Under these conditions, we found that the two P-efficient genotypes were more Al tolerant during the early stages of the experiment than the P-inefficient lines. Although the same three organic acids were exuded by roots in the divided chamber experiments, their exudation patterns were different from those in the homogeneous solution system. The two P-efficient genotypes secreted more malate from the taproot tip, suggesting that improved P nutrition may enhance exudation of organic acids in the root regions dealing with the greatest Al toxicity, thus enhancing Al tolerance. These findings demonstrate that P efficiency may play a role in Al tolerance in soybean. Phosphorus-efficient genotypes may be able to enhance Al tolerance not only through direct Al-P interactions but also through indirect interactions associated with stimulated exudation of different Al-chelating organic acids in specific roots and root regions. PMID:16648222

Liao, Hong; Wan, Huiyan; Shaff, Jon; Wang, Xiurong; Yan, Xiaolong; Kochian, Leon V.

2006-01-01

225

Expression of sulfur uptake assimilation-related genes in response to cadmium, bensulfuron-methyl and their co-contamination in rice roots.  

PubMed

The responses of sulfur (S) uptake assimilation-related genes' expression in roots of two rice cultivars to cadmium (Cd), bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) and their co-contamination (Cd+BSM) were investigated by gene-chip microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology. Treatments of Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of sulfate transporter and permease genes, and promoted sulfate uptake in rice roots. Cd+BSM could alleviate Cd toxicity to cv. Fengmeizhan seedlings, probably due to Cd+BSM promoting greater S absorption by seedlings. Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of sulfate assimilation-related genes, and thus activated the sulfur assimilation pathway. Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes, and induced expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutathione synthase (GS) and S-containing antioxidation enzyme genes, which detoxified Cd(2+). It is suggested that (to cope with the toxicity of Cd, BSM and their co-contamination) the S uptake and assimilation pathway was activated in rice roots by increased expression of related genes, thus enhancing the supply of organic S for synthesis of Cd or BSM resistance-related substances. PMID:25079279

Zhou, Jian; Wang, Zegang; Huang, Zhiwei; Lu, Chao; Han, Zhuo; Zhang, Jianfeng; Jiang, Huimin; Ge, Cailin; Yang, Juncheng

2014-03-01

226

Effect of lowering the root\\/shoot ratio by pruning roots on water use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot and a field experiment were conducted to assess the effects of root\\/shoot ratio (R\\/S) on the water use efficiency (WUE) and grain yield of winter wheat. The R\\/S was regulated by pruning the roots during the stem elongation stage, resulting in reduced root systems of the plants. At the heading stage, the root dry weight of root-pruned plants

Shou-Chen Ma; Feng-Min Li; Bing-Cheng Xu; Zhan-Bin Huang

2010-01-01

227

Osteogenetic changes in elongated styloid processes of Eagle syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Abnormal elongation of the styloid process, or Eagle syndrome, can be painful, and is associated with differential diagnoses including cranio-facial malformations and vasculo-neurological disturbances. The precise molecular mechanism leading to styloid process elongation is unknown. In this study, elongated styloid processes with periosteal fibrous ligament tissue were obtained from three patients with Eagle syndrome and examined by immunohistochemical methods using different antisera. In all cases, marked bony deposition was found at the apex of the styloid process. The osteogenetic proteins, such as osteonectin, osteocalcin, BMP-2, BMP-4, and RANKL were strongly positive by immunohistochemistry in both the ligament fibers and the periosteal membrane attached to the styloid process apex. Staining for protective proteins, HO-1, HSP-70, and HSP-90 was also positive. These results suggest that styloid process elongation is related to increased expression of osteogenetic and protective proteins. Therefore, we propose that Eagle syndrome results from a protective response to increased tensile stress in the ligament attached to the styloid process, which could also signal osteogenetic protein expression in the periosteal fibrous tissue. PMID:24161467

Kim, Soung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun

2014-07-01

228

Proteomic analysis of differential proteins related to the neuropathic pain and neuroprotection in the dorsal root ganglion following its chronic compression in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to identify the differential protein expressions related to neuropathic pain and neuroprotection\\u000a in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following chronic compression of DRG (CCD) in rats. We conducted a proteomics study of L4 and L5 DRG after CCD for 28 days. A total of 98 protein spots were detected with significant changes in their expression

Yang Zhang; Yong-Hui Wang; Xu-Hua Zhang; Hong-You Ge; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Jian-Min Shao; Shou-Wei Yue

2008-01-01

229

Simultaneous quantification of six major phenolic acids in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations by HPLC–DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. The six phenolic acids were simultaneously analyzed with a Zorbax Extend C18 column by gradient elution using 0.026% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid and

Ai-Hua Liu; Lie Li; Man Xu; Yan-Hua Lin; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo

2006-01-01

230

Effects of water deficit stress and recovery on the root water relations of trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings were grown in sand culture and subjected to mild and severe water deficit stress by withholding watering. Severely-stressed seedlings were also rewatered for 24 h to determine the effects of water deficit stress and stress recovery on root water flow properties. Both stress levels and stress recovery treatment reduced leaf stomatal conductance and shoot water

J. Aurea Siemens; Janusz J. Zwaizek

2003-01-01

231

Water-table depth and oxygen content of deep peat in relation to root growth of Pinus contorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Oxygen concentrations were measured at monthly intervals in deep peat in plots in which the water-tables are maintained artificially at levels ranging in depth from 11 cm to 33 cm below the surface. Good correlation was observed between weight of roots of 11 year oldPinus contorta in these plots and oxygen concentrations in different horizons at all times of

Robert Boggie

1977-01-01

232

Root Growth and Enzymes Related to the Lignification of Maize Seedlings Exposed to the Allelochemical L-DOPA  

PubMed Central

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a known allelochemical exuded from the roots of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. Fabaceae). In the current work, we analyzed the effects of L-DOPA on the growth, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL), and peroxidase (POD), and the contents of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin in maize (Zea mays) roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without 0.1 to 2.0?mM L-DOPA in a growth chamber (25°C, light/dark photoperiod of 12/12, and photon flux density of 280??mol?m?2?s?1) for 24?h. The results revealed that the growth (length and weight) of the roots, the PAL, TAL, and soluble and cell wall-bound POD activities decreased, while phenylalanine, tyrosine, and lignin contents increased after L-DOPA exposure. Together, these findings showed the susceptibility of maize to L-DOPA. In brief, these results suggest that the inhibition of PAL and TAL can accumulate phenylalanine and tyrosine, which contribute to enhanced lignin deposition in the cell wall followed by a reduction of maize root growth. PMID:24348138

Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio

2013-01-01

233

Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

2014-01-01

234

Foliage, fine-root, woody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We measured respiration of 20-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don trees growing in control (C), irrigated (I), and irrigated + fertilized (IL) stands in the Biology of Forest Growth experimental plantation near Canberra, Australia. Res- piration was measured on fully expanded foliage, live branches, boles, and fine and coarse roots to determine the relationship between CO2 efflux, tissue temperature, and

MICHAEL G. RYAN; ROBERT M. HUBBARD; SILVIA PONGRACIC; R. J. RAISON; ROSS E. MCMURTRIE

235

[Evaluation of root and bud cold hardiness of wine grape varieties based on temperature-injury relation].  

PubMed

A system for differential thermal analysis (DTA) was applied for low temperature exotherms (LTE) analysis of roots and buds of eight wine grape varieties, and the temperature-injury (LT-I) regression functions of buds, phloem and xylem of roots were established to evaluate the cold hardiness of roots and buds of the different varieties. The order of phloem 50% lethal temperature of the eight grapevines was Marselan > Cabernet Franc > Cabernet Sauvignon > Petit Manseng > Chardonnay > Cabernet Gernischt > Italian Riesling > Xiongyuebai. The xylem 50% lethal temperature of the different cultivars was in the order of Marselan > Chardonnay > Cabernet Sauvignon > Petit Manseng > Cabernet Franc > Cabernet Gernischt > Italian Riesling > Xiongyuebai. The order of bud 50% lethal temperature was Cabernet Sauvignon > Petit Manseng > Cabernet Gernischt > Cabernet Franc > Chardonnay > Italian Riesling > Marselan > Xiongyuebai. A comprehensive evaluation on cold hardiness of the different varieties was conducted by fuzzy membership function. For roots, Marselan was the poorest, and Xiongyuebai was the best. For buds, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Petit Manseng and Cabernet Gernischt were poorer, while Italian Riesling and Xiongyuebai were better. PMID:25011289

2014-04-01

236

Jasmonic acid does not increase oxidative defense mechanisms or common defense-related enzymes in postharvest sugarbeet roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA) treatment significantly reduces rot due to several sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage pathogens. However, the mechanisms by which JA protects postharvest sugarbeet roots from disease are unknown. In other plant species and organs, alterations in antioxidant defense mechanisms ...

237

Differential response of Arabidopsis leaves and roots to cadmium: glutathione-related chelating capacity vs antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

This study aims to uncover the spatiotemporal involvement of glutathione (GSH) in two major mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced detoxification (i.e. chelation and antioxidative defence). A kinetic study was conducted on hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn) to gain insight into the early events after exposure to Cd. Cadmium detoxification was investigated at different levels, including gene transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolite content. Data indicate a time-dependent response both within roots and between plant organs. Early on in roots, GSH was preferentially allocated to phytochelatin (PC) synthesis destined for Cd chelation. This led to decreased GSH levels, without alternative pathways activated to complement GSH's antioxidative functions. After one day however, multiple antioxidative pathways increased including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate (AsA) and catalase (CAT) to ensure efficient neutralization of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a consequence of Cd retention and detoxification in roots, a delayed response occurred in leaves. Together with high leaf thiol contents and possibly signalling responses from the roots, the leaves were protected, allowing them sufficient time to activate their defence mechanisms. PMID:25049163

Jozefczak, Marijke; Keunen, Els; Schat, Henk; Bliek, Mattijs; Hernández, Luis E; Carleer, Robert; Remans, Tony; Bohler, Sacha; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

2014-10-01

238

Measurement of Nitrate Efflux from Roots and Its Relation to Nitrate Accumulation in Two Oilseed Rape Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have reported significant differences in nitrate accumulation among genotypes within a crop species, but the reason for these differences is not clear. This study investigated nitrate (NO3) efflux from roots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L. cvs. ZY821 and D89) and the relationship between nitrate efflux and plant nitrate accumulation. Nitrate efflux was estimated by measuring nitrate

Caibian Huang; Zhaohui Wang; Shengxiu Li; Sukhdev Singh Malhi

2012-01-01

239

Effects of elongation delay in transcription dynamics.  

PubMed

In the transcription process, elongation delay is induced by the movement of RNA polymerases (RNAP) along the DNA sequence, and can result in changes in the transcription dynamics. This paper studies the transcription dynamics that involved the elongation delay and effects of cell division and DNA replication. The stochastic process of gene expression is modeled with delay chemical master equation with periodic coefficients, and is studied numerically through the stochastic simulation algorithm with delay. We show that the average transcription level approaches to a periodic dynamics over cell cycles at homeostasis, and the elongation delay can reduce the transcription level and increase the transcription noise. Moreover, the transcription elongation can induce bimodal distribution of mRNA levels that can be measured by the techniques of flow cytometry. PMID:25365608

Zhang, Xuan; Jin, Huiqin; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

2014-12-01

240

Response to non-uniform salinity in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia: growth, photosynthesis, water relations and tissue ion concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Soil salinity is often heterogeneous, yet the physiology of halophytes has typically been studied with uniform salinity treatments. An evaluation was made of the growth, net photosynthesis, water use, water relations and tissue ions in the halophytic shrub Atriplex nummularia in response to non-uniform NaCl concentrations in a split-root system. Methods Atriplex nummularia was grown in a split-root system for 21 d, with either the same or two different NaCl concentrations (ranging from 10 to 670 mm), in aerated nutrient solution bathing each root half. Key Results Non-uniform salinity, with high NaCl in one root half (up to 670 mm) and 10 mm in the other half, had no effect on shoot ethanol-insoluble dry mass, net photosynthesis or shoot pre-dawn water potential. In contrast, a modest effect occurred for leaf osmotic potential (up to 30 % more solutes compared with uniform 10 mm NaCl treatment). With non-uniform NaCl concentrations (10/670 mm), 90 % of water was absorbed from the low salinity side, and the reduction in water use from the high salinity side caused whole-plant water use to decrease by about 30 %; there was no compensatory water uptake from the low salinity side. Leaf Na+ and Cl? concentrations were 1·9- to 2·3-fold higher in the uniform 670 mm treatment than in the 10/670 mm treatment, whereas leaf K+ concentrations were 1·2- to 2·0-fold higher in the non-uniform treatment. Conclusions Atriplex nummularia with one root half in 10 mm NaCl maintained net photosynthesis, shoot growth and shoot water potential even when the other root half was exposed to 670 mm NaCl, a concentration that inhibits growth by 65 % when uniform in the root zone. Given the likelihood of non-uniform salinity in many field situations, this situation would presumably benefit halophyte growth and physiology in saline environments. PMID:19556265

Bazihizina, Nadia; Colmer, Timothy D.; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G.

2009-01-01

241

Root Hair Formation: F-Actin-Dependent Tip Growth Is Initiated by Local Assembly of Profilin-Supported F-Actin Meshworks Accumulated within Expansin-Enriched Bulges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant root hair formation is initiated when specialized elongating root epidermis cells (trichoblasts) assemble distinct domains at the plasma membrane\\/cell wall cell periphery complexes facing the root surface. These localities show accumulation of expansin and progressively transform into tip-growing root hair apices. Experimentation showed that trichoblasts made devoid of microtubules (MTs) were unaffected in root hair formation, whereas those depleted

František Baluška; Ján Salaj; Jaideep Mathur; Markus Braun; Fred Jasper; Josef Šamaj; Nam-Hai Chua; Peter W. Barlow; Dieter Volkmann

2000-01-01

242

Actin and myosin inhibitors block elongation of kinetochore fibre stubs in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes.  

PubMed

We used an ultraviolet microbeam to cut individual kinetochore spindle fibres in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. We then followed the growth of the "kinetochore stubs", the remnants of kinetochore fibres that remain attached to kinetochores. Kinetochore stubs elongate with constant velocity by adding tubulin subunits at the kinetochore, and thus elongation is related to tubulin flux in the kinetochore microtubules. Stub elongation was blocked by cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, actin inhibitors, and by butanedione monoxime, a myosin inhibitor. We conclude that actin and myosin are involved in generating elongation and thus in producing tubulin flux in kinetochore microtubules. We suggest that actin and myosin act in concert with a spindle matrix to propel kinetochore fibres poleward, thereby causing stub elongation and generating anaphase chromosome movement in nonirradiated cells. PMID:18094930

Forer, A; Spurck, T; Pickett-Heaps, J D

2007-01-01

243

Ethylene modifies architecture of root system in response to stomatal opening and water allocation changes between root and shoot.  

PubMed

Ethylene plays a key role in the elongation of exploratory and root hair systems in plants, as demonstrated by pharmacological modulation of the activity of ethylene biosynthesis enzymes: ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO). Thus, treatments with high concentrations (10 microM) of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, inhibitor of ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor, ACO activator) severely decrease the elongation of the exploratory root system but induce opposite effects on the root hair system: root hair length and numbers were increased in seedlings treated with ACC, whereas they were reduced in seedlings treated with AVG. Until now, such elongation changes of root architecture had not been questioned in terms of nitrate uptake. In the march issue of Plant Physiology we report that N uptake and nitrate transporter BnNrt2.1 transcript level were markedly reduced in ACC treated seedlings, but were increased in AVG treated seedlings compared to the control.1 Because recent studies have revealed that ethylene can also modulate stomatal opening as well as root hair cell elongation, we have examined whether pharmacological modulation of ethylene biosynthesis could affect, in an integrated manner, and at a whole-plant level, the exploratory and root hair systems, through changes of stomatal conductance and water allocation between the root and shoot. PMID:19704705

Patrick, Beauclair; Antonin, Leblanc; Servane, Lemauviel-Lavenant; Deleu, Carole; Le Deunff, Erwan

2009-01-01

244

Gravitropism of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Requires the Polarization of PIN2 toward the Root Tip in Meristematic  

E-print Network

Gravitropism of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Requires the Polarization of PIN2 toward the Root Tip to the elongation zone, referred to here as shootward, governs gravitropic bending. Shootward polar auxin transport, and hence gravitropism, depends on the polar deployment of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier PIN2

Baskin, Tobias

245

Cadmium-Induced Changes in Antioxidative Systems, Hydrogen Peroxide Content, and Differentiation in Scots Pine Roots1  

PubMed Central

To investigate whether Cd induces common plant defense pathways or unspecific necrosis, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, changes in ascorbate-glutathione-related antioxidant systems, secondary metabolism (peroxidases, phenolics, and lignification), and developmental changes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Cd (50 ?m, 6 h) initially increased superoxide dismutase, inhibited the systems involved in H2O2 removal (glutathione/glutathione reductase, catalase [CAT], and ascorbate peroxidase [APX]), and caused H2O2 accumulation. Elongation of the roots was completely inhibited within 12 h. After 24 h, glutathione reductase activities recovered to control levels; APX and CAT were stimulated by factors of 5.5 and 1.5. Cell death was increased. After 48 h, nonspecific peroxidases and lignification were increased, and APX and CAT activities were decreased. Histochemical analysis showed that soluble phenolics accumulated in the cytosol of Cd-treated roots but lignification was confined to newly formed protoxylem elements, which were found in the region of the root tip that normally constitutes the elongation zone. Roots exposed to 5 ?m Cd showed less pronounced responses and only a small decrease in the elongation rate. These results suggest that in cells challenged by Cd at concentrations exceeding the detoxification capacity, H2O2 accumulated because of an imbalance of redox systems. This, in turn, may have triggered the developmental program leading to xylogenesis. In conclusion, Cd did not cause necrotic injury in root tips but appeared to expedite differentiation, thus leading to accelerated aging. PMID:11706171

Schützendübel, Andres; Schwanz, Peter; Teichmann, Thomas; Gross, Kristina; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Godbold, Douglas L.; Polle, Andrea

2001-01-01

246

Duponnois, R., M. Fargette, S. Fould, J. Thioulouse, and K. G. Davies. 2000. Diversity of the bacterial hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans in relation to the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Acacia holosericea. Nematology 2:435-442.  

E-print Network

spp.) on Acacia holosericea. Nematology 2:435-442. #12;Duponnois, R., M. Fargette, S. Fould, J to the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Acacia holosericea. Nematology 2:435-442. #12 hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans in relation to the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Acacia

Thioulouse, Jean

247

Relating two deep-rooted pedigrees from Central Germany by high-resolution Y-STR haplotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y-STR haplotyping is a powerful forensic and anthropological tool for identifying male lineages. We used high-resolution Y-STR haplotyping to evaluate the possibility of a blood relationship between two deep-rooted paternal genealogies with the same surname and originating from the same geographical region in Central Germany. One pedigree comprised 13 generations covering >450 years, the other comprised nine generations covering >300

Manfred Kayser; Mark Vermeulen; Hans Knoblauch; Herbert Schuster; Michael Krawczak; Lutz Roewer

2007-01-01

248

Potassium uptake of rye-grass ( Lolium perenne ) and red clover ( Trifolium pratense ) as related to root parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) is known to be a strong competitor to red clover (Trifolium pratense) for soil K+ under conditions of low K availability in the soil. The objective of this study was to clarify whether this competitive behaviour of the two species can be explained by root morphology. Total K+ uptake ofL. perenne andT. pratense was studied under field

K. Mengel; D. Steffens

1985-01-01

249

Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*  

PubMed Central

Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

2013-01-01

250

Intracellular trafficking and proteolysis of the Arabidopsis auxin-efflux facilitator PIN2 are involved in root gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root gravitropism describes the orientation of root growth along the gravity vector and is mediated by differential cell elongation in the root meristem. This response requires the coordinated, asymmetric distribution of the phytohormone auxin within the root meristem, and depends on the concerted activities of PIN proteins and AUX1 — members of the auxin transport pathway. Here, we show that

Lindy Abas; René Benjamins; Nenad Malenica; Tomasz Paciorek; Justyna Wišniewska; Tobias Sieberer; Ji?í Friml; Christian Luschnig

2006-01-01

251

Retention of cadmium in roots of maize seedlings. Role of complexation by phytochelatins and related thiol peptides.  

PubMed Central

Cd from roots of maize was partitioned in seedlings exposed to 3 microM CdSO4 for 1 to 7 d. Most of the root Cd (92-94%) was buffer soluble and provided the classical metal-induced cysteine-rich, high-molecular-weight Cd-binding complex. This complex, however, bound only part of the Cd within the roots, from 19% after 1 d of exposure to 59% by d 7. Three families of peptides formed the Cd-binding complex: (gamma-glutamic acid-cysteine)n-glycine [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly], or phytochelatins, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Glu. The monothiols gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly (glutathione), gamma-Glu-Cys, and gamma-Glu-Cys-Glu were absent from the complex. The n2 oligomers of any peptide were the least concentrated, whereas the n3 and n4 oligomers increased in the complex with exposure to Cd. By d 7, 75% of (gamma-Glu-Cys)4-Gly, 80% of (gamma-Glu-Cys)4, and 73% of (gamma-Glu-Cys)3-Glu were complexed with Cd. The peptide thiol:Cd molar ratio for the complexes was 1.01 +/- 0.07, as if the minimal amount of thiol was used to bind Cd. Acid-labile sulfide occurred in the complexes from d 1 onward at the low S2-;Cd molar ratio of 0.18 +/- 0.02. PMID:7480321

Rauser, W E; Meuwly, P

1995-01-01

252

The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

1988-01-01

253

Comparison of Genomes of Brucella melitensis M28 and the B. melitensis M5-90 Derivative Vaccine Strain Highlights the Translation Elongation Factor Tu Gene tuf2 as an Attenuation-Related Gene  

PubMed Central

Brucella melitensis causes brucellosis, a disease affecting sheep, cattle, and sometimes humans. Attenuated B. melitensis strain M5-90, derived from virulent strain M28, is widely used as a live vaccine in ruminants in China. Genetic differences between the strains may cast light on the mechanism of attenuation. We recently reported the complete genomic sequences of M28 and M5-90. Genome organization is highly conserved between these isolates, and also with virulent strains 16 M and ATCC 23457. Analysis revealed 23 open reading frames (ORFs) with consistent differences between M5-90 and the virulent strains. Notably, the tuf2 gene encoding translation elongation factor EF-Tu from M5-90 contained 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 9 gaps (indels) compared to tuf2 of M28 or of the other virulent strains. There were no changes in tuf1. To evaluate the potential role of EF-Tu in pathogenesis, tuf1 and tuf2 mutants of M28 and an M5-90 strain harboring wild-type tuf2 were constructed, and their virulence/attenuation was evaluated in vivo. We report that the tuf2 gene plays an important role in the attenuation of M5-90 virulence. PMID:23716607

Wang, Fangkun; Qiao, Zujian; Hu, Sen; Liu, Wenxing; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Sidang; Zhao, Xiaomin

2013-01-01

254

Endocytosis and vesicle trafficking during tip growth of root hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The directional elongation of root hairs, “tip growth”, depends on the coordinated and highly regulated trafficking of vesicles\\u000a which fill the tip cytoplasm and are active in secretion of cell wall material. So far, little is known about the dynamics\\u000a of endocytosis in living root hairs. We analyzed the motile behaviour of vesicles in the apical region of living root

M. Ove?ka; I. Lang; F. Baluška; A. Ismail; P. Illeš; I. K. Lichtscheidl

2005-01-01

255

Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

2014-01-01

256

Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

van Kleeff, P J M; Jaspert, N; Li, K W; Rauch, S; Oecking, C; de Boer, A H

2014-11-01

257

Phylogenetic relationships among Armillaria species inferred from partial elongation factor 1-alpha DNA sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Armillaria species are important root rot pathogens with a wide host range and a worldwide distribution. The taxonomy of these fungi\\u000a has been problematic for many years but the understanding of the relationships between them has been substantially improved\\u000a through the application of DNA sequence comparisons. In this study, relationships between different Armillaria species were determined using elongation factor 1-alpha

L. Maphosa; B. D. Wingfield; M. P. A. Coetzee; E. Mwenje; M. J. Wingfield

2006-01-01

258

Mapping the Escherichia coli Transcription Elongation Complex with Exonuclease III.  

PubMed

RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters, induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein-DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in transcription initiation and elongation complexes and to infer the translocation register of the enzyme. In this chapter, we describe probing the location and the conformation of transcription elongation complexes formed by walking of the RNA polymerase along an immobilized template. PMID:25665555

Liu, Zhaokun; Artsimovitch, Irina

2015-01-01

259

Biomechanics of stipe elongation in the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea.  

PubMed

Stipe elongation in fruit bodies of Coprinopsis cinerea (syn. Coprinus cinereus) was examined from a biomechanical perspective. Two strains were studied: the self-compatible Amut Bmut homokaryon that produces normal fruit bodies with relatively short stipes, and mutant B1918 that produces abnormally elongated stipes. Measurements of the pressure exerted by developing mushrooms were made using strain gauges, and these data were compared with measurements of the pressures exerted by vegetative hyphae of the same strains. The experiments demonstrate that AmutBmut hyphae elongating within stipe tissue push with the same pressure (approx. 0.5 atmosphere) as vegetative hyphae growing through their food sources. In purely biomechanical terms, the fruit body may therefore be viewed as a relatively uncomplicated sum of its parts. Analysis of the mutant strain B1918 demonstrated that hyperelongation of the stipe is not associated with any difference in the pressure exerted by the fruit body. The fault in the mechanism of stipe extension in B1918 may be reflected in the increased fluidity of the cell wall of vegetative hyphae of this strain, but further work is necessary to resolve this. PMID:16018318

Money, Nicholas P; Ravishankar, J P

2005-05-01

260

Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.  

PubMed

The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. PMID:24909378

Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2015-02-11

261

Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica  

PubMed Central

Brassicas are among the most widely grown and important crops worldwide. Phosphorus (P) is a key mineral element in the growth of all plants and is largely supplied as inorganic rock-phosphate, a dwindling resource, which is likely to be an increasingly significant factor in global agriculture. In order to develop crops which can abstract P from the soil, utilize it more efficiently, require less of it or obtain more from other sources such as soil organic P reservoirs, a detailed understanding the factors that influence P metabolism and cycling in plants and associated soil is required. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of root traits, rhizodeposition and rhizosphere community interaction as it applies to P solubilization and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica species. Physical root characteristics, exudation of organic acids (particularly malate and citrate) and phosphatase enzymes are considered and the potential mechanisms of control of these responses to P deficiency examined. The influence of rhizodeposits on the development of the rhizosphere microbial community is discussed and the specific features of this community in response to P deficiency are considered; specifically production of phosphatases, phytases and phosphonate hydrolases. Finally various potential approaches for improving overall P use efficiency in Brassica production are discussed. PMID:24575103

Hunter, Paul J.; Teakle, Grahams R.; Bending, Gary D.

2014-01-01

262

Production of gibberellins and indole-3-acetic acid by Rhizobium phaseoli in relation to nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris roots.  

PubMed

Similar ranges of gibberellins (GAs) were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-immunoassay procedures in ten cultures of wild-type and mutant strains of Rhizobium phaseoli. The major GAs excreted into the culture medium were GA1 and GA4. These identifications were confirmed by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The HPLC-immunoassays also detected smaller amounts of GA9- as well as GA20-like compounds, the latter being present in some but not all cultures. In addition to GAs, all strains excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) but there was no obvious relationship between the amounts of GA and IAA that accumulated. The Rhizobium strains studied included nod (-) and fix (-) mutants, making it unlikely that the IAA- and GA-biosynthesis genes are closely linked to the genes for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.The HPLC-immunoassay analyses showed also that nodules and non-nodulated roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contained similar spectra of GAs to R. phaseoli culture media. The GA pools in roots and nodules were of similar size, indicating that Rhizobium does not make a major contribution to the GA content of the infected tissue. PMID:24221937

Atzorn, R; Crozier, A; Wheeler, C T; Sandberg, G

1988-10-01

263

Neuroprotective Copper Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) Complexes Promote Neurite Elongation  

PubMed Central

Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-copper complex, CuII(gtsm) on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes) in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that CuII(gtsm) induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex, CuII(atsm), but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by CuII(gtsm) was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75–99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM CuII(gtsm) treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that CuII(gtsm) inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor) resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM CuII(gtsm), suggesting a potential link between CuII(gtsm)-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes. PMID:24587210

Bica, Laura; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Duncan, Clare; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Volitakis, Irene; Paterson, Brett M.; Cappai, Roberto; Grubman, Alexandra; Camakaris, James; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

264

Neuroprotective copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes promote neurite elongation.  

PubMed

Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-copper complex, Cu(II)(gtsm) on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes) in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that Cu(II)(gtsm) induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex, Cu(II)(atsm), but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by Cu(II)(gtsm) was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75-99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM Cu(II)(gtsm) treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that Cu(II)(gtsm) inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor) resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM Cu(II)(gtsm), suggesting a potential link between Cu(II)(gtsm)-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes. PMID:24587210

Bica, Laura; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Donnelly, Paul S; Duncan, Clare; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Volitakis, Irene; Paterson, Brett M; Cappai, Roberto; Grubman, Alexandra; Camakaris, James; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

2014-01-01

265

The increase in conductance of a gold single atom chain during elastic elongation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conductance of monoatomic gold wires has been studied using ab initio calculations and the transmission was found to vary with the elastic strain. Counter-intuitively, the conductance was found to increase for the initial stages of the elongation, where the structure has a zigzag shape and the bond angles increase from ?140° toward ?160°. After a certain elongation limit, where the angles are relatively high, the bond length elongation associated with a Peierls distortion reverses this trend and the conductance decreases. These simulations are in good agreement with previously unexplained experimental results.

Tavazza, F.; Barzilai, S.; Smith, D. T.; Levine, L. E.

2013-02-01

266

Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates  

PubMed Central

Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal elongation are likely adaptations for more effective acrobatic leaping, highlighting the importance of this behavior in early euprimate evolution. PMID:23844094

Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

2013-01-01

267

Long-term control of root growth  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

1992-05-26

268

Long-term control of root growth  

DOEpatents

A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

1992-05-26

269

Water relations and leaf expansion: importance of time scale.  

PubMed

The role of leaf water relations in controlling cell expansion in leaves of water-stressed maize and barley depends on time scale. Sudden changes in leaf water status, induced by sudden changes in humidity, light and soil salinity, greatly affect leaf elongation rate, but often only transiently. With sufficiently large changes in salinity, leaf elongation rates are persistently reduced. When plants are kept fully turgid throughout such sudden environmental changes, by placing their roots in a pressure chamber and raising the pressure so that the leaf xylem sap is maintained at atmospheric pressure, both the transient and persistent changes in leaf elongation rate disappear. All these responses show that water relations are responsible for the sudden changes in leaf elongation rate resulting from sudden changes in water stress and putative root signals play no part. However, at a time scale of days, pressurization fails to maintain high rates of leaf elongation of plants in either saline or drying soil, indicating that root signals are overriding water relations effects. In both saline and drying soil, pressurization does raise the growth rate during the light period, but a subsequent decrease during the dark results in no net effect on leaf growth over a 24 h period. When transpirational demand is very high, however, growth-promoting effects of pressurization during the light period outweigh any reductions in the dark, resulting in a net increase in growth of pressurized plants over 24 h. Thus leaf water status can limit leaf expansion rates during periods of high transpiration despite the control exercised by hormonal effects on a 24 h basis. PMID:11006301

Munns, R; Passioura, J B; Guo, J; Chazen, O; Cramer, G R

2000-09-01

270

Origins of improved carrier multiplication efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures.  

PubMed

Nanorod solar cells have been attracting a lot of attention recently, as they have been shown to exhibit a lower carrier multiplication onset and a higher quantum efficiency than quantum dots with similar bandgaps. The underpinning theory for this phenomenon is not yet completely understood, and is still the subject of ongoing study. Here we conduct a theoretical investigation into CM efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures with square cross section made of different materials (GaAs, GaSb, InAs, InP, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si and PbSe), using a single-band effective mass model. Following Luo, Franceschetti and Zunger we adopt the CM figure of merit (the ratio between biexciton and single-exciton density of states) as a measure of CM efficiency and investigate its dependence on the aspect ratio for both (a) constant cross section (i.e. varying the volume) and (b) constant volume (i.e., varying the cross section), by decoupling electronic structure effects from surface-related effects, increased absorption and Coulomb coupling effects. The results show that in both (a) and (b) cases elongation causes an increase in both single- and bi-exciton density of states, with the latter, however, growing much faster with increasing energy. This leads to the availability of more bi-exciton states than single-exciton states for photon energies just above the bi-exciton ground state and therefore suggests a higher probability of CM at these energies for elongated structures. Our results therefore show that the origin of the observed decrease of the CM threshold in elongated structures can be attributed purely to electronic structure effects, paving the way to the implementation of CM-efficiency-boosting strategies in nanostructures based on the lowering of the CM onset. PMID:25493662

Sills, Andrew; Califano, Marco

2014-12-10

271

Root Cohesion Controls on Shallow Landslide Size, Shape and Location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many environmental factors, including ground cover, local hydrology, and recent weather events interact to cause shallow landslides and determine landslide characteristics. Vegetation is of particular interest, because changes in vegetation density, age, and composition are expected consequences of human land use and climate change. These changes alter effective cohesion due to root reinforcement, which is known to impact landslide abundance, but the effects of root cohesion on landslide size, shape and location have not been quantified. The Elliott State Forest, a 376 km2 managed forest in Douglas County, Oregon, provides an ideal venue to study these effects. There, a single storm in November 1996 triggered 154 shallow landslides, which were subsequently mapped using aerial images onto laser altimetry data, in an area with a range of vegetation ages but relatively uniform soil properties, topography, and lithology. We used aerial imagery to categorize areas with different land use histories into 3 vegetation classes, ranging from clear-cuts to forest with mature trees over 100 years old. Each mapped landslide was then assigned to a class, and its size, shape and location was recorded. Our results show that, in addition to the expected decrease in landslide abundance in more-vegetated areas (which could be influenced by a bias against detecting landslides under trees), landslides in those areas were also larger and more elongated in the down-slope direction. Although landslides in all three classes generally occurred at locations with similar drainage area and slope, we observed that slides with a larger ratio of drainage area to slope were slightly more abundant in areas with lower vegetation cover. To investigate the causes of these variations, we used a new shallow landslide model calibrated for the Oregon Coast Range to predict the size, shape and location of landslides triggered by the 1996 storm under a range of root cohesion values in a subset of the study area. Although this exploratory model did not successfully predict the locations of specific landslides, it correctly predicted the sign of trends in landslide size and aspect ratio with increasing root cohesion. The model indicates that landslides in more densely vegetated areas must be larger to overcome increased root reinforcement, and grow by elongation (rather than widening) as a result of topographic effects on soil depth, pore pressure and basal cohesion. These results give insight into the impacts of changes in root cohesion on shallow landslide characteristics and provide a benchmark for testing the accuracy of regional-scale, shallow landslide models.

Douglas, M.; Bellugi, D. G.; Perron, J.; Coe, J. A.; Schmidt, K. M.

2013-12-01

272

Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2008-01-01

273

Reorientation of elongated particles at density interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density interfaces in the water column are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes. Interaction of settling particles with pycnoclines plays a pivotal function in nutrient transport between ocean layers and settling rates of marine particles. We perform direct numerical simulations of an elongated particle settling through a density interface and scrutinize the role of stratification on the settling dynamics. It is found that the presence of the density interface tends to turn the long axis of an elongated particle parallel to the settling direction, which is dramatically different from its counterpart in a homogeneous fluid. Although broadside-on settling of the elongated particle is enhanced upon approaching the interface, the long axis rotates toward the settling direction as the particle passes through the interface. We quantify turning couples due to stratification effects, which counteract the pressure-induced torques due to the fluid inertia. A similar behavior is observed for different initial orientations of the particle. It is shown that the reorientation of an elongated particle occurs in both sharp and linear density stratifications.

Doostmohammadi, A.; Ardekani, A. M.

2014-09-01

274

Reorientation of elongated particles at density interfaces.  

PubMed

Density interfaces in the water column are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes. Interaction of settling particles with pycnoclines plays a pivotal function in nutrient transport between ocean layers and settling rates of marine particles. We perform direct numerical simulations of an elongated particle settling through a density interface and scrutinize the role of stratification on the settling dynamics. It is found that the presence of the density interface tends to turn the long axis of an elongated particle parallel to the settling direction, which is dramatically different from its counterpart in a homogeneous fluid. Although broadside-on settling of the elongated particle is enhanced upon approaching the interface, the long axis rotates toward the settling direction as the particle passes through the interface. We quantify turning couples due to stratification effects, which counteract the pressure-induced torques due to the fluid inertia. A similar behavior is observed for different initial orientations of the particle. It is shown that the reorientation of an elongated particle occurs in both sharp and linear density stratifications. PMID:25314535

Doostmohammadi, A; Ardekani, A M

2014-09-01

275

Tensile Regulation of Axonal Elongation and Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurites of chick sensory neurons in culture were attached by their growth cones to glass needles of known compliance and were subjected to increasing tensions as steps of con- stant force; each step lasted 30-60 min and was 25-50 Adyn greater than the previous step. After correcting for elastic stretching, neurite elongation rate increased in proportion to tension magnitude greater

Jing Zheng; Phillip Lamoureux; Vivian Santiago; Timothy Dennerll; Robert E. Buxbaum; Steven R. Heidemann

1991-01-01

276

Application of Natural Blends of Phytochemicals Derived from the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis to the Soil Reveal That Phenolic-related Compounds Predominantly Modulate the Soil Microbiome*  

PubMed Central

The roots of plants have the ability to influence its surrounding microbiology, the so-called rhizosphere microbiome, through the creation of specific chemical niches in the soil mediated by the release of phytochemicals. Here we report how these phytochemicals could modulate the microbial composition of a soil in the absence of the plant. For this purpose, root exudates of Arabidopsis were collected and fractionated to obtain natural blends of phytochemicals at various relative concentrations that were characterized by GC-MS and applied repeatedly to a soil. Soil bacterial changes were monitored by amplifying and pyrosequencing the 16 S ribosomal small subunit region. Our analyses reveal that one phytochemical can culture different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mixtures of phytochemicals synergistically culture groups of OTUs, and the same phytochemical can act as a stimulator or deterrent to different groups of OTUs. Furthermore, phenolic-related compounds showed positive correlation with a higher number of unique OTUs compared with other groups of compounds (i.e. sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids). For instance, salicylic acid showed positive correlations with species of Corynebacterineae, Pseudonocardineae and Streptomycineae, and GABA correlated with species of Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Frankineae, Variovorax, Micromonosporineae, and Skermanella. These results imply that phenolic compounds act as specific substrates or signaling molecules for a large group of microbial species in the soil. PMID:23293028

Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2013-01-01

277

Root growth is modulated by differential hormonal sensitivity in neighboring cells.  

PubMed

Coherent plant growth requires spatial integration of hormonal pathways and cell wall remodeling activities. However, the mechanisms governing sensitivity to hormones and how cell wall structure integrates with hormonal effects are poorly understood. We found that coordination between two types of epidermal root cells, hair and nonhair cells, establishes root sensitivity to the plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs). While expression of the BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) in hair cells promotes cell elongation in all tissues, its high relative expression in nonhair cells is inhibitory. Elevated ethylene and deposition of crystalline cellulose underlie the inhibitory effect of BRI1. We propose that the relative spatial distribution of BRI1, and not its absolute level, fine-tunes growth. PMID:24736847

Fridman, Yulia; Elkouby, Liron; Holland, Neta; Vragovi?, Kristina; Elbaum, Rivka; Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal

2014-04-15

278

Root growth is modulated by differential hormonal sensitivity in neighboring cells  

PubMed Central

Coherent plant growth requires spatial integration of hormonal pathways and cell wall remodeling activities. However, the mechanisms governing sensitivity to hormones and how cell wall structure integrates with hormonal effects are poorly understood. We found that coordination between two types of epidermal root cells, hair and nonhair cells, establishes root sensitivity to the plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs). While expression of the BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) in hair cells promotes cell elongation in all tissues, its high relative expression in nonhair cells is inhibitory. Elevated ethylene and deposition of crystalline cellulose underlie the inhibitory effect of BRI1. We propose that the relative spatial distribution of BRI1, and not its absolute level, fine-tunes growth. PMID:24736847

Fridman, Yulia; Elkouby, Liron; Holland, Neta; Vragovi?, Kristina; Elbaum, Rivka; Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal

2014-01-01

279

Misguided Transcriptional Elongation Causes Mixed Lineage Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Fusion proteins composed of the histone methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) and a variety of unrelated fusion partners are highly leukemogenic. Despite their prevalence, particularly in pediatric acute leukemia, many molecular details of their transforming mechanism are unknown. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the function of MLL fusions, demonstrating that they capture a transcriptional elongation complex that has been previously found associated with the eleven-nineteen leukemia protein (ENL). We show that this complex consists of a tight core stabilized by recursive protein–protein interactions. This central part integrates histone H3 lysine 79 methylation, RNA Polymerase II (RNA Pol II) phosphorylation, and MLL fusion partners to stimulate transcriptional elongation as evidenced by RNA tethering assays. Coimmunoprecipitations indicated that MLL fusions are incorporated into this complex, causing a constitutive recruitment of elongation activity to MLL target loci. Chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) of the homeobox gene A cluster confirmed a close relationship between binding of MLL fusions and transcript levels. A time-resolved ChIP utilizing a conditional MLL fusion singled out H3K79 methylation as the primary parameter correlated with target expression. The presence of MLL fusion proteins also kept RNA Pol II in an actively elongating state and prevented accumulation of inhibitory histone methylation on target chromatin. Hox loci remained open and productive in the presence of MLL fusion activity even under conditions of forced differentiation. Finally, MLL-transformed cells were particularly sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of RNA Pol II phosphorylation, pointing to a potential treatment for MLL. In summary, we show aberrant transcriptional elongation as a novel mechanism for oncogenic transformation. PMID:19956800

Mueller, Dorothee; García-Cuéllar, María-Paz; Bach, Christian; Buhl, Sebastian; Maethner, Emanuel; Slany, Robert K.

2009-01-01

280

Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.  

PubMed

• All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force. PMID:22583121

Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

2012-07-01

281

[Reduction in oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity by the administration of Keishikajutsubuto(TJ-18)and powdered processed aconite root].  

PubMed

Oxaliplatin (L-OHP)is an important chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Peripheral neuropathy was observed in 90% of patients who received L-OHP.Neuropathy often results in the discontinuation of treatment or a decrease the quality of life(QOL). The most effective method for reducing neuropathy is the discontinuation of L-OHP. To reduce neuropathy, we administered Keishikajutsubutou(TJ-18)with powdered processed aconite root(TJ-3023), and we report the effect of these compounds. The subjects comprised 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. L-OHP(85mg/m2)was administered as part of the FOLFOX6(10 patients)or FOLFOX7(1 patient)regimen. All patients had experienced neuropathy. We administered TJ-18(7.5 g)and T-3023(1 g). After 2 weeks, the TJ-3023 dose was increased to 2 g for nonresponders. The response was evaluated according to the Neurotoxicity Criteria of DEBIOPHARM. Reduction in neuropathy was observed in 5 cases(45.5% ). Among 6 patients whose feet and hands felt warm, reduction in neuropathy was observed in 5(83.3% ). PMID:23152020

Yamada, Takeshi; Kan, Hayato; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Koizumi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Junpei; Tani, Aya; Yokoi, Kimiyoshi; Uchida, Eiji

2012-11-01

282

Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transforma)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation ? was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

2014-05-01

283

Alteration of root growth by lettuce, wheat, and soybean in response to wear debris from automotive brake pads.  

PubMed

Brakes from motor vehicles release brake pad wear debris (BPWD) with increased concentrations of heavy metals. Germination and root-elongation assays with lettuce, wheat, and soybean were used to provide an initial evaluation of the phytotoxicity of either a water extract of BPWD or BPWD particulates. In terms of germination, the only effect observed was that lettuce germination decreased significantly in the BPWD particulate treatment. Lettuce and wheat showed decreased root length and root-elongation rate in the presence of the BPWD particulates, whereas lettuce produced a significantly greater number of lateral roots in response to BPWD extract. There was no significant effect of either BPWD treatment on soybean root elongation or lateral roots. Treatment with BPWD extracts or particulates caused significant alterations in the bending pattern of the plant roots. These initial results suggest that BPWD may have effects on the early growth and development of plants. PMID:24957180

Dodd, Misty D; Ebbs, Stephen D; Gibson, David J; Filip, Peter

2014-11-01

284

The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably plays a role in efflux to the columella. Pin4 mutants showed no deficiencies in gravitropism, in fact responding at a greater rate than wild-type roots over the first hour (22 deg h-1 ). PIN7 has been localized to the vascular tissue of the elongation zone and to the central columella. Like pin4 mutants, pin7 mutants did not show a significantly reduced gravitropic response relative to wild-type roots. Interestingly, roots of pin3pin7 double mutants showed curvature and growth rates similar to pin7 single mutants and wild-type roots, suggesting a genetic interaction between PIN3 and PIN7 in this pathway. These results suggest a significant degree of redundancy in the regulation of directional auxin transport and perhaps in the gravity signaling pathway in roots in general.

Wolverton, Chris

285

Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

2014-05-01

286

Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE  

SciTech Connect

Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de [Chair of Polymer Engineering and Polymer Physics, Berlin Institute of Technology-TU Berlin. Fasanenstr. 90. 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2014-05-15

287

Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

2013-01-01

288

A Pollen-Specific RALF from Tomato That Regulates Pollen Tube Elongation12[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 ?m peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 ?m in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window. PMID:20388667

Covey, Paul A.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Parsons, Ronald L.; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Ryan, Clarence A.; Bedinger, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

289

Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts  

E-print Network

Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts Jens Kromann Nielsen; final revision received 18 March 2006 Synopsis The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity viscosity vs. the elongational rate, , of about two times the limiting value of 3 0 expected for a Newtonian

290

Root gravitropism: a complex response to a simple stimulus?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roots avoid depleting their immediate environment of essential nutrients by continuous growth. Root growth is directed by environmental cues, including gravity. Gravity sensing occurs mainly in the columella cells of the root cap. Upon reorientation within the gravity field, the root-cap amyloplasts sediment, generating a physiological signal that promotes the development of a curvature at the root elongation zones. Recent molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have allowed the identification of genes that play important roles in root gravitropism. Among them, the ARG1 gene encodes a DnaJ-like protein involved in gravity signal transduction, whereas the AUX1 and AGR1 genes encode proteins involved in polar auxin transport. These studies have important implications for understanding the intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes that underlie root gravitropism.

Rosen, E.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

1999-01-01

291

Root tips moving through soil: an intrinsic vulnerability.  

PubMed

Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1-2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations.  PMID:21455030

Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Hawes, Martha C

2011-05-01

292

Family Roots of Empathy-Related Characteristics: The Role of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Need Support in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal…

Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

2011-01-01

293

Root Growth and Soil Water Dynamics in Relation to Inorganic and Organic Fertilization in Maize–Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural productivity is increasingly becoming dependent upon soil fertility, which is generally thought to be supplemented through the application of nutrients mainly through inorganic fertilizers. The present study aims to characterize the soil physical environment in relation to long-term application of farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizers in a maize–wheat cropping system. The treatments in both the maize and wheat

Rehana Rasool; S. S. Kukal; G. S. Hira

2010-01-01

294

Change in apoplastic aluminum during the initial growth response to aluminum by roots of a tolerant maize variety  

PubMed

Root elongation, hematoxylin staining, and changes in the ultrastructure of root-tip cells of an Al-tolerant maize variety (Zea mays L. C 525 M) exposed to nutrient solutions with 20 &mgr;M Al (2.1 &mgr;M Al3+ activity) for 0, 4, and 24 h were investigated in relation to the subcellular distribution of Al using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis on samples fixed by different methods. Inhibition of root-elongation rates, hematoxylin staining, cell wall thickening, and disturbance of the distribution of pyroantimoniate-stainable cations, mainly Ca, was observed only after 4 and not after 24 h of exposure to Al. The occurrence of these transient, toxic Al effects on root elongation and in cell walls was accompanied by the presence of solid Al-P deposits in the walls. Whereas no Al was detectable in cell walls after 24 h, an increase of vacuolar Al was observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h, a higher amount of electron-dense deposits containing Al and P or Si was observed in the vacuoles. These results indicate that in this tropical maize variety, tolerance mechanisms that cause a change in apoplastic Al must be active. Our data support the hypothesis that in Al-tolerant plants, Al can rapidly cross the plasma membrane; these data clearly contradict the former conclusions that Al mainly accumulates in the apoplast and enters the symplast only after severe cell damage has occurred. PMID:9952438

Vazquez; Poschenrieder; Corrales; Barcelo

1999-02-01

295

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT  

E-print Network

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT INTRODUCTION A sometimes devastating root rot fungus. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation large indigenous trees In forestry situations, Armillaria root rot has been recorded on both pines

296

Chloroplast development in isolated roots of Convolvulus arvensis (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of chloroplast development is described for isolated roots of Convolvulus arvensis. Stages in the transition from the leucoplast, characteristic of dark-grown roots, to the chloroplast, found in light-grown roots, are defined and related to chlorophyll content of the root tissue. The interdependence of tissue type and organellogenesis has been investigated for three tissues in the primary root:

Jane Heltne; Howard T. Bonnett

1970-01-01

297

Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.  

PubMed

In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented. PMID:24088584

Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

2013-10-01

298

Scattering from polymer networks under elongational strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to sample the single-chain form factor of labelled sub-chains in model polymer networks under elongational strain. We observe very similar results for randomly cross-linked and for randomly end-linked networks with the same average strand length and see no indication of lozenge-like scattering patterns reported for some experimental systems. Our data analysis shows that a recent variant of the tube model quantitatively describes scattering in the Guinier regime as well as the macroscopic elastic properties. The observed failure of the theory outside the Guinier regime is shown to be due to non-Gaussian pair-distance distributions.

Svaneborg, C.; Grest, G. S.; Everaers, R.

2005-12-01

299

Dispenser for deploying elongated flexible articles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document discloses a dispenser for storing an elongated flexible article in a coil coaxially about a deployment axis. The dispenser includes a receptacle with a storage volume about the deployment axis. A partitioning structure in the storage volume includes circumferentially spaced sets of axially extending, deflectable fingers that define portions of storage channels for each turn in a coil. Flexible restraining bands attached to the receptacle overlie the storage volume to retain the turns axially within the storage channels. The structure prevents random turn positioning of individual turns of the coil. Deployment from the dispenser occurs without tangles, kinks or knots and proceeds smoothly and quietly.

Hrycin, Frank M.; Abdow, David A.; Babb, John D.

1995-01-01

300

Facial pain due to elongated styloid process.  

PubMed

Pain is the most frequent cause of suffering and disability. The etiology of orofacial pain is still elusive. However, the etiology has to be ascertained for definitive treatment. Only after a systematic and careful evaluation can a treating surgeon be aware of the underlying cause. Though dental causes predominate in the diagnosis of orofacial pain, the rare cause of facial pain have to be excluded, which would prevent unnecessary and fruitless dental treatment. The present case is an example of a rare condition that may be overlooked during examination. This paper will describe a case of vague unilateral orofacial pain, the diagnosis of which zeroed down to an elongated styloid process. PMID:24015020

Kar, Indu Bhusan; Mishra, Niranjan; Raut, Subhrajit; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

2013-04-01

301

Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

2012-07-01

302

Purification and characterization of the human elongator complex.  

PubMed

Human Elongator complex was purified to virtual homogeneity from HeLa cell extracts. The purified factor can exist in two forms: a six-subunit complex, holo-Elongator, which has histone acetyltransferase activity directed against histone H3 and H4, and a three-subunit core form, which does not have histone acetyltransferase activity despite containing the catalytic Elp3 subunit. Elongator is a component of early elongation complexes formed in HeLa nuclear extracts and can interact directly with RNA polymerase II in solution. Several human homologues of the yeast Elongator subunits were identified as subunits of the human Elongator complex, including StIP1 (STAT-interacting protein 1) and IKAP (IKK complex-associated protein). Mutations in IKAP can result in the severe human disorder familial dysautonomia, raising the possibility that this disease might be due to compromised Elongator function and therefore could be a transcription disorder. PMID:11714725

Hawkes, Nicola A; Otero, Gabriel; Winkler, G Sebastiaan; Marshall, Nick; Dahmus, Michael E; Krappmann, Daniel; Scheidereit, Claus; Thomas, Claire L; Schiavo, Giampietro; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

2002-01-25

303

Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steep, vegetation free slopes are a common feature in alpine areas. The material covering these slopes is prone to all kind of erosional processes, resulting in a high risk potential for population and infrastructure. This risk potential is likely to increase with the predicted change in the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation events. A potential increase in extreme precipitation events will also result in a higher magnitude and frequency of erosional processes. In the Swiss Alps as in many other mountainous areas, there is a need to stabilize these slopes to reduce their direct or indirect hazard potential. In this regard, eco-engineering is a very promising and sustainable approach for slope stabilization. Planting trees and shrubs is a central task in eco-engineering. A developing vegetation cover will on one hand reduce the mechanical effects of rainfall by an increased interception, on the other hand, the root systems cause modifications of soil properties. Roots not only provide anchorage for the plants, they also promote soil aggregation and are able to penetrate possible shear horizons. Overall, anchorage of plants is at the same extend also stabilizing the near subsurface. When rainfall occurs, the saturated soil exerts downhill pressure to a tree or shrub. As long as the root distribution supports anchorage, the respective slope area remains stable. At this point, the tensile strength of the roots is a critical measure, because it is more likely that the supporting roots break than the entire root system being pulled out of the soil completely. As a consequence, root tensile strength is an important parameter in characterizing the soil stabilization potential of trees and shrubs. It is known that tree roots show a high variability in their anatomical structure depending on their depth below soil surface as well as their distance to the main stem. Therefore, we assume that these structural changes affect the tensile strength of every single root. In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

2014-05-01

304

Using stable isotopes to reconcile differences in nitrogen uptake efficiency relative to late season fertilization of northern red oak seedlings in Wisconsin bare-root nurseries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultural applications (e.g., timing, amount) of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in bareroot tree nurseries have been assessed for some time. However, the use of different metrologies to quantify the efficient use of fertilizer N and its allocation within biomass has confounded comparisons between fertilization regimes. This inconsistency is especially problematic when quantifying N fertilizer uptake efficiency (NFUE) of late season N fertilization in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) seedlings characterized by episodic flushes in growth and N storage in perennial tissue to support spring growth. The use of isotopic tracers could help elucidate these differences. We therefore hypothesized that: 1) calculations of NFUE using isotopically enriched fertilizer would yield lower, more precise estimates of NFUE relative to traditional methods due to differences in the accounting of mineralized and reabsorbed N, and 2) a significant fraction of leaf N in older leaves (early flushes) would be reabsorbed into root and shoot tissue before abscission relative to leaves produced toward the end of the growing season (late flushes). To test these hypotheses, we conducted an experiment in two-year old NRO seedlings at two bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We applied a total of 147 mg N seedling-1 in pulses from early July after the seedlings completed their second leaf flush until late August. The treatments consisted of three replicated plots of 15N enriched (1.000 atom%) ammonium sulfate, three non-enriched plots, and three unfertilized plots (controls) at each nursery. Subsequent changes in plant N uptake and N allocation were quantified from destructively harvested samples taken at 40, 60, and 120 days after the fertilization began. We evaluated three common methods currently used to estimate NFUE (total N without control, total N with control, and isotopic difference). The total N without control method overestimated mean NFUE by 3.2 times relative to the isotope method, because mineralized N uptake and reabsorption of leaf N was unaccounted for. The total N with control method also overestimated mean NFUE, but only by 20% relative to the isotope method; variation associated with the effects of N fertilization on mineralization and immobilization was large enough to preclude significant difference between these methods. The difference of non-labeled N between day 60 and day 120 revealed that the roots and shoots absorbed 95% and 5%, respectively, of initial leaf N. However, isotopic mass balance between day 60 and day 120 indicated that the NRO seedlings did not reabsorb leaf fertilized N from the youngest leaves before abscission. This study shows that using stable isotopes to understand plant-soil interactions in response to fertilization will help elucidate the contribution of additional N fluxes (e.g., N reabsorption) within perennial plants and thus improve fertility management of production systems.

Fujinuma, R.; Balster, N. J.

2009-12-01

305

Root gravitropism requires lateral root cap and epidermal cells for transport and response to a mobile auxin signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-orientation of Arabidopsis seedlings induces a rapid, asymmetric release of the growth regulator auxin from gravity-sensing columella cells at the root apex. The resulting lateral auxin gradient is hypothesized to drive differential cell expansion in elongation-zone tissues. We mapped those root tissues that function to transport or respond to auxin during a gravitropic response. Targeted expression of the auxin influx

Ranjan Swarup; Eric M. Kramer; Paula Perry; Kirsten Knox; H. M. Ottoline Leyser; Jim Haseloff; Gerrit T. S. Beemster; Rishikesh Bhalerao; Malcolm J. Bennett

2005-01-01

306

Effect of phorbol derivatives and staurosporine on growth of primary root of maize  

SciTech Connect

A computer-based auxanometer system was used to examine the effects of phorbol derivatives (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether, mTPA) and staurosporine on elongation of the primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3343 and Golden Cross Bantam). TPA induces a biphasic promotion of elongation maize roots. Initially, TPA (1{mu}M) promotes elongation by 60% within 30 min. The increase in the rate of elongation is maintained for 30 min prior to a decline in rate to the initial rate over a 10 min period. A second increase in elongation rate begins 1.25 hours after the initial application of TPA with a maximal elongation rate of 210% observed 2.75 hrs after treatment. mTPA, the inactive analog of TPA, promotes elongation by < 10% during the initial phase and < 20% during the second phase elongation. Staurosporine (10{sup {minus}8}M), a microbial alkaloid which has been reported to have antifungal activity and to inhibit phospholipid/Ca{sup ++} dependent protein kinase, completely inhibits TPS-induced elongation. DAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol), a synthetic diglyceride activator of protein kinase C, exhibits similar activity to TPA. TPA-induced alterations in tissue response to calcium will be presented.

Kim, S.Y.; Mulkey, T.J. (Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute (United States)); Lee, J.S. (Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea))

1991-05-01

307

Calcium elicited asymmetric auxin transport in gravity influenced root segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxin is a prime candidate for regulating and modulating the differential growth response of primary corn roots to gravity. Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), both promotes and inhibits root elongation rapidly within a narrow concentration range. Thus growth regulation would require only small changes in the short lag period for initiation of gravitropism. Since auxin is transported to/through the zone of elongation toward the meristem, it may serve as a direct communication link between the zone of elongation, site of gravitropic response, and the root cap (RC), site of gravity perception. When auxin transport is inhibited, gravitropism is also inhibited. Napthylpthalamic acid (NPA) is one such inhibitor. It inhibits gravitropism only when applied to the apical growing and dividing region of the root. Application at the basal end of the root does not influence gravitropic NPA causes upward curvature when applied to the upper surface of horizontal, two day-old, intact corn roots. This effect is countered by application of IAA to the opposite side.

Edwards, K. L.

1984-01-01

308

Actin filament nucleation and elongation factors – structure-function relationships  

PubMed Central

The spontaneous and unregulated polymerization of actin filaments is inhibited in cells by actin monomer-binding proteins such as profilin and T?4. Eukaryotic cells and certain pathogens use filament nucleators to stabilize actin polymerization nuclei, whose formation is rate-limiting. Known filament nucleators include the Arp2/3 complex and its large family of Nucleation Promoting Factors (NPFs), formins, Spire, Cobl, VopL/VopF, TARP and Lmod. These molecules control the time and location for polymerization, and additionally influence the structures of the actin networks that they generate. Filament nucleators are generally unrelated, but with the exception of formins they all use the WASP-Homology 2 domain (WH2 or W), a small and versatile actin-binding motif, for interaction with actin. A common architecture, found in Spire, Cobl and VopL/VopF, consists of tandem W domains that bind three to four actin subunits to form a nucleus. Structural considerations suggest that NPFs-Arp2/3 complex can also be viewed as a specialized form of tandem W-based nucleator. Formins are unique in that they use the formin-homology 2 (FH2) domain for interaction with actin and promote not only nucleation, but also processive barbed end elongation. In contrast, the elongation function among W-based nucleators has been “outsourced” to a dedicated family of proteins, Eva/VASP, which are related to WASP-family NPFs. PMID:19874150

Dominguez, Roberto

2009-01-01

309

Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. Methods The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Key Results Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. Conclusions The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching. PMID:22553131

Ilina, Elena L.; Logachov, Anton A.; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P.; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N.

2012-01-01

310

A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

2011-01-01

311

Regeneration of Lasiurus sindicus in relation to grazing pressure and root-zone soil moisture in arid rangelands of western Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted in arid rangelands of Jaisalmer district in western Rajasthan, India, assessed the effect of root-zone soil moisture and grazing pressure on regenerative potential and fodder yields of Lasiurus sindicus (Sewan) grass. Uncontrolled grazing sig- nifi cantly reduced stand density of grass tussocks and their regeneration compared with sites subjected to controlled grazing or no grazing. The root-zone

R. S. MERTIA; R. PRASAD; B. K. KANDPAL

312

Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa.  

PubMed

To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture. PMID:15998402

Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi

2005-08-01

313

Phosphorus Deficiency Decreases Cell Division and Elongation in Grass Leaves1  

PubMed Central

Leaf growth in monocotyledons results from the flux of newly born cells out of the division zone and into the adjacent elongation-only zone, where cells reach their final length. We used a kinematic method to analyze the effect of phosphorus nutrition status on cell division and elongation parameters in the epidermis of Lolium perenne. Phosphorus deficiency reduced the leaf elongation rate by 39% due to decreases in the cell production rate (?19%) and final cell length (?20%). The former was solely due to a lower average cell division rate (0.028 versus 0.046 cell cell?1 h?1) and, thus, a lengthened average cell cycle duration (25 versus 15 h). The number of division cycles of the initial cell progeny (five to six) and, as a result, the number of meristematic cells (32–64) and division zone length were independent of phosphorus status. Accordingly, low-phosphorus cells maintained meristematic activity longer. Lack of effect of phosphorus deficiency on meristematic cell length implies that a lower division rate was matched to a lower elongation rate. Phosphorus deficiency did not affect the elongation-only zone length, thus leading to longer cell elongation duration (99 versus 75 h). However, the substantially reduced postmitotic average relative elongation rate (0.045 versus 0.064 mm mm?1 h?1) resulted in shorter mature cells. In summary, phosphorus deficiency did not affect the general controls of cell morphogenesis, but, by slowing down the rates of cell division and expansion, it slowed down its pace. PMID:16648218

Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Grimoldi, Agustín Alberto; Schnyder, Hans

2006-01-01

314

Copper compounds influence in vitro rooting of birch microcuttings  

SciTech Connect

The effects of woody plant medium (WPM) with various formulations and concentrations of Cu[sup 2+] on in vitro rooting and subsequent shoot growth of microcuttings of a Betula pubescens x papyrifera clone were monitored for 28 days. Adventitious root initiation and elongation were reduced in magnitude and slowed in development by moderate to high Cu concentrations, with near zero root regeneration occurring at 157 [mu]M Cu. Shoot growth was also inhibited by 157 [mu]m Cu as cupric sulfate. Copper-toxicity symptoms were significantly increased by moderate to high levels of Cu as cuptric sulfate. Microcuttings responded differently to Cu[sup 2+] applied as cupric chloride. Root imitation, root elongation, and root branching were increased by moderate concentrations of Cu as cupric chloride. Shoot growth was slightly stimulated by cuptric chloride at moderate levels. No significant increase in Cu-toxicity symptoms was observed at concentrations up to 157 [mu]M Cu as cupric chloride. Cupric acetate and cupric carbonate produced more severe Cu-toxicity symptoms than cupric sulfate. Root regeneration and shoot growth were inhibited and increased Cu-toxicity symptoms were apparent even with low concentrations of Cu as cupric acetate or cupric carbonate. There was little or no effect on root regeneration when the Cu[sup 2+] in cupric sulfate was replaced by different cations, i.e., magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and sulfuric acid.

Arnold, M.A.; Lineberger, R.D.; Struve, D.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Horticulture)

1994-01-01

315

Cortical and cap sedimentation in gravitropic Equisetum roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the rootcap is required for gravitropic sensing, various classical and contemporary data raise the question of whether additional sensing occurs away from the cap in roots. Roots of Equisetum hyemale L. (horsetail) were examined by light and electron microscopy to determine which cell components were distributed with respect to gravity both in and away from the rootcap. Adventitious roots from stem cuttings were gravitropic in a vertical orientation or if reoriented to the horizontal. Obvious amyloplast sedimentation was found in vertical and in reoriented roots 1) in cells in the center of the rootcap and 2) in young, elongating cortical cells located in two to three layers outside the endodermis. These cortical amyloplasts were smaller than cap amyloplasts and, unlike central cap amyloplasts, were occasionally found in the top of the cell. The nucleus was also sedimented on top of the amyloplasts in both cell types, both in vertical and in reoriented roots. Sedimentation of both organelles ceased as cortical cells elongated further or as cap cells became peripheral in location. In both cell types with sedimentation, endoplasmic reticulum was located in the cell periphery, but showed no obvious enrichment near the lower part of the cell in vertical roots. This is the first modern report of sedimentation away from the cap in roots, and it provides structural evidence that gravitropic sensing may not be confined to the cap in all roots.

Ridge, R. W.; Sack, F. D.

1992-01-01

316

The Complexity of Boolean Matrix Root Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that ìnding roots of Boolean matrices is an NP- hard problem. This answers a twenty year old question from semigroup theory. Interpreting Boolean matrices as directed graphs, we further re- veal a connection between Boolean matrix roots and graph isomorphism, which leads to a proof that for a certain subclass of Boolean matrices related to subdivision digraphs, root

Martin Kutz

2003-01-01

317

COâ speeds root growth of cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have determined that COâ enrichment accelerates cutting root growth on foliage plants and flowering shrubs. For horticultural crops, including most woody ornamentals, apples, pears, and small fruit trees, roots consistently emerged 1 or 2 days earlier in the enriched atmosphere. These tests were conducted as part of a broad, ongoing study to determine how photosynthesis is related to rooting

Yarris

1984-01-01

318

Effect of Root System Morphology on Root-sprouting and Shoot-rooting Abilities in 123 Plant Species from Eroded Lands in North-east Spain  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The objective of this study was to test whether the mean values of several root morphological variables were related to the ability to develop root-borne shoots and/or shoot-borne roots in a wide range of vascular plants. • Methods A comparative study was carried out on the 123 most common plant species from eroded lands in north-east Spain. After careful excavations in the field, measurements were taken of the maximum root depth, absolute and relative basal root diameter, specific root length (SRL), and the root depth/root lateral spread ratio on at least three individuals per species. Shoot-rooting and root-sprouting were observed in a large number of individuals in many eroded and sedimentary environments. The effect of life history and phylogeny on shoot-rooting and root-sprouting abilities was also analysed. • Key Results The species with coarse and deep tap-roots tended to be root-sprouting and those with fine, fasciculate and long main roots (which generally spread laterally), tended to be shoot-rooting. Phylogeny had an important influence on root system morphology and shoot-rooting and root-sprouting capacities. However, the above relations stood after applying analyses based on phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs). • Conclusions The main morphological features of the root system of the study species are related to their ability to sprout from their roots and form roots from their shoots. According to the results, such abilities might only be functionally viable in restricted root system morphologies and ecological strategies. PMID:16790468

GUERRERO-CAMPO, JOAQUÍN; PALACIO, SARA; PÉREZ-RONTOMÉ, CARMEN; MONTSERRAT-MARTÍ, GABRIEL

2006-01-01

319

Differential Gene Expression in Brassica rapa Roots After Reorientation and Clinorotation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seedlings align their growth axes parallel to the gravity vector. Any growth adjustment affects genes. We examined these changes in Brassica rapa roots that were reoriented and clinorotated. Gene expression levels related to the actin cytoskeleton (ACT7 and ADK1) and auxin transport (IAA5, PIN1, PIN3, AGR1, ARG1) were assessed in roots grown for 42 hours and then either reoriented to 90° for 15 min, 1, 2 and 3 hours or clinorotated vertically or horizontally for 42 hrs at 2 rpm. After these treatments, roots from 20 seedlings were divided into three sections, the root tip, elongation zone, and maturation zone. The samples from corresponding treatments were combined for RNA extraction, reverse transcription and analysis by quantitative PCR. The results show that gene expression changes in response to duration of reorientation and orientation during clinorotation. All genes, except PIN1 and AGR1 were upregulated in the tip after 2 hours of reorientation. Expression of genes also varied between the root sections except for PIN1, which was uniformly expressed. ADK1 was the only gene that showed consistent down-regulation in all three root regions in vertically and horizontally clinorotated roots (ca 30% of controls). In contrast, ADK1 was upregulated (more than 150 fold) in the tip of roots that were reoriented for 2 hours but little upregulation after one hour (less than 2 fold compared to controls). Our results indicate that gene expression during the gravitropic response changes over time with the tip region being the most dynamic tissue in the root. The large upregulation of ADK1 at 2 h after reorientation may be related to the persistence of the gravitropic response. Because of the variability of the expression profiles, analyses that are based on the entire root miss tissue specific changes in gene expression. Differences in gene expression after vertical and horizontal clinorotation indicates that the graviresponse system is sensitive not just to the magnitude of mechano-stimulation but also the direction. Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G and LaSPACE GSRA.

Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

320

Relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons for producing micronuclei in the root-tip cells of onion seedlings after irradiation as dry seeds.  

PubMed

The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted at a 252Cf source at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, compared with 60Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The tissue-absorbed dose contribution of the accompanying gamma radiation was about 35.7% to the total tissue-absorbed dose from the 252Cf mixed radiation. The 252Cf mixed radiation and 60Co gamma rays produced approximate linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in root-tip cells of Allium cepa L. onion seedlings after irradiation as dry dormant seeds with varying absorbed doses in onion seeds. Therefore, the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei was calculated as the ratio of the slopes for the 252Cf mixed radiation and the 60Co gamma rays. The deduced RBE value of 252Cf mixed radiation to 60Co gamma rays to induce micronuclei in dry dormant onion seed cells was about 90.5 +/- 3.6 (+/- 1sigma); the RBE of neutrons from the 252Cf mixed radiation was about 150 +/- 6 (+/- 1sigma). Furthermore, the sensitivity ratio of the induction rate of micronuclei in dry dormant seeds to that in seedlings by neutrons from 252Cf mixed radiation was significantly different from that by 60Co gamma rays. From these results, we concluded that the repair efficiency of DNA damage induced by neutrons may be different from that by gamma rays. PMID:12674204

Zhang, Wenyi; Endo, Satoru; Ishikawa, Masayori; Ikeda, Hideo; Hoshi, Masaharu

2002-12-01

321

Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

Kaplan, Carl

1936-01-01

322

A Chemical Kinetic Model of Transcriptional Elongation  

E-print Network

A chemical kinetic model of the elongation dynamics of RNA polymerase along a DNA sequence is introduced. The proposed model governs the discrete movement of the RNA polymerase along a DNA template, with no consideration given to elastic effects. The model's novel concept is a ``look-ahead'' feature, in which nucleotides bind reversibly to the DNA prior to being incorporated covalently into the nascent RNA chain. Results are presented for specific DNA sequences that have been used in single-molecule experiments of the random walk of RNA polymerase along DNA. By replicating the data analysis algorithm from the experimental procedure, the model produces velocity histograms, enabling direct comparison with these published results.

Yujiro Richard Yamada; Charles S. Peskin

2006-03-12

323

Ubiquitin acetylation inhibits polyubiquitin chain elongation.  

PubMed

Ubiquitylation is a versatile post-translational modification (PTM). The diversity of ubiquitylation topologies, which encompasses different chain lengths and linkages, underlies its widespread cellular roles. Here, we show that endogenous ubiquitin is acetylated at lysine (K)-6 (AcK6) or K48. Acetylated ubiquitin does not affect substrate monoubiquitylation, but inhibits K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chain elongation by several E2 enzymes in vitro. In cells, AcK6-mimetic ubiquitin stabilizes the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B-which we identify as an endogenous substrate of acetylated ubiquitin-and of artificial ubiquitin fusion degradation substrates. These results characterize a mechanism whereby ubiquitin, itself a PTM, is subject to another PTM to modulate mono- and polyubiquitylation, thus adding a new regulatory layer to ubiquitin biology. PMID:25527407

Ohtake, Fumiaki; Saeki, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Ohta, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Kanno, Jun

2015-02-01

324

Tensile regulation of axonal elongation and initiation.  

PubMed

Neurites of chick sensory neurons in culture were attached by their growth cones to glass needles of known compliance and were subjected to increasing tensions as steps of constant force; each step lasted 30-60 min and was 25-50 mu dyn greater than the previous step. After correcting for elastic stretching, neurite elongation rate increased in proportion to tension magnitude greater than a tension threshold. The value of the tension threshold required for growth varied between 25 and 560 mu dyn, with most between 50 and 150 mu dyn. The growth sensitivity of neurites to tension was surprisingly high: an increase in tension of 1 mu dyn increased the elongation rate an average of about 1.5 microns/hr. The linear relationship between growth rate and tension provides a simple control mechanism for axons to accommodate tissue expansion in growing animals that consistently maintains a moderate rest tension on axons. Styrene microspheres treated with polyethyleneimine were used to label the surface of neurites in order to determine the site and pattern of surface addition during the experimental "towed growth" regime. New membrane is added interstitially throughout the neurite, but different regions of neurite vary widely in the amount of new membrane added. This contrasts with membrane addition specifically at the distal end in growth-cone-mediated growth. The different sites for membrane addition in growth mediated by towing and by the growth cone indicate that the membrane addition process is sensitive to the mode of growth. We confirmed the finding of Bray (1984) that neurites can be initiated de novo by application of tension to the cell margin of chick sensory neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2010807

Zheng, J; Lamoureux, P; Santiago, V; Dennerll, T; Buxbaum, R E; Heidemann, S R

1991-04-01

325

Strigolactone and cytokinin act antagonistically in regulating rice mesocotyl elongation in darkness.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of phytohormones that control plant growth and development including shoot branching. Previous studies of the phenotypes of SL-related rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf (d) mutants demonstrated that SLs inhibit mesocotyl elongation by controlling cell division. Here, we found that the expression of cytokinin (CK)-responsive type-A RESPONSE REGULATOR (RR) genes was higher in d10-1 and d14-1 mutants than in the wild type. However, CK levels in mesocotyls of the d mutants were not very different from those in the wild type. On the other hand, application of a synthetic CK (kinetin) enhanced mesocotyl elongation in the d mutants and the wild type. d10-1 and d14-1 mesocotyls were more sensitive to CK than wild-type mesocotyls, suggesting that the up-regulation of the CK-responsive type-A RR genes and the higher elongation of mesocotyls in the d mutants are mainly due to the increased sensitivity of the d mutants to CK. Co-treatment with kinetin and a synthetic SL (GR24) confirmed the antagonistic functions of SL and CK on mesocotyl elongation. OsTCP5, which encodes a transcription factor belonging to the cell division-regulating TCP family, was also regulated by SL and CK and its expression was negatively correlated with mesocotyl length. These findings suggest that OsTCP5 contributes to the SL- and CK-controlled mesocotyl elongation in darkness. PMID:24151204

Hu, Zhongyuan; Yamauchi, Takaki; Yang, Jinghua; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Takamure, Itsuro; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Nakazono, Mikio

2014-01-01

326

Shape elongation of Zn nanoparticles in silica irradiated with swift heavy ions of different species and energies: scaling law and some insights on the elongation mechanism.  

PubMed

Zinc nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were irradiated with swift heavy ions (SHIs) of seven different combinations of species and energies. The shape elongation induced by the irradiations was evaluated by optical linear dichroism (OLD) spectroscopy, which is a sensitive tool for determining the change in the mean aspect ratio (AR) of NPs. Although the mean AR change indicated a linear fluence dependence in the low- and medium-fluence regions, it indicated a nonlinear dependence in the high-fluence region. The data reveal that the elongation efficiency of Zn is correlated with the electronic stopping power 'Se in silica' and is not correlated with either the 'Se in Zn' or the nuclear stopping power. The elongation efficiency plotted as a function of the 'Se in silica' revealed a linear relationship, with a threshold value of ?2 keV nm(-1), which is the same dependence exhibited by the ion-track formation in silica. The log-log plot showed that the elongation efficiency increased linearly with Se above a critical value of ?3 keV nm(-1) and steeply decreased with Se to the power of 5 below the critical Se. The steep decrease can be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the ion tracks, which is expected at Se ? 2-4 keV nm(-1) in silica. The fluence ? dependences of AR - 1 under various irradiations are well-normalized with the electronic energy deposition of SHIs, i.e., the product of Se and ?, with a Se greater than the same critical value of ?3 keV nm(-1). The normalized data above the critical value fell on a linear relation, AR(?) - 1 ? Se?, for Se? < 2 keV nm(-3) and a sublinear relation, AR(?) - 1 ? (Se?)(1/2) for Se? > 2 keV nm(-3). On the basis of these experimental results, we discuss some insights into the elongation mechanism. PMID:25288109

Amekura, H; Mohapatra, S; Singh, U B; Khan, S A; Kulriya, P K; Ishikawa, N; Okubo, N; Avasthi, D K

2014-10-31

327

Shape elongation of Zn nanoparticles in silica irradiated with swift heavy ions of different species and energies: scaling law and some insights on the elongation mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were irradiated with swift heavy ions (SHIs) of seven different combinations of species and energies. The shape elongation induced by the irradiations was evaluated by optical linear dichroism (OLD) spectroscopy, which is a sensitive tool for determining the change in the mean aspect ratio (AR) of NPs. Although the mean AR change indicated a linear fluence dependence in the low- and medium-fluence regions, it indicated a nonlinear dependence in the high-fluence region. The data reveal that the elongation efficiency of Zn is correlated with the electronic stopping power ‘Se in silica’ and is not correlated with either the ‘Se in Zn’ or the nuclear stopping power. The elongation efficiency plotted as a function of the ‘Se in silica’ revealed a linear relationship, with a threshold value of ?2 keV nm?1, which is the same dependence exhibited by the ion-track formation in silica. The log–log plot showed that the elongation efficiency increased linearly with Se above a critical value of ?3 keV nm?1 and steeply decreased with Se to the power of 5 below the critical Se. The steep decrease can be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the ion tracks, which is expected at Se ? 2–4 keV nm?1 in silica. The fluence ? dependences of AR ? 1 under various irradiations are well-normalized with the electronic energy deposition of SHIs, i.e., the product of Se and ?, with a Se greater than the same critical value of ?3 keV nm?1. The normalized data above the critical value fell on a linear relation, AR(?) ? 1 ? Se?, for Se? < 2 keV nm?3 and a sublinear relation, AR(?) ? 1 ? (Se?)1/2 for Se? > 2 keV nm?3. On the basis of these experimental results, we discuss some insights into the elongation mechanism.

Amekura, H.; Mohapatra, S.; Singh, U. B.; Khan, S. A.; Kulriya, P. K.; Ishikawa, N.; Okubo, N.; Avasthi, D. K.

2014-10-01

328

Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

2003-01-01

329

During autophagy mitochondria elongate, are spared from degradation and sustain cell viability  

PubMed Central

Summary A plethora of cellular processes, including apoptosis, depend on regulated changes in mitochondrial shape and ultrastructure. Scarce is our understanding of the role of mitochondria and of their morphology during autophagy, a bulk degradation and recycling process of eukaryotic cells’ constituents. Here we show that mitochondrial morphology determines the cellular response to macroautophagy. When autophagy is triggered, mitochondria elongate in vitro and in vivo. Upon starvation cellular cAMP levels increase and protein kinase A (PKA) becomes activated. PKA in turn phosphorylates the pro-fission dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) that is therefore retained in the cytoplasm, leading to unopposed mitochondrial fusion. Elongated mitochondria are spared from autophagic degradation, possess more cristae, increase dimerization and activity of ATP synthase, and maintain ATP production. When elongation is genetically or pharmacologically blocked, mitochondria conversely consume ATP, precipitating starvation-induced death. Thus, regulated changes in mitochondrial morphology determine the fate of the cell during autophagy. PMID:21478857

Gomes, Ligia C.; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Scorrano, Luca

2011-01-01

330

Transcriptome Profiling of Leaf Elongation Zone under Drought in Contrasting Rice Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of leaf elongation and expansion is one of the earliest responses of rice to water deficit. Despite this sensitivity, a great deal of genetic variation exists in the extant of leaf elongation rate (LER) reduction in response to declining soil moisture. We analyzed global gene expression in the leaf elongation zone under drought in two rice cultivars with disparate LER sensitivities to water stress. We found little overlap in gene regulation between the two varieties under moderate drought; however, the transcriptional response to severe drought was more conserved. In response to moderate drought, we found several genes related to secondary cell wall deposition that were down regulated in Moroberekan, an LER tolerant variety, but up-regulated in LER sensitive variety IR64. PMID:23372737

Cal, Andrew J.; Liu, Dongcheng; Mauleon, Ramil; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; Serraj, Rachid

2013-01-01

331

Dynamic tracking of tendon elongation in ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the elongation of the Achilles tendon by looking at the changing position of Myo-Tendenious Junction (MTJ) using ultrasound during isometric contraction on an Isometric dynamometer. A sequence of ultrasound images in the form of movie, obtained from a unit operating at a frequency of 12MHz during isometric contraction, was analyzed offline using MATLAB to track the MTJ. This investigation has implemented important techniques for in vivo feature extraction of Achilles tendon. Prior to feature extraction, the images were filtered by anisotropic diffusion method and morphological enhancements. The cross correlation search algorithm with an adaptive mask was utilized to track MTJ by comparing adjacent segmented frames. The present method was studied on seventeen subjects, where it was able to measure the related movement accurately.

Karimpoor, Mahta; Screen, Hazel; Morrissey, Dylan

2010-02-01

332

Conditions for bubble elongation in cold ice-sheet ice  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly elongated bubbles are sometimes observed in ice-sheet ice. Elongation is favored by rapid ice deformation, and opposed by diffusive processes. We use simple models to show that vapor transport dominates diffusion except possibly very close to the melting point, and that latent-heat effects are insignificant. Elongation is favored by larger bubbles at pore close-off, but is nearly independent of bubble compression below close-off. The simple presence of highly elongated bubbles indicates only that a critical ice-strain rate has been exceeded for significant time, and provides no information on possible disruption of stratigraphic continuity by ice deformation.

Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

1999-01-01

333

Regulation of Submergence?induced Enhanced Shoot Elongation in Oryza sativa L.  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the only cereal that can be cultivated in the frequently flooded river deltas of South?East and South Asia. The survival strategies used by rice have been studied quite extensively and the role of several phytohormones in the elongation response has been established. Deep?water rice cultivars can diminish flooding stress by rapid elongation of their submerged tissues to keep up with the rising waters. Other rice cultivars may react by mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Aerenchyma and aerenchymatous adventitious roots are formed that facilitate oxygen diffusion to prevent anaerobic conditions in the submerged tissues. This paper discusses the molecular aspects of the mechanism that leads to shoot elongation (leaves of seedlings and internodes), the regulation of which involves metabolism of, and interactions between, ethylene, gibberellins and abscisic acid. Finally, the importance of new techniques in future research is assessed. Current molecular technology can reveal subtle differences in gene activity between tolerant and non?tolerant cultivars, and identify genes that are involved in the regulation of submergence avoidance and tolerance. PMID:12509346

VRIEZEN, WIM H.; ZHOU, ZHONGYI; VAN DER STRAETEN, DOMINIQUE

2003-01-01

334

Comparative Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicology & Erionite?s Apparent  High Potency for Inducing Mesothelioma  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent NHEERL research under EPA's Libby Action Plan has determined that elongated particle relative potency for rat pleural mesothelioma is best predicted on the basis of total external surface area (TSA) of slightly acid leached test samples which simulate particle bio-durabili...

335

Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated height rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated Height measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

2009-01-01

336

Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC3 : a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of\\u000a cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. Here, we cloned and sequenced MIC-3 genes from selected diploid and tetraploid cotton species to reveal sequence differences at the molecular level and identify\\u000a chromosomal locations of MIC-3 genes in Gossypium species. Detailed sequence analysis

Zabardast T. Buriev; Sukumar Saha; Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov; Johnie N. Jenkins; Abdusattor Abdukarimov; Brian E. Scheffler; David M. Stelly

2010-01-01

337

Pseudomonas fluorescens and Glomus mosseae Trigger DMI3-Dependent Activation of Genes Related to a Signal Transduction Pathway in Roots of Medicago truncatula1  

PubMed Central

Plant genes induced during early root colonization of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. J5 by a growth-promoting strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (C7R12) have been identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Ten M. truncatula genes, coding proteins associated with a putative signal transduction pathway, showed an early and transient activation during initial interactions between M. truncatula and P. fluorescens, up to 8 d after root inoculation. Gene expression was not significantly enhanced, except for one gene, in P. fluorescens-inoculated roots of a Myc?Nod? genotype (TRV25) of M. truncatula mutated for the DMI3 (syn. MtSYM13) gene. This gene codes a Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, indicating a possible role of calcium in the cellular interactions between M. truncatula and P. fluorescens. When expression of the 10 plant genes was compared in early stages of root colonization by mycorrhizal and rhizobial microsymbionts, Glomus mosseae activated all 10 genes, whereas Sinorhizobium meliloti only activated one and inhibited four others. None of the genes responded to inoculation by either microsymbiont in roots of the TRV25 mutant. The similar response of the M. truncatula genes to P. fluorescens and G. mosseae points to common molecular pathways in the perception of the microbial signals by plant roots. PMID:16183836

Sanchez, Lisa; Weidmann, Stéphanie; Arnould, Christine; Bernard, Anne Rose; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

2005-01-01

338

Effects of root pruning on the growth and water use efficiency of winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of root pruning at the stem elongation stage on the growth and water use\\u000a efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The results showed that stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E) of wheat were very sensitive to root pruning. After root pruning, they declined rapidly and but returned to pre-pruning\\u000a values

Shou-Chen Ma; Feng-Min Li; Bing-Cheng Xu; Zhan-Bin Huang

2009-01-01

339

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Parabasalia with Improved Taxon Sampling and New Protein Markers of Actin and Elongation Factor-1?  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring the evolutionary history of phylogenetically isolated, deep-branching groups of taxa—in particular determining the root—is often extraordinarily difficult because their close relatives are unavailable as suitable outgroups. One of these taxonomic groups is the phylum Parabasalia, which comprises morphologically diverse species of flagellated protists of ecological, medical, and evolutionary significance. Indeed, previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of members of this phylum have yielded conflicting and possibly erroneous inferences. Furthermore, many species of Parabasalia are symbionts in the gut of termites and cockroaches or parasites and therefore formidably difficult to cultivate, rendering available data insufficient. Increasing the numbers of examined taxa and informative characters (e.g., genes) is likely to produce more reliable inferences. Principal Findings Actin and elongation factor-1? genes were identified newly from 22 species of termite-gut symbionts through careful manipulations and seven cultured species, which covered major lineages of Parabasalia. Their protein sequences were concatenated and analyzed with sequences of previously and newly identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the small-subunit rRNA gene. This concatenated dataset provided more robust phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Parabasalia and a more plausible new root position than those previously reported. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that increasing the number of sampled taxa as well as the addition of new sequences greatly improves the accuracy and robustness of the phylogenetic inference. A morphologically simple cell is likely the ancient form in Parabasalia as opposed to a cell with elaborate flagellar and cytoskeletal structures, which was defined as most basal in previous inferences. Nevertheless, the evolution of Parabasalia is complex owing to several independent multiplication and simplification events in these structures. Therefore, systematics based solely on morphology does not reflect the evolutionary history of parabasalids. PMID:22253832

Noda, Satoko; Mantini, Cléa; Meloni, Dionigia; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Kitade, Osamu; Viscogliosi, Eric; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-01-01

340

The Continuous Incorporation of Carbon into Existing Sassafras albidum Fine Roots and Its Implications for Estimating Root Turnover  

PubMed Central

Although understanding the timing of the deposition of recent photosynthate into fine roots is critical for determining root lifespan and turnover using isotopic techniques, few studies have directly examined the deposition and subsequent age of root carbon. To gain a better understanding of the timing of the deposition of root carbon, we labeled four individual Sassafras albidum trees with 99% 13C CO2. We then tracked whether the label appeared in roots that were at least two weeks old and no longer elongating, at the time of labeling. We found that not only were the non-structural carbon pools (soluble sugars and starch) of existing first-order tree roots incorporating carbon from current photosynthate, but so were the structural components of the roots, even in roots that were more than one year old at the time of labeling.Our findings imply that carbon used in root structural and nonstructural pools is not derived solely from photosynthate at root initiation and have implications regarding the determination of root age and turnover using isotopic techniques. PMID:24788762

Adams, Thomas S.; Eissenstat, David M.

2014-01-01

341

The continuous incorporation of carbon into existing Sassafras albidum fine roots and its implications for estimating root turnover.  

PubMed

Although understanding the timing of the deposition of recent photosynthate into fine roots is critical for determining root lifespan and turnover using isotopic techniques, few studies have directly examined the deposition and subsequent age of root carbon. To gain a better understanding of the timing of the deposition of root carbon, we labeled four individual Sassafras albidum trees with 99% 13C CO2. We then tracked whether the label appeared in roots that were at least two weeks old and no longer elongating, at the time of labeling. We found that not only were the non-structural carbon pools (soluble sugars and starch) of existing first-order tree roots incorporating carbon from current photosynthate, but so were the structural components of the roots, even in roots that were more than one year old at the time of labeling.Our findings imply that carbon used in root structural and nonstructural pools is not derived solely from photosynthate at root initiation and have implications regarding the determination of root age and turnover using isotopic techniques. PMID:24788762

Adams, Thomas S; Eissenstat, David M

2014-01-01

342

Root gravitropism in response to a signal originating outside of the cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed image analysis software linked to a rotating stage, allowing constraint of any user-selected region of a root at a prescribed angle during root gravitropism. This device allows the cap of a graviresponding root to reach vertical while maintaining a selected region within the elongation zone at a gravistimulated angle. Under these conditions gravitropic curvature of roots of Zea mays L. continues long after the root cap reaches vertical, indicating that a signal from outside of the cap can contribute to the curvature response.

Wolverton, Chris; Mullen, Jack L.; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

2002-01-01

343

Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.  

PubMed

In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity. PMID:15215510

Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

2004-06-01

344

The kinetics of root gravitropism: dual motors and sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cholodny-Went theory of tropisms has served as a framework for investigation of root gravitropism for nearly three quarters of a century. Recent investigations using modern techniques have generated findings consistent with the classical theory, including confirmation of asymmetrical distribution of polar auxin transport carriers, molecular evidence for auxin asymmetry following gravistimulation, and generation of auxin response mutants with predictable lesions in gravitropism. Other results indicate that the classical model is inadequate to account for key features of root gravitropism. Initiation of curvature, for example, occurs outside the region of most rapid elongation and is driven by differential acceleration rather than differential inhibition of elongation. The evidence indicates that there are two motors driving root gravitropism, one of which appears not to be auxin regulated. We have recently developed technology that is capable of maintaining a constant angle of gravistimulation at any selected target region of a root while continuously monitoring growth and curvature kinetics. This review elaborates on the advantages of this new technology for analyzing gravitropism and describes applications of the technology that reveal (1) the existence of at least two phases to gravitropic motor output, even under conditions of constant stimulus input and (2) the existence of gravity sensing outside of the root cap. We propose a revised model of root gravitropism including dual sensors and dual motors interacting to accomplish root gravitropism, with only one of the systems linked to the classical Cholodny-Went theory.

Wolverton, Chris; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

2002-01-01

345

Cell wall-bound cationic and anionic class III isoperoxidases of pea root: biochemical characterization and function in root growth  

PubMed Central

Cell wall isolated from pea roots was used to separate and characterize two fractions possessing class III peroxidase activity: (i) ionically bound proteins and (ii) covalently bound proteins. Modified SDS–PAGE separated peroxidase isoforms by their apparent molecular weights: four bands of 56, 46, 44, and 41kDa were found in the ionically bound fraction (iPOD) and one band (70kDa) was resolved after treatment of the cell wall with cellulase and pectinase (cPOD). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns for iPODs and cPODs were significantly different: five iPODs with highly cationic pI (9.5–9.2) were detected, whereas the nine cPODs were anionic with pI values between pH 3.7 and 5. iPODs and cPODs showed rather specific substrate affinity and different sensitivity to inhibitors, heat, and deglycosylation treatments. Peroxidase and oxidase activities and their IEF patterns for both fractions were determined in different zones along the root and in roots of different ages. New iPODs with pI 9.34 and 9.5 were induced with root growth, while the activity of cPODs was more related to the formation of the cell wall in non-elongating tissue. Treatment with auxin that inhibits root growth led to suppression of iPOD and induction of cPOD. A similar effect was obtained with the widely used elicitor, chitosan, which also induced cPODs with pI 5.3 and 5.7, which may be specifically related to pathogen defence. The differences reported here between biochemical properties of cPOD and iPOD and their differential induction during development and under specific treatments implicate that they are involved in specific and different physiological processes. Abbreviations:cPODcovalently bound peroxidaseDAB3,3'-diaminobenzidineDEPMPOspin-trap (5-diethoxy-phosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-n-oxide)EPRelectron paramagnetic resonanceHRPhorseradish peroxidaseIAAindole-3-acetic acidHRPhorseradish peroxidaseIEFisoelectric focusingiPODionically bound peroxidaseNAAnaphthalene acetic acidPNGase Fpeptide N-glycosidase FPRpathogen-relatedSDS–PAGEsodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresisSHAMsalicylhydroxamic acidTMBtetramethyl benzidineWGAwheat germ agglutinin PMID:22760472

Lüthje, Sabine

2012-01-01

346

Patterns of variability in the diameter of lateral roots in the banana root system.  

PubMed

The relative importance of root system structure, plant carbon status and soil environment in the determination of lateral root diameter remains unclear, and was investigated in this study. Banana (Musa acuminata) plants were grown at various moderate levels of soil compaction in two distinct experiments, in a field experiment (FE) and in a glasshouse experiment (GE). Radiant flux density was 5 times lower in GE. The distribution of root diameter was measured for several root branching orders. Root diameters ranged between 0.09 and 0.52 mm for secondary roots and between 0.06 and 0.27 mm for tertiary roots. A relationship was found between the diameter of the parent bearing root and the median diameter of its laterals, which appears to be valid for a wide range of species. Mean lateral root diameter increased with distance to the base of the root and decreased with branching density [number of lateral roots per unit length of bearing root (cm(-1))]. Typical symptoms of low light availability were observed in GE. In this case, lateral root diameter variability was reduced. Although primary root growth was affected by soil compaction, no effects on lateral root diameter were observed. PMID:16101920

Lecompte, François; Pagès, Loïc; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

2005-09-01

347

Calcium dependence of rapid auxin action in maize roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and auxin on root elongation in seedlings of Zea mays L. The seedlings were raised either in the presence of Ca2+ (high calcium; HC = imbibed and raised in 10 millimolar CaCl2), in the absence of additional Ca2+ (intermediate calcium; IC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O, calcium supply from seed only), or without additional Ca2+ and subsequently depleting them of Ca2+ (low calcium; LC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O and subsequently treated with 1 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis-[beta-aminoethylether]-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid [EGTA]). Exposure of roots of either HC or IC seedlings to auxin concentrations from 0.1 to 10 micromolar resulted in strong inhibition of elongation. In roots of LC seedlings, on the other hand, auxin concentrations as high as 10 micromolar caused only slight inhibition of elongation. Adding 0.5 millimolar Ca2+ to LC roots in the presence of IAA allowed normal expression of the inhibitory action of the hormone. Inhibition of elongation in IC roots by indoleacetic acid was reversible upon treatment of the roots with 1 millimolar EGTA. The inhibitory action of auxin could then be re-established by supplying 0.5 millimolar Ca2+. The data indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary to the growth-regulating action of auxin. The significance of this finding is discussed with respect to the potential role of Ca2+ as a second messenger of auxin action and the relevance of this model to recent evidence for gravi-induced redistribution of Ca2+ and its role in establishing gravitropic curvature.

Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

1986-01-01

348

Elongation as a factor in artefacts of humans and other animals: an Acheulean example in comparative context  

PubMed Central

Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic. It is now recognized that elongation extends to earlier Palaeolithic artefacts, being found in the repertoire of both Neanderthals and more archaic humans. Artefacts used by non-human animals, including chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys and New Caledonian crows show selection for diameter and length, and consistent interventions of modification. Both chimpanzees and capuchins trim side branches from stems, and appropriate lengths of stave are selected or cut. In human artefacts, occasional organic finds show elongation back to about 0.5 million years. A record of elongation achieved in stone tools survives to at least 1.75 Ma (million years ago) in the Acheulean tradition. Throughout this tradition, some Acheulean handaxes are highly elongated, usually found with others that are less elongated. Finds from the million-year-old site of Kilombe and Kenya are given as an example. These findings argue that the elongation need not be integral to a design, but that artefacts may be the outcome of adjustments to individual variables. Such individual adjustments are seen in animal artefacts. In the case of a handaxe, the maker must balance the adjustments to achieve a satisfactory outcome in the artefact as a whole. It is argued that the need to make decisions about individual variables within multivariate objects provides an essential continuity across artefacts made by different species. PMID:24101633

Gowlett, J. A. J.

2013-01-01

349

Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation BIOTUBE Precursor hardware demonstration payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to provide a demonstration and test of the newly developed BIOTUBE water delivery subsystem, and to determine the optimal water volume and germination paper combination for the automated imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different substrate treatments of standard laboratory germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. The first consisted of one layer of thick germination paper (designated "heavy"), and the second consisted of one layer of standard germination paper (designated "normal") under one layer of heavy germination paper. The germination paper strips were cut (4 X 1.6 cm) to fit snugly into seed cassettes. The seeds were attached to them by applying guar glue (1.25% w/v) drops to 8 premarked spots and the seeds orientated with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in 50 ?L boluses which slowly traveled down the paper via capillary action (eliminating the complications caused by excess water pooling around the seed's surface). The data indicated that the 480 ?L water delivery volume provided the best wetness level treatment for both percent germination (90.6%) and overall root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34 hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment experienced similar results, but with slightly lower rates of germination (84.4%) and significantly shorter root lengths (2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of "Heavy" germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. This in conjunction with the simplicity of using a single strip per seed cassette argues in favor of its selection. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery subsystem, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated under microgravity conditions as an effective method of maintaining seed position and allowing adequate room for root growth. This work was supported under NASA Contract NAS10-002001.

Levine, H.; Anderson, K.; Boody, A.; Cox, D.; Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

350

Novel software for analysis of root gravitropism: comparative response patterns of Arabidopsis wild-type and axr1 seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an earlier study (Evans, Ishikawa & Estelle 1994, Planta 194, 215-222) we used a video digitizer system to compare the kinetics of auxin action on root elongation in wild-type seedlings and seedlings of auxin response mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. We have since modified the system software to allow determination of elongation on opposite sides of vertical or gravistimulated roots and to allow continuous measurement of the angle of orientation of sequential subsections of the root during the response. We used this technology to compare the patterns of differential growth that generate curvature in roots of the Columbia ecotype and in the mutants axr1-3, axr1-12 and axr2, which show reduced gravitropic responsiveness and reduced sensitivity to inhibition by auxin. The pattern of differential growth during gravitropism differed in roots of wild-type and axr1 seedlings. In wild-type roots, initial curvature resulted from differential inhibition of elongation in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This was followed by an acceleration of elongation along the top side of the DEZ. In roots of axr1-3, curvature resulted from differential stimulation of elongation whereas in roots of axr1-12 the response was variable. Roots of axr2 did not exhibit gravitropic curvature. The observation that the pattern of differential growth causing curvature is dramatically altered by a change in sensitivity to auxin is consistent with the classical Cholodny-Went theory of gravitropism which maintains that differential growth patterns induced by gravistimulation are mediated primarily by gravi-induced shifts in auxin distribution. The new technology introduced with this report allows automated determination of stimulus response patterns in the small but experimentally popular roots of Arabidopsis.

Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

1997-01-01

351

The multifunctional Ccr4–Not complex directly promotes transcription elongation  

PubMed Central

The Ccr4–Not complex has been implicated in the control of multiple steps of mRNA metabolism; however, its functions in transcription remain ambiguous. The discovery that Ccr4/Pop2 is the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase and the detection of Not proteins within mRNA processing bodies have raised questions about the roles of the Ccr4–Not complex in transcription. Here we firmly establish Ccr4–Not as a positive elongation factor for RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The Ccr4–Not complex is targeted to the coding region of genes in a transcription-dependent manner similar to RNAPII and promotes elongation in vivo. Furthermore, Ccr4–Not interacts directly with elongating RNAPII complexes and stimulates transcription elongation of arrested polymerase in vitro. Ccr4–Not can reactivate backtracked RNAPII using a mechanism different from that of the well-characterized elongation factor TFIIS. While not essential for its interaction with elongation complexes, Ccr4–Not interacts with the emerging transcript and promotes elongation in a manner dependent on transcript length, although this interaction is not required for it to bind RNAPII. Our comprehensive analysis shows that Ccr4–Not directly regulates transcription, and suggests it does so by promoting the resumption of elongation of arrested RNAPII when it encounters transcriptional blocks in vivo. PMID:21406554

Kruk, Jennifer A.; Dutta, Arnob; Fu, Jianhua; Gilmour, David S.; Reese, Joseph C.

2011-01-01

352

Regulated tissue fluidity steers zebrafish body elongation  

PubMed Central

The tailbud is the posterior leading edge of the growing vertebrate embryo and consists of motile progenitors of the axial skeleton, musculature and spinal cord. We measure the 3D cell flow field of the zebrafish tailbud and identify changes in tissue fluidity revealed by reductions in the coherence of cell motion without alteration of cell velocities. We find a directed posterior flow wherein the polarization between individual cell motion is high, reflecting ordered collective migration. At the posterior tip of the tailbud, this flow makes sharp bilateral turns facilitated by extensive cell mixing due to increased directional variability of individual cell motions. Inhibition of Wnt or Fgf signaling or cadherin 2 function reduces the coherence of the flow but has different consequences for trunk and tail extension. Modeling and additional data analyses suggest that the balance between the coherence and rate of cell flow determines whether body elongation is linear or whether congestion forms within the flow and the body axis becomes contorted. PMID:23293289

Lawton, Andrew K.; Nandi, Amitabha; Stulberg, Michael J.; Dray, Nicolas; Sneddon, Michael W.; Pontius, William; Emonet, Thierry; Holley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

353

Styloid Process Elongation or Eagle’s Syndrome: Is There Any Role for Ectopic Calcification?  

PubMed Central

The styloid process (SP) is a cylindrical, long cartilaginous bone located on the temporal bone. The normal SP length is approximately 20–30 mm. The styloid process elongation (SPE) can be assumed if either the SP or the adjacent stylohyoid ligament ossification shows an overall length in excess of 30 mm. Elongated SP is known as Eagle’s syndrome when it causes clinical symptoms as neck and cervicofacial pain. It is supposed that this symptoms and signs are due to the compression of the SP on some neural and vascular structures. It may also cause stroke due to the compression of carotid arteries. This syndrome is diagnosed by both radiographical and physical examination. Instead of many hypotheses and studies, the exact etiology of elongated SP and the role of ectopic calcification are unknown. Ectopic calcification (EC) might have a role for the elongation of SP. Abnormal calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism is very common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, this calcification in nonosseous soft tissue due to abnormal serum Ca and P levels is commonly associated with this disorder. EC due to the abnormality in this metabolism which is related to the duration of dialysis is also very important for this calcification. Therefore, a study in patients with ESRD investigating the prevalence of SP and the correlation between dialysis period and the SP length may help us explaining the role of EC in the elongation of SP. Because, this disease might be a good model for the investigation of the EC in this elongation. However, further studies and large samples are also needed to clarify the etiology of this disorder. PMID:19212553

Gokce, Cumali; Sisman, Yildiray; Sipahioglu, Murat

2008-01-01

354

Comparative effects of auxin and abscisic acid on growth, hydrogen ion efflux and gravitropism in primary roots of maize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to test the idea that auxin action on root growth may be mediated by H(+) movement, the correlation of auxin action on growth and H(+) movement in roots was examined along with changes in H(+) efflux patterns associated with the asymmetric growth which occurs during gravitropism. The effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (AbA) on growth, H(+) secretion, and gravitropism in roots were compared. Results show a close correlation existent between H(+) efflux and growth in maize roots. In intact roots there is strong H(+) efflux from the elongation zone. Growth-promoting concentrations of IAA stimulate H(+) efflux. During gravitropism the H(+) efflux from the elongation zone becomes asymmetric; the evidence indicates that auxin redistribution contributes to the development of acid efflux asymmetry. That AbA stimulates root growth is reflected in its ability to stimulate H(+) efflux from apical root segments.

Evans, M. L.; Mulkey, T. J.

1984-01-01

355

Estimating age-dependent costs and benefits of roots with contrasting life span: comparing apples and oranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between root age and root function is poorly understood, despite its importance to root longevity. The effect of root age on respiration rates and P-32-uptake kinetics was determined for roots excavated from mature apple and citrus trees (median root life spans of 30 vs 300 d). To evaluate whether root longevity maximizes the efficiency of nutrient capture, daily

Tjeerd J. Bouma; Ruth D. Yanai; Adrienne D. Elkin; Ulrich Hartmond; Dora E. Flores-Alva; David M. Eissenstat

2001-01-01

356

Helical Root Buckling: A Transient Mechanism for Stiff Interface Penetration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tilling in agriculture is commonly used to loosen the topmost layer of soil and promote healthy plant growth. As roots navigate this mechanically heterogeneous environment, they encounter interfaces between the compliant soil and the underlying compacted soil. Inspired by this problem, we used 3D time-lapse imaging of Medicago Truncatula plants to study root growth in two-layered transparent hydrogels. The layers are mechanically distinct; the top layer is more compliant than the bottom. We observe that the roots form a transient helical structure as they attempt to penetrate the bi-layer interface. Interpreting this phenotype as a form of buckling due to root elongation, we measured the helix size as a function of the surrounding gel modulus. Our measurements show that by twisting the root tip during growth, the helical structure recruits the surrounding medium for an enhanced penetration force allowing the plants access to the lower layer of gel.

Silverberg, Jesse; Noar, Roslyn; Packer, Michael; Harrison, Maria; Cohen, Itai; Henley, Chris; Gerbode, Sharon

2011-03-01

357

Histone Chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 Regulate Histone Acetylation during Transcription Elongation  

PubMed Central

Histone chaperones function in chromatin assembly and disassembly, suggesting they have important regulatory roles in transcription elongation. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Nap1 and Vps75 are structurally related, evolutionarily conserved histone chaperones. We showed that Nap1 genetically interacts with several transcription elongation factors and that both Nap1 and Vps75 interact with the RNA polymerase II kinase, CTK1. Loss of NAP1 or VPS75 suppressed cryptic transcription within the open reading frame (ORF) observed when strains are deleted for the kinase CTK1. Loss of the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 also suppressed ctk1-dependent cryptic transcription. Vps75 regulates Rtt109 function, suggesting that they function together in this process. Histone H3 K9 was found to be the important lysine that is acetylated by Rtt109 during ctk1-dependent cryptic transcription. We showed that both Vps75 and Nap1 regulate the relative level of H3 K9 acetylation in the STE11 ORF. This supports a model in which Nap1, like Vps75, directly regulates Rtt109 activity or regulates the assembly of acetylated chromatin. Although Nap1 and Vps75 share many similarities, due to their distinct interactions with SET2, Nap1 and Vps75 may also play separate roles during transcription elongation. This work sheds further light on the importance of histone chaperones as general regulators of transcription elongation. PMID:23401858

Xue, Yu-Ming; Kowalska, Anna K.; Grabowska, Kamila; Przybyt, Katarzyna; Cichewicz, Magda A.; Del Rosario, Brian C.

2013-01-01

358

Gravity-dependent differentiation and root coils in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and phospholipase-A-I knockdown mutant grown on the International Space Station.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis roots on 45° tilted agar in 1-g grow in wave-like figures. In addition to waves, formation of root coils is observed in several mutants compromised in gravitropism and/or auxin transport. The knockdown mutant ppla-I-1 of patatin-related phospholipase-A-I is delayed in root gravitropism and forms increased numbers of root coils. Three known factors contribute to waving: circumnutation, gravisensing and negative thigmotropism. In microgravity, deprivation of wild type (WT) and mutant roots of gravisensing and thigmotropism and circumnutation (known to slow down in microgravity, and could potentially lead to fewer waves or increased coiling in both WT and mutant). To resolve this, mutant ppla-I-1 and WT were grown in the BIOLAB facility in the International Space Station. In 1-g, roots of both types only showed waving. In the first experiment in microgravity, the mutant after 9 days formed far more coils than in 1-g but the WT also formed several coils. After 24 days in microgravity, in both types the coils were numerous with slightly more in the mutant. In the second experiment, after 9 days in microgravity only the mutant formed coils and the WT grew arcuated roots. Cell file rotation (CFR) on the mutant root surface in microgravity decreased in comparison to WT, and thus was not important for coiling. Several additional developmental responses (hypocotyl elongation, lateral root formation, cotyledon expansion) were found to be gravity-influenced. We tentatively discuss these in the context of disturbances in auxin transport, which are known to decrease through lack of gravity. PMID:24373011

Scherer, G F E; Pietrzyk, P

2014-01-01

359

Diagravitropism in corn roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

1988-01-01

360

Mathematica with ROOT  

E-print Network

We present an open-source Mathematica importer for CERN ROOT files. Taking advantage of Mathematica's import/export plug-in mechanism, the importer offers a simple, unified interface that cleanly wraps around its MathLink-based core that links the ROOT libraries with Mathematica. Among other tests for accuracy and efficiency, the importer has also been tested on a large (~5 Gbyte) file structure, D3PD, used by the ATLAS experiment for offline analysis without problems. In addition to describing the installation and usage of the importer, we discuss how the importer may be further improved and customized. A link to the package can be found at: http://library.wolfram.com/infocenter/Articles/7793/ and a related presentation is at: http://cd-docdb.fnal.gov/cgi-bin/DisplayMeeting?conferenceid=522

Ken Hsieh; Thomas G. Throwe; Sebastian White

2011-02-24

361

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

362

Competition between plant populations with different rooting depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model proposed in the first paper in this series predicts that in mixtures of plant species with different rooting depths there will be an inverse correlation between the relative crowding coefficient of the deep rooting species with respect to the shallow rooting one and the frequency of the deep rooting plants. Two field experiments are reported in which this

Frank Berendse

1982-01-01

363

Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex  

PubMed Central

?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

2013-01-01

364

Differential responsiveness of cortical microtubule orientation to suppression of cell expansion among the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex.  

PubMed

?he bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

2013-01-01

365

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the cold stress response by slowing translation elongation.  

PubMed

Cells respond to external stress conditions by controlling gene expression, a process which occurs rapidly via post-transcriptional regulation at the level of protein synthesis. Global control of translation is mediated by modification of translation factors to allow reprogramming of the translatome and synthesis of specific proteins that are required for stress protection or initiation of apoptosis. In the present study, we have investigated how global protein synthesis rates are regulated upon mild cooling. We demonstrate that although there are changes to the factors that control initiation, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the ?-subunit, the reduction in the global translation rate is mediated by regulation of elongation via phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by its specific kinase, eEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase). The AMP/ATP ratio increases following cooling, consistent with a reduction in metabolic rates, giving rise to activation of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase), which is upstream of eEF2K. However, our data show that the major trigger for activation of eEF2K upon mild cooling is the release of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and, importantly, that it is possible to restore protein synthesis rates in cooled cells by inhibition of this pathway at multiple points. As cooling has both therapeutic and industrial applications, our data provide important new insights into how the cellular responses to this stress are regulated, opening up new possibilities to modulate these responses for medical or industrial use at physiological or cooler temperatures. PMID:25353634

Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Jackson, Thomas J; Utami, Wahyu; Barrett, David A; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

2015-01-15

366

Instability of dusty plasma waves in the presence of elongated and rotating charged particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dispersion relation for low-frequency waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is obtained when the plasma contains electrons, ions and non-spherical (elongated) rotating charged dust grains. Since the dipole moments of the latter are non-zero, significant modifications of the dusty plasma wave spectra emerge. Analyses of the newly found dispersion relation reveals instabilities of both the electromagnetic and electrostatic

D. D. Tshkhakaya; P. K. Shukla; N. L. Tsintsadze; J. Mahmoodi

2001-01-01

367

Instability of Dusty Plasma Waves in the Presence of Elongated and Rotating Charged Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dispersion relation for low-frequency waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is obtained when the plasma contains electrons, ions and non-spherical (elongated) rotating charged dust grains. Since the dipole moments of the latter are non-zero, significant modifications of the dusty plasma wave spectra emerge. Analyses of the newly found dispersion relation reveals instabilities of both the electromagnetic and electrostatic

D. D. Tshkhakaya; P. K. Shukla; N. L. Tsintsadze; J. Mahmoodi

2001-01-01

368

Succinoglycan Is Required for Initiation and Elongation of Infection Threads during Nodulation of Alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium meliloti Rm1021 must be able to synthesize succinoglycan in order to invade successfully the nodules which it elicits on alfalfa and to establish an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Using R. meliloti cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP), we have examined the nature of the symbiotic deficiency of exo mutants that are defective or altered in succinoglycan production. Our observations indicate that an exoY mutant, which does not produce succinoglycan, is symbiotically defective because it cannot initiate the formation of infection threads. An exoZ mutant, which produces succinoglycan without the acetyl modification, forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants, but it exhibits a reduced efficiency in the initiation and elongation of infection threads. An exoH mutant, which produces symbiotically nonfunctional high-molecular-weight succinoglycan that lacks the succinyl modification, cannot form extended infection threads. Infection threads initiate at a reduced rate and then abort before they reach the base of the root hairs. Overproduction of succinoglycan by the exoS96::Tn5 mutant does not reduce the efficiency of infection thread initiation and elongation, but it does significantly reduce the ability of this mutant to colonize the curled root hairs, which is the first step of the invasion process. The exoR95::Tn5 mutant, which overproduces succinoglycan to an even greater extent than the exoS96::Tn5 mutant, has completely lost its ability to colonize the curled root hairs. These new observations lead us to propose that succinoglycan is required for both the initiation and elongation of infection threads during nodule invasion and that excess production of succinoglycan interferes with the ability of the rhizobia to colonize curled root hairs. PMID:9748453

Cheng, Hai-Ping; Walker, Graham C.

1998-01-01

369

Phytochrome regulation of endogenous bud development in root cultures of Convolvulus arvensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buds produced endogenously from dark-grown Convolvulus root segments do not elongate more than a few millimeters. Red-light exposures given repeatedly during the culture period induce the buds to elongate and to develop a morphology characteristic of etiolated shoots. Far-red light exposure following each red exposure completely reverses the promotive effect of red light. The role of light in regulating both

Howard T. Bonnett

1972-01-01

370

The kinetics of abscisic acid action on root growth and gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an auxanometer and time-lapse cinematography we have studied the timing of abscisic acid (ABA) effects on elongation, gravitropic curvature, and hydrogen-ion efflux in several cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.). The effect of high concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM) of ABA on root elongation is triphasic, including 1) a period of promotion lasting approximately 12 h, 2) a subsequent period

Timothy J. Mulkey; Michael L. Evans; Konrad M. Kuzmanoff

1983-01-01

371

Spatial and temporal distribution of the root system and root nutrient content of an established Miscanthus crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a high biomass yield is obtained from established Miscanthus crops, previous studies have shown that fertilizer requirements are relatively low. As little information on the role of the Miscanthus roots in nutrient acquisition is available, a study was conducted to gather data on the Miscanthus root system and root nutrient content. Therefore in 1992, the root distribution pattern of

D. Neukirchen; M. Himken; J. Lammel; U. Czypionka-Krause; H.-W. Olfs

1999-01-01

372

Influence of plant growth stage and season on the release of root phenolics by mulberry as related to development of phytoremediation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolics released by red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) roots at different growth stages within a season were quantified and the makeup of phenols analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The data show that total phenols released into the soil solution increased continuously from an early vegetative stage to leaf senescence, indicating their accumulation in the rhizosphere. From

Ramesh S. Hegde; John S. Fletcher

1996-01-01

373

Root responses to soil physical conditions; growth dynamics from field to cell.  

PubMed

Root growth in the field is often slowed by a combination of soil physical stresses, including mechanical impedance, water stress, and oxygen deficiency. The stresses operating may vary continually, depending on the location of the root in the soil profile, the prevailing soil water conditions, and the degree to which the soil has been compacted. The dynamics of root growth responses are considered in this paper, together with the cellular responses that underlie them. Certain root responses facilitate elongation in hard soil, for example, increased sloughing of border cells and exudation from the root cap decreases friction; and thickening of the root relieves stress in front of the root apex and decreases buckling. Whole root systems may also grow preferentially in loose versus dense soil, but this response depends on genotype and the spatial arrangement of loose and compact soil with respect to the main root axes. Decreased root elongation is often accompanied by a decrease in both cell flux and axial cell extension, and recent computer-based models are increasing our understanding of these processes. In the case of mechanical impedance, large changes in cell shape occur, giving rise to shorter fatter cells. There is still uncertainty about many aspects of this response, including the changes in cell walls that control axial versus radial extension, and the degree to which the epidermis, cortex, and stele control root elongation. Optical flow techniques enable tracking of root surfaces with time to yield estimates of two-dimensional velocity fields. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be applied successfully to time-lapse sequences of confocal microscope images of living roots, in order to determine velocity fields and strain rates of groups of cells. In combination with new molecular approaches this provides a promising way of investigating and modelling the mechanisms controlling growth perturbations in response to environmental stresses. PMID:16317041

Bengough, A Glyn; Bransby, M Fraser; Hans, Joachim; McKenna, Stephen J; Roberts, Tim J; Valentine, Tracy A

2006-01-01

374

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 ?m NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 ?mol m?2 s?1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:9489005

Jensen, Philip J.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Estelle, Mark

1998-01-01

375

Distribution of expansins in graviresponding maize roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test if expansins, wall loosening proteins that disrupt binding between microfibrils and cell wall matrix, participate in the differential elongation of graviresponding roots, Zea mays L. cv. Merit roots were gravistimulated and used for immunolocalization with anti-expansin. Western blots showed cross-reaction with two proteins of maize, one of the same mass as cucumber expansin (29 kDa), the second slightly larger (32 kDa). Maize roots contained mainly the larger protein, but both were found in coleoptiles. The expansin distribution in cucumber roots and hypocotyls was similar to the distribution in maize. Roots showed stronger expansin signals on the expanding convex side than the concave flank as early as 30 min after gravistimulation. Treatment with brefeldin A, a vesicle transport inhibitor, or the auxin transport inhibitor, naphthylphthalamic acid, showed delayed graviresponse and the appearance of differential staining. Our results indicate that expansins may be transported and secreted to cell walls via vesicles and function in wall expansion.

Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

2000-01-01

376

Elongation dynamics of amyloid fibrils: A rugged energy landscape picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein amyloid fibrils are a form of linear protein aggregates that are implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we study the dynamics of amyloid fibril elongation by performing Langevin dynamic simulations on a coarse-grained model of peptides. Our simulation results suggest that the elongation process is dominated by a series of local minimum due to frustration in monomer-fibril interactions. This rugged energy landscape picture indicates that the amount of recycling of monomers at the fibrils’ ends before being fibrilized is substantially reduced in comparison to the conventional two-step elongation model. This picture, along with other predictions discussed, can be tested with current experimental techniques.

Lee, Chiu Fan; Loken, James; Jean, Létitia; Vaux, David J.

2009-10-01

377

Movement of Elongation Factor G between Compact and Extended Conformations.  

PubMed

Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pretranslocation ribosomes or with posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation. PMID:25463439

Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

2015-01-30

378

The rosette habit of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent upon phytochrome action: novel phytochromes control internode elongation and flowering time.  

PubMed

A major function of phytochromes in light-grown plants involves the perception of changes in the relative amounts of red and far-red light (R:FR ratio) and the initiation of the shade-avoidance response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this response is typified by increased elongation growth of petioles and accelerated flowering and can be fully induced by end-of-day far-red light (EOD FR) treatments. Phytochrome B-deficient (phyB) mutants, which have a constitutive elongated-petiole and early-flowering pheno-type, do not display a petiole elongation growth response to EOD FR, but they do respond to EOD FR by earlier flowering. Seedlings deficient in both phytochrome A and phytochrome B (phyA phyB), have a greatly reduced stature compared with wild-type or either monogenic mutant. The phyA phyB double null mutants also respond to EOD FR treatments by flowering early, suggesting the operation of novel phytochromes. Contrary to the behaviour of wild-type or monogenic phyA or phyB seedlings, petiole elongation in phyA phyB seedlings is reduced in response to EOD FR treatments. This reduction in petiole elongation is accompanied by the appearance of elongated internodes such that under these conditions the plants no longer display a rosette habit. PMID:9011093

Devlin, P F; Halliday, K J; Harberd, N P; Whitelam, G C

1996-12-01

379

Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

2000-01-01

380

Repeat aortic root replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aortic root replacement in patients who have undergone previous aortic root replacement presents a formidable technical challenge, which may lead to increased surgical mortality.Methods. We reviewed our experience from January 1989 through November 1995. Seven consecutive patients (6 men and 1 woman) underwent eight repeat aortic root replacements. Mean follow-up was 19 months. Previous root replacement had been performed

Chiwon Hahn; Stanley K. C Tam; Gus J Vlahakes; Alan D Hilgenberg; Cary W Akins; Mortimer J Buckley

1998-01-01

381

Deoxyribonucleic Acid synthesis in root cap cells of cultured roots of convolvulus.  

PubMed

Isolated cultured roots of Convolvulus arvensis L. were incubated in 0.2 microcurie per milliliter methyl-(3)H-thymidine for 14 hours, for 64 hours, or for 14 hours followed by transfer to fresh nutrient medium without tritiated thymidine. Autoradiographs of serial, longitudinal sections of roots which were continuously incubated with tritiated thymidine showed that cells of the root cap columella did not undergo DNA synthesis after their formation from the root cap initials. In roots pulse-labeled with tritiated thymidine, the movement of labeled cells through the root cap columella was followed. Labeled cells were displaced at a constant rate of 72 microns per day over a period of 6 to 9 days before they were sloughed off from the root cap. The specialized role of the root cap cells in relation to their distinctive metabolism and longevity is discussed. PMID:16657765

Phillips, H L; Torrey, J G

1971-08-01

382

Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species.  

PubMed

Even though ecologists and agronomists have considered the spatial root distribution of plants to be important for interspecific interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, few experimental studies have quantified patterns of root distribution dynamics and their impacts on interspecific interactions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between root distribution and interspecific interactions between intercropped plants. Roots were sampled twice by auger and twice by the monolith method in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.)/maize intercropping and in sole wheat, maize, and faba bean up to 100 cm depth in the soil profile. The results showed that the roots of intercropped wheat spread under maize plants, and had much greater root length density (RLD) at all soil depths than sole wheat. The roots of maize intercropped with wheat were limited laterally, but had a greater RLD than sole-cropped maize. The RLD of maize intercropped with faba bean at different soil depths was influenced by intercropping to a smaller extent compared to maize intercropped with wheat. Faba bean had a relatively shallow root distribution, and the roots of intercropped maize spread underneath them. The results support the hypotheses that the overyielding of species showing benefit in the asymmetric interspecific facilitation results from greater lateral deployment of roots and increased RLD, and that compatibility of the spatial root distribution of intercropped species contributes to symmetric interspecific facilitation in the faba bean/maize intercropping. PMID:16211394

Li, Long; Sun, Jianhao; Zhang, Fusuo; Guo, Tianwen; Bao, Xingguo; Smith, F Andrew; Smith, Sally E

2006-03-01

383

Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities  

EPA Science Inventory

Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure i...

384

Elongational Viscosity of Monodisperse and Bidisperse Polystyrene Melts  

E-print Network

The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The ...

Nielsen, Jens K.

2007-01-23

385

Endogenous gibberellin- and cytokinin-like substances in cultured shoot tissues of apple, Malus pumila cv. Jonathan, in relation to adventitious root formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequencies of adventitious root formation in vitro of isolated shoots from bud cultures of apple (Malus pumila cv. Jonathan) after 1, 7 and 31 subcultures (weeks 5, 29 and 109 after the initial culture) were 5, 78 and 95% respectively. Endogenous gibberellin-like substances (GA) were extracted, chromatographed on SiO2 partition columns, and assayed on dwarf rice (Oryza sativa cv.

KIYOTOSHI TAKENOI; John S. Taylor; S. SRISKANDARAJAHZ; P. Pharis Richard; G. Mullins Michael

1982-01-01

386

Fine-root distribution and morphology in an acidic Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden in relation to granulated wood ash application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood ash is recommended as a compensatory fertiliser to counteract the effects of acidic deposition on forest ecosystems. Spatial distribution of biomass, necromass and morphology parame