Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms
Blanford, Glenn DelFosse
1998-01-01
An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.
Production of relativistic antihydrogen atoms by pair production with positron capture
Munger, C.T.; Brodsky, S.J. ); Schmidt, I. )
1994-04-01
A beam of relativistic antihydrogen atoms, the bound state ([ital [bar p]e][sup +]), can be created by circulating the beam of an antiproton storage ring through an internal gas target. An antiproton that passes through the Coulomb field of a nucleus of charge [ital Z] will create [ital e][sup +][ital e[minus
Relativistic antihydrogen production by pair production with positron capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Şengül, M. Y.; Güçlü, M. C.
2012-04-01
Antihydrogen atoms may rarely be produced by the collision of antiprotons with ions. At relativistic velocities, the antiproton may pass around the Coulomb field of the nucleus and the electron-positron pairs can be produced electromagnetically. After this pair production, not so often, positron can be captured by the antiproton and as a result, antihydrogen atoms may be produced. In this work, we have calculated the antihydrogen production cross section in the framework of perturbation theory, by applying Monte-Carlo integration techniques. In order to compute the lowest-order Feynman diagrams amplitudes, we used Darwin wave functions for the bound states of the positrons and Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the continuum states of the electrons.
Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.
Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S
2012-03-22
The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves. PMID:22398451
Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms.
Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Collier, M J T; Doser, M; Filippini, V; Fine, K S; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Holzscheiter, M H; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lindelöf, D; Lodi Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Marchesotti, M; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Riedler, P; Rochet, J; Rotondi, A; Rouleau, G; Testera, G; Variola, A; Watson, T L; van der Werf, D P
2002-10-01
A theoretical underpinning of the standard model of fundamental particles and interactions is CPT invariance, which requires that the laws of physics be invariant under the combined discrete operations of charge conjugation, parity and time reversal. Antimatter, the existence of which was predicted by Dirac, can be used to test the CPT theorem-experimental investigations involving comparisons of particles with antiparticles are numerous. Cold atoms and anti-atoms, such as hydrogen and antihydrogen, could form the basis of a new precise test, as CPT invariance implies that they must have the same spectrum. Observations of antihydrogen in small quantities and at high energies have been reported at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and at Fermilab, but these experiments were not suited to precision comparison measurements. Here we demonstrate the production of antihydrogen atoms at very low energy by mixing trapped antiprotons and positrons in a cryogenic environment. The neutral anti-atoms have been detected directly when they escape the trap and annihilate, producing a characteristic signature in an imaging particle detector. PMID:12368849
First measurement of the velocity of slow antihydrogen atoms.
Gabrielse, G; Speck, A; Storry, C H; LeSage, D; Guise, N; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Pittner, H; Walz, J; Hänsch, T W; Comeau, D; Hessels, E A
2004-08-13
The speed of antihydrogen atoms is deduced from the fraction that passes through an oscillating electric field without ionizing. The weakly bound atoms used for this first demonstration travel about 20 times more rapidly than the average thermal speed of the antiprotons from which they form, if these are in thermal equilibrium with their 4.2 K container. The method should be applicable to much more deeply bound states, which may well be moving more slowly, and should aid the quest to lower the speed of the atoms as required if they are to be trapped for precise spectroscopy. PMID:15324235
Search for laser-induced formation of antihydrogen atoms.
Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Ejsing, A M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Lodi Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Posada, L G C; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Telle, H H; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N
2006-11-24
Antihydrogen can be synthesized by mixing antiprotons and positrons in a Penning trap environment. Here an experiment to stimulate the formation of antihydrogen in the n = 11 quantum state by the introduction of light from a CO2 continuous wave laser is described. An overall upper limit of 0.8% with 90% C.L. on the laser-induced enhancement of the recombination has been found. This result strongly suggests that radiative recombination contributes negligibly to the antihydrogen formed in the experimental conditions used by the ATHENA Collaboration. PMID:17155742
New techniques for trapping antiprotons, positrons, and antihydrogen atoms
Yamazaki, Y.
2005-10-26
A large number of antiprotons have been accumulated, cooled, compressed, and extracted for the first time. This was accomplished combining the AD(Antiproton Decelerator), the RFQD (Radio Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator) and an MRT (Multi-Ring Trap) installed in a 2.5T solenoid. Some 1.2 x 106 antiprotons were stably stored per one AD shot, which was {approx}50 times better in the accumulation efficiency than conventional methods with thick degrader foils. The trapped antiprotons were then cooled by a preloaded electron plasma({approx} 108/cm3), radially compressed by a rotating electric field, and then extracted from the MRT as mono-energetic DC beams of 10-500eV. A similar system with much higher electron density({approx} 1011/cm3) has enabled a new positron accumulation, the efficiency of which is 360e+/s/mCi, some {approx}30 times better than previous UHV compatible schemes. With these ingredients, a cusp trap is under development, which could synthesize and at the same time trap spin-polarized antihydrogen atoms in their ground states.
Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with H, He+ and He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, James S.
2006-03-01
The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method is used to determine the rearrangement and destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (\\bar{H}) with H, He+ and He at collision energies above 0.1 au. The results for the H and He+ targets satisfactorily merge with previous calculations done for lower collision energies. Despite the absence of a critical distance, the destruction cross section for collisions of \\bar{H} with He, previously uncalculated, is found to be comparable with the destruction cross sections for \\bar{H} collisions with H and He+. All three cross sections are shown to be given quite reasonably by simple classical orbiting formulae at energies that are very low but still high enough for L > 0 partial waves to be dominant. The cross sections for formation of the antiprotonic atoms (Pn or \\barpHe ) and their initial quantum numbers with the \\bar{H} projectile are found to be significantly different from the analogous cross sections for \\barp projectiles.
Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; el Nasr, S Seif; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y
2010-12-01
Antimatter was first predicted in 1931, by Dirac. Work with high-energy antiparticles is now commonplace, and anti-electrons are used regularly in the medical technique of positron emission tomography scanning. Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, has been produced at low energies at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 2002. Antihydrogen is of interest for use in a precision test of nature's fundamental symmetries. The charge conjugation/parity/time reversal (CPT) theorem, a crucial part of the foundation of the standard model of elementary particles and interactions, demands that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Given the current experimental precision of measurements on the hydrogen atom (about two parts in 10(14) for the frequency of the 1s-to-2s transition), subjecting antihydrogen to rigorous spectroscopic examination would constitute a compelling, model-independent test of CPT. Antihydrogen could also be used to study the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. However, so far experiments have produced antihydrogen that is not confined, precluding detailed study of its structure. Here we demonstrate trapping of antihydrogen atoms. From the interaction of about 10(7) antiprotons and 7 × 10(8) positrons, we observed 38 annihilation events consistent with the controlled release of trapped antihydrogen from our magnetic trap; the measured background is 1.4 ± 1.4 events. This result opens the door to precision measurements on anti-atoms, which can soon be subjected to the same techniques as developed for hydrogen. PMID:21085118
Antihydrogen Formation using Cold Plasmas
Madsen, N.; Bowe, P.D.; Hangst, J.S.; Amoretti, M.; Carraro, C.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Amsler, C.; Johnson, I.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Doser, M.; Kellerbauer, A.; Landua, R.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L.V.
2004-10-20
Antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of the hydrogen atom, can be formed by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. In 2002 the ATHENA collaboration succeeded in the first production of cold antihydrogen. By observing and imaging the annihilation products of the neutral, non-confined, antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the walls of the trap we can observe the production in quasi-real-time and study the dynamics of the formation mechanism. The formation mechanism strongly influences the final state of the formed antihydrogen atoms, important for future spectroscopic comparison with hydrogen. This paper briefly summarizes the current understanding of the antihydrogen formation in ATHENA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlton, Michael; Eriksson, Stefan; Aled Isaac, C.; Madsen, Niels; van der Werf, Dirk Peter
2013-03-01
We describe recent experiments at CERN in which antihydrogen, an atom made entirely of antimatter, has been held in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and subjected to microwave radiation to induce a resonant quantum transition in the anti-atom. We discuss how this, the first experiment to observe an interaction between an antihydrogen atom and a photon, was achieved. We provide some background to antimatter physics and cover aspects of the current motivation for our experiments.
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hessels, E. A.
2003-05-01
Antihydrogen production via two-stage charge exchange(E.A.Hessels, D.M. Homan and M.J. Cavagnero, Phys. Rev. A. 57), (1998) 1668. may provide extremely cold antimatter atoms that can be trapped for spectroscopic studies. Positrons(J. Estrada, T. Roach, J.N. Tan, P. Yesley, and G. Gabrielse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), (2000) 859. and antiprotons(G. Gabrielse, N. S. Bowden, P. Oxley, A. Speck, C. H. Storry, J. N. Tan, M. Wessels, D. Grozonka, W. Oelert, G. Schepers, T. Sefzick, J. Walz, H. Pittner, T. W. Hansch, E. A. Hessels, Phys. Lett. B 548), (2002) 140-145., both cooled to 4 K and loaded into adjacent wells of a Penning trap, provide the basic components. Laser-excited Rydberg cesium atoms are passed through the cloud of trapped positrons and charge exchange with the positrons to form Rydberg states of positronium. These positronium atoms have been observed and are studied by ionizing them and counting the resulting positrons. State analysis of the positronium is obtained by varying the electric field used to ionize the atoms. Large numbers of positronium atoms are produced and their binding energies are found to be similar to that of the incoming Rydberg cesium atoms. A second charge exchange is proposed, in which the neutral positronium travels a short distance to an adjacent antiproton cloud. The result of this second charge exchange would be antihydrogen atoms. The apparatus to test this second charge exchange has already been constructed and preliminary studies have already been made.
Cooling by Spontaneous Decay of Highly Excited Antihydrogen Atoms in Magnetic Traps
Pohl, T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Nagata, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.
2006-11-24
An efficient cooling mechanism of magnetically trapped, highly excited antihydrogen (H) atoms is presented. This cooling, in addition to the expected evaporative cooling, results in trapping of a large number of H atoms in the ground state. It is found that the final fraction of trapped atoms is insensitive to the initial distribution of H magnetic quantum numbers. Expressions are derived for the cooling efficiency, demonstrating that magnetic quadrupole (cusp) traps provide stronger cooling than higher order magnetic multipoles. The final temperature of H confined in a cusp trap is shown to depend as {approx}2.2T{sub n{sub 0}}n{sub 0}{sup -2/3} on the initial Rydberg level n{sub 0} and temperature T{sub n{sub 0}}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.
2014-12-01
Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertsche, W. A.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.
2015-12-01
Performing measurements of the properties of antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, and comparing the results with those for ordinary hydrogen, has long been seen as a route to test some of the fundamental principles of physics. There has been much experimental progress in this direction in recent years, and antihydrogen is now routinely created and trapped and a range of exciting measurements probing the foundations of modern physics are planned or underway. In this contribution we review the techniques developed to facilitate the capture and manipulation of positrons and antiprotons, along with procedures to bring them together to create antihydrogen. Once formed, the antihydrogen has been detected by its destruction via annihilation or field ionization, and aspects of the methodologies involved are summarized. Magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been employed to allow some of the antihydrogen created to be held for considerable periods. We describe such devices, and their implementation, along with the cusp magnetic trap used to produce the first evidence for a low-energy beam of antihydrogen. The experiments performed to date on antihydrogen are discussed, including the first observation of a resonant quantum transition and the analyses that have yielded a limit on the electrical neutrality of the anti-atom and placed crude bounds on its gravitational behaviour. Our review concludes with an outlook, including the new ELENA extension to the antiproton decelerator facility at CERN, together with summaries of how we envisage the major threads of antihydrogen physics will progress in the coming years.
Spatial distribution of cold antihydrogen formation.
Madsen, N; Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N
2005-01-28
Antihydrogen is formed when antiprotons are mixed with cold positrons in a nested Penning trap. We present experimental evidence, obtained using our antihydrogen annihilation detector, that the spatial distribution of the emerging antihydrogen atoms is independent of the positron temperature and axially enhanced. This indicates that antihydrogen is formed before the antiprotons are in thermal equilibrium with the positron plasma. This result has important implications for the trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. PMID:15698264
Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with the H2 and H2+ molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, James S.
2006-09-01
The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method is used to determine the protonium (Pn) formation and total destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (\\bar{H}) with the H2 molecule and the H2+ molecular ion at collision energies above 0.1 au in the centre-of-mass system. The cross sections and initial quantum numbers are compared with the analogous cross sections for \\bar{H}+H, \\barp+H, \\barp+H_2 and \\barp+H_2^+ previously calculated. Like the \\barp projectile, the protonium-formation cross sections for the \\bar{H} projectile are much larger and extend to higher energies with the molecular targets than with the atomic target. The possibility is considered that a relatively long-lived state of the \\bar{H}H molecule may be formed in rearrangement scattering of \\bar{H}+H_2 at low energies.
Reactive collisions of atomic antihydrogen with H, He^+, He, H2^+, and H2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, James S.
2006-05-01
The fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method has been used to determine the rearrangement and destruction cross sections for collisions of antihydrogen (H) with H, He^+, He, H2^+, and H2 at collision energies above 0.1 au. The results for the H and He^+ targets satisfactorily merge with previous calculations done for lower collision energies. There are no previous calculations for the other targets. Despite the absence of a critical distance, the destruction cross section for collisions of H with He is found to be comparable with the destruction cross sections for H collisions with H and He^+, for which there are critical distances. The three atomic cross sections are shown to be given quite reasonably by simple classical orbiting formulas at energies that are very low but still high enough for L>0 partial waves to be dominant. The cross sections for formation of the antiprotonic atoms (Pn or pHe) and their initial quantum numbers are found to be significantly different from the analogous cross sections for p projectiles. The cross sections for the molecular targets are significantly larger.
Antimatter Matters: Progress in Cold Antihydrogen Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Yasunori
2012-11-01
The purpose of cold antihydrogen research is briefly reviewed together with the latest developments of manipulating antihydrogen atoms. Two major progresses last year were the trapping of antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic bottle and synthesis of antihydrogen atoms in a cusp trap, where a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam can be extracted as an intensified beam. The magnetic bottle consists of an octupole coil and a pair of mirror coils, which improved the magnetic field uniformity near the axis, and so the stability of trapping antiprotons and positrons. Eventually, antihydrogen atoms were trapped for more than 1000s, which is ready to be testified with high precision laser spectroscopy. The cusp trap consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, Niels
Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, is now routinely made and trapped and the era of antihydrogen physics has started. This development owes much to physics of trapped charged particles. With a focus on this aspect, we discuss the various techniques used for making and trapping antihydrogen as well as some of the more peculiar issues that arise from the combined traps that must hold both charged and neutral species.
Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II
1989-12-31
The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.
First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.
2008-08-08
The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.
Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolbinger, B.; Capon, A.; Diermaier, M.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Widmann, E.
2015-08-01
One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.
Electron-cooled accumulation of 4 × 109 positrons for production and storage of antihydrogen atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Skinner, T. D. G.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Gabrielse, G.; Hamley, C. D.; Jones, N.; Marable, K.; Tardiff, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; ATRAP Collaboration
2016-03-01
Four billion positrons (e+) are accumulated in a Penning-Ioffe trap apparatus at 1.2 K and <6 × 10-17 Torr. This is the largest number of positrons ever held in a Penning trap. The e+ are cooled by collisions with trapped electrons (e-) in this first demonstration of using e- for efficient loading of e+ into a Penning trap. The combined low temperature and vacuum pressure provide an environment suitable for antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) production, and long antimatter storage times, sufficient for high-precision tests of antimatter gravity and of CPT.
Advances in antihydrogen physics.
Charlton, Mike; Van der Werf, Dirk Peter
2015-01-01
The creation of cold antihydrogen atoms by the controlled combination of positrons and antiprotons has opened up a new window on fundamental physics. More recently, techniques have been developed that allow some antihydrogen atoms to be created at low enough kinetic energies that they can be held inside magnetic minimum neutral atom traps. With confinement times of many minutes possible, it has become feasible to perform experiments to probe the properties of the antiatom for the first time. We review the experimental progress in this area, outline some of the motivation for studying basic aspects of antimatter physics and provide an outlook of where we might expect this field to go in the coming years. PMID:25942774
Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC
1990-12-31
This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.
General relativistic effects in atom interferometry
Dimopoulos, Savas; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Graham, Peter W.
2008-08-15
Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the nonrelativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this, we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. Both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically and all coordinate dependencies are removed, thus revealing novel terms, cancellations, and new origins for previously calculated terms. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the nonlinear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose specific experiments, one currently under construction, to measure each of these effects. These experiments could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the Universe, and preferred frame and location effects.
Scattering of twisted relativistic electrons by atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serbo, V.; Ivanov, I. P.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.
2015-07-01
The Mott scattering of high-energetic twisted electrons by atoms is investigated within the framework of the first Born approximation and Dirac's relativistic equation. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and longitudinal polarization of the scattered electrons. In order to evaluate these angular and polarization properties we consider two experimental setups in which the twisted electron beam collides with either a single well-localized atom or macroscopic atomic target. Detailed relativistic calculations have been performed for both setups and for the electrons with kinetic energy from 10 to 1000 keV. The results of these calculations indicate that the emission pattern and polarization of outgoing electrons differ significantly from the scattering of plane-wave electrons and can be very sensitive to the parameters of the incident twisted beam. In particular, it is shown that the angular- and polarization-sensitive Mott measurements may reveal valuable information about both the transverse and longitudinal components of the linear momentum and the projection of the total angular momentum of twisted electron states. Thus, the Mott scattering emerges as a diagnostic tool for the relativistic vortex beams.
General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry
Dimopoulos, Savas; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-03-17
Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.
The ASACUSA CUSP: an antihydrogen experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, N.; Ulmer, S.; Murtagh, D. J.; Van Gorp, S.; Nagata, Y.; Diermaier, M.; Federmann, S.; Leali, M.; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Michishio, K.; Mizutani, T.; Mohri, A.; Nagahama, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Radics, B.; Sakurai, S.; Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Torii, H. A.; Venturelli, L.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.
2015-11-01
In order to test CPT symmetry between antihydrogen and its counterpart hydrogen, the ASACUSA collaboration plans to perform high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen atom in-flight. We have developed an apparatus ("cusp trap") which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and multiple ring electrodes. For the preparation of slow antiprotons and positrons, Penning-Malmberg type traps were utilized. The spectrometer line was positioned downstream of the cusp trap. At the end of the beamline, an antihydrogen beam detector was located, which comprises an inorganic Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) single-crystal scintillator housed in a vacuum duct and surrounding plastic scintillators. A significant fraction of antihydrogen atoms flowing out the cusp trap were detected.
Synthesis of Cold Antihydrogen in a Cusp Trap
Enomoto, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Mohri, A.; Kuroda, N.; Kim, C. H.; Torii, H. A.; Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Michishio, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Higaki, H.; Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.
2010-12-10
We report here the first successful synthesis of cold antihydrogen atoms employing a cusp trap, which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.
Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen
Wurtele, Jonathan
2013-03-27
Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.
First antihydrogen production within a combined Penning-Ioffe trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Sage, David Anthony
The long-term goal of the ATRAP collaboration is to perform precision laser spectroscopy on antihydrogen, the simplest atom made entirely of antimatter. Comparing this to the hydrogen spectrum would be a direct test of CPT invariance. Antihydrogen has been produced by ATRAP both during the positron cooling of antiprotons and by a laser-controlled charge-exchange process. Antihydrogen spectroscopy will first require confining the atoms produced in a Penning ion trap within the magnetic confining field of a superimposed Ioffe trap. A new experimental zone was established at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator, and a combined Penning-Ioffe trap was constructed for the trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. Significant advances were made in the methods of accumulating the constituent particles necessary for antihydrogen formation, including a factor of 400 improvement of the positron loading rate using buffer-gas accumulation, the demonstration of a new electron loading method via the photoelectric effect using UV laser pulses, and efficient antiproton trapping using magnetic fields that were much lower than previously demonstrated, as required to maximize antihydrogen trapping depths. The loss of particles from the Penning trap caused by the radial magnetic field of a quadrupole-Ioffe trap was measured, and found to be suitably low for antihydrogen production. Following this, antihydrogen production in a combined Penning-Ioffe trap was demonstrated for the first time. A new method of antihydrogen production via positron-cooling of antiprotons was utilized that prolonged the interaction time of the positrons and antiprotons, while minimizing the mixing-energy of the antiprotons. Larger amounts of antihydrogen were produced in the presence of the Ioffe field than without it, assuaging reasonable fears that the magnetic confining field would restrict antihydrogen formation. Searches for antihydrogen confined in the magnetic trap yielded null results, likely due to the
Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen
Holzscheiter, M.H.; ATHENA Collaboration
1999-03-01
Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments.
Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment
None
2011-04-25
In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i] Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome. The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii] These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv]. The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried. The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures', G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii] 'Autoresonant
Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment
2011-02-25
In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i] Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome. The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii] These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv]. The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried. The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures', G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii] 'Autoresonant
Relativistic effects on information measures for hydrogen-like atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katriel, Jacob; Sen, K. D.
2010-01-01
Position and momentum information measures are evaluated for the ground state of the relativistic hydrogen-like atoms. Consequences of the fact that the radial momentum operator is not self-adjoint are explicitly studied, exhibiting fundamental shortcomings of the conventional uncertainty measures in terms of the radial position and momentum variances. The Shannon and Rényi entropies, the Fisher information measure, as well as several related information measures, are considered as viable alternatives. Detailed results on the onset of relativistic effects for low nuclear charges, and on the extreme relativistic limit, are presented. The relativistic position density decays exponentially at large r, but is singular at the origin. Correspondingly, the momentum density decays as an inverse power of p. Both features yield divergent Rényi entropies away from a finite vicinity of the Shannon entropy. While the position space information measures can be evaluated analytically for both the nonrelativistic and the relativistic hydrogen atom, this is not the case for the relativistic momentum space. Some of the results allow interesting insight into the significance of recently evaluated Dirac-Fock vs. Hartree-Fock complexity measures for many-electron neutral atoms.
Positron plasma diagnostics and temperature control for antihydrogen production.
Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P D; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lindelöf, D; Rizzini, E Lodi; Macrí, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; van der Werf, D P
2003-08-01
Production of antihydrogen atoms by mixing antiprotons with a cold, confined, positron plasma depends critically on parameters such as the plasma density and temperature. We discuss nondestructive measurements, based on a novel, real-time analysis of excited, low-order plasma modes, that provide comprehensive characterization of the positron plasma in the ATHENA antihydrogen apparatus. The plasma length, radius, density, and total particle number are obtained. Measurement and control of plasma temperature variations, and the application to antihydrogen production experiments are discussed. PMID:12906600
Antihydrogen level population evolution: impact of positron plasma length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radics, B.; Yamazaki, Y.
2016-03-01
Antihydrogen is produced by mixing an antiproton and a positron plasma in a cryogenic electromagnetic trap. The dominant antihydrogen formation mechanism is three-body recombination, while the subsequent level population evolution is governed by various processes, mainly collisional (de)excitation, ionisation and radiative decay. In this work the impact of various positron plasma lengths on the level population evolution is investigated. The main interest is the ground-state antihydrogen atom yield. It is found that the ground state level population shows different power-law behaviors at short or longer positron plasma lengths.
Gravitational quantum states of Antihydrogen
Voronin, A. Yu.; Froelich, P.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.
2011-03-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of the antihydrogen atom (H) in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface. We predict that the H atom, falling in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface, would settle into long-lived quantum states. We point out a method of measuring the difference in the energy of H in such states. The method allows for spectroscopy of gravitational levels based on atom-interferometric principles. We analyze the general feasibility of performing experiments of this kind. We point out that such experiments provide a method of measuring the gravitational force (Mg) acting on H and that they might be of interest in the context of testing the weak equivalence principle for antimatter.
Workshop on foundations of the relativistic theory of atomic structure
1981-03-01
The conference is an attempt to gather state-of-the-art information to understand the theory of relativistic atomic structure beyond the framework of the original Dirac theory. Abstracts of twenty articles from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)
A source of antihydrogen for in-flight hyperfine spectroscopy
Kuroda, N.; Ulmer, S.; Murtagh, D. J.; Van Gorp, S.; Nagata, Y.; Diermaier, M.; Federmann, S.; Leali, M.; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Michishio, K.; Mizutani, T.; Mohri, A.; Nagahama, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Radics, B.; Sakurai, S.; Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Torii, H. A.; Venturelli, L.; Wu¨nschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.
2014-01-01
Antihydrogen, a positron bound to an antiproton, is the simplest antiatom. Its counterpart—hydrogen—is one of the most precisely investigated and best understood systems in physics research. High-resolution comparisons of both systems provide sensitive tests of CPT symmetry, which is the most fundamental symmetry in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Any measured difference would point to CPT violation and thus to new physics. Here we report the development of an antihydrogen source using a cusp trap for in-flight spectroscopy. A total of 80 antihydrogen atoms are unambiguously detected 2.7 m downstream of the production region, where perturbing residual magnetic fields are small. This is a major step towards precision spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using Rabi-like beam spectroscopy. PMID:24448273
Atomic frequency standard relativistic Doppler shift experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, H. E.; Reinhardt, V. S.
1974-01-01
An experiment has been performed to measure possible space anisotropy as it would effect the frequency of a cesium atomic beam standard clock in a laboratory on earth due to motion relative to external coordinate frames. The cesium frequency was measured as a function of orientation with respect to an atomic hydrogen maser standard. Over a period of 34 days 101 measurements were made. The results are consistent with a conclusion that no general orientation dependance attributable to spacial anisotropy was observed. It is shown that both the airplane clock results, and the null results for the atomic beam clock, are consistent with Einstein general or special relativity, or with the Lorentz transformations alone.
Trapping of antiprotons -- a first step on the way to antihydrogen
Holzscheiter, M.H.
1993-07-01
A first step towards producing and effectively utilizing antihydrogen atoms consists of trapping antiprotons. The immediate next step must then be to control, i.e. trap the produced antihydrogen. The current state of the art in trapping antiprotons and positrons is reviewed, and the challenges in trapping the resulting neutral particles are discussed.
Processing quantum information with relativistic motion of atoms.
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Aasen, David; Kempf, Achim
2013-04-19
We show that particle detectors, such as two-level atoms, in noninertial motion (or in gravitational fields) could be used to build quantum gates for the processing of quantum information. Concretely, we show that through suitably chosen noninertial trajectories of the detectors the interaction Hamiltonian's time dependence can be modulated to yield arbitrary rotations in the Bloch sphere due to relativistic quantum effects. PMID:23679587
Antimatter plasmas in a multipole trap for antihydrogen.
Andresen, G; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y
2007-01-12
We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies. PMID:17358606
Trapped antihydrogen in its ground state.
Gabrielse, G; Kalra, R; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D W; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J
2012-03-16
Antihydrogen atoms (H¯) are confined in an Ioffe trap for 15-1000 s-long enough to ensure that they reach their ground state. Though reproducibility challenges remain in making large numbers of cold antiprotons (p¯) and positrons (e(+)) interact, 5±1 simultaneously confined ground-state atoms are produced and observed on average, substantially more than previously reported. Increases in the number of simultaneously trapped H¯ are critical if laser cooling of trapped H¯ is to be demonstrated and spectroscopic studies at interesting levels of precision are to be carried out. PMID:22540471
Relativistic atomic data for Cu-like tungsten
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.
2013-05-01
Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Ne] 3s2 3p6 3d9 4l' nl , [Ne] 3s2 3p5 3d10 4l' nl (n=4-6), and [Ne] 3s2 3p6 3d9 5l' nl ,(n=5-7) states in Cu-like tungsten (W45+) are calculated using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory method (RMBPT code), the multiconfiguration relativistic Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC code), and the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (COWAN code). Branching ratios relative to the first threshold and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are determined for the singly excited, as well as doubly excited non-autoionizing states in Cu-like W45+ ion. Contributions from the autoionizing doubly excited states (with n up to 500), which are particulary important for calculating total DR rates, are estimated. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Cu-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 3 to 70 Å. These calculations provide highly accurate values for a number of W45+ properties useful for a variety of applications including for fusion applications. This research was sponsored by the grant DE-FG02-08ER54951.
Antihydrogen Production within a Penning-Ioffe Trap
Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Speck, A.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.
2008-03-21
Slow antihydrogen (H) is produced within a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap, the latter intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H atoms. Observed H atoms in this configuration resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap. The number of detected H atoms actually increases when a 400 mK Ioffe trap is turned on.
Atomic electron energies including relativistic effects and quantum electrodynamic corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aoyagi, M.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Mark, H.
1977-01-01
Atomic electron energies have been calculated relativistically. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all orbitals in all atoms with 2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. These results will serve for detailed comparison of calculations based on other approaches. The magnitude of quantum electrodynamic corrections is exhibited quantitatively for each state.
High-order harmonic generation on atoms and ions with laser fields of relativistic intensities
Avetissian, H. K.; Markossian, A. G.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2011-07-15
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) by hydrogenlike atoms or ions in the field of counterpropagating laser beams of standing-wave configuration, with linear polarizations and relativistic intensities, is studied. The relativistic quantum theory of HHG in such field configurations (homogeneous), at which the impeding factor of relativistic magnetic drift of superstrong laser fields can be eliminated, is presented.
Relativistic heavy-atom effects on heavy-atom nuclear shieldings.
Lantto, Perttu; Romero, Rodolfo H; Gómez, Sergio S; Aucar, Gustavo A; Vaara, Juha
2006-11-14
The principal relativistic heavy-atom effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensor of the heavy atom itself (HAHA effects) are calculated using ab initio methods at the level of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. This is the first systematic study of the main HAHA effects on nuclear shielding and chemical shift by perturbational relativistic approach. The dependence of the HAHA effects on the chemical environment of the heavy atom is investigated for the closed-shell X(2+), X(4+), XH(2), and XH(3) (-) (X=Si-Pb) as well as X(3+), XH(3), and XF(3) (X=P-Bi) systems. Fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out for comparison. It is necessary in the Breit-Pauli approach to include the second-order magnetic-field-dependent spin-orbit (SO) shielding contribution as it is the larger SO term in XH(3) (-), XH(3), and XF(3), and is equally large in XH(2) as the conventional, third-order field-independent spin-orbit contribution. Considering the chemical shift, the third-order SO mechanism contributes two-thirds of the difference of approximately 1500 ppm between BiH(3) and BiF(3). The second-order SO mechanism and the numerically largest relativistic effect, which arises from the cross-term contribution of the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction and the relativistically modified spin-Zeeman interaction (FC/SZ-KE), are isotropic and practically independent of electron correlation effects as well as the chemical environment of the heavy atom. The third-order SO terms depend on these factors and contribute both to heavy-atom shielding anisotropy and NMR chemical shifts. While a qualitative picture of heavy-atom chemical shifts is already obtained at the nonrelativistic level of theory, reliable shifts may be expected after including the third-order SO contributions only, especially when calculations are carried out at correlated level. The FC/SZ-KE contribution to shielding is almost completely produced in the s orbitals of the heavy atom
Relativistic heavy-atom effects on heavy-atom nuclear shieldings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lantto, Perttu; Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gómez, Sergio S.; Aucar, Gustavo A.; Vaara, Juha
2006-11-01
The principal relativistic heavy-atom effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensor of the heavy atom itself (HAHA effects) are calculated using ab initio methods at the level of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. This is the first systematic study of the main HAHA effects on nuclear shielding and chemical shift by perturbational relativistic approach. The dependence of the HAHA effects on the chemical environment of the heavy atom is investigated for the closed-shell X2+, X4+, XH2, and XH3- (X =Si-Pb) as well as X3+, XH3, and XF3 (X =P-Bi) systems. Fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out for comparison. It is necessary in the Breit-Pauli approach to include the second-order magnetic-field-dependent spin-orbit (SO) shielding contribution as it is the larger SO term in XH3-, XH3, and XF3, and is equally large in XH2 as the conventional, third-order field-independent spin-orbit contribution. Considering the chemical shift, the third-order SO mechanism contributes two-thirds of the difference of ˜1500ppm between BiH3 and BiF3. The second-order SO mechanism and the numerically largest relativistic effect, which arises from the cross-term contribution of the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction and the relativistically modified spin-Zeeman interaction (FC/SZ-KE), are isotropic and practically independent of electron correlation effects as well as the chemical environment of the heavy atom. The third-order SO terms depend on these factors and contribute both to heavy-atom shielding anisotropy and NMR chemical shifts. While a qualitative picture of heavy-atom chemical shifts is already obtained at the nonrelativistic level of theory, reliable shifts may be expected after including the third-order SO contributions only, especially when calculations are carried out at correlated level. The FC/SZ-KE contribution to shielding is almost completely produced in the s orbitals of the heavy atom, with values diminishing with the principal
The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes
Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.
2015-05-28
The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suitemore » can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.« less
The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes
Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.
2015-05-28
The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.
Quantum reflection of antihydrogen in the GBAR experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufour, Gabriel; Guérout, Romain; Lambrecht, Astrid; Nesvizhevsky, Valery; Reynaud, Serge; Voronin, Alexei
2014-05-01
In the GBAR experiment, cold antihydrogen atoms will be left to fall on an annihilation plate with the aim of measuring the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Here, we study the quantum reflection of these antiatoms due to the Casimir-Polder potential above the plate. We give realistic estimates of the potential and quantum reflection amplitudes, taking into account the specificities of antihydrogen and the optical properties of the plate. We find that quantum reflection is enhanced for weaker potentials, for example above thin slabs, graphene and nanoporous media.
ANTIHYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND PRECISION SPECTROSCOPY WITH ATHENA/AD-1
M. HOLZSCHEITER; C. AMSLER; ET AL
2000-11-01
CPT invariance is a fundamental property of quantum field theories in flat space-time. Principal consequences include the predictions that particles and their antiparticles have equal masses and lifetimes, and equal and opposite electric charges and magnetic moments. It also follows that the fine structure, hyperfine structure, and Lamb shifts of matter and antimatter bound systems should be identical. It is proposed to generate new stringent tests of CPT using precision spectroscopy on antihydrogen atoms. An experiment to produce antihydrogen at rest has been approved for running at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. We describe the fundamental features of this experiment and the experimental approach to the first phase of the program, the formation and identification of low energy antihydrogen.
Spectroscopic LSJ notation for atomic levels obtained from relativistic calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaigalas, G.; Zalandauskas, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2004-03-01
Today, relativistic calculations are known to provide a very successful means in the study of open-shell atoms and ions. But although accurate atomic data are obtained from these computations, they are traditionally carried out in jj-coupling and, hence, do often not allow for a simple LSJ classification of the atomic levels as needed by experiment. In fact, this lack of providing a proper spectroscopic notation from relativistic structure calculations has recently hampered not only the spectroscopy of medium and heavy elements, but also the interpretation and analysis of inner-shell processes, for which the occurrence of additional vacancies usually leads to a very detailed fine structure. Therefore, in order to facilitate the classification of atomic levels from such computations, here we present a program (within the RATIP environment) which help transform the atomic wave functions from jj-coupled multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations into a LS-coupled representation. Beside of a proper LSJ assignment to the atomic levels, the program also supports the full transformation of the wave functions if required for (nonrelativistic) computations. Program summaryTitle of program:LSJ Catalogue number: ADTL Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTL Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the new version has been tested: IBM RS 6000, PC Pentium III Installations: University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems: IBM AIX 4.1.2+, Linux 7.1.+ Program language used in the new version: ANSI standard Fortran 90/95 Memory required to execute with typical data: Memory requirements depend on the shell structure and the size of the wave function expansion which is used to represent the atomic levels No. of bits in a word: All real variables are parametrized by a selected kind parameter and, thus, can easily be adapted to any required precision as supported by the
On the relativistic and nonrelativistic electron descriptions in high-energy atomic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voitkiv, A. B.
2007-07-01
We consider the relativistic and nonrelativistic descriptions of an atomic electron in collisions with point-like charged projectiles moving at relativistic velocities. We discuss three different forms of the fully relativistic first-order transition amplitude. Using the Schrödinger-Pauli equation to describe the atomic electron we establish the correct form of the nonrelativistic first-order transition amplitude. We also show that the so-called semi-relativistic treatment, in which the Darwin states are used to describe the atomic electron, is in fact fully equivalent to the nonrelativistic consideration. The comparison of results obtained with the relativistic and nonrelativistic electron descriptions shows that the latter is accurate within 20-30% up to Za<~ 50-60, where Za is the atomic nuclear charge.
Cold Antihydrogen at ATHENA: Experimental Observation and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesar, C. L.; Amoretti, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bowe, P. D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Johnson, I.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Mitchard, D. R. J.; Montagna, P.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Athena Collaboration
2005-05-01
Antihydrogen atoms may become the easiest and most precise way to probe deeply into tests of violation of the CPT (charge conjugation, parity, time reversal) symmetry and the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). We review the first production of cold antihydrogen atoms within the ATHENA/AD-1 experiment at CERN, its motivations and studies henceforth. The ATHENA success was followed almost immediately by the ATRAP group. From the initial claim of production of tens of thousand of these exotic species — by the mixing of cold and trapped positrons and antiprotons — we have evolved to better understand and control the system. The joint production for 2002 and 2003 has been re-evaluated to about one million antiatoms. We have performed cooling efficiency studies of antiprotons within the positron cloud; developed ways to excite and heat the positron cloud, and probe its number, density and temperature in situ; developed antiproton and antihydrogen imaging tomography. We have also been able to gather information on the velocity of the formed antiatoms. A large uncertainty and lack of control remains over the formation process — as revealed by its measured temperature dependence — and the quantum number distribution of the population. We discuss various aspects of our findings below as well as future prospects for physics tests with antihydrogen.
Simulation of the formation of antihydrogen in a nested Penning trap: effect of positron density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsell, S.; van der Werf, D. P.; Charlton, M.; Robicheaux, F.
2009-11-01
Detailed simulations of antihydrogen formation have been performed under the conditions of the ATHENA experiment, using several densities of the positron plasma in the range ne = 5 × 1013 m-3 to 1015 m-3. The simulations include only collisional effects, typically resulting in the formation of weakly bound antihydrogen via the three-body process, e^+ + e^+ + \\overlinep \\rightarrow \\overlineH + e^+ . (Radiative processes, which are much slower than collisional effects, are neglected.) The properties of these weakly bound anti-atoms are affected not only by further collisions in the plasma but also by the inherent electric fields. The role of field ionization in influencing the distribution of binding energies of the antihydrogen is clarified and the mechanism for this process in the strong B-field nested Penning trap used in the experiment is elucidated. The fate of antihydrogen is explained and the properties of the population detected after having reached the wall of the Penning trap electrodes, as well as those field ionized, are recorded. We find that the yield of detected antihydrogen varies with positron density roughly as n1.7e, rather than the n2e expected from the underlying formation process. As ne is increased, antihydrogen formation is sufficiently rapid that epithermal effects begin to play an important role. In general, the simulated timescales for antihydrogen formation are much shorter than those found from the experiment.
Effect of positron space charge on operation of an antihydrogen trap.
Ordonez, C A
2007-07-01
Experimental conditions have recently been reported [G. Andresen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023402 (2007)] that are relevant to the prospect of trapping antihydrogen atoms. An analysis of the experimental conditions indicates that positron space charge can have an important effect. The fraction of antiprotons that have an energy suitable for antihydrogen trapping can be reduced by drifts caused by the presence of positron space charge. PMID:17677605
Antiproton Confinement in a Penning-Ioffe Trap for Antihydrogen
Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Kuljanishvili, I.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Esser, F. M.; Glueckler, H.; Hansen, G.; Schillings, J.; Schmitt, M.; Soltner, H.; Grzonka, D.; Martin, S.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.
2007-03-16
Antiprotons (p) remain confined in a Penning trap, in sufficient numbers to form antihydrogen (H) atoms via charge exchange, when the radial field of a quadrupole Ioffe trap is added. This first demonstration with p suggests that quadrupole Ioffe traps can be superimposed upon p and e{sup +} traps to attempt the capture of H atoms as they form, contrary to conclusions of previous analyses.
Antiproton confinement in a Penning-Ioffe trap for antihydrogen.
Gabrielse, G; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; Kuljanishvili, I; McConnell, R; Wrubel, J; Esser, F M; Glückler, H; Grzonka, D; Hansen, G; Martin, S; Oelert, W; Schillings, J; Schmitt, M; Sefzick, T; Soltner, H; Zhang, Z; Comeau, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Speck, A; Nillius, F; Walz, J; Hänsch, T W
2007-03-16
Antiprotons (p[over]) remain confined in a Penning trap, in sufficient numbers to form antihydrogen (H[over ) atoms via charge exchange, when the radial field of a quadrupole Ioffe trap is added. This first demonstration with p[over] suggests that quadrupole Ioffe traps can be superimposed upon p[over] and e(+) traps to attempt the capture of H[over] atoms as they form, contrary to conclusions of previous analyses. PMID:17501048
An experimental test of the weak equivalence principle for antihydrogen at the future FLAIR facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaum, Klaus; Raizen, Mark G.; Quint, Wolfgang
2014-05-01
We present new experimental ideas to investigate the gravitational interaction of antihydrogen. The experiment can first be performed in an off-line mirror measurement on hydrogen atoms, as a testing ground for our methods, before the implementation with antihydrogen atoms. A beam of hydrogen atoms is formed by launching a cold beam of protons through a cloud of trapped electrons in a nested Penning trap arrangement. In the next step, the atoms are stopped in a series of pulsed electromagnetic coils — so-called atomic coilgun. The stopped atoms are confined in a magnetic quadrupole trap and cooled by single-photon laser cooling. We intend to employ the method of Raman interferometry to study the gravitational interaction of atomic hydrogen — and later on antihydrogen at the FLAIR facility — with high sensitivity.
The grasp2K relativistic atomic structure package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jönsson, P.; He, X.; Froese Fischer, C.; Grant, I. P.
2007-10-01
This paper describes grasp2K, a general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package. It is a modification and extension of the GRASP92 package by [F.A. Parpia, C. Froese Fischer, I.P. Grant, Comput. Phys. Comm. 94 (1996) 249]. For the sake of continuity, two versions are included. Version 1 retains the GRASP92 formats for wave functions and expansion coefficients, but no longer requires preprocessing and more default options have been introduced. Modifications have eliminated some errors, improved the stability, and simplified interactive use. The transition code has been extended to cases where the initial and final states have different orbital sets. Several utility programs have been added. Whereas Version 1 constructs a single interaction matrix for all the J's and parities, Version 2 treats each J and parity as a separate matrix. This block structure results in a reduction of memory use and considerably shorter eigenvectors. Additional tools have been developed for this format. The CPU intensive parts of Version 2 have been parallelized using MPI. The package includes a "make" facility that relies on environment variables. These make it easier to port the application to different platforms. The present version supports the 32-bit Linux and ibmSP environments where the former is compatible with many Unix systems. Descriptions of the features and the program/data flow of the package will be given in some detail in this report. Program summaryProgram title: grasp2K Catalogue identifier: ADZL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 213 524 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 328 588 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran and C Computer: Intel
Robicheaux, Francis
2013-03-29
Ever since Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter in 1928, it has excited our collective imagination. Seventy-four years later, two collaborations at CERN, ATHENA and ATRAP, created the first slow antihydrogen. This was a stunning achievement, but the most important antimatter experiments require trapped, not just slow, antihydrogen. The velocity, magnetic moment, and internal energy and state of the antihydrogen depend strongly on how it is formed. To trap antihydrogen, physicists face two broad challenges: (1) Understanding the behavior of the positron and antiprotons plasmas from which the antihydrogen is synthesized; and (2) Understanding the atomic processes by which positrons and antiprotons recombine. Recombination lies on the boundary between atomic and plasma physics, and cannot be studied properly without employing tools from both fields. The proposed collaborative research campaign will address both of these challenges. The collaboration members have unique experience in the relevant fields of experimental and theoretical non-neutral plasma physics, numerical modeling, nonlinear dynamics and atomic physics. This expertise is not found elsewhere amongst antihydrogen researchers. The collaboration members have strong ties already, and seek to formalize them with this proposal. Three of the four PIs are members of the ALPHA collaboration, an international collaboration formed by most of the principal members of the ATHENA collaboration.
An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen
Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Vendeiro, Z.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.
2014-01-01
The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1±3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm−1. Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(−1.3±1.1±0.4) × 10−8. Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects. PMID:24892800
Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons
Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.
2013-11-15
The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.
Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.
2013-11-01
The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.
Two-species mixing in a nested Penning trap for antihydrogen trapping
Ordonez, C. A.; Weathers, D. L.
2008-08-15
There exists an international quest to trap neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen for scientific study. One method that is being developed for trapping antihydrogen employs a nested Penning trap. Such a trap serves to mix positrons and antiprotons so as to produce low energy antihydrogen atoms. Mixing is achieved when the confinement volumes of the two species overlap one another. In the work presented here, a theoretical understanding of the mixing process is developed by analyzing a mixing scheme that was recently reported [G. Gabrielse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113001 (2008)]. The results indicate that positron space charge or collisions among antiprotons may substantially reduce the fraction of antiprotons that have an energy suitable for antihydrogen trapping.
Relativistic atomic data for Rb-like tungsten
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.
2016-05-01
Accurate calculations of the atomic properties of Rb-like W37+ are needed for studying high energy density plasma as well as for magnetic fusion applications. In this work, we have calculated energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Ni] 4s2 4p6 nl , [Ni] 4s2 4p5 4l' nl (l' = d , f , n = 4-7), [Ni] 4 s 4p6 4l' nl ,(l' = d , f , n =4-7), [Ni] 4s2 4p5 5l' nl (n = 5-7), and [Ni] 4 s 4p6 46l' nl (n =6-7) states in Rb-like tungsten (W37+) using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory and the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method. Branching ratios and intensity factors were calculated for satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination rate coefficients were determined for the [Ni] 4s2 4p6 nl (n=4-7) singly excited states, as well as for the [Ni] 4s2 4p5 4 dnl , [Ni] 4s2 4p5 4 fnl , [Ni] 4 s 4p6 4 dnl , [Ni] 4 s 24p6 4 fnl , (n = 4-6), and [Ni] 4s2 4p5 5l' 5 l doubly excited nonautoionizing states. Contributions from the [Ni] 4 s 24p6 4 fnl (n = 6 - 7), [Ni] 4s2 4p5 5l' nl (n = 5 - 6), and [Ni] 4s2 4p5 6l' nl n = 6 - 7) doubly excited autoionizing states are evaluated numerically. Contributions from high-n states (n <= 200) were determined by using a scaling procedure and found to be very important for high temperatures. This research was supported by DOE under the NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984. Work at LLNL was performed under auspices of the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.
1999-01-01
We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.
Driven production of cold antihydrogen and the first measured distribution of antihydrogen states.
Gabrielse, G; Bowden, N S; Oxley, P; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Tan, J N; Wessels, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J; Pittner, H; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A
2002-12-01
Cold antihydrogen is produced when antiprotons are repeatedly driven into collisions with cold positrons within a nested Penning trap. Efficient antihydrogen production takes place during many cycles of positron cooling of antiprotons. A first measurement of a distribution of antihydrogen states is made using a preionizing electric field between separated production and detection regions. Surviving antihydrogen is stripped in an ionization well that captures and stores the freed antiproton for background-free detection. PMID:12485006
Progress in Laser Cooling of Antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamley, C.; Gabrielse, G.; George, M.; Glowacz, B.; Grzonka, D.; Hessels, E.; Jones, N.; Lee, S. A.; Marable, K.; Marshall, M.; Meisenhelder, C.; Morrison, T.; Oelert, W.; Rasor, C.; Ronald, S. R.; Sefzick, T.; Skinner, T.; Storry, C.; Tardiff, E.; Weel, M.; Yost, D.; Zielinski, M.; Atrap Collaboration
2016-05-01
Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen promises to be one of the most stringent tests to date of CPT symmetry. Multiple groups at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility are endeavoring to perform precision spectroscopy on the 1S-2S two photon transition in antihydrogen for comparison to hydrogen precision measurements. For trapped antihydrogen the necessary overlapped Penning and Ioffe-Pritchard traps have a large bias and gradient contributing to significant spread due to Zeeman shifts as the antihydrogen orbits in the magnetic trap. The ATRAP collaboration is working on laser cooling of antihydrogen on the 121 nm Lyman alpha line (1S-2P) in order to reduce this spread for more precise 1S-2S spectroscopy. Here we report on the ATRAP collaboration's progress in laser cooling of antihydrogen.
Antihydrogen Production, Trapping, and Antimatter Plasmas
Fajans, Joel
2009-09-16
Since 2002, experiments at CERN have been producing slow, but untrapped, antihydrogen. The ultimate goal of these experiments is to test CPT and the gravitational interactions of matter and antimatter. Most schemes to perform CPT and gravity tests require trapped antihydrogen, but trapping antihydrogen is much more difficult than merely synthesizing it. The principle problems that must be solved before we can trap are how to cool the antiprotons, and how to keep them cold during the synthesis process. While we have already learned how to cool antiprotons by ten orders of magnitude, we must cool them by four more orders of magnitude, a scale set by the relative size of the potentials of the antimatter plasmas from which the antiatoms are synthesized compared to the antihydrogen trap well depth. In this talk, I will discuss antihydrogen synthesis and some of the techniques we are developing to control the energy of the resultant antihydrogen.
Antihydrogen production within a Penning-Ioffe trap.
Gabrielse, G; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Wrubel, J; Speck, A; George, M C; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zhang, Z; Carew, A; Comeau, D; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Walz, J
2008-03-21
Slow antihydrogen (H) is produced within a Penning trap that is located within a quadrupole Ioffe trap, the latter intended to ultimately confine extremely cold, ground-state H[over ] atoms. Observed H[over ] atoms in this configuration resolve a debate about whether positrons and antiprotons can be brought together to form atoms within the divergent magnetic fields of a quadrupole Ioffe trap. The number of detected H atoms actually increases when a 400 mK Ioffe trap is turned on. PMID:18517780
Quantum ballistic experiment on antihydrogen fall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronin, A. Yu; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Dufour, G.; Reynaud, S.
2016-03-01
We propose an approach to measuring gravitational mass of antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) based on interferometry of time distribution of free-fall events of antiatoms. Our method consists of preparing a coherent superposition of quantum states of \\bar{{{H}}} localized near a material surface in the gravitational field of the Earth, and then observing the time distribution of annihilation events after the free-fall of the initially prepared superposition from a given height to a detector plate. We show that the time distribution of interest is mapped to a precisely predictable velocity distribution of the initial wave packet. This approach is combined with production of a coherent superposition of gravitational states by inducing a resonant transition using an oscillating gradient magnetic field. We show that the relative accuracy of measuring the \\bar{{{H}}} atom gravitational mass can be achieved with this approach is 10-4, with 103 antiatoms settled in lowest gravitational states.
Relativistic effects on atomic and molecular properties of the heaviest elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pershina, V.; Anton, J.; Bastug, T.
2007-10-01
Interaction of superheavy element 112 and its homolog Hg with inert and gold surfaces was studied on the basis of atomic and molecular fully-relativistic (4-component) DFT electronic structure calculations. Performance of additional non-relativistic calculations allowed one to demonstrate the role and magnitude of relativistic effects on adsorption energies and bond distances of the studied systems. For example, on quartz, element 112 will be stronger adsorbed than Hg by about 5 kJ/mol (or at 5 degrees higher temperatures) due to the stronger van der Waals interaction. This is caused by the relativistically contracted smallest atomic radius of element 112. Non-relativistically, the trend would be opposite. On surface of gold, element 112 will be about 20 kJ/mol weaker adsorbed than Hg (i.e., it will be deposited at about 100 degrees lower temperatures than Hg). Such a decrease in Δ Hads comes at the account of the weaker interaction of the relativistically stabilized 7s1/2(112) orbital with valence orbitals of gold. Still, the relatively large adsorption energy of element 112 is indicative that it is a transition metal forming intermetallic compounds with Au and other metals due to the involvement of the relativistically destabilized 6d orbitals. The influence of relativistic effects on the adsorption energy depends, however, on the adsorption position.
New interpretations of measured antihydrogen velocities and field ionization spectra.
Pohl, T; Sadeghpour, H R; Gabrielse, G
2006-10-01
We present extensive Monte Carlo simulations, showing that cold antihydrogen (H) atoms are produced when antiprotons (p) are gently heated in the side wells of a nested Penning trap. The observed H with high energies, that had seemed to indicate otherwise, are instead explained by a surprisingly effective charge-exchange mechanism. We shed light on the previously measured field-ionization spectrum, and reproduce both the characteristic low-field power law as well as the enhanced H production at higher fields. The latter feature is shown to arise from H toms too deeply bound to be described as guiding center atoms, atoms with internally chaotic motion. PMID:17155247
Antihydrogen formation from antiprotons in a pure positron plasma
Bass, Eric M.; Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2009-01-15
This paper investigates the evolution in binding energy of antihydrogen atoms formed from stationary antiprotons located within a strongly magnetized positron plasma. Three-body recombination and a collisional cascade to deeper binding, limited by a kinetic bottleneck at a binding energy of 4T, dominate the initial antihydrogen formation process. A classical Monte-Carlo simulation is used to determine the collisional transition rate between atomic binding energies, using the drift approximation for initial conditions that allow it, and full dynamics for initial conditions resulting in chaotic motion. These transition rates are employed in determining mean energy-loss rates for an ensemble of atoms, as well as in a numerical solution of the master equation to find the rate at which atoms are formed over a range of binding energies. The highly excited atoms formed by this process separate into guiding-center drift atoms and chaotic atoms. The phase-space distributions of the atoms are investigated, along with their implications for magnetic confinement and radiative energy loss. Estimates of radiative energy loss indicate that radiation is unimportant for guiding-center atoms, but increases rapidly near the chaotic regime, taking over as the dominant energy-loss process for parameters typical of recent experiments. Furthermore, the fraction of low-magnetic field seekers is considerably larger than suggested by estimates of the magnetic moment based on guiding-center dynamics, due to effects associated with chaos.
Poszwa, A.; Bahar, M. K.
2015-01-15
The influence of relativistic and plasma screening effects on energies of hydrogen-like atoms embedded in plasmas has been studied. The Dirac equation with a more general exponential cosine screened potential has been solved numerically and perturbatively, by employing the direct perturbation theory. Properties of spectra corresponding to bound states and to different sets of the potential parameters have been studied both in nonrelativistic and relativistic approximations. Binding energies, fine-structure splittings, and relativistic energy shifts have been determined as functions of parameters of the potential. The results have been compared with the ones known from the literature.
Measuring the gravitational free-fall of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Storey, J.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, J. H.; Domizio, S. Di; Noto, L. Di; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S. D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Merkt, F.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petráček, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špaček, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Widmann, E.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.
2014-05-01
Antihydrogen holds the promise to test, for the first time, the universality of free-fall with a system composed entirely of antiparticles. The AEgIS experiment at CERN's antiproton decelerator aims to measure the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter by measuring the deflection of a beam of antihydrogen in the Earths gravitational field ( overline {{g}}). The principle of the experiment is as follows: cold antihydrogen atoms are synthesized in a Penning-Malberg trap and are Stark accelerated towards a moiré deflectometer, the classical counterpart of an atom interferometer, and annihilate on a position sensitive detector. Crucial to the success of the experiment is the spatial precision of the position sensitive detector. We propose a novel free-fall detector based on a hybrid of two technologies: emulsion detectors, which have an intrinsic spatial resolution of 50 nm but no temporal information, and a silicon strip / scintillating fiber tracker to provide timing and positional information. In 2012 we tested emulsion films in vacuum with antiprotons from CERN's antiproton decelerator. The annihilation vertices could be observed directly on the emulsion surface using the microscope facility available at the University of Bern. The annihilation vertices were successfully reconstructed with a resolution of 1-2 μmon the impact parameter. If such a precision can be realized in the final detector, Monte Carlo simulations suggest of order 500 antihydrogen annihilations will be sufficient to determine overline {{g}}with a 1 % accuracy. This paper presents current research towards the development of this technology for use in the AEgIS apparatus and prospects for the realization of the final detector.
Amole, C.; Capra, A.; Menary, S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Little, A.; So, C.; Zhmoginov, A.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Silveira, D. M.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Isaac, C. A.; Madsen, N.; Napoli, S. C.; Shields, C. R.; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others
2013-04-15
One of the goals of synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen is to study the validity of charge-parity-time symmetry through precision spectroscopy on the anti-atoms, but the trapping yield achieved in recent experiments must be significantly improved before this can be realized. Antihydrogen atoms are commonly produced by mixing antiprotons and positrons stored in a nested Penning-Malmberg trap, which was achieved in ALPHA by an autoresonant excitation of the antiprotons, injecting them into the positron plasma. In this work, a hybrid numerical model is developed to simulate antiproton and positron dynamics during the mixing process. The simulation is benchmarked against other numerical and analytic models, as well as experimental measurements. The autoresonant injection scheme and an alternative scheme are compared numerically over a range of plasma parameters which can be reached in current and upcoming antihydrogen experiments, and the latter scheme is seen to offer significant improvement in trapping yield as the number of available antiprotons increases.
Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.
2015-11-01
The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.
An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration.
Ahmadi, M; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Carruth, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Charman, A E; Eriksson, S; Evans, L T; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Ishida, A; Jones, S A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Maxwell, D; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Michan, J M; Momose, T; Munich, J J; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R L; Sameed, M; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I
2016-01-21
Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than about 10(-21)e for a diverse range of species including H2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge, then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement. PMID:26791725
An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, M.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Charman, A. E.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, L. T.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.
2016-01-01
Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms- of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than about 10-21e for a diverse range of species including H2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge, then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement.
Relativistic calculation of atomic M-shell ionization by protons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.
1983-01-01
Relativistic plane-wave Born-approximation calculations of cross sections for M-shell ionization of Ho-67, Au-79, U-92 by protons with incident energies from 0.05 to 1 MeV are reported. Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions were employed and binding-energy change and Coulomb deflection were taken into account. Associated X-ray production cross sections were also computed. Results are compared with previous theoretical predictions and with experimental data. Definite improvement in the theory has been attained by the use of realistic wave functions and consistent inclusion of the effects of relativity.
Mesoporous materials for antihydrogen production.
Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael; Galarneau, Anne; Di Renzo, Francesco; Quasso, Fiorenza
2013-05-01
Antimatter is barely known by the chemist community and this article has the vocation to explain how antimatter, in particular antihydrogen, can be obtained, as well as to show how mesoporous materials could be used as a further improvement for the production of antimatter at very low temperatures (below 1 K). The first experiments with mesoporous materials highlighted in this review show very promising and exciting results. Mesoporous materials such as mesoporous silicon, mesoporous material films, pellets of MCM-41 and silica aerogel show remarkable features for antihydrogen formation. Yet, the characteristics for the best future mesoporous materials (e.g. pore sizes, pore connectivity, shape, surface chemistry) remain to be clearly identified. For now among the best candidates are pellets of MCM-41 and aerogel with pore sizes between 10 and 30 nm, possessing hydrophobic patches on their surface to avoid ice formation at low temperature. From a fundamental standpoint, antimatter experiments could help to shed light on open issues, such as the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our universe and the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. To this purpose, basic studies on antimatter are necessary and a convenient production of antimatter is required. It is exactly where mesoporous materials could be very useful. PMID:23250616
Fujiwara, M C; Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N
2008-08-01
We demonstrate temporally controlled modulation of cold antihydrogen production by periodic RF heating of a positron plasma during antiproton-positron mixing in a Penning trap. Our observations have established a pulsed source of atomic antimatter, with a rise time of about 1 s, and a pulse length ranging from 3 to 100 s. Time-sensitive antihydrogen detection and positron plasma diagnostics, both capabilities of the ATHENA apparatus, allowed detailed studies of the pulsing behavior, which in turn gave information on the dependence of the antihydrogen production process on the positron temperature T. Our data are consistent with power law scaling T (-1.1+/-0.5) for the production rate in the high temperature regime from approximately 100 meV up to 1.5 eV. This is not in accord with the behavior accepted for conventional three-body recombination. PMID:18764390
Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.
2013-01-01
Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime. PMID:23653197
Charman, A E; Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I
2013-01-01
Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime. PMID:23653197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpha Collaboration; Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.
2013-04-01
Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5% worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime.
Experimental limit on the ratio of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan; Charman, Andrew; Zhmoginov, Andrey
2012-10-01
Physicists have long wondered if the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. While there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist, i.e., that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. By searching for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap, we have determined that we can reject ratios of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen greater than about 100 at a statistical significance level of 5%. A similar search places somewhat lower limits on a negative gravitational mass, i.e., on antigravity.
Response to Geometric Distortions from Atom-Based Relativistic Projection on Electronic States
Matveev, Alexei V.; Roesch, Notker
2007-12-26
We suggest a quasi-relativistic model for molecular electronic structure calculations obtained by an atomic ansatz for the relativistic projection transformation. With such a choice, the projection transformation becomes both transferable and independent of the geometry. The formulation is flexible with regard to the choice of the projection transformation. We employ the free-particle Foldy-Wouthuysen and the Douglas-Kroll second-order variants for the projection coefficients. First results for the diatomic molecules AuH, AuCl, and Au{sub 2} and two structural isomers of Ir{sub 4} suggest the new approximate method as an efficient and accurate replacement for the conventional transformation.
Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.
Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K
2010-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations. PMID:21231152
Relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact
Attaourti, Y.; Taj, S.
2004-06-01
Within the framework of the coplanar binary geometry where it is justified to use plane wave solutions for the study of the (e,2e) reaction and in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field, we introduce as a first step the Dirac-Volkov plane wave Born approximation 1 where we take into account only the relativistic dressing of the incident and scattered electrons. Then, we introduce the Dirac-Volkov plane wave Born approximation 2 where we take totally into account the relativistic dressing of the incident, scattered, and ejected electrons. We then compare the corresponding triple differential cross sections for laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact both for the nonrelativistic and the relativistic regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reity, O. K.; Reity, V. K.; Lazur, V. Yu.
2016-02-01
A recurrent scheme for finding the quasiclassical solution of the onedimensional equation obtained after the separation of variables in the Schrödinger equation in parabolic coordinates is derived. The method of quasiclassical localized states is developed for the Dirac equation with an arbitrary axially symmetric potential of barrier type which does not allow complete separation of the variables. By means of the proposed quasiclassical methods the non-relativistic and relativistic wavefunctions for hydrogenlike (H-like) atoms in an external uniform electrostatic field of intensity F are constructed in the classically forbidden and allowed regions. The general analytical expressions of the leading term of the asymptotic behaviour (at small F) of the ionization rate of an H-like atom in the uniform electrostatic field are obtained for the non-relativistic and relativistic cases.
Dissolution of relativistic atoms into negative energy states
Broyles, A.A.
1989-05-15
The problem of atomic dissolution by means of decay to the negative energy continuum is discussed. The derivation of the one-electron central-field Hamiltonian from quantum electrodynamics is made as an example. It is found that the operators that project the Coulomb interaction into positive and negative energy states of the Dirac noninteracting Hamiltonian cause the eigenstates of the atomic Hamiltonian to break up into two sets. One set is expandable in the positive energy noninteracting states, and this set propagates forward in time. The other set is expandable in terms of the negative energy noninteracting states and propagates backward in time. There is, therefore, no danger that transitions will occur from the forward propagating eigenstates into the negative continuum with continued propagation in the forward direction, regardless of the magnitude of the nuclear charge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundmark, R.; Malbrunot, C.; Nagata, Y.; Radics, B.; Sauerzopf, C.; Widmann, E.
2015-09-01
The ASACUSA antihydrogen setup at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) consists of an antihydrogen source (cusp magnet coupled to a positron source and an antiproton catching magnet) followed by a spectrometer beamline. After production in the cusp, the antihydrogen atoms decay while they escape the trap leading to changes in their effective magnetic moment which in turn affect their trajectories in the beamline. Those sequential decays in the presence of a varying magnetic field strength from their production point in the cusp to their detection at the end of the spectrometer line can in principle greatly affect the prospects for a precision measurement of the antihydrogen hyperfine splitting given the so-far relatively low number of available anti-atoms. The impact of the antihydrogen decay in this context has for the first time been simulated. The implementation of atomic radiative decay has been done in Geant4 to extend the particle tracking capabilities originally embedded in Geant4 to excited atoms, and to allow studies of the effect of dynamic atomic properties on trajectories. This new tool thus allows the study of particle-matter interaction via the Geant4 toolkit while properly taking into account the atomic nature of the object under study. The implementation as well as impacts on the experimental sensitivity for antihydrogen spectroscopy are discussed in this paper.
The Relativistic Effects on the Carbon-Carbon Coupling Constants Mediated by a Heavy Atom.
Wodyński, Artur; Malkina, Olga L; Pecul, Magdalena
2016-07-21
The (2)JCC, (3)JCC, and (4)JCC spin-spin coupling constants in the systems with a heavy atom (Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po) in the coupling path have been calculated by means of density functional theory. The main goal was to estimate the relativistic effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence them, including the nature of the heavy atom and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar effective core potentials (ECPs) with the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The use of DKS and ZORA methods leads to very similar results, and small-core ECPs of the MDF and MWB variety reproduce correctly the scalar relativistic effects. Scalar relativistic effects usually are larger than the spin-orbit coupling effects. The latter tend to influence the most the coupling constants of the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms and in compounds of the p-block heavy atoms. Large spin-orbit coupling contributions for the Po compounds are probably connected with the inverse of the lowest triplet excitation energy. PMID:27177252
New version: GRASP2K relativistic atomic structure package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Bieroń, J.; Fischer, C. Froese; Grant, I. P.
2013-09-01
A revised version of GRASP2K [P. Jönsson, X. He, C. Froese Fischer, I.P. Grant, Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 597] is presented. It supports earlier non-block and block versions of codes as well as a new block version in which the njgraf library module [A. Bar-Shalom, M. Klapisch, Comput. Phys. Commun. 50 (1988) 375] has been replaced by the librang angular package developed by Gaigalas based on the theory of [G. Gaigalas, Z.B. Rudzikas, C. Froese Fischer, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 30 (1997) 3747, G. Gaigalas, S. Fritzsche, I.P. Grant, Comput. Phys. Commun. 139 (2001) 263]. Tests have shown that errors encountered by njgraf do not occur with the new angular package. The three versions are denoted v1, v2, and v3, respectively. In addition, in v3, the coefficients of fractional parentage have been extended to j=9/2, making calculations feasible for the lanthanides and actinides. Changes in v2 include minor improvements. For example, the new version of rci2 may be used to compute quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections only from selected orbitals. In v3, a new program, jj2lsj, reports the percentage composition of the wave function in LSJ and the program rlevels has been modified to report the configuration state function (CSF) with the largest coefficient of an LSJ expansion. The bioscl2 and bioscl3 application programs have been modified to produce a file of transition data with one record for each transition in the same format as in ATSP2K [C. Froese Fischer, G. Tachiev, G. Gaigalas, M.R. Godefroid, Comput. Phys. Commun. 176 (2007) 559], which identifies each atomic state by the total energy and a label for the CSF with the largest expansion coefficient in LSJ intermediate coupling. All versions of the codes have been adapted for 64-bit computer architecture. Program SummaryProgram title: GRASP2K, version 1_1 Catalogue identifier: ADZL_v1_1 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZL_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando
2016-04-01
The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.
Reformulation of the relativistic conversion between coordinate time and atomic time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, J. B.
1975-01-01
The relativistic conversion between coordinate time and atomic time is reformulated to allow simpler time calculations relating analysis in solar system barycentric coordinates (using coordinate time) with earth-fixed observations (measuring 'earth-bound' proper time or atomic time). After an interpretation in terms of relatively well-known concepts, this simplified formulation, which has a rate accuracy of about 10 to the minus 15th, is used to explain the conventions required in the synchronization of a worldwide clock network and to analyze two synchronization techniques - portable clocks and radio interferometry. Finally, pertinent experimental tests of relativity are briefly discussed in terms of the reformulated time conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyall, Kenneth G.; Enevoldsen, Thomas
1999-12-01
Two approximations to the normalized elimination of the small component are presented which enable the work of a relativistic calculation to be substantially reduced. The first involves fixing the ratio of the large and small components in atomic calculations, which corresponds to a basis set expansion in terms of positive energy atomic 4-spinors. The second involves the definition of a local, i.e., center-dependent, fine structure constant, which has the effect of making atoms with α=0 nonrelativistic. A series of test calculations on a variety of molecules and properties indicates that the errors incurred in the first approximation are negligible. In the second approximation, the errors are dependent on the property, the chemical environment and the atomic number. For the second period elements the errors in the approximation are for chemical purposes negligible. In the third period this is true for many properties, but for some, such as ligand-metal binding energies, there are discrepancies which may be a cause for concern in more accurate calculations. Beyond the third period it is usually necessary to treat atoms relativistically.
Nuclear electric dipole moment with relativistic effects in Xe and Hg atoms
Oshima, Sachiko; Fujita, Takehisa; Asaga, Tomoko
2007-03-15
The atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) is evaluated by considering the relativistic effects as well as nuclear finite size effects in Xe and Hg atomic systems. Due to Schiff's theorem, the first order perturbation energy of EDM is canceled out by the second order perturbation energy for the point nucleus. The nuclear finite size effects arising from the intermediate atomic excitations may be finite for deformed nucleus but it is extremely small. The finite size contribution of the intermediate nuclear excitations in the second order perturbation energy is completely canceled by the third order perturbation energy. As the results, the finite contribution to the atomic EDM comes from the first order perturbation energy of relativistic effects, and it amounts to around 0.3 and 0.4 percents of the neutron EDM d{sub n} for Xe and Hg, respectively, though the calculations are carried out with a simplified single-particle nuclear model. From this relation in Hg atomic system, we can extract the neutron EDM which is found to be just comparable with the direct neutron EDM measurement.
Exact solutions of regular approximate relativistic wave equations for hydrogen-like atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Leeuwen, R.; van Lenthe, E.; Baerends, E. J.; Snijders, J. G.
1994-07-01
Apart from relativistic effects originating from high kinetic energy of an electron in a flat potential, which are treated in first order by the Pauli Hamiltonian, there are relativistic effects even for low-energy electrons if they move in a strong Coulomb potential. The latter effects can be accurately treated already in the zeroth order of an expansion of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, if the expansion is carefully chosen to be nondivergent for r→0 even for Coulomb potentials, as shown by Van Lenthe et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 4597 (1993)] (cf. also Heully et al. [J. Phys. B 19, 2799 (1986)] and Chang et al. [Phys. Scr. 34, 394 (1986)]). In the present paper, it is shown that the solutions of the zeroth order of this two-component regular approximate (ZORA) equation for hydrogen-like atoms are simply scaled solutions of the large component of the Dirac wave function for this problem. The eigenvalues are related in a similar way. As a consequence, it is proven that under some restrictions, the ZORA Hamiltonian is bounded from below for Coulomb-like potentials. Also, an exact result for the first order regular approximate Hamiltonian is given. The method can also be used to obtain exact results for regular approximations of scalar relativistic equations, like the Klein-Gordon equation. The balance between relativistic effects originating from the Coulombic singularity in the potential (typically core penetrating s and p valence electrons in atoms and molecules) and from high kinetic energy (important for high-energy electrons in a flat potential and also for core-avoiding high angular momentum (d, f, and g states in atoms) are discussed.
Yannouleas, Constantine; Romanovsky, Igor; Landman, Uzi
2015-01-20
Graphene's isolation launched explorations of fundamental relativistic physics originating from the planar honeycomb lattice arrangement of the carbon atoms, and of potential technological applications in nanoscale electronics. Bottom-up fabricated atomically-precise segmented graphene nanoribbons, SGNRs, open avenues for studies of electrical transport, coherence, and interference effects in metallic, semiconducting, and mixed GNRs, with different edge terminations. Conceptual and practical understanding of electric transport through SGNRs is gained through nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) conductance calculations and a Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. The continuum model reproduces themore » NEGF results, including optical Dirac Fabry-Pérot (FP) equidistant oscillations for massless relativistic carriers in metallic armchair SGNRs, and an unequally-spaced FP pattern for mixed armchair-zigzag SGNRs where carriers transit from a relativistic (armchair) to a nonrelativistic (zigzag) regime. This provides a unifying framework for analysis of coherent transport phenomena and interpretation of forthcoming experiments in SGNRs.« less
Yannouleas, Constantine; Romanovsky, Igor; Landman, Uzi
2015-01-20
Graphene's isolation launched explorations of fundamental relativistic physics originating from the planar honeycomb lattice arrangement of the carbon atoms, and of potential technological applications in nanoscale electronics. Bottom-up fabricated atomically-precise segmented graphene nanoribbons, SGNRs, open avenues for studies of electrical transport, coherence, and interference effects in metallic, semiconducting, and mixed GNRs, with different edge terminations. Conceptual and practical understanding of electric transport through SGNRs is gained through nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) conductance calculations and a Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. The continuum model reproduces the NEGF results, including optical Dirac Fabry-Pérot (FP) equidistant oscillations for massless relativistic carriers in metallic armchair SGNRs, and an unequally-spaced FP pattern for mixed armchair-zigzag SGNRs where carriers transit from a relativistic (armchair) to a nonrelativistic (zigzag) regime. This provides a unifying framework for analysis of coherent transport phenomena and interpretation of forthcoming experiments in SGNRs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yannouleas, Constantine; Romanovsky, Igor; Landman, Uzi
2015-01-01
Graphene's isolation launched explorations of fundamental relativistic physics originating from the planar honeycomb lattice arrangement of the carbon atoms, and of potential technological applications in nanoscale electronics. Bottom-up fabricated atomically-precise segmented graphene nanoribbons, SGNRs, open avenues for studies of electrical transport, coherence, and interference effects in metallic, semiconducting, and mixed GNRs, with different edge terminations. Conceptual and practical understanding of electric transport through SGNRs is gained through nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) conductance calculations and a Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. The continuum model reproduces the NEGF results, including optical Dirac Fabry-Prot (FP) equidistant oscillations for massless relativistic carriers in metallic armchair SGNRs, and an unequally-spaced FP pattern for mixed armchair-zigzag SGNRs where carriers transit from a relativistic (armchair) to a nonrelativistic (zigzag) regime. This provides a unifying framework for analysis of coherent transport phenomena and interpretation of forthcoming experiments in SGNRs.
Yannouleas, Constantine; Romanovsky, Igor; Landman, Uzi
2015-01-01
Graphene's isolation launched explorations of fundamental relativistic physics originating from the planar honeycomb lattice arrangement of the carbon atoms, and of potential technological applications in nanoscale electronics. Bottom-up fabricated atomically-precise segmented graphene nanoribbons, SGNRs, open avenues for studies of electrical transport, coherence, and interference effects in metallic, semiconducting, and mixed GNRs, with different edge terminations. Conceptual and practical understanding of electric transport through SGNRs is gained through nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) conductance calculations and a Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. The continuum model reproduces the NEGF results, including optical Dirac Fabry-Prot (FP) equidistant oscillations for massless relativistic carriers in metallic armchair SGNRs, and an unequally-spaced FP pattern for mixed armchair-zigzag SGNRs where carriers transit from a relativistic (armchair) to a nonrelativistic (zigzag) regime. This provides a unifying framework for analysis of coherent transport phenomena and interpretation of forthcoming experiments in SGNRs. PMID:25599915
AEgIS experiment: Towards antihydrogen beam production for antimatter gravity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Belov, Alexandre S.; Bonomi, Germano; Bräunig, Philippe; Brusa, Roberto S.; Bremer, Johan; Cabaret, Louis; Canali, Carlo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Cialdi, Simone; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Dassa, Luca; Hendrik Derking, Jan; Di Domizio, Sergio; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Dudarev, Alexey; Ereditato, Antonio; Ferragut, Rafael; Fontana, Andrea; Genova, Pablo; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Gninenko, Sergei N.; Hogan, Stephen D.; Haider, Stefan; Jordan, Elena; Jørgensen, Lars V.; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Kawada, Jiro; Kellerbauer, Alban; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Knecht, Andreas; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lehner, Sebastian; Malbrunot, Chloe; Matveev, Viktor A.; Merkt, Frederic; Moia, Fabio; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nédélec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus K.; Pacifico, Nicola; Petráček, Vojtech; Pistillo, Ciro; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Regenfus, Christian; Riccardi, Cristina; Røhne, Ole; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Scampoli, Paola; Storey, James; Subieta Vasquez, Martin A.; Špaček, Michal; Testera, Gemma; Vaccarone, Renzo; Villa, Fabio; Widmann, Eberhard; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zmeskal, Johann
2014-03-01
AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an experiment that aims to perform the first direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration g of antihydrogen in the Earth's field. A cold antihydrogen beam will be produced by charge exchange reaction between cold antiprotons and positronium excited in Rydberg states. Rydberg positronium (with quantum number n between 20 and 30) will be produced by a two steps laser excitation. The antihydrogen beam, after being accelerated by Stark effect, will fly through the gratings of a moiré deflectometer. The deflection of the horizontal beam due to its free fall will be measured by a position sensitive detector. It is estimated that the detection of about 103 antihydrogen atoms is required to determine the gravitational acceleration with a precision of 1%. In this report an overview of the AEgIS experiment is presented and its current status is described. Details on the production of slow positronium and its excitation with lasers are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenz Cesar, Claudio
2016-04-01
A method for detection of the weak 1s-2s laser excitation of a few trapped antihydrogen atoms is described. It involves the typical antihydrogen trapping environment that combines a magnetic trap for the atoms as well as a Penning trap for its constituent particles. By photoionization of the excited state the photoion can be kept in a weak Penning trap and at a suitable time be ejected towards a charged particle detector such as a microchannel plate or a channel electron multiplier. Since it does not rely on annihilation, the method is also suitable for trapped hydrogen and may find application with other species when a weak transition to a metastable state is intended and only a few trapped atoms or molecules are available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, D.
2013-11-01
A few-body formalism is applied for computation of two different three-charge-particle systems. The first system is a collision of a slow antiproton, \\overline{p}, with a positronium atom: Ps=(e+e-)—a bound state of an electron and a positron. The second problem is a collision of \\overline{p} with a muonic muonium atom, i.e. true muonium—a bound state of two muons one positive and one negative: Psμ = (μ+μ-). The total cross section of the following two reactions: \\overlinep+(e^+e^-) \\rightarrow \\overline{H} + e^- and \\overlinep+(\\mu ^+\\mu ^-) \\rightarrow \\overline{H}_{\\mu } + \\mu ^-, where \\overline{H}=(\\overlinepe^+) is antihydrogen and \\overline{H}_{\\mu }=(\\overlinep\\mu ^+) is a muonic antihydrogen atom, i.e. a bound state of \\overline{p} and μ+, are computed in the framework of a set of coupled two-component Faddeev-Hahn-type (FH-type) equations. Unlike the original Faddeev approach the FH-type equations are formulated in terms of only two but relevant components: Ψ1 and Ψ2, of the system's three-body wave function Ψ, where Ψ = Ψ1 + Ψ2. In order to solve the FH-type equations Ψ1 is expanded in terms of the input channel target eigenfunctions, i.e. in this work in terms of, for example, the (μ+μ-) atom eigenfunctions. At the same time Ψ2 is expanded in terms of the output channel two-body wave functions, that is in terms of \\overline{H}_{\\mu } atom eigenfunctions. Additionally, a convenient total angular momentum projection is performed. Results for better known low energy μ- transfer reactions from one hydrogen isotope to another hydrogen isotope in the cycle of muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) are also computed and presented.
Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.
2008-05-23
Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.
Experimental determination of the relativistic fine-structure splitting in pionic Ti and Fe atoms
Wang, K.; Boehm, F.; Bovet, E.; Hahn, A.A.; Henrikson, H.E.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.; Kunselman, A.R.
1980-09-01
Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer we have measured the relativistic angular-momentum splittings of the 5g-4f and 5f-4d transitions in pionic Ti and Fe atoms. The observed fine-structure splittings of 85.3 +- 3.0 eV in ..pi../sup -/ Ti and 158.5 +- 7.8 eV in ..pi../sup -/ Fe agree with the calculated splittings of 88.5 and 167.6 eV, respectively, arising from the Klein-Gordon equation and from small corrections due to vacuum polarization, strong interaction, and electron screening.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Patrick Ryan
Large simulation cell sizes, relativistic effects, and the need to correctly model excited state properties are major impediments to the accurate prediction of the optical properties of candidate materials for solid-state laser crystal and luminescent applications. To overcome these challenges, new methods must be created to improve the electron orbital wavefunction and interactions. In this work, a method has been developed to create new analytical four-component, fully-relativistic and single-component scalar relativistic descriptions of the atomic orbital wave functions from Grasp2K numerically represented atomic orbitals. In addition, adapted theory for the calculation of the relativistic kinetic energy contribution to Hamiltonian which bypasses directly solving the Dirac equation has been explicated. The orbital description improvements are tested against YAG, YBCO, SnO2 and BiF3. The improvements to the basis set reflect an improvement in both computational speed and accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surko, Clifford M.
2011-07-01
Refined techniques to mix cold antiprotons and positrons in a magnetic bottle show that antihydrogen atoms can be trapped for 15 minutes -- an improvement of four orders of magnitude over previous experiments.
Collisional radiative average atom code based on a relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benita, A. J.; Mínguez, E.; Mendoza, M. A.; Rubiano, J. G.; Gil, J. M.; Rodríguez, R.; Martel, P.
2015-03-01
A steady-state and time-dependent collisional-radiative ''average-atom'' (AA) model (ATMED CR) is presented for the calculation of atomic and radiative properties of plasmas for a wide range of laboratory and theoretical conditions: coronal, local thermodynamic equilibrium or nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium, optically thin or thick plasmas and photoionized plasmas. The radiative and collisional rates are a set of analytical approximations that compare well with more sophisticated quantum treatment of atomic rates that yield fast calculations. The atomic model is based on a new Relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model (NRSHM) with a set of universal screening constants including nlj-splitting that has been obtained by fitting to a large database of ionization potentials and excitation energies compiled from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database and the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). The model NRSHM has been validated by comparing the results with ionization energies, transition energies and wave functions computed using sophisticated self-consistent codes and experimental data. All the calculations presented in this work were performed using ATMED CR code.
Relativistic atomic structure calculations and electron impact excitations of Fe23+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Maaref, A. A.
2016-02-01
Relativistic calculations using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method for energy levels, oscillator strengths, and electronic dipole transition probabilities of Li-like iron (Fe23+) are presented. A configuration state list with the quantum numbers nl, where n = 2 - 7 and l = s , p , d , f , g , h , i has been considered. Excitations up to three electrons and correlation contributions from higher orbitals up to 7 l have been included. Contributions from core levels have been taken into account, EOL (extended optimal level) type calculations have been applied, and doubly excited levels are considered. The calculations have been executed by using the fully relativistic atomic structure package GRASP2K. The present calculations have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical sources, the comparisons show a good agreement between the present results of energy levels and oscillator strengths with the literature. In the second part of the present study, the atomic data (energy levels, and radiative parameters) have been used to calculate the excitation and deexcitation rates of allowed transitions by electron impact, as well as the population densities of some excited levels at different electron temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Tanima; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.
2015-05-01
Accuracy in the study of the photoionization of heavy atomic systems requires the inclusion of both many-body effects (correlation) and relativistic interactions. The Relative Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) is a powerful theoretical model which includes many important electron corrections, along with relativity, in the calculation of atomic photoionization. Previously, valence photoionization in atomic mercury has been investigated using RRPA. To expand the understanding of the the correlation and relativistic effects further, photoionization of the intermediate subshells of atomic mercury, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s and 5d, have been studied at different levels of truncations as a means of pinpointing the specific aspect(s) of correlation that is important in a given case. It has been found that the intermediate subshells are sensitive to the correlation and relativistic effects but not as significantly as in the case of valence shell photoionization. In this work we have systematically investigated the changes caused by relativistic and correlation effects on both dipole (E1) and quadrupole (E2) photoionization parameters for atomic mercury.
A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions
Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H
2009-01-01
We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.
Test of relativistic time dilation with fast optical atomic clocks at different velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, Sascha; Saathoff, Guido; Buhr, Henrik; Carlson, Lars A.; Wolf, Andreas; Schwalm, Dirk; Karpuk, Sergei; Novotny, Christian; Huber, Gerhard; Zimmermann, Marcus; Holzwarth, Ronald; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Gwinner, Gerald
2007-12-01
Time dilation is one of the most fascinating aspects of special relativity as it abolishes the notion of absolute time. It was first observed experimentally by Ives and Stilwell in 1938 using the Doppler effect. Here we report on a method, based on fast optical atomic clocks with large, but different Lorentz boosts, that tests relativistic time dilation with unprecedented precision. The approach combines ion storage and cooling with optical frequency counting using a frequency comb. 7Li+ ions are prepared at 6.4% and 3.0% of the speed of light in a storage ring, and their time is read with an accuracy of 2×10-10 using laser saturation spectroscopy. The comparison of the Doppler shifts yields a time dilation measurement represented by a Mansouri-Sexl parameter , consistent with special relativity. This constrains the existence of a preferred cosmological reference frame and CPT- and Lorentz-violating `new' physics beyond the standard model.
Relativistic correlating basis sets for actinide atoms from 90Th to 103Lr.
Noro, Takeshi; Sekiya, Masahiro; Osanai, You; Koga, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Hisashi
2007-12-01
For 14 actinide atoms from (90)Th to (103)Lr, contracted Gaussian-type function sets are developed for the description of correlations of the 5f, 6d, and 7s electrons. Basis sets for the 6d orbitals are also prepared, since the orbitals are important in molecular environments despite their vacancy in the ground state of some actinides. A segmented contraction scheme is employed for the compactness and efficiency. Contraction coefficients and exponents are so determined as to minimize the deviation from accurate natural orbitals of the lowest term arising from the 5f(n-1)6d(1)7s(2) configuration. The spin-free relativistic effects are considered through the third-order Douglas-Kroll approximation. To test the present correlating sets, all-electron calculations are performed on the ground state of (90)ThO molecule. The calculated spectroscopic constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values. PMID:17508413
Relativistic theory for radiative forward electron emission in heavy ion-atom encounters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubaßa-Amundsen, Doris; Müller, Robert; Surzhykov, Andrey; Yerokhin, Vladimir
2014-12-01
The forward electron emission with simultaneous photon production during the scattering of relativistic, highly stripped projectiles from light target atoms is calculated within the Dirac theory. The method of calculation is a simplification of the impulse approximation and is based on the relation of the cross section for radiative capture to continuum of loosely bound electrons to the frame-transformed electron bremsstrahlung cross section. It is demonstrated that such an approximation is well justified in a large region of energies and photon emission angles, with the exception of the extreme forward and backward emission and the soft-photon energy limit. The cusp spectrum and the corresponding angular distribution are compared to recent experimental data for the collision system 90.38 MeV/amu U88+ + N2.
Magnetizabilities of relativistic hydrogenlike atoms in some arbitrary discrete energy eigenstates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefańska, Patrycja
2016-03-01
We present the results of numerical calculations of magnetizability (χ) of the relativistic one-electron atoms with a pointlike, spinless and motionless nuclei of charge Ze. Exploiting the analytical formula for χ recently derived by us Stefańska (2015), valid for an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate, we have found the values of the magnetizability for the ground state and for the first and the second set of excited states (i.e.: 2s1/2, 2p1/2, 2p3/2, 3s1/2, 3p1/2, 3p3/2, 3d3/2, and 3d5/2) of the Dirac one-electron atom. The results for ions with the atomic number 1 ⩽ Z ⩽ 137 are given in 14 tables. The comparison of the numerical values of magnetizabilities for the ground state and for each state belonging to the first set of excited states of selected hydrogenlike ions, obtained with the use of two different values of the fine-structure constant, i.e.: α-1 = 137.035 999 139 (CODATA 2014) and α-1 = 137.035 999 074 (CODATA 2010), is also presented.
Narrowband solid state vuv coherent source for laser cooling of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michan, J. Mario; Polovy, Gene; Madison, Kirk W.; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Momose, Takamasa
2015-11-01
We describe the design and performance of a solid-state pulsed source of narrowband (< 100 MHz) Lyman- α radiation designed for the purpose of laser cooling magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Our source utilizes an injection seeded Ti:Sapphire amplifier cavity to generate intense radiation at 729.4 nm, which is then sent through a frequency doubling stage and a frequency tripling stage to generate 121.56 nm light. Although the pulse energy at 121.56 nm is currently limited to 12 nJ with a repetition rate of 10 Hz, we expect to obtain greater than 0.1 μJ per pulse at 10 Hz by further optimizing the alignment of the pulse amplifier and the efficiency of the frequency tripling stage. Such a power will be sufficient for cooling a trapped antihydrogen atom from 500 mK to 20mK.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas
2016-07-01
We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.
Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas
2016-07-01
We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2. PMID:27394099
GRASP92: a package for large-scale relativistic atomic structure calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parpia, F. A.; Froese Fischer, C.; Grant, I. P.
2006-12-01
Program summaryTitle of program: GRASP92 Catalogue identifier: ADCU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADCU_v1_1 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: no Programming language used: Fortran Computer: IBM POWERstation 320H Operating system: IBM AIX 3.2.5+ RAM: 64M words No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 65 224 No of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 409 198 Distribution format: tar.gz Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADCU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 94 (1996) 249 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Prediction of atomic spectra—atomic energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative decay rates—using a 'fully relativistic' approach. Solution method: Atomic orbitals are assumed to be four-component spinor eigenstates of the angular momentum operator, j=l+s, and the parity operator Π=βπ. Configuration state functions (CSFs) are linear combinations of Slater determinants of atomic orbitals, and are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the atomic electronic angular momentum operator, J, and the atomic parity operator, P. Lists of CSFs are either explicitly prescribed by the user or generated from a set of reference CSFs, a set of subshells, and rules for deriving other CSFs from these. Approximate atomic state functions (ASFs) are linear combinations of CSFs. A variational functional may be constructed by combining expressions for the energies of one or more ASFs. Average level (AL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of all possible ASFs that may be constructed from a set of CSFs; the number of ASFs is then the same as the number, n, of CSFs. Optimal level (OL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of some subset of ASFs; the GRASP92 package is optimized for this latter class of functionals. The composition of an ASF in terms
Exotic atoms: Antimatter may matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
The charge neutrality of the antimatter atom antihydrogen has been confirmed with unprecedented accuracy, paving the way for experiments that could simultaneously solve several of physics' biggest mysteries. See Letter p.373
Antihydrogen Relaxation from High-n to Ground State.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, E. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.
2006-10-01
We explore the rate at which magnetized, high-n Rydberg pairs formed in antihydrogen experiments relax to deep binding. While the theoretical three-body recombination rate scales favorably with low temperature (νTBRnb^3 (n v b^2 ) T-9/2), pairs form with binding energies ɛ near the (low) thermal level. Such atoms have classical drift orbits with negligible radiation. Collisions propel a cascade to deeper binding, but theory and simulation show an atom is unlikely to reach a radiating regime before it escapes the trap. However, simulations show that the energy-loss rate does not decrease as rapidly with increasing ɛ as previously expected. We also discuss the mean magnetic moment of guiding-center atoms, and energy loss from adiation at deep binding, based on the classical Larmour formula and a presumption of stochastic orbits. G. Gabrielse, N.S. Bowden, P. Oxley, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002) M. Amoretti, C. Amsler, G. Bonomi, et al., Nature (London) 419, 456 (2002). ME. Glinsky and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1279 (1991). R. Robicheaux and J.D. Hanson, Phys. Rev. A 69, 010701 (2004). E.M. Bass and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1240 (2004).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Sergio S.; Maldonado, Alejandro; Aucar, Gustavo A.
2005-12-01
In this work an analysis of the electronic origin of relativistic effects on the isotropic dia- and paramagnetic contributions to the nuclear magnetic shielding σ(X ) for noble gases and heavy atoms of hydrogen halides is presented. All results were obtained within the 4-component polarization propagator formalism at different level of approach [random-phase approximation (RPA) and pure zeroth-order approximation (PZOA)], by using a local version of the DIRAC code. From the fact that calculations of diamagnetic contributions to σ within RPA and PZOA approaches for HX(X =Br,I,At) and rare-gas atoms are quite close each to other and the finding that the diamagnetic part of the principal propagator at the PZOA level can be developed as a series [S(Δ)], it was found that there is a branch of negative-energy "virtual" excitations that contribute with more than 98% of the total diamagnetic value even for the heavier elements, namely, Xe, Rn, I, and At. It contains virtual negative-energy molecular-orbital states with energies between -2mc2 and -4mc2. This fact can explain the excellent performance of the linear response elimination of small component (LR-ESC) scheme for elements up to the fifth row in the Periodic Table. An analysis of the convergency of S(Δ ) and its physical implications is given. It is also shown that the total contribution to relativistic effects of the innermost orbital (1s1/2) is by far the largest. For the paramagnetic contributions results at the RPA and PZOA approximations are similar only for rare-gas atoms. On the other hand, if the mass-correction contributions to σp are expressed in terms of atomic orbitals, a different pattern is found for 1s1/2 orbital contributions compared with all other s-type orbitals when the whole set of rare-gas atoms is considered.
First laser-controlled antihydrogen production.
Storry, C H; Speck, A; Le Sage, D; Guise, N; Gabrielse, G; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Pittner, H; Herrmann, M; Walz, J; Hänsch, T W; Comeau, D; Hessels, E A
2004-12-31
Lasers are used for the first time to control the production of antihydrogen (H ). Sequential, resonant charge exchange collisions are involved in a method that is very different than the only other method used so far-producing slow H during positron cooling of antiprotons in a nested Penning trap. Two attractive features are that the laser frequencies determine the H binding energy, and that the production of extremely cold H should be possible in principle-likely close to what is needed for confinement in a trap, as needed for precise laser spectroscopy. PMID:15697977
Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A
2014-09-11
The reference values for NMR magnetic shieldings, σ(ref), are of the highest importance when theoretical analysis of chemical shifts are envisaged. The fact that the nonrelativistically valid relationship among spin-rotation constants and magnetic shieldings is not any longer valid for heavy atoms requires that the search for σ(ref) for such atoms needs new strategies to follow. We present here results of σ(ref) that were obtained by applying our own simple procedure which mixes accurate experimental chemical shifts (δ) and theoretical magnetic shieldings (σ). We calculated σ(Sn) and σ(Pb) in a family of heavy-halogen-containing molecules. We found out that σ(ref)[Sn;Sn(CH3)4] in gas phase should be close to 3864.11 ± 20.05 ppm (0.5%). For Pb atom, σ(ref)[Pb;Pb(CH3)4] should be close to 14475.1 ± 500.7 ppm. Such theoretical values correspond to calculations with the relativistic polarization propagator method, RelPPA, at the RPA level of approach. They are closer to experimental values as compared to those obtained applying few different functionals such as PBE0, B3LYP, BLYP, BP86, KT2, and KT3 of the density functional theory, DFT. We studied tin and lead shieldings of the XY(4-n)Z(n) (X = Sn, Pb; Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br, I) and PbH(4-n)I(n) (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) family of compounds with four-component functionals as implemented in the DIRAC code. For these systems results of calculations with RelPPA-RPA are more reliable than DFT ones. We argue about why those DFT functionals must be modified in order to obtain more accurate results of NMR magnetic shieldings within the relativistic regime: first, there is a dependence among both electron-correlation and relativistic effects that should be introduced in some way in the functionals; and second, the DIRAC code uses standard nonrelativistic functionals and the functionals B3LYP and PBE0 were parametrized only with data taken from light elements. It can explain why they are not able to properly introduce
Artificially Structured Boundary For Antihydrogen Studies
Ordonez, C. A.
2011-06-01
It may be possible to confine antiprotons using an artificially structured boundary, as part of a process for synthesizing antihydrogen. An artificially structured boundary is defined at present as one that produces a spatially periodic static field, such that the spatial period and range of the field is much smaller than the dimensions of a cloud, plasma or beam of charged particles that is confined by the boundary. A modified Kingdon trap could employ an artificially structured boundary at the location of inner electrodes. The artificially structured boundary would produce a multipole magnetic field that keeps confined particles from reaching the inner electrodes. The magnetic field would be sufficiently short in range to affect the particle trajectories only in close proximity to the inner electrodes. The conditions for producing such a magnetic field have been assessed. The results indicate that the magnetic field must be an octupole or higher order field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I.
1998-02-01
We present a self-interaction-free relativistic density-functional theory (DFT). The theory is based on the extension of our recent nonrelativistic DFT treatment with optimized effective potential (OEP) and self-interaction correction (SIC) [Phys. Rev. A 55, 3406 (1997)] to the relativistic domain. Such a relativistic OEP-SIC procedure yields an orbital-independent single-particle local potential with proper long-range Coulombic (-1/r) behavior. The method is applied to the ground-state energy calculations for atoms with Z=2-106. A comparison with the corresponding nonrelativistic OEP-SIC calculations and other relativistic calculations is made. It is shown that the ionization potentials (obtained from the highest occupied orbital energies) and individual orbital binding energies determined by the present relativistic OEP-SIC method agree well with the experimental data across the Periodic Table.
Aperture-based antihydrogen gravity experiment: Parallel plate geometry
Rocha, J. R.; Hedlof, R. M.; Ordonez, C. A.
2013-10-15
An analytical model and a Monte Carlo simulation are presented of an experiment that could be used to determine the direction of the acceleration of antihydrogen due to gravity. The experiment would rely on methods developed by existing antihydrogen research collaborations. The configuration consists of two circular, parallel plates that have an axis of symmetry directed away from the center of the earth. The plates are separated by a small vertical distance, and include one or more pairs of circular barriers that protrude from the upper and lower plates, thereby forming an aperture between the plates. Antihydrogen annihilations that occur just beyond each barrier, within a “shadow” region, are asymmetric on the upper plate relative to the lower plate. The probability for such annihilations is determined for a point, line and spheroidal source of antihydrogen. The production of 100,000 antiatoms is predicted to be necessary for the aperture-based experiment to indicate the direction of free fall acceleration of antimatter, provided that antihydrogen is produced within a sufficiently small antiproton plasma at a temperature of 4 K.
A new application of emulsions to measure the gravitational force on antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Braccini, S.; Canali, C.; Ereditato, A.; Kawada, J.; Kimura, M.; Kreslo, I.; Pistillo, C.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J. W.
2013-02-01
We propose to build and operate a detector based on the emulsion film technology for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration on antimatter, to be performed by the AEgIS experiment (AD6) at CERN. The goal of AEgIS is to test the weak equivalence principle with a precision of 1% on the gravitational acceleration g by measuring the vertical position of the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms after their free fall while moving horizontally in a vacuum pipe. With the emulsion technology developed at the University of Bern we propose to improve the performance of AEgIS by exploiting the superior position resolution of emulsion films over other particle detectors. The idea is to use a new type of emulsion films, especially developed for applications in vacuum, to yield a spatial resolution of the order of one micron in the measurement of the sag of the antihydrogen atoms in the gravitational field. This is an order of magnitude better than what was planned in the original AEgIS proposal.
Resonant antihydrogen formation in antiproton–positronium collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazauskas, R.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Dufour, M.; Valdes, M.
2016-05-01
We study the influence of narrow resonances on antihydrogen formation cross sections via the three-body reaction \\bar{{{p}}}+{{Ps}}*\\to {\\bar{{{H}}}}*+{{{e}}}-. The latter is of interest for the gravitational behavior of antihydrogen at rest experiment that will be performed at CERN in the near future. The complex scaling method is employed to compute the positions and widths of these resonances, whereas the Kohn-variational principle is used for the determination of the scattering cross sections. A very good agreement is found with available theoretical results. The impact of these resonances on the cross section is analyzed.
Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen
Funakoshi, R.; Hayano, R. S.; Amoretti, M.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Madsen, N.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L. V.; Mitchard, D.; Werf, D. P. van der; Doser, M.
2007-07-15
An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5{<=}{alpha} < or approx. 80) and densities (1.5x10{sup 8}{<=}n < or approx. 7x10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) within a short duration (25 s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.
Producing the positive antihydrogen ion {\\bar{{\\rm{H}}}}^{+} via radiative attachment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, C. M.; Pak, K. Y.; Straton, Jack C.
2016-04-01
We provide an estimate of the cross section for the radiative attachment of a second positron into the (1 {{{s}}}2 {}1{{{S}}}e) state of the {\\bar{{{H}}}}+ ion that uses a 200-term two-positron wave function composed of explicitly correlated exponentials. This is done by analytically integrating the six-dimensional, three body photoionization integrals that enter into this result (and those utilizing, the alternative, Hylleraas wave functions) and applying the principle of detailed balance. Finally, we obtain the rate coefficient {α }{RA} for attaching a second positron to antihydrogen as a function of temperature via a numerical integral that is a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the product of positron velocity and cross section. Our motivation in studying the production of {\\bar{{{H}}}}+ lies in its potential use as an intermediate stage in the cooling of antihydrogen to ultra-cold (sub-mK) temperatures for spectroscopic studies and probing the gravitational interaction of the anti-atom. Estimates of the reaction rates are given for positron temperatures T e in the range from 50 K to 5 K.
Sahoo, Bijaya K.; Chaudhuri, Rajat; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, Debashis
2006-04-28
We report the result of our ab initio calculation of the 6s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}5d{sup 2}D{sub 3/2} parity nonconserving electric dipole transition amplitude in {sup 137}Ba{sup +} based on relativistic coupled-cluster theory. Considering single, double, and partial triple excitations, we have achieved an accuracy of less than 1%. If the accuracy of our calculation can be matched by the proposed parity nonconservation experiment in Ba{sup +} for the above transition, then the combination of the two results would provide an independent nonaccelerator test of the standard model of particle physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belkacem, A.; Gould, Harvey; Feinberg, B.; Bossingham, R.; Meyerhof, W. E.
1994-10-01
We report the first measurement of the energy dependence of electron capture from electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. For a La57+ beam incident on Au, Ag, and Cu targets at energies of 0.405, 0.956, and 1.3 GeV/u we find that the cross sections for capture from pair production and the free pair production process increase with increasing collision energy at similar rates. Combining with uranium data reported previously gives a projectile atomic number dependence for 0.956 GeV/u ions on a Au target of Z6.54+/-0.65p for capture from pair production and Z1.53+/-0.80p for the free pair production process.
Angstmann, E.J.; Dzuba, V.A.; Flambaum, V.V.
2004-07-01
We perform accurate calculations of the dependence of transition frequencies in two-valence-electron atoms and ions on a variation of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}=e{sup 2}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c. The relativistic Hartree-Fock method is used with many-body perturbation theory and configuration interaction methods to calculate transition frequencies. The results are to be used in atomic-clock-type laboratory experiments designed to test whether {alpha} varies in time.
Fleig, Timo
2005-11-15
This study reports static electric dipole polarizabilities of the group 13 atoms in their lowest J=(1/2),(3/2) states including resolution of the property in the corresponding M{sub J} components. The polarizabilities are obtained by a numerical finite-field technique applying weak external electric fields. Special relativity is accounted for in the four-component Dirac framework. Two large-scale configuration interaction programs which can be applied either including or neglecting spin-dependent terms in the Dirac Hamiltonian, respectively, are used for the treatment of dynamic electron correlation. Coupled cluster calculations are performed for obtaining highly accurate J=(1/2) ground-state polarizabilities and for calibrating the configuration interaction calculations. The heavier atoms show large differences in the properties for different J states, and the effect of spin-orbit coupling is elucidated by separating it off from scalar relativistic contributions. The impact of spin-orbit interaction is also demonstrated for polarizability anisotropy components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, X. M.; Chu, S. I.
1998-05-01
We introduce a self-interaction-free relativistic density functional theory (DFT) for the treatment of both the static and dynamical properties of many-electron atoms (X.M. Tong and S.I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A57), 855 (1998).. The theory is based on the extension of our recent development of non-relativistic DFT treatment (X.M. Tong and S.I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A55), 3406 (1997). with optimized effective potential (OEP) and self-interaction-corrction (SIC) to the relativistic domain. The relativistic OEP/SIC procedure yields orbital-independent single- particle local potential with proper long-range Coulombic (-1/r) behavior and is capable of providing accurate description of the ground, excited, and autoionizing states. The method is applied to the atomic structure calculations of atoms with Z = 2 to 106. Good agreement with the experimental data for both the ionization potentials (obtained from the highest occupied orbital energies) and individual orbital binding energies is obtained across the periodic table. To our knowledage, this is the first DFT calculation that has achieved such a quantitative accuracy. Detailed results will be presented.
The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2015-02-26
Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flury, J.
2016-06-01
Quantum metrology enables new applications in geodesy, including relativistic geodesy. The recent progress in optical atomic clocks and in long-distance frequency transfer by optical fiber together pave the way for using measurements of the gravitational frequency redshift for geodesy. The remote comparison of frequencies generated by calibrated clocks will allow for a purely relativistic determination of differences in gravitational potential and height between stations on Earth surface (chronometric leveling). The long-term perspective is to tie potential and height differences to atomic standards in order to overcome the weaknesses and inhomogeneity of height systems determined by classical spirit leveling. Complementarily, gravity measurements with atom interferometric setups, and satellite gravimetry with space borne laser interferometers allow for new sensitivities in the measurement of the Earth's gravity field.
Antihydrogen formation in collisions of positronium with antiprotons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humberston, J. W.
1990-01-01
Antihydrogen, consisting of a positron orbiting around an antiproton, is the simplest few body system consisting entirely of antimatter and as such is of considerable importance in providing additional tests of the validity of charge conjugation invariance. In addition, the nature of the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter might more readily be investigated for an electrically neutral system than one which is charged. Before such studies can be undertaken the antihydrogen must, of course, be produced by attachment of a positron to an antipositron. Several production mechanisms have been proposed, the two most favored of which are radiative capture (spontaneous or stimulated) and charge exchange in positronium-antiproton collisions. The cross section for radiative capture is very much less than that for charge exchange, so that it might be thought that the latter process is greatly to be preferred. Various calculations of the cross section for the charge exchange process are briefly reviewed.
Calculation of antihydrogen formation via antiproton scattering with excited positronium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rawlins, C. M.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.; Charlton, M.
2016-01-01
The two-center convergent close-coupling method is used to calculate antihydrogen (H ¯) formation via positronium (Ps) scattering on antiprotons (p ¯) at near threshold energies. For excited Ps of energy ɛ , the 1 /ɛ behavior of the H ¯ formation cross sections is valid strictly only at the respective threshold, as is the 1 /√{ɛ } behavior for Ps in the ground state. Simple equations are given for the H ¯(n ≤4 ) formation cross sections from Ps(n ≤3 ) from zero to around 0.1 eV above threshold. Some of the implications of using p ¯-Ps collisions to form antihydrogen in beams, and held in traps, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritzsche, S.
2012-07-01
During the past decade, the RATIP program has been developed to calculate the electronic structure and properties of atoms and ions. This code, which is now organized as a suite of programs, provides a powerful platform today to generate and evaluate atomic data for open-shell atoms, including level energies and energy shifts, transition probabilities, Auger parameters as well as a variety of excitation, ionization and recombination amplitudes and cross sections. Although the RATIP program focus on properties with just one electron within the continuum, recent emphasis was placed also on second-order processes as well as on the combination of different types of transition amplitudes in order to explore more complex spectra. Here, I present and discuss the (design of the) RATIP program and make available a major part of the code for public use. Selected examples show a few of its possible applications, while reference is made to a much wider range of computations as supported by the program. The RATIP program has been developed as a scalar FORTRAN 90/95 code and provides a simple make feature which help port the code to different platforms and architectures.
Emulsion detectors for the antihydrogen detection in AEgIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pistillo, C.; Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Chlouba, K.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Derking, H.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E. J.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Penasa, L.; Petráček, V.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rosenberger, S.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Špaček, M.; Storey, J.; Strojek, I. M.; Subieta, M.; Testera, G.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.
2015-08-01
The AEgIS experiment at CERN aims to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter by measuring the deviation of a cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth gravitational field. The design of the experiment has been recently updated to include emulsion films as position sensitive detector. The submicrometric position accuracy of emulsions leads indeed to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. We present results of preliminary tests and discuss perspectives for the final measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Daoling; Liu, Wenjian; Xiao, Yunlong; Cheng, Lan
2007-09-01
It is shown that four- and two-component relativistic Kohn-Sham methods of density functional theory can be made fully equivalent in all the aspects of simplicity, accuracy, and efficiency. In particular, this has been achieved based solely on physical arguments rather than on mathematical tricks. The central idea can be visualized as "from atoms to molecule," reflecting that the atomic information is employed to "synthesize" the molecular no-pair relativistic Hamiltonian. That is, the molecular relativistic Hamiltonian can, without loss of accuracy, be projected onto the positive energy states of the isolated Dirac atoms with the projector approximated simply by the superposition of the atomic ones. The dimension of the four-component Hamiltonian matrix then becomes the same as that of a two-component one. Another essential ingredient is to formulate quasirelativistic theory on matrix form rather than on operator form. The resultant quasi-four-component, normalized elimination of the small component, and symmetrized elimination of the small component approaches are critically examined by taking the molecules of MH and M2 (M =At, E117) as examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Malley, Steven Michael
The work presented here is a compilation of three separate Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) projects: 133Cs II hyperfine structure (HFS): HFS Constants have been obtained for all 5p5(5d + 6s + 6p) 133Cs II levels. The 22 magnetic dipole constants, A, agree with experiment to 12% or better for all but three levels. Many of the odd J = 1,2 levels, which include these three, exhibit large many body effects. Our values for the quadrupole HFS constants are considerably smaller than the few highly uncertain experimental values, which we believe need remeasurement. For the first time, we have found certain excitations from the 4d subshell to be important; we ascribe this to the presence of an open 5p subshell. Sn- bound excited state electron affinities (EA): Theoretical results have been computed to complement recent measurements by Scheer et al [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42, 1026 (1997); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 43, 1357 (1998)] which yielded electron affinities of excited states of the ground configuration of Sn- . Our RCI values for the position of the excited Sn - with respect to the negative ion ground state are EA( 2D3/2) = 5903 cm-1 (0.732 eV), EA( 2D5/2) = 6493 cm-1 (0.805 eV). Triple excitations make a significant contribution. Magnetic dipole HFS constants (A) and M1 transition probabilities are also reported. La- EAs: RCI calculations, including valence and some shallow core-valence correlation indicate that La- has 11 bound states. The seven odd states arising from 6p attachment have EAs(in meV) of 462 (1D2), 282 (3F 2), 247 (3F3), 235 (3D 1), 145 (3D2), 84 (3F 4) and 56 (3D3). The remaining four bound states are even 5d attachments with EAs of 434 (3F2), 375 (3F3), 312 (3F4) and 62 (1D2). The majority of these levels are reported here for the first time. Two of these EAs are in good agreement with the recent experimental values of Covington et al [J. Phys. B 31, L855 (1998)]. The largest 5d-6p f-value is ~.00565.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, K.-N.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.
1976-01-01
Electron binding energies in neutral atoms have been calculated relativistically, with the requirement of complete relaxation. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first-order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all elements with atomic numbers ranging from 2 to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. Binding energies including relaxation are listed for all electrons in all atoms over the indicated range of atomic numbers. A self-energy correction is included for the 1s, 2s, and 2p(1/2) levels. Results for selected atoms are compared with energies calculated by other methods and with experimental values.
De-Excitation of High-Rydberg Antihydrogen in a Strongly Magnetized Pure Positron Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, E. M.
2005-10-01
The rate at which highly excited atoms relax to deeper binding is found with classical theories and simulations. This rate relates to antihydrogen formation experiments where such atoms are formed in pure-positron, Penning trap plasmas.ootnotetextG.Gabrielse, N.S. Bowden, P. Oxley, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213401 (2002); M. Amoretti, C. Amsler, G. Bonomi, et al., Nature (London) 419, 456 (2002). The analysis concerns atoms that have passed the kinetic bottleneck at binding energy ɛ 4kT.ootnotetextM.E. Glinsky and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1279 (1991). Energy loss caused by collisions between atoms and plasma positrons is calculated in two ways: For close collisions, a molecular dynamics simulation gives the energy loss; for large-impact parameter collisions, theoretical expressions based on Fokker-Planck theory are employed.ootnotetextEric M. Bass and Daniel H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1240 (2004). For a finite magnetic field, the energy loss rate scales as 1/ɛ, just as for infinite field,^2 but with a larger coefficient. A statistical description of energy loss by radiation and Stark mixing will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefańska, Patrycja
2016-02-01
We consider a Dirac one-electron atom placed in a weak, static, uniform magnetic field. We show that, to the first order in the strength B of the external field, the only electric multipole moments, which are induced by the perturbation in the atom, are those of an even order. Using the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 825 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/4/007; J. Phys. B 30, 2747 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/11/023], We derive a closed-form expression for the electric quadrupole moment induced in the atom in an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate. The result, which has the form of a double finite sum involving the generalized hypergeometric functions 3F2 of the unit argument, agrees with the earlier relativistic formula for that quantity, obtained by us for the ground state of the atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Nogueira, Fernando
2008-04-01
We present a computer package designed to generate and test norm-conserving pseudo-potentials within Density Functional Theory. The generated pseudo-potentials can be either non-relativistic, scalar relativistic or fully relativistic and can explicitly include semi-core states. A wide range of exchange-correlation functionals is included. Program summaryProgram title: Atomic Pseudo-potentials Engine (APE) Catalogue identifier: AEAC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 287 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 649 959 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C Computer: any computer architecture, running any flavor of UNIX Operating system: GNU/Linux RAM: <5 Mb Classification: 7.3 External routines: GSL ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Nature of problem: Determination of atomic eigenvalues and wave-functions using relativistic and nonrelativistic Density-Functional Theory. Construction of pseudo-potentials for use in ab-initio simulations. Solution method: Grid-based integration of the Kohn-Sham equations. Restrictions: Relativistic spin-polarized calculations are not possible. The set of exchange-correlation functionals implemented in the code does not include orbital-dependent functionals. Unusual features: The program creates pseudo-potential files suitable for the most widely used ab-initio packages and, besides the standard non-relativistic Hamann and Troullier-Martins potentials, it can generate pseudo-potentials using the relativistic and semi-core extensions to the Troullier-Martins scheme. APE also has a very sophisticated and user-friendly input system. Running time: The example given in this paper (Si) takes 10 s to run on a Pentium
Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen
Silveira, D. M.; Cesar, C. L.; Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Friesen, T.; Hydomako, R.; and others
2013-03-19
We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikuz, S. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Dance, R. J.; Abdallah, J.; Wagenaars, E.; Booth, N.; Culfa, O.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; Kaempfer, T.; Lancaster, K. L.; McKenna, P.; Rossall, A. L.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Woolsey, N. C.
2013-09-01
K-shell spectra of solid Al excited by petawatt picosecond laser pulses have been investigated at the Vulcan PW facility. Laser pulses of ultrahigh contrast with an energy of 160 J on the target allow studies of interactions between the laser field and solid state matter at 1020 W/cm2. Intense X-ray emission of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin aluminum foils is observed from optical laser plasma for the first time. Specifically for 1.5 μm thin foil targets the hollow atom yield dominates the resonance line emission. It is suggested that the hollow atoms are predominantly excited by the impact of X-ray photons generated by radiation friction to fast electron currents in solid-density plasma due to Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the transverse plasma fields. Numerical simulations of Al hollow atom spectra using the ATOMIC code confirm that the impact of keV photons dominates the atom ionization. Our estimates demonstrate that solid-density plasma generated by relativistic optical laser pulses provide the source of a polychromatic keV range X-ray field of 1018 W/cm2 intensity, and allows the study of excited matter in the radiation-dominated regime. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atom radiation is found to be a powerful tool to study the properties of high-energy density plasma created by intense X-ray radiation.
Malli, Gulzari L.
2015-02-14
Our ab initio all-electron fully relativistic Dirac–Fock (DF) and nonrelativistic (NR) Hartree-Fock calculations predict the DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction: Sg + 6 CO → Sg(CO){sub 6} as −7.39 and −6.96 eV, respectively, i.e., our calculated ground state total DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction product Sg(CO){sub 6} are lower by 7.39 and 6.96 eV than the total DF and NR ground state energies of the reactants, viz., one Sg atom plus six CO molecules, respectively. Our calculated DF relativistic and NR atomization energies (Ae) are 65.23 and 64.82 eV, respectively, and so the contribution of relativistic effects to the Ae of ∼0.40 eV is marginal. The Sg–C and C–O optimized bond distances for the octahedral geometry as calculated in our DF (NR) calculations are 2.151 (2.318 Å) and 1.119 (1.114 Å), respectively. The BSSE correction calculated using the DIRAC code ∼14 kcal/mol. The relativistic DF and NR mean energies predicted by us are 118.8 and 111.9 kJ/mol, respectively, and the contribution of ∼7 kJ/mol due to relativistic effects to the mean energy of Sg(CO){sub 6} is negligible. Ours are the first calculations of the relativistic effects for the atomization energy, mean bond energy, and energy of the reaction for possible formation of Sg(CO){sub 6}, and both our relativistic DF and the NR treatments clearly predict for the first time the existence of hexacarbonyl of the transactinide superheavy element seaborgium Sg. In conclusion, relativistic effects are not significant for Sg(CO){sub 6}.
Malli, Gulzari L
2015-02-14
Our ab initio all-electron fully relativistic Dirac-Fock (DF) and nonrelativistic (NR) Hartree-Fock calculations predict the DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction: Sg + 6 CO → Sg(CO)6 as -7.39 and -6.96 eV, respectively, i.e., our calculated ground state total DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction product Sg(CO)6 are lower by 7.39 and 6.96 eV than the total DF and NR ground state energies of the reactants, viz., one Sg atom plus six CO molecules, respectively. Our calculated DF relativistic and NR atomization energies (Ae) are 65.23 and 64.82 eV, respectively, and so the contribution of relativistic effects to the Ae of ∼0.40 eV is marginal. The Sg-C and C-O optimized bond distances for the octahedral geometry as calculated in our DF (NR) calculations are 2.151 (2.318 Å) and 1.119 (1.114 Å), respectively. The BSSE correction calculated using the DIRAC code ∼14 kcal/mol. The relativistic DF and NR mean energies predicted by us are 118.8 and 111.9 kJ/mol, respectively, and the contribution of ∼7 kJ/mol due to relativistic effects to the mean energy of Sg(CO)6 is negligible. Ours are the first calculations of the relativistic effects for the atomization energy, mean bond energy, and energy of the reaction for possible formation of Sg(CO)6, and both our relativistic DF and the NR treatments clearly predict for the first time the existence of hexacarbonyl of the transactinide superheavy element seaborgium Sg. In conclusion, relativistic effects are not significant for Sg(CO)6. PMID:25681910
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malli, Gulzari L.
2015-02-01
Our ab initio all-electron fully relativistic Dirac-Fock (DF) and nonrelativistic (NR) Hartree-Fock calculations predict the DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction: Sg + 6 CO → Sg(CO)6 as -7.39 and -6.96 eV, respectively, i.e., our calculated ground state total DF relativistic and NR energies for the reaction product Sg(CO)6 are lower by 7.39 and 6.96 eV than the total DF and NR ground state energies of the reactants, viz., one Sg atom plus six CO molecules, respectively. Our calculated DF relativistic and NR atomization energies (Ae) are 65.23 and 64.82 eV, respectively, and so the contribution of relativistic effects to the Ae of ˜0.40 eV is marginal. The Sg-C and C-O optimized bond distances for the octahedral geometry as calculated in our DF (NR) calculations are 2.151 (2.318 Å) and 1.119 (1.114 Å), respectively. The BSSE correction calculated using the DIRAC code ˜14 kcal/mol. The relativistic DF and NR mean energies predicted by us are 118.8 and 111.9 kJ/mol, respectively, and the contribution of ˜7 kJ/mol due to relativistic effects to the mean energy of Sg(CO)6 is negligible. Ours are the first calculations of the relativistic effects for the atomization energy, mean bond energy, and energy of the reaction for possible formation of Sg(CO)6, and both our relativistic DF and the NR treatments clearly predict for the first time the existence of hexacarbonyl of the transactinide superheavy element seaborgium Sg. In conclusion, relativistic effects are not significant for Sg(CO)6.
The role of antihydrogen formation in the radial transport of antiprotons in positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsell, S.; Charlton, M.; van der Werf, D. P.
2016-07-01
Simulations have been performed of the radial transport of antiprotons in positron plasmas under ambient conditions typical of those used in antihydrogen formation experiments. The parameter range explored includes several positron densities and temperatures, as well as two different magnetic fields (1 and 3 T). Computations were also performed in which the antihydrogen formation process was artificially suppressed in order to isolate its role from other collisional sources of transport. The results show that, at the lowest positron plasma temperatures, repeated cycles of antihydrogen formation and destruction are the dominant source of radial (cross magnetic field) transport, and that the phenomenon is an example of anomalous diffusion.
Velocity space scattering coefficients with applications in antihydrogen recombination studies
Chang; Ordonez
2000-12-01
An approach for calculating velocity space friction and diffusion coefficients with Maxwellian field particles is developed based on a kernel function derived in a previous paper [Y. Chang and C. A. Ordonez, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2947 (1999)]. The original fivefold integral expressions for the coefficients are reduced to onefold integrals, which can be used for any value of the Coulomb logarithm. The onefold integrals can be further reduced to standard analytical expressions by using a weak coupling approximation. The integral expression for the friction coefficient is used to predict a time scale that describes the rate at which a reflecting antiproton beam slows down within a positron plasma, while both species are simultaneously confined by a nested Penning trap. The time scale is used to consider the possibility of achieving antihydrogen recombination within the trap. The friction and diffusion coefficients are then used to derive an expression for calculating the energy transfer rate between antiprotons and positrons. The expression is employed to illustrate achieving antihydrogen recombination while taking into account positron heating by the antiprotons. The effect of the presence of an electric field on recombination is discussed. PMID:11138156
Positronium, antihydrogen, light, and the equivalence principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karshenboim, Savely G.
2016-07-01
While discussing a certain generic difference in effects of gravity on particles and antiparticles, various neutral particles (i.e. the particles which are identical with their antiparticles) could be a perfect probe. One such neutral particles is the positronium atom, which has been available for precision experiments for a few decades. The other important neutral particle is the photon. Behavior of light in the presence of a gravitational field has been the key both to build and develop the theory of general relativity and to verify it experimentally. The very idea of antigravity for antimatter strongly contradicts both the principles of general relativity and its experimentally verified consequences. Consideration of existing experimental results on photons and positrons makes antigravity impossible and leads to a conclusion that the deviation of the ratio of acceleration of the free fall of particles and antiparticles cannot exceed the level of 1× {10}-5.
Egidi, Franco; Goings, Joshua J; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong
2016-08-01
In this work, we present a linear-response formalism of the complex two-component Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian that includes relativistic effects within the Douglas-Kroll-Hess and the Exact-Two-Component frameworks. The method includes both scalar and spin relativistic effects in the variational description of electronic ground and excited states, although it neglects the picture-change and explicit spin-orbit contributions arising from the two-electron interaction. An efficient direct formalism of solving the complex two-component response function is also presented in this work. The presence of spin-orbit couplings in the Hamiltonian and the two-component nature of the wave function and Fock operator allows the computation of excited-state zero-field splittings of systems for which relativistic effects are dominated by the one-electron term. Calculated results are compared to experimental reference values to assess the quality of the underlying approximations. The results show that the relativistic two-component linear response methods are able to capture the excited-state zero-field splittings with good agreement with experiments for the systems considered here, with all approximations exhibiting a similar performance. However, the error increases for heavy elements and for states of high orbital angular momentum, suggesting the importance of the two-electron relativistic effect in such situations. PMID:27387787
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, Dennis
2013-08-01
A few-body type computation is performed for a three-charge-particle collision with participation of a slow antiproton and a muonic muonium atom (true muonium), i.e. a bound state of two muons in its ground state. The total cross section of the following reaction , where muonic anti-hydrogen is a bound state of an antiproton and positive muon, is computed in the framework of a set of coupled two-component Faddeev-Hahn-type equation. A better known negative muon transfer low energy three-body reaction: is also computed as a test system. Here, t+ is triton and d+ is deuterium.
Measuring the Free Fall of Antihydrogen with Emulsion Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pistillo, C.
2014-06-01
The AEgIS experiment at CERN is designed to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between antimatter and matter by detecting the fall of a horizontally accelerated cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth's gravitational field. The spatial resolution of the position sensitive detector is a key issue for the success of the experiment. For this reason, the employment of emulsion film detectors is being considered and an intense R&D is being conducted to define the use of this technology in the AEgIS apparatus. We present the results of test beams conducted in 2012, when emulsion film detectors were directly exposed to a ˜ 100 keV antiproton beam and annihilation vertices successfully reconstructed with a few micrometers resolution. The prospects for the realization of the final detector are also presented.
Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen
Wanderer P.; Escallier, J.; Marone, A.; Parker, B.
2011-09-06
A superconducting octupole magnet has seen extensive service as part of the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA has trapped antihydrogen, a crucial step towards performing precision measurements of anti-atoms. The octupole was made at the Direct Wind facility by the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnet was wound with a six-around-one NbTi cable about 1 mm in diameter. It is about 300 mm long, with a radius of 25 mm and a peak field at the conductor of 4.04 T. Specific features of the magnet, including a minimal amount of material in the coil and coil ends with low multipole content, were advantageous to its use in ALPHA. The magnet was operated for six months a year for five years. During this time it underwent about 900 thermal cycles (between 4K and 100K). A novel operational feature is that during the course of data-taking the magnet was repeatedly shut off from its 950 A operating current. The magnet quenches during the shutoff, with a decay constant of 9 ms. Over the course of the five years, the magnet was deliberately quenched many thousands of times. It still performs well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Głowacki, Leszek
2015-12-01
Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations using hydrogenlike or Dirac-Fock spin orbitals of the transition from the ground state to some n p1 /2 , n p3 /2 low-lying excited states for the alkali metals are presented. In these calculations each virtual spin orbital corresponds to a unique noninteger atomic number determined iteratively using the virtual-particle model. The virtual-particle model based on "condensed-space" idea is here adopted to many electron systems consisting of a single valence electron and the core. The transition energy and the oscillator strength values were computed for sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Both hydrogenlike and Dirac-Fock basis functions have been used in the computations for comparison.
Kallay, Mihaly; Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Visscher, Lucas
2011-03-15
We report the implementation of a general-order relativistic coupled-cluster method for performing high-precision calculations of atomic and molecular properties. As a first application, the black-body radiation shift of the Al{sup +} clock has been estimated precisely. The computed shift relative to the frequency of the 3s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}{sup e}{yields}3s3p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition given by (-3.66{+-}0.60)x10{sup -18} calls for an improvement over the recent measurement with a reported result of (-9{+-}3)x10{sup -18}[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Ray, Asok
2006-10-01
Fully-relativistic full potential density functional calculations have been performed to investigate atomic carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen chemisorption on the (111) surface of δ-Pu using the all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals code WIEN2k and the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. The surface was modeled by a three-layer periodic slab separated by 60 Bohr vacuum with two atoms per surface unit cell. The hollow fcc adsorption site was found to be the most preferred site with chemisorption energies of 6.539 eV, 6.714 eV, and 8.2 eV for the C, N, and O adatoms, respectively. The respective distances of the C, N, and O adatoms from the surface were found to be 1.16 å, 1.08 å, and 1.25 å. Analysis of the partial charges inside the atomic spheres, charge density distributions, and the local density of states indicate hybridizations between Pu 5f and the 2p states of the adatoms.
Resonance states in the hydrogen-antihydrogen system from a nonadiabatic treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stegeby, Henrik; Piszczatowski, Konrad
2016-01-01
The quantum-mechanical four-body problem for the hydrogen-antihydrogen system has been solved by means of the variational implementation of the coupled-arrangement channel method. Wave functions have been formed using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) in Jacobi coordinates; they explicitly include components corresponding to the rearrangement from hydrogen and antihydrogen (H + \\bar{{{H}}}) into protonium and positronium (Pn + Ps). We analyze the solutions belonging to the discretized spectrum of the four-body eigenvalue problem, searching for resonance states at energies just below the H-\\bar{{{H}}} dissociation energy threshold by means of the stabilization method and complex scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalmoneam, Marwa Hefny
Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) method has been used to investigate atomic properties of the singly ionized transition metals including Nickel (Ni II), Vanadium (V II), and Tungsten (W II). The methodology of RCI computations was also improved. Specifically, the method to shift the energy diagonal matrix of the reference configurations was modified which facilitated including the effects of many electronic configurations that used to be difficult to be included in the energy matrix and speeded-up the final calculations of the bound and continuum energy spectrum. RCI results were obtained for three different cases: i. Atomic moments and polarizabilities of Ni II; ii. Hyperfine structure constants of V II; iii. Lifetime, Lande g-values, and Oscillator strength of W II. Four atomic quantities of Ni II were calculated; scalar dipole polarizability, off-diagonal electric dipole polarizability, non-adiabatic scalar dipole polarizability, and quadrupole polarizability of Ni II. These quantities appear as effective parameters in an effective potential model. These quantities are computed for the first time. The two hyperfine structure (HFS) constants ; magnetic dipole interaction constant, A, and the electric quadrupole interaction constant, B, have been calculated for the V II 3d4, 3d3 4s, and 3d 2 4s2 J=1 to 5 even parity states . Analysis of the results shows the sum of HFS A of nearby energy levels to be conserved. The Lande g-value and the vector composition percentages for all the wavefunctions of those configurations have also been calculated. RCI results are in good agreement with most of the available experimental data. Lifetimes of 175 decay branches in W II have been calculated. Also, Lande g-values have been calculated for all measured W II odd parity levels J=1/2-11/2. The RCI oscillator strengths and branching fraction values of the lowest 10 energy levels for each odd parity J are presented. The calculated results are only in semi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.
2012-06-01
The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 μm) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkey, Keeper
2015-03-01
Due to the fast increasing capabilities of modern computers it now becomes feasible to calculate spectra of small atom and molecules with accuracy which matches the accuracy of high-resolution measurements. The algorithms for the calculations are directly derived from the first principles of quantum mechanics. The Hamiltonian operator used in the approach is called the internal Hamiltonian and is obtained by rigorously separating out the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory-frame Hamiltonian. Algorithms for determining the isotopic energy shifts of L=0 and M=0 states of atoms were implemented and tested in the calculations of the ground 4S state of the nitrogen atom. Bound states of diatomic molecules corresponding to the total angular momentum quantum number equal to one (N=1) was derived and implemented and was tested in the calculations of the N=1, v=0, . . . , 22 states of the HD+ ion and in the calculations of the ortho-para spin isomerization of the hydrogen molecule in its all bound vibrational states. This has lead to the development of a new studying of muonic molecules (dp μ, tp μ and td μ). The algorithms for calculating rovibrational states of small molecules is currently being extended to H3+using sin and cos ECGs. National Science Foundation.
Towards measuring the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen - a progress report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauerzopf, C.; Capon, A. A.; Diermaier, M.; Dupré, P.; Higashi, Y.; Kaga, C.; Kolbinger, B.; Leali, M.; Lehner, S.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y.; Radics, B.; Simon, M. C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Ulmer, S.; Vamosi, S.; Gorp, S. van; Zmeskal, J.; Breuker, H.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Kuroda, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Venturelli, L.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.
2016-12-01
We report the successful commissioning and testing of a dedicated field-ioniser chamber for measuring principal quantum number distributions in antihydrogen as part of the ASACUSA hyperfine spectroscopy apparatus. The new chamber is combined with a beam normalisation detector that consists of plastic scintillators and a retractable passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector.
Local relativistic exact decoupling.
Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus
2012-06-28
We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation--called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)--provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N(2) scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian--denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper--introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations
Relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wcisło, P.; Amodio, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Gianfrani, L.
2015-02-01
The relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile is reported for the spontaneous emission from an atomic or molecular cloud, in coincidence with a given spectral line. We considered the simultaneous occurrence of homogeneous broadening and thermal broadening, this latter being determined by the relativistic Doppler effect. Our formula for the relativistic Voigt profile reproduces those characterizing the two available limit cases, namely, the relativistic Gaussian profile and the classical Voigt convolution. The relativistic deformation of the Voigt profile was carefully quantified at different temperatures, in the case of the molecular hydrogen spectrum.
Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II
1991-12-31
We are requesting support for a postdoctoral person to participate in H{sup -} studies at Los Alamos. In addition, we are requesting funding for a state-of-the-art YAG laser system that would allow us to obtain data at three times our present rate with improved beam quality.
On the non-relativistic limit of charge conjugation in QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carballo Pérez, B.; Socolovsky, M.
2011-01-01
Even if at the level of the non-relativistic limit of full QED, C is not a symmetry, the limit of this operation does exist for the particular case when the electromagnetic field is considered a classical external object coupled to the Dirac field. This result extends the one obtained when fermions are described by the Schrödinger-Pauli equation. We give the expressions for both the C matrix and the hat{{C}} operator for Galilean electrons and positrons interacting with the external electromagnetic field. The result is relevant in relation to recent experiments with antihydrogen.
Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.
2011-01-01
In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…
Signals for Lorentz violation in atomic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, Arnaldo J.; Kostelecký, V. Alan
2015-05-01
A breakdown of Lorentz and CPT symmetry has been proposed as a possible signal in several candidate theories of quantum gravity. This talk discusses the prospects for detecting Lorentz and CPT violation via atomic spectroscopy, using the effective field theory known as the Standard-Model Extension and including operators of both renormalizable and nonrenormalizable mass dimensions. The discussion targets commonly measured atomic transitions in experiments with conventional matter and with more exotic atoms such as antihydrogen, muonium, and muonic hydrogen. Potential signals are identified and constraints from existing data are obtained.
Cold antihydrogen production in the ATRAP2 apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wrubel, Jonathan; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Speck, A.; George, M. C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Carew, A.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.
2008-03-01
We have developed a new ATRAP2 experimental platform, which has succeeded in producing thousands of anthydrogen (=H) atoms in a combined Penning-Ioffe trap. The Penning trap provides confinement for charged particles and the quadrupole Ioffe trap provides a neutral atom trap for =H atoms. Up to 78,000 antiprotons (=p) are trapped and cooled to 7K in a 1T bias field with every ejection from CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator. At the same time 5x10^6 positrons (e^+) are loaded. Several shots are stacked and adiabatically transferred into neighboring electrodes in the center of the quadrupole Ioffe trap. Fine control in the Penning trap is provided by 37 individually rf and dc biased gold-plated copper cylinders. The Ioffe trap is ramped to full field and the =p are coaxed to interact with the e^+. As the =p are cooled by the e^+, =H atoms are formed that may be trapped by the Ioffe trap. The apparatus includes MnF2 windows in the Ioffe trap to transmit Lyman-α radiation into the production space, which is needed for future laser cooling and precision spectroscopy of =H.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buenker, Robert J.; Alekseyev, Aleksey B.; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Lingott, Rainer; Hirsch, Gerhard
1998-03-01
Computational strategies for the treatment of relativistic effects including spin-orbit coupling at a highly correlated level are compared for a number of heavy atoms: indium, iodine, thallium, and astatine. Initial tests with perturbation theory emphasize the importance of high-energy singly excited configurations which possess large spin-orbit matrix elements with the ground state. A contracted basis consisting of L-S CI eigenfunctions (LSC-SO-CI) is found to give an accurate representation of both spin-perturbed 2Po components as long as key np→pi* singly excited configurations are included. Comparison is made with a more extensive treatment in which all selected configurations of various L-S symmetries form the basis for the multireference-spin-orbit-configuration interaction (MR-SO-CI). Good agreement is obtained with experimental SO splittings for the In, I, and At atoms at a variety of levels of treatment, indicating that the L-S contracted SO-CI approach can be implemented quite effectively with relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs) for both very electronegative atoms and also for lighter electropositive elements up through the fifth row of the periodic table. The thallium atom SO splitting is more difficult to obtain accurately because of greater differences between its valence p1/2 and p3/2 spinors than in the other cases studied, but good results are also possible with the contracted SO-CI approach in this instance, provided proper care is given to the inclusion of key singly excited L-S states. The relationship between all-electron two-component SO-CI treatments and those employing RECPs is also analyzed, and it is concluded that triply excited configurations relative to the 2Po ground state are far less important than previously reported.
The ingredients of cold antihydrogen: Simultaneous confinement of antiprotons and positrons at 4 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabrielse, G.; Hall, D. S.; Roach, T.; Yesley, P.; Khabbaz, A.; Estrada, J.; Heimann, C.; Kalinowsky, H.
1999-05-01
Low energy antiprotons and cold positrons are stored together and observed to interact for the first time. The particles and the nested Penning trap that confines them are cooled to 4.2 K, within a vacuum better than 5x10-17 Torr. The simultaneous confinement clearly demonstrates the potential of a nested Penning trap for the production of cold antihydrogen. Contaminant ions play a deleterious role, and we observe a surprising coupling between the positron and antiproton accumulation mechanisms. © 1999
Kullie, O; Zhang, H; Kolb, J; Kolb, D
2006-12-28
In previous work the authors have presented a highly accurate two-spinor fully relativistic solution of the two-center Coulomb problem utilizing the finite-element method (FEM) and furthermore developed a relativistic minimax two-spinor linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). In the present paper the authors present Dirac-Fock-Slater (DFS-) density functional calculations for two-atomic molecules up to super heavy systems using the fully nonlinear minimax FEM and the minimax LCAO in its linearized approximation (linear approximation to relativistic minimax). The FEM gives highly accurate benchmark results for the DFS functional. Especially considering molecules with up to super heavy atoms such as UubO and Rg2, the authors found that LCAO fails to give the correct systematic trends. The accurate FEM results shed a new light on the quality of the DFS-density functional. PMID:17199347
Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.
1989-03-01
Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub
1997-06-01
Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.
Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2015-12-01
The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP), is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear - current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits - 65
Sahoo, Bijaya K.; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Das, B.P.; Merlitz, Holger; Mukherjee, Debashis
2005-09-15
We report the results of our calculations of the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants for the ground and low-lying excited states of Pb{sup +} using the relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The spectacular role of correlation effects particularly for the 6p{sub 3/2} state is highlighted. The relative importance of core polarization and pair correlation effects have been studied and the result obtained for the ground state is different from that of Ba{sup +}, which has a single s valence electron.
Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas
Weisheit, J.C.
1986-04-25
Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valente, Giovanni; Owen Weatherall, James
2014-11-01
Relativity theory is often taken to include, or to imply, a prohibition on superluminal propagation of causal processes. Yet, what exactly the prohibition on superluminal propagation amounts to and how one should deal with its possible violation have remained open philosophical problems, both in the context of the metaphysics of causation and the foundations of physics. In particular, recent work in philosophy of physics has focused on the causal structure of spacetime in relativity theory and on how this causal structure manifests itself in our most fundamental theories of matter. These topics were the subject of a workshop on "Relativistic Causality in Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity" that we organized (along with John Earman) at the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh on April 5-7, 2013. The present Special Issue comprises contributions by speakers in that workshop as well as several other experts exploring different aspects of relativistic causality. We are grateful to the journal for hosting this Special Issue, to the journal's managing editor, Femke Kuiling, for her help and support in putting the issue together, and to the authors and the referees for their excellent work.
Lorentz and C P T tests with hydrogen, antihydrogen, and related systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostelecký, V. Alan; Vargas, Arnaldo J.
2015-09-01
The potential of precision spectroscopy as a tool in systematic searches for effects of Lorentz and C P T violation is investigated. Systems considered include hydrogen, antihydrogen, deuterium, positronium, and hydrogen molecules and molecular ions. Perturbative shifts in energy levels and key transition frequencies are derived, allowing for Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimensions. Observable effects are deduced from various direct measurements, sidereal and annual variations, comparisons among species, and gravitational responses. We use existing data to place new and improved constraints on nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz and C P T violation, and we provide estimates for the future attainable reach in direct spectroscopy of the various systems or tests with hydrogen and deuterium masers. The results reveal prospective sensitivities to many coefficients unmeasured to date, along with potential improvements of a billionfold or more over certain existing results.
Theoretical motivation for gravitation experiments on ultra-low energy antiprotons and antihydrogen
Nieto, M.M.
1995-12-31
It is known that the generally accepted theories of gravity and quantum mechanics are fundamentally incompatible. Thus, when one tries to combine these theories, one must beware of physical pitfalls. Modern theories of quantum gravity are trying to overcome these problems. Any ideas must confront the present agreement with general relativity, but yet be free to wonder about not understood phenomena, such as the dark matter problem. This all has led some {open_quotes}intrepid{close_quotes} theorists to consider a new gravitational regime, that of antimatter. Even more {open_quotes}daring{close_quotes} experimentalists are attempting, or considering attempting, the measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter, including low-energy antiprotons and, perhaps most enticing, antihydrogen.
Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.
Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).
Momentum relaxation of a relativistic Brownian particle.
Felderhof, B U
2012-12-01
The momentum relaxation of a relativistic Brownian particle immersed in a fluid is studied on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation for the relativistic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An analytical expression is derived for the short-time relaxation rate. The relaxation spectrum has both discrete and continuum components. It is shown that the Fokker-Planck equation under consideration is closely related to the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom. Hence it follows that there is an infinite number of discrete states. The momentum autocorrelation function is calculated numerically for a strongly relativistic particle. PMID:23367889
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.
2010-04-01
We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.
BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoine, J.-P.
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled `Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-Fei; Gao, Shu-Qin; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Li, Zuo-Wei
2012-08-01
The effects of an anti-hydrogen bond on the ν1-ν12 Fermi resonance (FR) of pyridine are experimentally investigated by using Raman scattering spectroscopy. Three systems, pyridine/water, pyridine/formamide, and pyridine/carbon tetrachloride, provide varying degrees of strength for the diluent-pyridine anti-hydrogen bond complex. Water forms a stronger anti-hydrogen bond with pyridine than with formamide, and in the case of adding non-polar solvent carbon tetrachloride, which is neither a hydrogen bond donor nor an acceptor and incapable of forming a hydrogen bond with pyridine, the intermolecular distance of pyridine will increase and the interaction of pyridine molecules will reduce. The dilution studies are performed on the three systems. Comparing with the values of the Fermi coupling coefficient W of the ring breathing mode ν1 and triangle mode ν12 of pyridine at different volume concentrations, which are calculated according to the Bertran equations, in three systems, we find that the solution with the strongest anti-hydrogen bond, water, shows the fastest change in the ν1-ν12 Fermi coupling coefficient W with the volume concentration varying, followed by the formamide and carbon tetrachloride solutions. These results suggest that the stronger anti-hydrogen bond-forming effect will cause a greater reduction in the strength of the ν1-ν12 FR of pyridine. According to the mechanism of the formation of an anti-hydrogen bond in the complexes and the FR theory, a qualitative explanation for the anti-hydrogen bond effect in reducing the strength of the ν1-ν12 FR of pyridine is given.
Relativistic jets and star formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alex; Slatyer Sutherland, Ralph
2015-08-01
We are conducting simulations of jets interacting with molecular and atomic gas on scales of a few kpc in forming galaxies. Competing processes, such as the dispersion of gas in the galaxy and star formation in the high-pressure environment determine whether positive or negative feedback predominates. We shall present our new simulations including an assessment of these different effects. Our simulations also predict the velocity and velocity dispersion of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies, which are undergoing interaction with relativistic jets. These results are of interest to radio and optical spectral imaging observations of galaxies undergoing feedback.
Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.
2014-02-15
The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ∼0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce “geometrical” beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.
Kolmogorov, A; Atoian, G; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Ritter, J; Stupishin, N; Zelenski, A
2014-02-01
The RHIC polarized H(-) ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H2 gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ∼0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce "geometrical" beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench. PMID:24593468
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolmogorov, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ritter, J.; Stupishin, N.; Zelenski, A.
2014-02-01
The RHIC polarized H- ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H2 gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ˜0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce "geometrical" beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamaya, S.; Maeda, H.; Funaki, M.; Fukui, H.
2008-12-01
The relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in hydrogen halides is performed using the second-order regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component (SORA-NESC) method with the inclusion of the perturbation terms from the metric operator. This computational scheme is denoted as SORA-Met. The SORA-Met calculation yields anisotropies, Δσ =σ∥-σ⊥, for the halogen nuclei in hydrogen halides that are too small. In the NESC theory, the small component of the spinor is combined to the large component via the operator σ⃗ṡπ⃗U/2c, in which π⃗=p⃗+A⃗, U is a nonunitary transformation operator, and c ≅137.036 a.u. is the velocity of light. The operator U depends on the vector potential A⃗ (i.e., the magnetic perturbations in the system) with the leading order c-2 and the magnetic perturbation terms of U contribute to the Hamiltonian and metric operators of the system in the leading order c-4. It is shown that the small Δσ for halogen nuclei found in our previous studies is related to the neglect of the U(0,1) perturbation operator of U, which is independent of the external magnetic field and of the first order with respect to the nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model is also discussed.
Relativistic electron beam generator
Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.
1975-11-11
A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.
Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontes, C. J.; Fryer, C. L.; Hungerford, A. L.; Hakel, P.; Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Sherrill, M. E.
2015-09-01
We report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.
Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swann, A. R.; Cassidy, D. B.; Deller, A.; Gribakin, G. F.
2016-05-01
Predicted 20 years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for charge transfer in Ps collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szmytkowski, Radosław; Łukasik, Grzegorz
2016-06-01
The ground state of the Dirac one-electron atom, placed in a weak, static electric field of definite 2L polarity, is studied within the framework of the first-order perturbation theory. The Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 825 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/4/007; erratum R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2747 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/11/023] is used to derive closed-form analytical expressions for various far-field and near-nucleus static electric multipole susceptibilities of the atom. The far-field multipole susceptibilities—the polarizabilities αL, the electric-to-magnetic cross susceptibilities αE L →M (L ∓1 ), and the electric-to-toroidal-magnetic cross susceptibilities αE L →T L —are found to be expressible in terms of one or two nonterminating generalized hypergeometric functions F2 with the unit argument. Counterpart formulas for the near-nucleus multipole susceptibilities—the electric nuclear shielding constants σEL→E L, the near-nucleus electric-to-magnetic cross susceptibilities σE L →M (L ∓1 ), and the near-nucleus electric-to-toroidal-magnetic cross susceptibilities σE L →T L —involve one or two terminating F2(1 ) series and for each L may be rewritten in terms of elementary functions. Numerical values of the far-field dipole, quadrupole, octupole, and hexadecapole susceptibilities are provided for selected hydrogenic ions. The effect of a declared uncertainty in the CODATA 2014 recommended value of the fine-structure constant α on the accuracy of numerical results is investigated. Analytical quasirelativistic approximations, valid to the second order in α Z , where Z is the nuclear charge number, are also derived for all types of the far-field and near-nucleus susceptibilities considered in the paper.
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor
Aucar, I. Agustín Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.
2014-11-21
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor.
Aucar, I Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S; Giribet, Claudia G; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C
2014-11-21
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH(+) (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH(+) systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found. PMID:25416870
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, R.; Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Richerme, P.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.; Grzonka, D.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.;
2016-03-01
Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.
Relativistic Guiding Center Equations
White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.
2014-10-01
In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Relativistic corrections to the nuclear Schiff moment
Dmitriev, V.F.; Flambaum, V.V.
2005-06-01
Parity- and time-invariance-violating (P,T-odd) atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) are induced by the interaction between atomic electrons and nuclear P,T-odd moments, which are themselves produced by P,T-odd nuclear forces. The nuclear EDM is screened by atomic electrons. The EDM of a nonrelativistic atom with closed electron subshells is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. For heavy relativistic atoms EDM is induced by the nuclear local dipole moments, which differ by 10-50% from the Schiff moments calculated previously. We calculate the local dipole moments for {sup 199}Hg and {sup 205}Tl where the most accurate atomic [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505 (2001)] and molecular [Cho et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2559 (1989); Phys. Rev. A 44, 2783 (1991)] EDM measurements have been performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bödeker, Dietrich; Wörmann, Mirco
2014-02-01
In many phenomenologically interesting models of thermal leptogenesis the heavy neutrinos are non-relativistic when they decay and produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We propose a non-relativistic approximation for the corresponding rate equations in the non-resonant case, and a systematic way for computing relativistic corrections. We determine the leading order coefficients in these equations, and the first relativistic corrections. The non-relativistic approximation works remarkably well. It appears to be consistent with results obtained using a Boltzmann equation taking into account the momentum distribution of the heavy neutrinos, while being much simpler. We also compute radiative corrections to some of the coefficients in the rate equations. Their effect is of order 1% in the regime favored by neutrino oscillation data. We obtain the correct leading order lepton number washout rate in this regime, which leads to large ( ~ 20%) effects compared to previous computations.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Franz
1999-04-01
An accessible, comprehensive reference to modern quantum mechanics and field theory. In surveying available books on advanced quantum mechanics and field theory, Franz Gross determined that while established books were outdated, newer titles tended to focus on recent developments and disregard the basics. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory fills this striking gap in the field. With a strong emphasis on applications to practical problems as well as calculations, Dr. Gross provides complete, up-to-date coverage of both elementary and advanced topics essential for a well-rounded understanding of the field. Developing the material at a level accessible even to newcomers to quantum mechanics, the book begins with topics that every physicist should know-quantization of the electromagnetic field, relativistic one body wave equations, and the theoretical explanation of atomic decay. Subsequent chapters prepare readers for advanced work, covering such major topics as gauge theories, path integral techniques, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and an introduction to QCD, chiral symmetry, and the Standard Model. A special chapter is devoted to relativistic bound state wave equations-an important topic that is often overlooked in other books. Clear and concise throughout, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory boasts examples from atomic and nuclear physics as well as particle physics, and includes appendices with background material. It is an essential reference for anyone working in quantum mechanics today.
Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method
Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus
2015-04-14
Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2012-03-23
We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes. PMID:22540559
Weakly relativistic plasma expansion
Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad
2015-04-15
Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
Huang, Liang; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Akis, Richard
2009-07-31
The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-15
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
A relativistic analysis of clock synchronization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, J. B.
1974-01-01
The relativistic conversion between coordinate time and atomic time is reformulated to allow simpler time calculations relating analysis in solar-system barycentric coordinates (using coordinate time) with earth-fixed observations (measuring earth-bound proper time or atomic time.) After an interpretation of terms, this simplified formulation, which has a rate accuracy of about 10 to the minus 15th power, is used to explain the conventions required in the synchronization of a world wide clock network and to analyze two synchronization techniques-portable clocks and radio interferometry. Finally, pertinent experiment tests of relativity are briefly discussed in terms of the reformulated time conversion.
SAMPEX Relativistic Microbursts Observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, X.; Comess, M.; Smith, D. M.; Selesnick, R. S.; Sample, J. G.; Millan, R. M.
2012-12-01
Relativistic (>1 MeV) electron microburst precipitation is thought to account for significant relativistic electron loss. We present the statistical and spectral analysis of relativistic microbursts observed by the Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on board the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer(SAMPEX) satellite from 1992 to 2004. Spectrally we find that microbursts are well fit by an exponential energy distribution in the 0.5-4 MeV range with a spectral e-folding energy of E0 < 375 keV. We also discuss the comparison of morning microbursts with events at midnight, which were first identified as microbursts by O'Brien et al. (2004). Finally, we compare the loss-rates due to microbursts and non-microburst precipitation during storm times and averaged over all times.
Relativistic Weierstrass random walks.
Saa, Alberto; Venegeroles, Roberto
2010-08-01
The Weierstrass random walk is a paradigmatic Markov chain giving rise to a Lévy-type superdiffusive behavior. It is well known that special relativity prevents the arbitrarily high velocities necessary to establish a superdiffusive behavior in any process occurring in Minkowski spacetime, implying, in particular, that any relativistic Markov chain describing spacetime phenomena must be essentially Gaussian. Here, we introduce a simple relativistic extension of the Weierstrass random walk and show that there must exist a transition time t{c} delimiting two qualitative distinct dynamical regimes: the (nonrelativistic) superdiffusive Lévy flights, for t
Coester, F.
1985-01-01
A review is presented of three distinct approaches to the construction of relativistic dynamical models: (1) Relativistic canonical quantum mechanics. (The Hilbert space of states is independent of the interactions, which are introduced by modifying the energy operator.) (2) Hilbert spaces of manifestly covariant wave functions. (The interactions modify the metric of the Hilbert space.) (3) Covariant Green functions. In each of the three approaches the focus is on the formulation of the two-body dynamics, and problems in the construction of the corresponding many-body dynamics are discussed briefly. 21 refs.
Perspective: relativistic effects.
Autschbach, Jochen
2012-04-21
This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einstein's special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts. PMID:22519307
Finite nucleus effects on relativistic energy corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyall, Kenneth G.; Faegri, Knut, Jr.
1993-01-01
The effect of using a finite nucleus model in quantum-chemical calculations is examined. Relativistic corrections from the first order Foldy-Wouthuysen terms are affected indirectly by the change in wavefunction, but also directly as a result of revised expressions for the Darwin and spin-orbit terms due to the change in nuclear potential. A calculation for the Rn atom indicates that the mass-velocity and Darwin corrections are much more sensitive to the finite nucleus than the non-relativistic total energy, but that the total contribution for these two terms is quite stable provided the revised form of the Darwin term is used. The spin-orbit interaction is not greatly affected by the choice of nuclear model.
A new relativistic theory: a relativistic scheme by eliminating small components (RESC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko
1999-03-01
A new relativistic theory has been proposed by the elimination of small components of the Dirac equation. It is variationally stable and can easily be incorporated into any electronic structure theory. The present formalism is tested in standard problems of Ag and Au atoms and their hydrides at various levels of theory including single- and multi-reference-based methods. Numerical results show that good accuracy can be obtained.
Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2013-04-15
In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion. PMID:21929132
Radiation from Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.
2008-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
A relativistic spherical vortex
Pekeris, C. L.
1976-01-01
This investigation is concerned with stationary relativistic flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. In choosing a density-pressure relation to represent relativistic “incompressibility,” it is found that a fluid in which the velocity of sound equals the velocity of light is to be preferred for reasons of mathematical simplicity. In the case of axially symmetric flows, the velocity field can be derived from a stream function obeying a partial differential equation which is nonlinear. A transformation of variables is found which makes the relativistic differential equation linear. An exact solution is obtained for the case of a vortex confined to a stationary sphere. One can make all three of the components of velocity vanish on the surface of the sphere, as in the nonrelativistic Hicks spherical vortex. In the case of an isolated vortex on whose surface the pressure is made to vanish, it is found that the pressure at the center of the sphere becomes negative, as in the nonrelativistic case. A solution is also obtained for a relativistic vortex advancing in a fluid. The sphere is distorted into an oblate spheroid. The maximum possible velocity of advance of the vortex is (2/3) c. PMID:16578745
Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.
1995-05-01
The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.
Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.
1995-01-01
The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.
Relativistic effects on x-ray structure factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batke, Kilian; Eickerling, Georg
2016-04-01
Today, combined experimental and theoretical charge density studies based on quantum chemical calculations and x-ray diffraction experiments allow for the investigation of the topology of the electron density at subatomic resolution. When studying compounds containing transition metal elements, relativistic effects need to be adequately taken into account not only in quantum chemical calculations of the total electron density ρ ({r}), but also for the atomic scattering factors employed to extract ρ ({r}) from experimental x-ray diffraction data. In the present study, we investigate the magnitude of relativistic effects on x-ray structure factors and for this purpose {F}({{r}}*) have been calculated for the model systems M(C2H2) (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) from four-component molecular wave functions. Relativistic effects are then discussed by a comparison to structure factors obtained from a non-relativistic reference and different quasi-relativistic approximations. We show, that the overall effects of relativity on the structure factors on average amount to 0.81%, 1.51% and 2.78% for the three model systems under investigation, but that for individual reflections or reflection series the effects can be orders of magnitude larger. Employing the quasi-relativistic Douglas-Kroll-Hess second order or the zeroth order regular approximation Hamiltonian takes these effects into account to a large extend, reducing the differences between the (quasi-)relativistic and the non-relativistic result by one order of magnitude. In order to further determine the experimental significance of the results, the magnitude of the relativistic effects is compared to the changes of the model structure factor data when charge transfer and chemical bonding is taken into account by a multipolar expansion of {F}({{r}}*).
Relativistic effects on plasma expansion
Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad
2014-07-15
The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, Hélène; Mutel, Robert L.
1998-12-01
We discuss the structure and relativistic kinematics that develop in three spatial dimensions when a moderately hot, supersonic jet propagates into a denser background medium and encounters resistance from an oblique magnetic field. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (a) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (b) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head, but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese "noren" or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend and twist in 3-D space. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized - but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefańska, Patrycja
2016-07-01
We present analytical derivation of the closed-form expression for the dipole magnetic shielding constant of a Dirac one-electron atom being in an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate. The external magnetic field, by which the atomic state is perturbed, is assumed to be weak, uniform, and time independent. With respect to the atomic nucleus we assume that it is pointlike, spinless, motionless, and of charge Z e . Calculations are based on the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 825 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/4/007; erratum R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 2747(E) (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/11/023], combined with the theory of hypergeometric functions. The final result is of an elementary form and agrees with corresponding formulas obtained earlier by other authors for some particular states of the atom.
Atomic Physics 15: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Walraven, J. T. M.; Reynolds, M. W.
1997-07-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Generation of a "Schrödinger cat" of radiation and observation of its decoherence * Synthesis of entangled states and quantum computing * Entangled states of atomic ions for quantum metrology and computation * Entanglement and indistinguishability: Coherence experiments with photon pairs and triplets * Atom optics as a testing ground for quantum chaos * Coherent ultra-bright XUV lasers and harmonics * Hollow atoms * Interdisciplinary experiments with polarized noble gases * The creation and study of Bose-Einstein condensation in a cold alkali vapor * oscopic quantum phenomena in trapped Bose-condensed gases * Doppler-free spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen * QED and the ground state of helium * Towards coherent atomic samples using laser cooling * Bose-Einstein condensation of a weakly-interacting gas * Zeeman and his contemporaries: Dutch physics around 1900 * Zeeman's great discovery * The Zeeman effect: A tool for atom manipulation * The Zeeman effect a century later: New insights into classical physics * QED effects in few-electron high-Z systems * Lamb shift experiments on high-Z one- and two-electron systems * Fundamental constants of nature * Response of atoms in photonic lattices * Hydrogen-like systems and quantum electrodynamics * New experiments with atomic lattices bound by light * Bloch oscillations of atoms in an optical potential * Quantum decoherence and inertial sensing with atom interferometers * Quantum effects in He clusters * Atoms in super-intense radiation fields * Wave packet dynamics of excited atomic electrons in intense laser fields * Nonlinear laser-electron scattering * Comparing the antiproton and proton and progress toward cold antihydrogen * Author Index
Relativistic radiative transfer and relativistic plane-parallel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukue, Jun
2015-04-01
Relativistic radiative transfer and relativistic plane-parallel flows accelerated from their base like accretion disk winds are numerically examined under the special relativistic treatment. We first solve the relativistic transfer equation iteratively, using a given velocity field, and obtain specific intensities as well as moment quantities. Using the obtained flux, we then solve the hydrodynamical equation, and obtain the new velocity field and the mass-loss rate as an eigen value. We repeat these double-iteration processes until both the intensity and velocity profiles converge. Under this double iteration, we solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation and relativistic flows in the vertical direction, simultaneously. The flows are gradually accelerated, as the optical depth decreases towards the surface. The mass-loss rate dot{J} is roughly expressed in terms of the optical depth τb and terminal speed βs of the flow as dot{J} ˜ 10 τ_b β _s^{-3/4}.
Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Keller, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Kurchaninov, L.
2009-10-15
In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning-Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency {omega}{sub r} of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when {omega}{sub r} is close to zero.