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1

Mechanical Model for Relativistic Blast Waves and Stratified Fireballs  

E-print Network

We propose a simple mechanical model for relativistic explosions with both forward and reverse shocks, which allows one to do fast calculations of GRB afterglow. The blast wave in the model is governed by pressures P_F and P_R at the forward and reverse shocks. We show that the simplest assumption P_F=P_R is in general inconsistent with energy conservation law. The model is applied to GRBs with non-uniform ejecta. Such "stratified fireballs" are likely to emerge with a monotonic velocity profile after an internal-shock stage. We calculate the early afterglow emission expected from stratified fireballs.

Z. Uhm; A. M. Beloborodov

2006-01-09

2

A SEMI-ANALYTIC FORMULATION FOR RELATIVISTIC BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK  

SciTech Connect

This paper performs a semi-analytic study of relativistic blast waves in the context of gamma-ray bursts. Although commonly used in a wide range of analytical and numerical studies, the equation of state (EOS) with a constant adiabatic index is a poor approximation for relativistic hydrodynamics. Adopting a more realistic EOS with a variable adiabatic index, we present a simple form of jump conditions for relativistic hydrodynamical shocks. Then we describe in detail our technique of modeling a very general class of GRB blast waves with a long-lived reverse shock. Our technique admits an arbitrary radial stratification of the ejecta and ambient medium. We use two different methods to find dynamics of the blast wave: (1) customary pressure balance across the blast wave and (2) the 'mechanical model'. Using a simple example model, we demonstrate that the two methods yield significantly different dynamical evolutions of the blast wave. We show that the pressure balance does not satisfy the energy conservation for an adiabatic blast wave while the mechanical model does. We also compare two sets of afterglow light curves obtained with the two different methods.

Uhm, Z. Lucas, E-mail: uhm@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 - CNRS, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2011-06-01

3

Spectra and radial flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions with Tsallis statistics in a blast-wave description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented the Tsallis statistics in a Blast-Wave model (TBW) and applied it to midrapidity transverse-momentum spectra of identified particles measured at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This new TBW function fits the RHIC data very well for pT<3 GeV/c. We observed that the collective flow velocity starts from zero in p+p and peripheral Au+Au collisions and grows to 0.470±0.009c in central Au+Au collisions. The resulting (q-1) parameter, which characterizes the degree of nonequilibrium in a system, indicates an evolution from a highly nonequilibrated system in p+p collisions toward an almost thermalized system in central Au+Au collisions. The temperature and collective velocity are well described by a quadratic dependence on (q-1). Two sets of parameters in our TBW are required to describe the meson and baryon groups separately in p+p collisions while one set appears to fit all spectra in central Au+Au collisions.

Tang, Zebo; Xu, Yichun; Ruan, Lijuan; van Buren, Gene; Wang, Fuqiang; Xu, Zhangbu

2009-05-01

4

Estimate of blast wave properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation and TNT-equivalent models for UVCE blast wave properties are reviewed, and a model which estimates blast parameters from information on the cloud and its location and uses these parameters to evaluate damage is presented. The prediction model is based on calculations for an ideal, homogeneous, hemispherical, centrally ignited vapor cloud. In case of a deflagration an energy release rate function, equivalent to a certain flame path, is assumed. The results of these calculations (peak pressures as a function of distance) are used together with data for a detonating cloud. The positive phase duration is derived from separate calculations. The method estimates maximum effect, and it is not possible to predict when little or no blast will be generated.

Zeeuwen, J. P.

5

Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

2005-01-01

6

On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

It has been suggested that relativistic blast waves may power the jets of AGN and gamma-ray bursts (GRB). We address the important issue how the kinetic energy of collimated blast waves is converted into radiation. It is shown that swept-up ambient matter is quickly isotropised in the blast wave frame by a relativistic two-stream instability, which provides relativistic particles in the jet without invoking any acceleration process. The fate of the blast wave and the spectral evolution of the emission of the energetic particles is therefore solely determined by the initial conditions. We compare our model with existing multiwavelength data of AGN and find remarkable agreement.

Martin Pohl; Reinhard Schlickeiser

1999-11-24

7

On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

2007-01-01

8

Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

2013-02-01

9

Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Domergue, L.; Haas, J.-F.; Imbert, B.

10

Biologic response to complex blast waves  

SciTech Connect

Small, bare charges were detonated inside an M59 armored personnel carrier (APC) in an attempt to simulate the complex blast waves generated by the jets from shaped-charge warheads penetrating into armored vehicles. Anesthetized sheep were placed inside the APC at 92- and 122-cm ranges from 57- or 113-g pentolite charges. Pressure-time was measured by pressure transducers either mounted on the animals or free standing at comparable ranges on the opposite side of the vehicle. In general, the waveforms were characterized by an initial shock wave of less than 1-msec duration followed by repeated reflections of decreasing magnitude. No deaths nor lung hemorrhages were observed, but all the animals sustained severe ear injury. Animals subjected to peak overpressures of 1.2 to 2.3 bar from the 113-g explosions also received slight non-auditory blast injuries to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; those exposed to peak overpressures of just under 1 bar from the 57-g charges did not. The non-auditory blast injuries inside the APC were more severe than those sustained by sheep at comparable distances from 113-g charges in the open. The results suggested that the biological consequences of a complex wave of the type encountered in this study can be equated approximately to a Friedlander wave with a peak overpressure equal to that of the complex wave and with a total impulse equal to the impulse over the first 2 to 3 msec of the complex wave. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Richmond, D.R.; Yelverton, J.T.; Fletcher, E.R.; Phillips, Y.Y.

1985-01-01

11

Computation of viscous blast wave flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to determine unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed and applied. The structural finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using MacCormack's modified Steger-Warming flux or Roe flux difference splittings with total variation diminishing limiters, while the viscous flux is computed using central differences. The use of implicit boundary conditions in conjunction with a telescoping in time and space method permitted solutions to this strongly unsteady class of problems. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results were made in two and three dimensions. These comparisons revealed accurate wave speed resolution with nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing. The purpose of this effort was to address the three-dimensional, viscous blast-wave problem. Test cases were undertaken to reveal these methods' weaknesses in three regimes: (1) viscous-dominated flow; (2) complex unsteady flow; and (3) three-dimensional flow. Comparisons of these computations to analytic and experimental results provided initial validation of the resultant code. Addition details on the numerical method and on the validation can be found in the appendix. Presently, the code is capable of single zone computations with selection of any permutation of solid wall or flow-through boundaries.

Atwood, Christopher A.

1991-01-01

12

Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

2012-09-01

13

On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

2005-01-01

14

Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges  

SciTech Connect

Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-10-16

15

Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for blast wave predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosions will, in most cases, generate blast waves. While simple models (e.g., Multi Energy Method) are useful for simple explosion geometries, most practical explosions are far from trivial and require detailed analyses. For a reliable estimate of the blast from a gas explosion it is necessary to know the explosion strength. The source explosion may not be symmetric; the pressure

Olav R. Hansen; Peter Hinze; Derek Engel; Scott Davis

2010-01-01

16

Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation  

SciTech Connect

Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

Fox, T. E., E-mail: tef503@york.ac.uk; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15

17

The interaction of oblique blast waves with buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of the net load imparted to a building that is oriented at some angle to an incident blast wave is complicated by the difficulty of establishing the impulse delivered to each part of the building’s surfaces. Expansion waves originating from the edges and top of the building—where regions of different pressures meet—tend to reduce the (oblique) reflected impulses that would develop on an infinitely large surface. This process is referred to as oblique clearing. An investigation which considered a single, tall building aligned obliquely to an effectively uniform blast wave has been undertaken with the aim of demonstrating and describing the path of these expansion waves as the blast wave passes over the building. The investigation comprised a series of small-scale experiments supported by numerical simulations using the code ftt_air3d. The loads arising at two scaled stand-off distances were considered. It is shown that depending on the angle of the building to the blast and the length of the blast wave with respect to the size of the building, the effect of the expansion waves may vary considerably, hence altering the load experienced by the building.

Rose, T. A.; Smith, P. D.; May, J. H.

2006-11-01

18

Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

1977-01-01

19

The interaction of oblique blast waves with buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the net load imparted to a building that is oriented at some angle to an incident blast wave is complicated by the difficulty of establishing the impulse delivered to each part of the building's surfaces. Expansion waves originating from the edges and top of the building---where regions of different pressures meet---tend to reduce the (oblique) reflected impulses that

T. A. Rose; P. D. Smith; J. H. May

2006-01-01

20

Tailored blast wave formation: Developing experiments pertinent to laboratory astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The first production of 'tailored' blast waves in a cluster media using an intense, 2x10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}, laser pulse is reported. This new technique produces cylindrical blast waves with a strong axial modulation of variable spatial frequency as a seed for instability growth. Spherical or cylindrical colliding blast waves can also be produced. Energy deposition in the cluster medium was modified using moderate-power (<10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}) 'laser-machining', which destroyed clusters in selected regions while keeping the atomic density constant. Electron density profiles track the time evolution showing the production of strongly modulated blast waves and the development of a thin shell after {approx_equal}6 ns in H{sub 2}. Similarity parameters suggest that the hydrogen results are hydrodynamically scalable, but instabilities are precluded by the lack of radiation and low Reynolds number. Similar argon and xenon experiments do not form blast waves on the studied time scale, but indicate that radiation might become influential later in the evolution.

Moore, Alastair S.; Symes, Daniel R.; Smith, Roland A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2005-05-15

21

Micro-blast waves using detonation transmission tubing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-blast waves emerging from the open end of a detonation transmission tube were experimentally visualized in this study. A commercially available detonation transmission tube was used (Nonel tube, M/s Dyno Nobel, Sweden), which is a small diameter tube coated with a thin layer of explosive mixture (HMX + traces of Al) on its inner side. The typical explosive loading for this tube is of the order of 18 mg/m of tube length. The blast wave was visualized using a high speed digital camera (frame rate 1 MHz) to acquire time-resolved schlieren images of the resulting flow field. The visualization studies were complemented by computational fluid dynamic simulations. An analysis of the schlieren images showed that although the blast wave appears to be spherical, it propagates faster along the tube axis than along a direction perpendicular to the tube axis. Additionally, CFD analysis revealed the presence of a barrel shock and Mach disc, showing structures that are typical of an underexpanded jet. A theory in use for centered large-scale explosions of intermediate strength (10 < ? {p}/{p}_0 ? 0.02) gave good agreement with the blast trajectory along the tube axis. The energy of these micro-blast waves was found to be 1.25 ± 0.94 J and the average TNT equivalent was found to be 0.3. The repeatability in generating these micro-blast waves using the Nonel tube was very good (± 2 %) and this opens up the possibility of using this device for studying some of the phenomena associated with muzzle blasts in the near future.

Samuelraj, I. Obed; Jagadeesh, G.; Kontis, K.

2013-07-01

22

NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2013-08-10

23

Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 ?m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: ?ps(R), (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R<10;cm/g^1/3), each explosive had its own (unique) blast wave (e.g., ?ps(R,;HE)˜a/R^n, where n is different for each explosive); (ii) these close-in blast waves do not scale with the ``Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves. *This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

2011-06-01

24

Nonlinear, relativistic Langmuir waves in astrophysical magnetospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large amplitude, electrostatic plasma waves are relevant to physical processes occurring in the astrophysical magnetospheres wherein charged particles are accelerated to relativistic energies by strong waves emitted by pulsars, quasars, or radio galaxies. The nonlinear, relativistic theory of traveling Langmuir waves in a cold plasma is reviewed. The cases of streaming electron plasma, electronic plasma, and two-streams are discussed.

Chian, Abraham C.-L.

1987-01-01

25

The interaction of oblique blast waves with buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the net load imparted to a building that is oriented at some angle to an incident blast wave is complicated by the difficulty of establishing the impulse delivered to each part of the building’s surfaces. Expansion waves originating from the edges and top of the building—where regions of different pressures meet—tend to reduce the (oblique) reflected impulses that

T. A. Rose; P. D. Smith; J. H. May

2006-01-01

26

Blast waves in atomic cluster media using intense laser pulses.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the progress of experimental and numerical investigations of the dynamics of strong (>Mach 50) blast waves driven by focusing sub-ps laser pulses into an extended medium of atomic clusters. A gas of atomic clusters is an extraordinarily efficient absorber of intense laser light and can be used to create high energy density plasmas with tabletop laser systems. These HED plasmas can launch shocks and strongly radiative blast waves with dimensionless parameters scalable to astrophysical objects such as supernova remnants, and have been used by us in a number of shock evolution and collision studies. To date such experiments have been conducted with modest laser energies of <1J. In order to study processes such as the Vishniac overstability and cooling instability in these systems significantly more input energy may be required due to the weak variation of blast wave velocity with deposited energy Vb E^1/4. We report on the scaling of cluster blast wave experiments to laser energies up 0.5kJ using the Vulcan laser at RAL. An extensive suite of diagnostics including multi-frame optical probe systems, streaked Schlieren imaging and keV imaging and spectroscopy was fielded in order to study the growth of spatial and temporal instabilities. To better match astrophysical scenarios with strong radiative pre-heat of material upstream of the shock an additional radiation field was also introduced using a secondary laser heated gold foil target and grazing incidence XUV guiding structure. This allowed us to compare blast wave propagation into cold versus hot ionized upstream gases. These experimental systems provide a useful test bed against which to benchmark numerical simulations, and have been compared to the 3D magnetoresistive hydrocode GORGON and radiation-hydrodynamics code NYM.

Smith, Roland

2008-04-01

27

Resonant Amplification of Turbulence by the Blast Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the idea of whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a nonlocal resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with increasing amplification the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- (l ~ 1), meso- (l ~ 20), and microscopic (l > 200) scales. Since the resonance width is narrow (typically, ?l < 1), resonance should select and amplify discrete isolated harmonics. We speculate on a possible explanation of an observed regular filamentary structure of regularly shaped round supernova remnants such as SNR 1572, 1006, or 0509-67.5. Resonant mesoscales found (l ? 18) are surprisingly close to the observed scales (l ? 15) of ripples in the shell's surface of SNR 0509-67.5.

Zankovich, A. M.; Kovalenko, I. G.

2015-02-01

28

Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge  

SciTech Connect

The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

2011-08-01

29

Ground surface effect on the blast wave propagation in two dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady flow fields created by a cylindrical blast wave are computationally simulated with a discretization method for the purpose of investigating the ground surface effect on the strength of the blast wave. Since the propagating blast wave becomes weakened as time goes on, solution accuracy is an important factor when discussing the strength of the shock wave. An overset zonal method that enhances the local resolution near the shock wave is also applied. The results indicate that the overpressure, which defines the strength of the blast wave, depends on the ground surface geometry as well as the distance from the point of explosion. Local ground geometry turns out to be important for the accurate estimation of the blast wave strength. The present approach using a new computational fluid dynamics technique may improve the existing theory for the estimation of unsteady motion and decay of the propagating blast wave, leading to a better estimation of the safety distance from accidental explosions.

Shimizu, Fumio; Fujii, Kozo; Higashino, Fumio

1993-05-01

30

IMAGING HIGH SPEED PARTICLES IN EXPLOSIVE DRIVEN BLAST WAVES  

SciTech Connect

This research describes a new application of a commercially available particle image velocimetry (PIV) instrument adapted for imaging particles in a blast wave. Powder was dispersed through the PIV light sheet using a right circular cylindrical charge containing aluminum powder filled in the annular space between the explosive core and exterior paper tube wall of the charge. Images acquired from each shot showed particle agglomeration and unique structures with the smaller particle diameters having developed structured appearances.

Jenkins, C. M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Horie, Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Ripley, R. C.; Wu, C.-Y. [Martec Limited, Suite 400-1888 Brunswick Street, Halifax, NS, B3J3J8 (Canada)

2009-12-28

31

Impact of complex blast waves on the human head: a computational study.  

PubMed

Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to impact from a single planar blast wave. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to impacts usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast waves may impact the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast wave reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to impact from a single blast wave due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast impact analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast impact to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure wave from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second impact at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce wave entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with impact from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure wave would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330?kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235?kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at the temporal and parietal lobes when compared with results from the single frontal blast case. By analyzing the pressure wave flow surrounding the head and correlating them with the consequential evolution of ICP and skull stress, the paper provides insights into the interaction mechanics between the concomitant blast waves and the biological head model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25132676

Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh

2014-12-01

32

A thoracic mechanism of mild traumatic brain injury due to blast pressure waves.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. An experiment is proposed which isolates the thoracic mechanism from cranial mechanisms of mTBI due to blast wave exposure. Results have implications for evaluating risk of mTBI due to blast exposure and for developing effective protection. PMID:18829180

Courtney, A C; Courtney, M W

2009-01-01

33

Relativistic electron acceleration by oblique whistler waves  

SciTech Connect

Test-particle simulations of electrons interacting with finite-amplitude, obliquely propagating whistler waves are carried out in order to investigate the acceleration of relativistic electrons by these waves. According to the present findings, an efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons requires a narrow range of oblique propagation angles, close to the whistler resonance cone angle, when the wave amplitude is held constant at relatively low value. For a constant wave propagation angle, it is found that a range of oblique whistler wave amplitudes permits the acceleration of relativistic electrons to O(MeV) energies. An initial distribution of test electrons is shown to form a power-law distribution when plotted in energy space. It is also found that the acceleration is largely uniform in electron pitch-angle space.

Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pandey, Vinay S. [National Institute of Technology Delhi, Dwarka, Delhi—110077 (India)] [National Institute of Technology Delhi, Dwarka, Delhi—110077 (India); Lee, Dong-Hun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15

34

The blast wave of the Shuttle plume at ionospheric heights  

SciTech Connect

The main engine burn (MEB) of the Space Shuttle deposits {approximately} 2 x 10{sup 12} joules of explosive energy and {approximately} 3 x 10{sup 5} kg of exhaust in almost horizontal flight at 105-110 km altitude during the period 300-550 s into the ascent. This extremely robust perturbation provides a potential active-excitation source for a variety of geophysical processes, including (1) the effects of aurora-like localized heating on the generation of gravity waves in the thermosphere, (2) the ducting mechanisms for long-period infrasound in the upper atmosphere, (3) dynamo effects associated with transient charge separation, (4) interactions with ambient midlatitude current systems at E-layer heights, and (5) effects in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide of transient electron-density perturbations in the D-region. The sine qua non of such an agenda is to gain a quantitative understanding of the near-field behavior of the MEB exhaust-plume`s quasi-cylindrical expansion, which generates a blast wave propagating away from the explosion. The authors report on observed electron-density signatures of this blast wave as manifested on lines-of-sight (LOSs) from a very-long-baseline interferometer (VLBI) illuminated by 137-MHz beacon signals from the MARECS-B satellite. They also compare the observations to a preliminary three-dimensional neutral-air acoustic model coupled to the ionospheric electron density. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Li, Y.Q.; Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.; Massey, R.S.; Taranenko, Y.N.; Wu, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-01

35

The blast wave of the Shuttle plume at ionospheric heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main engine burn (MEB) of the Space Shuttle deposits ˜2×1012 joules of explosive energy and ˜3×105 kg of exhaust in almost horizontal flight at 105-110 km altitude during the period 300-550 s into the ascent. This extremely robust perturbation provides a potential active-excitation source for a variety of geophysical processes, including (1) the effects of aurora-like localized heating on the generation of gravity waves in the thermosphere, (2) the ducting mechanisms for long-period infrasound in the upper atmosphere, (3) dynamo effects associated with transient charge separation, (4) interactions with ambient midlatitude current systems at E-layer heights, and (5) effects in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide of transient electron-density perturbations in the D-region. The sine qua non of such an agenda is to gain a quantitative understanding of the near-field behavior of the MEB exhaust-plume's quasi-cylindrical expansion, which generates a blast wave propagating away from the explosion. We report on observed electron-density signatures of this blast wave as manifested on lines-of-sight (LOSs) from a very-long-baseline interferometer (VLBI) illuminated by 137-MHz beacon signals from the MARECS-B satellite. We also compare the observations to a preliminary three-dimensional neutral-air acoustic model coupled to the ionospheric electron density.

Li, Y. Q.; Jacobson, A. R.; Carlos, R. C.; Massey, R. S.; Taranenko, Y. N.; Wu, G.

1994-12-01

36

Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

2011-11-01

37

Computational Study of Human Head Response to Primary Blast Waves of Five Levels from Three Directions  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to blast waves without any fragment impacts can still result in primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). To investigate the mechanical response of human brain to primary blast waves and to identify the injury mechanisms of bTBI, a three-dimensional finite element head model consisting of the scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, nasal cavity, and brain was developed from the imaging data set of a human female. The finite element head model was partially validated and was subjected to the blast waves of five blast intensities from the anterior, right lateral, and posterior directions at a stand-off distance of one meter from the detonation center. Simulation results show that the blast wave directly transmits into the head and causes a pressure wave propagating through the brain tissue. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is predicted to have the highest magnitude from a posterior blast wave in comparison with a blast wave from any of the other two directions with same blast intensity. The brain model predicts higher positive pressure at the site proximal to blast wave than that at the distal site. The intracranial pressure wave invariably travels into the posterior fossa and vertebral column, causing high pressures in these regions. The severities of cerebral contusions at different cerebral locations are estimated using an ICP based injury criterion. Von Mises stress prevails in the cortex with a much higher magnitude than in the internal parenchyma. According to an axonal injury criterion based on von Mises stress, axonal injury is not predicted to be a cause of primary brain injury from blasts. PMID:25409326

Wang, Chenzhi; Pahk, Jae Bum; Balaban, Carey D.; Miller, Mark C.; Wood, Adam R.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

38

Relativistic Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Plasmas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the latest of our experimental results on the interaction of a highly relativistic (v_o/c > 1), 1 ?m laser beam with an underdense (1% n_c) plasma. Of particular importance are our studies of the Raman forward scattering instability, relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing, and the influence of one upon the other. The interaction is diagnosed with Thomson scattering, backward and forward frequency-resolved optical gating and detection of electrons emitted from the plasma wave.

Clayton, C. E.; Muggli, P.; Marsh, K.; Gordon, D.; Joshi, C.; Najmudin, Z.; Modena, A.; Dangor, A. E.; Malka, V.

1996-11-01

39

Relativistic wave equations in momentum space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic equal-time wave equations obtained from field theory which describe bound states of N Dirac particles inevitably involve Casimir-type positive-energy projection operators Lambda+(i). For N>2, these operators are vital if the equations are to admit normalizable solutions. Such equations, which are of integro-differential form, have been used in the past to obtain relativistic corrections to, e.g., level shifts for a

G. Hardekopf; J. Sucher

1984-01-01

40

Numerical Study on Blast Wave Propagation Driven by Unsteady Ionization Plasma  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the dynamics of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing the available thrust and energy conversion efficiency from a pulsed laser to a blast wave in a gas-driven laser-propulsion system. The performance of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system depends heavily on the laser-driven blast wave dynamics as well as on the ionizing and/or recombining plasma state that sustains the blast wave. In this study, we therefore develop a numerical simulation code for a laser-driven blast wave coupled with time-dependent rate equations to explore the formation of unsteady ionizing plasma produced by laser irradiation. We will also examine the various properties of blast waves and unsteady ionizing plasma for different laser input energies.

Ogino, Yousuke; Sawada, Keisuke [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Center for Research Strategy and Support, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2008-04-28

41

Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20 km s-1 blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10-5 g cm-3 (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52-62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; de Grouchy, P.; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L.; Williams, R. J. R.; Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W.; Rosenberg, E.; Schrafel, P.; Kusse, B.

2014-03-01

42

Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20?km s{sup ?1} blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10{sup ?5} g cm{sup ?3} (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52–62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Williams, R. J. R. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

2014-03-15

43

A study on planar blast waves initiated by gaseous detonations. I - Estimation of initiation energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been made of the initiation of planar blast waves by gaseous detonations. A gaseous detonation initiated by a DDT process is submitted into a long tube filled with air at various initial pressures. The measurement of the decay process of a produced shock wave indicates that it can be treated as a 'plane source' blast wave, although there exists a secondary shock wave, which may be a detonation wave reflected on an end wall of a driver tube, behind the blast wave front. As a result, the decay of a propagation Mach number and a peak overpressure of the wave front as a function of a distance from the initiation source and the initial pressure of the medium are described by the quasi-similar theory of the idealized plane source blast wave. Comparing the experimental results with the theory leads to the estimation of an initiation energy of the blast wave. The initiation energies of oxyhydrogen detonations for three different mixture strengths, three different initial pressures, and two different sizes of the driver tube are estimated to show that about 30-40 percent of the chemical energy contained initially in the driver tube is used to initiate the blast wave.

Ohyagi, S.; Yoshihashi, T.; Harigaya, Y.

44

Relativistic Shock Waves in Viscous Gluon Matter  

SciTech Connect

We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in viscous gluon matter employing a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s from zero to infinity. We show that an eta/s ratio larger than 0.2 prevents the development of well-defined shock waves on time scales typical for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Comparisons with viscous hydrodynamic calculations confirm our findings.

Bouras, I.; Xu, Z.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molnar, E.; Niemi, H. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, D. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-07-17

45

Bubble merger model for the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a strong blast wave  

SciTech Connect

A bubble merger model is presented for the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a strong blast wave. Single bubble motion is determined by an extension of previous buoyancy-drag models extended to the blast wave driven case, and a simple bubble merger law in the spirit of the Sharp-Wheeler model allows for the generation of larger scales. The blast wave driven case differs in several respects from the classical case of incompressible fluids in a uniform gravitational field. Because of material decompression in the rarefaction behind the blast front, the asymptotic bubble velocity and the merger time depend on time as well as the transverse scale and the drive. For planar blast waves, this precludes the emergence of a self-similar regime independent of the initial conditions. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for the establishment of the self-similar state, but its establishment requires a very high initial characteristic mode number and a high Mach number for the incident blast wave.

Miles, A R

2004-03-18

46

Oscillations in the wake of a flare blast wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Oscillations of coronal loops in the Sun have been reported in both imaging and spectral observations at the onset of flares. Images reveal transverse oscillations, whereas spectra detect line-of-sight velocity or Doppler-shift oscillations. The Doppler-shift oscillations are commonly interpreted as longitudinal modes. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the relationship between loop dynamics and flows seen in TRACE 195 Å images and Doppler shifts observed by SUMER in Si iii 1113.2 Å and FeXIX 1118.1 Å at the time of a C.8-class limb flare and an associated CME. Methods: We carefully co-aligned the sequence of TRACE 195 Å images to structures seen in the SUMER Si iii, CaX, and FeXIX emission lines. Additionally, H? observations of a lifting prominence associated with the flare and the coronal mass ejection (CME) are available in three bands around 6563.3 Å. They give constraints on the timing and geometry. Results: Large-scale Doppler-shift oscillations in FeXIX and transverse oscillations in intensity images were observed over a large region of the corona after the passage of a wide bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbance, which suggests ionization, heating, and acceleration of hot plasma in the wake of a blast wave. The online movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org and at http://www.mps.mpg.de/data/outgoing/tothova/movie.gif

Tothova, D.; Innes, D. E.; Stenborg, G.

2011-04-01

47

A Blast Wave from the 1843 Eruption of Eta Carinae  

E-print Network

Very massive stars shed much of their mass in violent precursor eruptions as luminous blue variables (LBVs) before reaching their most likely end as supernovae, but the cause of LBV eruptions is unknown. The 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae, the prototype of these events, ejected about 12 solar masses at speeds of 650 km/s, with a kinetic energy of almost 10^50 ergs. Some faster material with speeds up to 1000-2000 km/s had previously been reported but its full distribution was unknown. Here I report observations of much faster material with speeds up to 3500-6000 km/s, reaching farther from the star than the fastest material in earlier reports. This fast material roughly doubles the kinetic energy of the 19th century event, and suggests that it released a blast wave now propagating ahead of the massive ejecta. Thus, Eta Car's outer shell now mimics a low-energy supernova remnant. The eruption has usually been discussed in terms of an extreme wind driven by the star's luminosity, but fast material reported here suggests that it was powered by a deep-seated explosion rivalling a supernova, perhaps triggered by the pulsational pair instability. This may alter interpretations of similar events seen in other galaxies.

Nathan Smith

2008-09-09

48

Message found in a gravity wave A blast from the past.  

E-print Network

FUTURES Message found in a gravity wave A blast from the past. 664 nature physics | VOL 4 | AUGUST got the idea for my gravity wave detector from a dish of green gelatin salad that Maw had set Sun. I'm using five or six stones per letter. Long story short. I made my gravity wave detector fro

Loss, Daniel

49

Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

1975-01-01

50

Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology  

PubMed Central

A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

2012-01-01

51

Computation of viscous blast wave solutions with an upwind finite volume method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully conservative, viscous, implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described with application to blast wave flow fields. In this scheme, shocks are captured without the oscillations typical of central differencing techniques and wave speeds are accurately predicted. The finite volume philosophy ensures conservation and since boundary conditions are also treated conservatively, accurate reflections of waves from surfaces are assured. Viscous terms in the governing equations are treated in a manner consistent with the finite volume philosophy, resulting in very accurate prediction of boundary layer quantities. Numerical results are presented for four viscous problems: a steady boundary layer, a shock-induced boundary layer, a blast wave/cylinder interaction and a blast wave/supersonic missile interaction. Comparisons of the results with an established boundary layer code, similarity solution, and experimental data show excellent agreement.

Molvik, Gregory A.

1987-01-01

52

Computation of viscous blast wave solutions with an upwind finite volume method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully conservative, viscous, implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described with application to blast wave flow fields. In this scheme, shocks are captured without the oscillations typical of central differencing techniques and wave speeds are accurately predicted. The finite volume philosophy ensures conservation and since boundary conditions are also treated conservatively, accurate reflections of waves from surfaces are assured. Viscous terms in the governing equations are treated in a manner consistent with the finite volume philosophy, resulting in very accurate prediction of boundary layer quantities. Numerical results are presented for four viscous problems: a steady boundary layer, a shock-induced boundary layer, a blast wave/cylinder interaction and a blast wave/supersonic missile interaction. Comparisons of the results with an established boundary layer code, similarity solution, and experimental data show excellent agreement.

Molvik, Gregory A.

1987-06-01

53

Full-Trajectory Diagnosis of Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves in Search of Thermal Plasma Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigations into the dynamics of cylindrical, laser-driven, high-Mach-number shocks are used to study the thermal cooling instability predicted to occur in astrophysical radiative blast waves. A streaked Schlieren technique measures the full blast-wave trajectory on a single-shot basis, which is key for observing shock velocity oscillations. Electron density profiles and deceleration parameters associated with radiative blast waves were recorded, enabling the calculation of important blast-wave parameters including the fraction of radiated energy, {epsilon}, as a function of time for comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations.

Moore, A. S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J. S.; Smith, R. A.; Plant, T. J. A.; Symes, D. R.; Dunne, M. [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, RG7 4PR. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Laser Consortium, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Ministry of Defence, Foxhill, Bath BA1 5AB. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX. United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

2008-02-08

54

Analysis of reflected blast wave pressure profiles in a confined room  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the blast effects of confined explosions, it is necessary to study the characteristic parameters of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and arrival time. In a previous study, experiments were performed using two different scales of a pyrotechnic workshop. The main purpose of these experiments was to compare the TNT equivalent for solid and gaseous explosives in terms of mass to define a TNT equivalent in a reflection field and to validate the similitude between real and small scales. To study the interactions and propagations of the reflected shock waves, the present study was conducted by progressively building a confined volume around the charge. In this way, the influence of each wall and the origins of the reflected shock waves can be determined. The purpose of this paper is to report the blast wave interactions that resulted from the detonation of a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture in a confined room.

Sauvan, P. E.; Sochet, I.; Trélat, S.

2012-05-01

55

Spectral properties of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We calculate the spectrum of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources, for various assumptions about the magnetic field density and the relativistic particle acceleration efficiency. For a range of physically plausible models we find that the radiation efficiency is high and leads to nonthermal spectra with breaks at various energies comparable to those observed in the gamma-ray range. Radiation is also predicted at other wavebands, in particular at X-ray, optical/UV, and GeV/TeV energies. We discuss the spectra as a function of duration for three basic types of models, and for cosmological, halo, and galactic disk distances. We also evaluate the gamma-ray fluences and the spectral characteristics for a range of external densities. Impulsive burst models at cosmological distances can satisfy the conventional X-ray paucity constraint S(sub x)/S(sub gamma)less than a few percent over a wide range of durations, but galactic models can do so only for bursts shorter than a few seconds, unless additional assumptions are made. The emissivity is generally larger for bursts in a denser external environment, with the efficiency increasing up to the point where all the energy input is radiated away.

Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.; Papathanassiou, H.

1994-01-01

56

Quick reproduction of blast-wave flow-field properties of nuclear, TNT, and ANFO explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many instances, extensive blast-wave flow-field properties are required in gasdynamics research studies of blast-wave loading and structure response, and in evaluating the effects of explosions on their environment. This report provides a very useful computer code, which can be used in conjunction with the DNA Nuclear Blast Standard subroutines and code, to quickly reconstruct complete and fairly accurate blast-wave data for almost any free-air (spherical) and surface-burst (hemispherical) nuclear, trinitrotoluene (TNT), or ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosion. This code is capable of computing all of the main flow properties as functions of radius and time, as well as providing additional information regarding air viscosity, reflected shock-wave properties, and the initial decay of the flow properties just behind the shock front. Both spatial and temporal distributions of the major blast-wave flow properties are also made readily available. Finally, provisions are also included in the code to provide additional information regarding the peak or shock-front flow properties over a range of radii, for a specific explosion of interest.

Groth, C. P. T.

1986-04-01

57

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D  

SciTech Connect

We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 {mu}m mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 {mu}m region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 {mu}m appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.

Tappe, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-72, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Mission Operations/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Micelotta, E. R., E-mail: atappe@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2012-08-01

58

DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK  

SciTech Connect

We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the ''mechanical model'' that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Hascoeet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-CNRS, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Park, Il H., E-mail: uhm@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-20

59

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

E-print Network

Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

Courtney, Michael

2011-01-01

60

Implementation of the exploding wire technique to study blast-wave-structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort invested in improving our understanding of the physics of high-energy explosion events has been steadily increasing since the latter part of the twentieth century. Moreover, the dramatic increase in computer power over the last two decades has made the numerical simulation approach the dominant tool for investigating blast phenomena and their effects. However, field tests, on both large and small scales, are still in use. In the current paper, we present an experimental tool to better resolve and study the blast-structure interaction phenomenon and to help validate the numerical simulations of the same. The experimental tool uses an exploding wire technique to generate small-scale cylindrical and spherical blast waves. This approach permits safe operation, high repeatability, and the use of advanced diagnostic systems. The system was calibrated using an analytical model, an empirical model, and numerical simulation. To insure that spherical blast geometry was achieved, a set of free air blast experiments was done in which high-speed photography was used to monitor the blast structure. A scenario in which an explosion occurred in the vicinity of a structure demonstrated the system's capabilities. Using this simple but not trivial configuration showed unequivocally the effectiveness of this tool. From this comparison, it was found that at early times of blast-structure interaction, the agreement between the two sets of results was very good, but at later times incongruences appeared. Effort has been made to interpret this observation. Furthermore, by using similitude analysis, the results obtained from the small-scale experiments can be applied to the full-scale problem. We have shown that an exploding wire system offers an inexpensive, safe, easy to operate, and effective tool for studying phenomena related to blast-wave-structure interactions.

Ram, O.; Sadot, O.

2012-11-01

61

Rankine-Hugoniot Relations in Relativistic Combustion Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index ? < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.

Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.

2012-12-01

62

Pulse shortening by RF breakdown in relativistic backward wave oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) is the suitable source for generating high power electromagnetic wave (HPEM). The RBWO has a high efficiency by means of the interaction region between a backward wave and an electron beam. However, the pulse shortening problem occurs frequently in experiments of RBWO because of the RF breakdown on rippled slow wave structure. Experimental study is

S. H. Min; H. C. Jung; S. H. Shin; G. S. Park; J. H. An; S. H. Lee; Y. J. Yoon; J. Y. Kim; W. S. Lee; J. H. So

2008-01-01

63

Double shock front formation in cylindrical radiative blast waves produced by laser irradiation of krypton gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.

Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T.

2013-12-01

64

Electromagnetic wave equations for relativistically degenerate quantum magnetoplasmas.  

PubMed

A generalized set of nonlinear electromagnetic quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations is derived for a magnetized quantum plasma, including collisional, electron spin- 1/2, and relativistically degenerate electron pressure effects that are relevant for dense astrophysical systems, such as white dwarfs. For illustrative purposes, linear dispersion relations are derived for one-dimensional magnetoacoustic waves for a collisionless nonrelativistic degenerate gas in the presence of the electron spin- 1/2 contribution and for magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma containing relativistically degenerate electrons. It is found that both the spin and relativistic degeneracy at high densities tend to slow down the magnetoacoustic wave due to the Pauli paramagnetic effect and relativistic electron mass increase. The present study outlines the theoretical framework for the investigation of linear and nonlinear behaviors of electromagnetic waves in dense astrophysical systems. The results are applied to calculate the magnetoacoustic speeds for both the nonrelativistic and relativistic electron degeneracy cases typical for white dwarf stars. PMID:20866534

Masood, Waqas; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, Padma K

2010-06-01

65

12. Blast waves and supernova remnants 12.1 Self-similarity and scales  

E-print Network

12. Blast waves and supernova remnants 12.1 Self-similarity and scales In galaxies one finds a many can arise from strong stellar winds and from stellar explosions, supernova. Supernovae are caused by run-away thermonuclear reactions that occur when stellar cores collapse. A type I supernova involves

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

66

Study on dynamic response of masonry building to blasting and natural seismic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic effect caused by blasting and natural seismic waves, which directly threatens safety of peripheral buildings, is the focus and difficulty to be solved in structural seismic field. A multi-layer masonry building was taken as analyzed object, proper resilience model and time-history method were adopted to develop a theoretical and numerical model. Based on numerical results, differences between structural dynamic

Haixia Wei; Ting Liu

2011-01-01

67

Spherical Gravitational Waves in Relativistic Theory of Gravitation  

E-print Network

Within the framework of relativistic theory of gravitation the exact spherically-symmetric wave solution is received. It is shown that this solution possesses the positive-definite energy and momentum deriving with the Fock energy-momentum density tensor of gravitational field. In this connection the sense of Birkhoff theorem in Relativistic Theory of Gravitation is discussed.

A. A. Leonovich; Yu. P. Vyblyi

2012-11-13

68

A study of combined particle and blast wave loading of structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In structural dynamics there are many instances where an appreciation of the combined effect of particulate and air blast loading are essential if an accurate prediction of structural response is to be attained. Examples include: the loading of structures via the detonation of cased munitions; the interaction of blast waves and secondary fragmentation with internal building components after an external contact explosion and the loading of vehicle bellies via the detonation of mines buried in soil. As an analytical simplification, engineers often incorporate the effect of particulate loading by applying a load factor to calculations of the blast component alone. In some cases the fragmentation, can indeed be considered as merely incidental but in others, analysis and experiments have indicated that the presence of inert matter within or in close proximity to a detonated explosive can alter the magnitude, spatial distribution and duration of loading applied to a structure. This paper describes a series of numerical simulations, conducted using the AUTODYN hydrocode, in which the effect of detonating an explosive within a matrix of particles, and the subsequent blast and particulate interaction with a target, was simulated. The total momentum transferred to a target and the spatial momentum distribution is evaluated for both mines buried under soil and confined air blasts. The momentum transferred is investigated as a function of the technique used to model particulation and detonation proximity. These comparisons offer an insight into the mechanisms by which buried blast mines load structures and lead to explanations of differences observed in thin plates deforming under simulated mine blast attacks.

Elgy, I. D.; Pope, D. J.; Pickup, I. M.

2006-08-01

69

Ion-acoustic solitary waves in relativistic plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This is a sequel to our earlier study on ion-acoustic waves studied through the augmentation to a modified Korteweg--deVries (K--dV) equation. We have derived a K--dV equation in a plasma, taking account of weakly relativistic effects, and the result shows that the solitary wave does exhibit the relativistic effect in the presence of ion streaming.

Das, G.C.; Paul, S.N.

1985-03-01

70

The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

2014-11-01

71

The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

2014-07-01

72

Images and Spectra from the Interior of a Relativistic Fireball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power-law decay of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow can be well described by synchrotron emission from a relativistic spherical blast wave, driven by an expanding fireball. We calculate the spectrum and the light curve expected from an adiabatic blast wave which is described by the Blandford-McKee self-similar solution. These calculations include emission from the whole blast wave and not just

Jonathan Granot; Tsvi Piran; Re'em Sari

1999-01-01

73

Investigation of ULF Wave Modulation of Relativistic Electron Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss processes greatly impact the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts. Balloon payloads can provide information about loss to the atmosphere through observations of bremsstrahlung x-rays emitted from precipitating relativistic electrons. The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) provides spatial and temporal information about precipitating electron events through an array of slowly drifting balloons distributed in magnetic local time and L values. Duskside relativistic electron precipitation events observed by previous balloon-borne x-ray detectors have been reported, and frequently show modulation on ULF wave timescales (Foat et al., 1998; Millan et al., 2002). Similar observations were recently made during the 2013 BARREL Campaign. Theoretical studies have suggested ULF waves are capable of precipitating relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belts (Brito et al., 2012). This study takes an observational approach to investigate the relationship between ULF waves and balloon observations of modulated duskside REP events.

Woodger, L. A.; Sample, J. G.; Millan, R. M.

2013-12-01

74

PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THE EXPANDING BLAST WAVE OF {eta} CARINA'S GREAT ERUPTION OF 1843  

SciTech Connect

Non-thermal hard X-ray and high-energy (HE; 1 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission in the direction of {eta} Carina has been recently detected using the INTEGRAL, AGILE, and Fermi satellites. So far this emission has been interpreted in the framework of particle acceleration in the colliding wind region between the two massive stars. However, the existence of a very fast moving blast wave which originates in the historical 1843 'Great Eruption' provides an alternative particle acceleration site in this system. Here, we explore an alternate scenario and find that inverse Compton emission from electrons accelerated in the blast wave can naturally explain both the flux and spectral shape of the measured hard X-ray and HE {gamma}-ray emission. This scenario is further supported by the lack of significant variability in the INTEGRAL and Fermi measured fluxes.

Ohm, S.; Domainko, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hinton, J. A., E-mail: stefan.ohm@mpi-hd.mpg.d, E-mail: wilfried.domainko@mpi-hd.mpg.d, E-mail: jim.hinton@leicester.ac.u [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-08-01

75

Nonlinear growth of dynamical overstabilities in blast waves. [effects on supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical gasdynamics code ZEUS-2D is used to directly model the dynamical overstabilities in blast waves. The linear analysis is confirmed by perturbing a blast wave with a low-amplitude eigenfunction of the overstability. The amplitude of the perturbations is increased in order to determine the nonlinear behavior of the overstabilities. The overstability is found to saturate due to weak transverse shocks in the shell. Transverse velocities in the dense shell reach the postshock sound speed, and high-density regions with sizes of the order of the shell thickness form. Transverse oscillations continue even after saturation. This confirms and explains the damping of the overstability experimentally discovered by Grun et al. (1991).

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Norman, Michael L.

1993-01-01

76

Simulation of the reflected blast wave from a C-4 charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 ?m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 7 ranges (GR = 0, 5.08, 10.16, 15.24, 20.32, 25.4, and 30.48 cm) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 5 cm), which were dominated by jetting effects.

Howard, W. Michael; Kuhl, Allen L.; Tringe, Joseph

2012-03-01

77

Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex-lattice method, unsteady suction analogy, and Pade approximate. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.

Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.

1983-01-01

78

Constraints on the non-thermal emission from ? Carinae's blast wave of 1843  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-thermal hard X-ray and high-energy (HE; 1 MeV < E < 100 GeV) ?-ray emission in the direction of ? Carinae has been recently detected using the INTEGRAL, AGILE and Fermi satellites. This emission has been interpreted either in the framework of particle acceleration in the colliding wind region between the two massive stars or in the very fast moving blast wave which originates in the historical 1843 "great eruption". Archival Chandra data has been reanalysed to search for signatures of particle acceleration in ? Carinae's blast wave. No shell-like structure could be detected in hard X-rays and a limit has been placed on the non-thermal X-ray emission from the shell. The time dependence of the target radiation field of the Homunculus is used to develop a single zone model for the blast wave. Attempting to reconcile the X-ray limit with the HE ?-ray emission using this model leads to a very hard electron injection spectrum dN/dE ? E - ? with ? < 1.8, harder than the canonical value expected from diffusive shock acceleration.

Skilton, J. L.; Domainko, W.; Hinton, J. A.; Jones, D. I.; Ohm, S.; Urquhart, J. S.

2012-03-01

79

Relativistic scattered wave calculations on UF6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-consistent Dirac-Slater multiple scattering calculations are presented for UF6. The results are compared critically to other relativistic calculations, showing that the results of all molecular orbital calculations are in qualitative agreement, as measured by energy levels, population analyses, and spin-orbit splittings. A detailed comparison is made to the relativistic X alpha(RX alpha) method of Wood and Boring, which also uses multiple scattering theory, but incorporates relativistic effects in a more approximate fashion. For the most part, the RX alpha results are in agreement with the present results.

Case, D. A.; Yang, C. Y.

1980-01-01

80

Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

1987-09-01

81

Modeling nonlinear acoustical blast waves outdoors: A research summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Current techniques for predicting sound propagation outdoors do not accurately model the physics of very loud sounds (over 150 dB), where the mathematics governing the sound propagation become nonlinear. As a result, Army installations need to measure and characterize impulse noises from actual blasts to anticipate environmental impacts of military operations on neighboring communities. This report summarizes research that developed and verified a numerical method to model nonlinear acoustical blast waves, and investigated the interaction between the finite amplitude blast waves and a natural ground surface. Absorbing boundary conditions were also developed to allow for a numerical solution on a relatively small computational domain. It was determined that, as the finite amplitude effects are increased, the effect of a finite ground impedance is decreased. Since this relationship is itself nonlinear, this implies that the practice of simply adding finite amplitude effects and ground surface effects to find sound levels is not valid. Linear extrapolations and techniques should only be used where linear acoustics are applicable.

Sparrow, V.W.

1991-09-01

82

A parametric approach to shape field-relevant blast wave profiles in compressed-gas-driven shock tube.  

PubMed

Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1-3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68-1209.68?mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained from the shock tube. To conclude, our experimental results demonstrate that a compressed-gas shock tube when designed and operated carefully can replicate the blast time profiles of field explosions accurately. Such a faithful replication is an essential first step when studying the effects of blast induced neurotrauma using animal models. PMID:25520701

Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

2014-01-01

83

A Parametric Approach to Shape Field-Relevant Blast Wave Profiles in Compressed-Gas-Driven Shock Tube  

PubMed Central

Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1–3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68–1209.68?mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained from the shock tube. To conclude, our experimental results demonstrate that a compressed-gas shock tube when designed and operated carefully can replicate the blast time profiles of field explosions accurately. Such a faithful replication is an essential first step when studying the effects of blast induced neurotrauma using animal models. PMID:25520701

Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

2014-01-01

84

Modelling the 2010 blast wave of the symbiotic-like nova V407 Cygni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symbiotic-like binary Mira and nova V407 Cyg was observed in outburst in 2010 March and monitored in several wavelength bands. The outburst had, to some extent, characteristics similar to those observed during other nova eruptions, such as that occurred recently in RS Oph and U Sco, suggesting that the blast wave interacted with the giant companion and propagated through a dense circumstellar medium enveloping the binary system. Here we report on multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations describing the 2010 outburst of V407 Cyg, exploring the first 60 d of evolution. The model takes into account thermal conduction (including the effects of heat flux saturation) and radiative cooling; the pre-explosion system conditions included the companion star and a circumbinary density enhancement that are believed to influence the evolution and morphology of the blast wave. The simulations showed that the blast and the ejecta distribution are both aspherical due to the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium in which they expand; in particular, they are significantly collimated in polar directions (producing a bipolar shock morphology) if the circumstellar envelope is characterized by an equatorial density enhancement. The blast is partially shielded by the Mira companion, producing a wake with dense and hot post-shock plasma on the rear side of the companion star; most of the X-ray emission produced during the evolution of the blast arises from this plasma structure. The observed X-ray light curve can be reproduced, assuming values of outburst energy and ejected mass similar to those of RS Oph and U Sco, if a circumbinary gas density enhancement is included in the model. In particular, our 'best-fitting' model predicts that the 2010 blast propagated through a circumbinary gas density enhancement with radius of the order of 40 au and gas density ?106 cm-3 and that the mass of ejecta in the outburst was Mej? 2 × 10-7 M? with an explosion energy E0? 2 × 1044 erg. Alternatively, the model can produce a similar X-ray light curve without the need of a circumbinary gas density enhancement only if the outburst energy and ejected mass were similar to those at the upper end of ranges for classical novae, namely Mej? 5 × 10-5 M? and E0? 5 × 1046 erg.

Orlando, Salvatore; Drake, Jeremy J.

2012-01-01

85

Macro-mechanical modelling of blast wave mitigation in foams. Part I: review of available experiments and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase flows, which involve compressible or incompressible fluids with linear or nonlinear dynamics, are found in all areas of technology at all length scales and flow regimes. In this contribution, we discuss application of aqueous-foam barriers against blast wave impact. The first experiments demonstrating this behaviour were conducted in the early 1980s in free-field tests. Based on structural requirements, various foams with different blast energy contents were tested with the aim of characterizing the time history of the blast pressure reduction. A number of consistent methodologies for calculating this pressure reduction in foam are based on the effective gas flow model. For estimating the uncertainties of these methodologies, we briefly demonstrate their comparison with existing experimental data. Thereafter, we present various modifications of modelling approaches and their comparison with new results of blast wave experiments.

Britan, A.; Shapiro, H.; Liverts, M.; Ben-Dor, G.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.

2013-02-01

86

Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.  

PubMed

A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study. PMID:25413615

Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

2015-12-01

87

Minimal position-velocity uncertainty wave packets in relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

We consider wave packets of free particles with a general energy-momentum dispersion relation E(p). The spreading of the wave packet is determined by the velocity v={partial_derivative}{sub p}E. The position-velocity uncertainty relation {delta}x{delta}v{>=}1/2 |<{partial_derivative}{sub p}{sup 2}E>| is saturated by minimal uncertainty wave packets {phi}(p)=Aexp(-{alpha}E(p)+{beta}p). In addition to the standard minimal Gaussian wave packets corresponding to the non-relativistic dispersion relation E(p)=p{sup 2}/2m, analytic calculations are presented for the spreading of wave packets with minimal position-velocity uncertainty product for the lattice dispersion relation E(p)=-cos(pa)/ma{sup 2} as well as for the relativistic dispersion relation E(p)={radical}(p{sup 2}+m{sup 2}). The boost properties of moving relativistic wave packets as well as the propagation of wave packets in an expanding Universe are also discussed.

Al-Hashimi, M.H. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)], E-mail: hashimi@itp.unibe.ch; Wiese, U.-J. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

2009-12-15

88

Bernstein wave in relativistic plasma with arbitrary energy anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bernstein wave (BW) in a magnetized relativistic plasma is discussed in detail for a particular choice of distribution function1 that permits an exact analytical reduction of the dispersion relation for arbitrary energy anisotropy. The resulting dispersion relation is solved numerically in order to highlight the effect of energy anisotropy and the relativistic effects on the propagation characteristics of BW. The oscillatory character of the Bessel function appears due to the particular choice of the distribution function and thus changes the propagation characteristics significantly for short wavelengths (i.e., perpendicular wavelength is smaller than Larmour radius k?>1 ). However, for longer wavelengths, these characteristics show a trend similar to the Maxwellian distribution. The dispersion relations for the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic regimes are also obtained. The anisotropy provides a free energy to make the Bernstein wave unstable satisfying the threshold condition due to oscillatory character of the Bessel functions. Our result may prove useful for a wide range of applications e.g., for magnetized relativistic plasma environments such as astrophysical and space plasmas, laboratory plasmas with intense rf heating and for relativistic electron beams used for microwave generation. 1. P. H. Yoon and R.C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. A, 35, 2619 (1987).

Bashir, M.; Hirose, A.; Murtaza, G.; Noreen, N.; Tahir, I.

2012-12-01

89

Surfatron acceleration of a relativistic particle by electromagnetic plane wave  

E-print Network

We study motion of a relativistic charged particle in a plane slow electromagnetic wave and background uniform magnetic field. The wave propagates normally to the background field. Under certain conditions, the resonance between the wave and the Larmor motion of the particle is possible. Capture into this resonance results in acceleration of the particle along the wave front (surfatron acceleration). We analyse the phenomenon of capture and show that a captured particle never leaves the resonance and its energy infinitely grows. Scattering on the resonance is also studied. We find that this scattering results in diffusive growth of the particle energy. Finally, we estimate energy losses due to radiation by an accelerated particle.

A. I. Neishtadt; A. A. Vasiliev; A. V. Artemyev

2010-11-09

90

Biomechanical assessment of brain dynamic responses due to blast pressure waves.  

PubMed

A mechanized and integrated computational scheme is introduced to determine the human brain responses in an environment where the human head is exposed to explosions from trinitrotoluene (TNT), or other high-yield explosives, in military applications. The procedure is based on a three-dimensional (3-D) non-linear finite element method (FEM) that implements a simultaneous conduction of explosive detonation, shock wave propagation, blast-head interactions, and the confronting human head. The processes of blast propagation in the air and blast interaction with the head are modeled by an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) multi-material FEM formulation, together with a penalty-based fluid/structure interaction (FSI) algorithm. Such a model has already been successfully validated against experimental data regarding air-free blast and plate-blast interactions. The human head model is a 3-D geometrically realistic configuration that has been previously validated against the brain intracranial pressure (ICP), as well as shear and principal strains under different impact loadings of cadaveric experimental tests of Hardy et al. [Hardy W. N., C. Foster, M. Mason, S. Chirag, J. Bishop, M. Bey, W. Anderst, and S. Tashman. A study of the response of the human cadaver head to impact. Proc. 51 ( st ) Stapp. Car Crash J. 17-80, 2007]. Different scenarios have been assumed to capture an appropriate picture of the brain response at a constant stand-off distance of nearly 80 cm from the core of the explosion, but exposed to different amounts of a highly explosive (HE) material such as TNT. The over-pressures at the vicinity of the head are in the range of about 2.4-8.7 atmosphere (atm), considering the reflected pressure from the head. The methodology provides brain ICP, maximum shear stresses and maximum principal strain within the milli-scale time frame of this highly dynamic phenomenon. While focusing on the two mechanical parameters of pressure, and also on the maximum shear stress and maximum principal strain to predict the brain injury, the research provides an assessment of the brain responses to different amounts of over-pressure. The research also demonstrates the ability to predict the ICP, as well as the stress and strain within the brain, due to such an event. The research cannot identify, however, the specific levels of ICP, stress and strain that necessarily lead to traumatic brain injury (TBI) because there is no access to experimental data regarding head-blast interactions. PMID:19806456

Chafi, M S; Karami, G; Ziejewski, M

2010-02-01

91

THE Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role in supernovae (SNe) evolution from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of stellar systems. We consider the simpler idealized problem of an interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a central blast wave. Where valid, the existence of unified solutions suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end, we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models that include effects of divergence and compressibility. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth model. Loss of memory of initial conditions (ICs) can occur in the model, but requires pre-explosion mode numbers higher than predicted for Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low modes dominate, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, the structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes exist in the ICs, the contribution from the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability is significant compared to RT. Such RM growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in Tycho. Laser-driven laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

Miles, Aaron R.

2009-05-01

92

The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure  

SciTech Connect

Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

Miles, A R

2008-05-27

93

An X-ray-emitting blast wave from the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi.  

PubMed

Stellar explosions such as novae and supernovae produce most of the heavy elements in the Universe. The onset of a nova is well understood as driven by runaway thermonuclear fusion reactions on the surface of a white dwarf in a binary star system; but the structure, dynamics and mass of the ejecta are not well known. In rare cases, the white dwarf is embedded in the wind nebula of a red-giant companion, and the explosion products plough through the nebula and produce X-ray emission. Here we report X-ray observations of such an event, from the eruption of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. The hard X-ray emission from RS Ophiuchi early in the eruption emanates from behind a blast wave, or outward-moving shock wave, that expanded freely for less than 2 days and then decelerated owing to interaction with the nebula. The X-rays faded rapidly, suggesting that the blast wave deviates from the standard spherical shell structure. The early onset of deceleration indicates that the ejected shell had a low mass, the white dwarf has a high mass, and that RS Ophiuchi is therefore a progenitor of the type of supernova (type Ia) integral to studies of the expansion of the Universe. PMID:16855584

Sokoloski, J L; Luna, G J M; Mukai, K; Kenyon, Scott J

2006-07-20

94

Ion acoustic shock waves in weakly relativistic multicomponent quantum plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion acoustic Shock waves (IASWs) are studied in an collisionless unmagnetized relativistic quantum electron-positron-ion(e-p-i) plasma employing the quantum hydro -dynamic(QHD) model. Korteweg-deVries- Burger equation(KdVB) is derived using small amplitude perturbation expansion method to study the nonlinear propagation of the quantum IASWs. It is found that the coefficients of the KdVB equation are significantely modified by the positron density p, relativistic factor(Ur), temperatures ?, kinematic viscosity ? and quantum factor(H).

Gill, T. S.; Bains, A. S.; Bedi, C.

2010-02-01

95

Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows  

E-print Network

We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.

Sapountzis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

96

Parametric instability of a relativistically strong electromagnetic wave.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave that is strong enough to make plasma electrons, but not ions, relativistic is studied. Small perturbations are considered which propagate parallel to the large-amplitude driver. A relativistically strong wave can be unstable on time scales as short as twice its own oscillation period, and decays into a forward-going plasma oscillation and either one or two electromagnetic waves. Ion motion introduces an additional instability which can be important at short perturbation wavelengths, where the driver would otherwise be stable. The unstable ion and electron modes both have potential for producing anomalously large acceleration of relativistic particles, as well as significant amounts of backscattered light. These effects may be important in two applications: (1) the use of intense lasers to heat or compress plasma, and (2) the plasma surrounding a pulsar, if the pulsar is losing energy by radiation of electromagnetic waves at its rotation frequency. Instability persists in the nonrelativistic regime, reducing to stimulated Raman scattering as a special case.

Max, C. E.

1973-01-01

97

Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.

Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad

2014-03-01

98

Chaotic Motion of Relativistic Electrons Driven by Whistler Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Canonical equations governing an electron motion in electromagnetic field of the whistler mode waves propagating along the direction of an ambient magnetic field are derived. The physical processes on which the equations of motion are based .are identified. It is shown that relativistic electrons interacting with these fields demonstrate chaotic motion, which is accompanied by the particle stochastic heating and significant pitch angle diffusion. Evolution of distribution functions is described by the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. It is shown that the whistler mode waves could provide a viable mechanism for stochastic energization of electrons with energies up to 50 MeV in the Jovian magnetosphere.

Khazanov, G. V.; Telnikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, Tatiana K.

2007-01-01

99

Relativistic (covariant) kinetic theory of linear plasma waves and instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental kinetic description is of vital importance in high-energy astrophysics and fusion plasmas where wave phenomena evolve on scales small comparing with binary collision scales. A rigorous relativistic analysis is required even for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures for which the classical theory yielded unphysical results: e.g. collisonless damping of superluminal waves (phase velocity exceeds the speed of light). The existing nonrelativistic approaches are now improved by covariantly correct dispersion theory. As an important application, the Weibel instability has been recently investigated and confirmed as the source of primordial magnetic field in the intergalactic medium.

Lazar, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); 'Alexandru Ioan Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 6600 Iasi (Romania); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Centre for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2006-06-19

100

Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

2011-08-01

101

Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011)], Schmitz and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013)], and Pechhacker and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012)], in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal Doppler-shifted relativistic resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves, while a small but sufficient fraction is going into L- and R-electromagnetic modes.

Skender, M.; Tsiklauri, D.

2014-04-01

102

Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011)], Schmitz and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013)], and Pechhacker and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012)], in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal Doppler-shifted relativistic resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves, while a small but sufficient fraction is going into L- and R-electromagnetic modes.

Skender, M.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15

103

On plane waves in diluted relativistic cold plasmas  

E-print Network

We briefly report on some exact results [G. Fiore, arXiv:1312.4665 preprint, to appear in J. Phys. A] regarding plane waves in a relativistic cold plasma. If the plasma, initially at rest, is reached by a transverse plane electromagnetic travelling-wave, then its motion has a very simple dependence on this wave in the limit of zero density, otherwise can be determined by an iterative procedure whose accuracy decreases with time or the plasma density. Thus one can describe in particular the impact of a very intense and short laser pulse onto a plasma and determine conditions for the "slingshot effect" [G. Fiore, R. Fedele, U. De Angelis, arXiv:1309.1400 preprint] to occur. The motion in vacuum of a charged test particle subject to a wave of the same kind is also determined, for any initial velocity.

Gaetano Fiore

2014-05-01

104

Brain Response to Primary Blast Wave Using Validated Finite Element Models of Human Head and Advanced Combat Helmet  

PubMed Central

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a “signature injury” in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27–0.66?MPa) from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP) in the head ranged from 0.68 to 1.8?MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10–35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44%) was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%). The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence “iso-damage” curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves for lung injury. PMID:23935591

Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

2013-01-01

105

Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

2012-02-01

106

ON THE AMPLIFICATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD BY A SUPERNOVA BLAST SHOCK WAVE IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

We have performed extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the amplification of magnetic fields when a supernova blast wave propagates into a turbulent interstellar plasma. The blast wave is driven by injecting high pressure in the simulation domain. The interstellar magnetic field can be amplified by two different processes, occurring in different regions. One is facilitated by the fluid vorticity generated by the 'rippled' shock front interacting with the background turbulence. The resulting turbulent flow keeps amplifying the magnetic field, consistent with earlier work. The other process is facilitated by the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked medium. This can efficiently amplify the magnetic field and tends to produce the highest magnetic field. We investigate the dependence of the amplification on numerical parameters such as grid-cell size and on various physical parameters. We show that the magnetic field has a characteristic radial profile such that the downstream magnetic field gets progressively stronger away from the shock. This is because the downstream magnetic field needs a finite time to reach the efficient amplification, and will get further amplified in the Rayleigh-Taylor region. In our simulation, we do not observe a systematic strong magnetic field within a small distance to the shock. This indicates that if the magnetic-field amplification in supernova remnants indeed occurs near the shock front, other processes such as three-dimensional instabilities, plasma kinetics, and/or cosmic ray effect may need to be considered to explain the strong magnetic field in supernova remnants.

Guo Fan; Li Shengtai; Li Hui; Li, David [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Giacalone, Joe; Jokipii, J. R. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-03-10

107

Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.  

PubMed

The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment. PMID:23145587

Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

2012-11-01

108

Dual Band Relativistic Backward Wave Oscillator with Gaussian Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating dual-band signals using a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a two-section slow wave structure is attractive to many applications such as plasma diagnostics and sounding systems. Using different sections in the RBWO provides a change of the synchronism conditions and as a result two microwave frequencies at C-band and X-band have been produced at the output. The synchronism condition can be provided by variation of the corrugated waveguide period. In this abstract, a two-spiral corrugated and a sinusoidal structures have been used as two sections to produce the frequency bands. The slow wave structures have been designed analytically and the simulation results verified the analytics. The RBWO is generating a microwave signal that propagates backwards, so the two-spiral corrugated structure acts as a reflector. This reflector gives the ability to extract the signals azimuthally. Two dominant frequencies at 7GHz and 10GHz have been found with a microwave power of megawatts and with a Gaussian beam. The simulations show that the two beam-wave interaction regions work independently. The fully electromagnetic, fully relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAGIC was used to simulate the device with a voltage pulse 460kV and with a 2T axial magnetic field.

Elfrgani, Ahmed; Vadiee, Ehsan; Prasad, Sarita; Fuks, Mikhail; Schamiloglu, Edl

2012-10-01

109

EFFECT OF INTERACTING RAREFACTION WAVES ON RELATIVISTICALLY HOT JETS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of rarefaction acceleration on the propagation dynamics and structure of relativistically hot jets is studied through relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. We emphasize the nonlinear interaction of rarefaction waves excited at the interface between a cylindrical jet and the surrounding medium. From simplified one-dimensional (1D) models with radial jet structure, we find that a decrease in the relativistic pressure due to the interacting rarefaction waves in the central zone of the jet transiently yields a more powerful boost of the bulk jet than that expected from single rarefaction acceleration. This leads to a cyclic in situ energy conversion between thermal and bulk kinetic energies, which induces radial oscillating motion of the jet. The oscillation timescale is characterized by the initial pressure ratio of the jet to the ambient medium and follows a simple scaling relation, {tau}{sub oscillation}{proportional_to}(P{sub jet,0}/P{sub amb,0}){sup 1/2}. Extended two-dimensional simulations confirm that this radial oscillating motion in the 1D system manifests as modulation of the structure of the jet in a more realistic situation where a relativistically hot jet propagates through an ambient medium. We find that when the ambient medium has a power-law pressure distribution, the size of the reconfinement region along the propagation direction of the jet in the modulation structure {lambda} evolves according to a self-similar relation {lambda}{proportional_to}t{sup {alpha}/2}, where {alpha} is the power-law index of the pressure distribution.

Matsumoto, Jin; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Masada, Youhei, E-mail: jin@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of System Informatics, Department of Computational Science, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)

2012-06-01

110

Investigating EMIC Waves as a Precipitation Mechanism for Relativistic Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss processes greatly impact the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts. In 1996, a balloon-borne germanium detector flown over Kiruna, Sweden detected the first terrestrial X-rays with energies on the order of 1 MeV. The spectrum for these bursts was very flat, consistent with bremsstrahlung emissions from relativistic electron precipitation (REP) into Earth's atmosphere. A subsequent balloon campaign, MAXIS, launched from Antarctica in Jan. of 2000, showed that REP represents a significant loss process in the outer radiation belts. Because of the duskside location of these events, it was hypothesized that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves may be the scattering mechanism. Theoretical studies have indicated wave-particle interactions of electron with EMIC waves as a major precipitation mechanism. However, observational studies have not conclusively demonstrated that EMIC waves are the primary loss mechanism for duskside REP. This dissertation investigates whether EMIC waves are the precipitation mechanism for duskside relativistic electron precipitation. As part of this investigation, the MINIS balloon campaign was conducted in January of 2005 to obtain the first multi-point measurements, of REP. Two REP events, one from MAXIS and one from the MINIS balloon observations, are selected for a detailed study. Supporting spacecraft wave observations show magnetospheric conditions are favorable for wave growth. A linear dispersion code solver, WHAMP, along with satellite measurements are used to show what conditions are needed to drive the minimum resonant electron energy low enough to be comparable with REP observations. Comparison of these energies with results from the cold dispersion relation shows the cold plasma approximation is a good approximation for frequencies far from the ion cyclotron frequency. Evidence that supports EMIC waves as the precipitation mechanism for REP such as proton precipitation concurrent with MINIS REP events and relative location to cold plasmaspheric regions will be presented. Finally, ULF modulation of the precipitation that has been previously reported is investigated to show that toroidal mode waves are most likely the waves linked to the modulation in the balloon detected REP.

Woodger, Leslie A.

111

Electrostatic rogue-waves in relativistically degenerate plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate the modulational instability and the possibility of electrostatic rogue-wave propagations in a completely degenerate plasma with arbitrary degree of degeneracy, i.e., relativistically degenerate plasma, ranging from solid density to the astrophysical compact stars. The hydrodynamic approach along with the perturbation method is used to reduce the governing equations to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation from which the modulational instability, the growth rate of envelope excitations and the occurrence of rogue as well as super-rogue waves in the plasma, is evaluated. It is observed that the modulational instability in a fully degenerate plasma can be quite sensitive to the plasma number-density and the wavenumber of envelop excitations. It is further revealed that the relativistically degeneracy plasmas (R{sub 0}?>?1) are almost always modulationally unstable. It is found, however, that the highly energetic sharply localized electrostatic rogue as well as super-rogue waves can exist in the astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron star crusts. The later may provide a link to understand many physical processes in such stars and it may lead us to the origin of the random-localized intense short gamma-ray bursts, which “appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace” quite similar to oceanic rogue structures.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15

112

Modeling blast waves, gas and particles dispersion in urban and hilly ground areas.  

PubMed

The numerical simulation of shock and blast waves as well as particles dispersion in highly heterogeneous media such as cities, urban places, industrial plants and part of countries is addressed. Examples of phenomena under study are chemical gas products dispersion from damaged vessels, gas dispersion in urban places under explosion conditions, shock wave propagation in urban environment. A three-dimensional simulation multiphase flow code (HI2LO) is developed in this aim. To simplify the consideration of complex geometries, a heterogeneous discrete formulation is developed. When dealing with large scale domains, such as countries, the topography is considered with the help of elevation data. Meteorological conditions are also considered, in particular regarding complex temperature and wind profiles. Heat and mass transfers on sub-scale objects, such as buildings, trees and other obstacles are considered as well. Particles motion is addressed through a new turbulence model involving a single parameter to describe accurately plumes. Validations against experiments in basic situations are presented as well as examples of industrial and environmental computations. PMID:25199503

Hank, S; Saurel, R; Le Métayer, O; Lapébie, E

2014-09-15

113

Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum  

E-print Network

We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

Chee Leong Ching; Wei Khim Ng

2013-11-15

114

A powerful reflector in relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

An improved TM{sub 021} resonant reflector is put forward. Similarly with most of the slow wave structures used in relativistic backward wave oscillator, the section plane of the proposed reflector is designed to be trapezoidal. Compared with the rectangular TM{sub 021} resonant reflector, such a structure can depress RF breakdown more effectively by weakening the localized field convergence and realizing good electrostatic insulation. As shown in the high power microwave (HPM) generation experiments, with almost the same output power obtained by the previous structure, the improved structure can increase the pulse width from 25?ns to over 27?ns and no obvious surface damage is observed even if the generated HPM pulses exceed 1000 shots.

Cao, Yibing, E-mail: caoyibing@nint.ac.cn; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Lijun; Shi, Yanchao; Ye, Hu; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

2014-09-15

115

Relativistic shock waves and the excitation of plerions  

SciTech Connect

The shock termination of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic wind from a pulsar is the most interesting and viable model for the excitation of the synchrotron sources observed in plerionic supernova remnants. We have studied the structure of relativistic magnetosonic shock waves in plasmas composed purely of electrons and positrons, as well as those whose composition includes heavy ions as a minority constituent by number. We find that relativistic shocks in symmetric pair plasmas create fully thermalized distributions of particles and fields downstream. Therefore, such shocks are not good candidates for the mechanism which converts rotational energy lost from a pulsar into the nonthermal synchrotron emission observed in plerions. However, when the upstream wind contains heavy ions which are minority constituent by number density, but carry the bulk of the energy density, much of the energy of the shock goes into a downstream, nonthermal power law distribution of positrons with energy distribution N(E)dE {proportional to}E{sup {minus}s}. In a specific model presented in some detail, s = 3. These characteristics are close to those assumed for the pairs in macroscopic MHD wind models of plerion excitation. The essential mechanism is collective synchrotron emission of left-handed extraordinary modes by the ions in the shock front at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, with the downstream positrons preferentially absorbing almost all of this radiation, mostly at their fundamental (relativistic) cyclotron frequencies. Possible applications to models of plerions and to constraints on theories of energy loss from pulsars are briefly outlines. 27 refs., 5 figs.

Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Gallant, Y.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Hoshino, Masahiro; Max, C.E. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1991-01-07

116

Hybrid multi-wave model for relativistic plasma--wave interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid fluid-particle model is presented for relativistic beam--plasma interaction. The derivation is based on a Lagrangian for multiple waves and particles, and a slowly varying amplitude approximation and results in a finite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations for the wave amplitudes and the particle coordinates and momenta. The system is three-dimensional and relativistic. The model can be used for studying electron acceleration in a plasma channel. The problems considered are growth and saturation of the plasma wave, energy spectrum, and beat wave resonance when two electromagnetic waves and one electrostatic wave are present. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic to electrostatic waves is considered. When the amplitudes of the electromagnetic waves are small, this transfer is achieved through the beam particles. [1] E.G. Evstatiev, W. Horton, and P.J. Morrison. Phys. Plasmas 10, No. 10, pp. 4090-4094 (2003), [2]C.B.Schroeder, P.B. Lee, J.S. Wurtele, E. Esarey, and W.P. Leemans. Phys. Rev. E 59, No.5, pp. 6037-6047 (1999) .

Evstatiev, Evstati; Horton, Wendell; Morrison, Philip

2004-11-01

117

RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS: RENORMALIZED EIGENVECTORS AND FULL WAVE DECOMPOSITION RIEMANN SOLVER  

SciTech Connect

We obtain renormalized sets of right and left eigenvectors of the flux vector Jacobians of the relativistic MHD equations, which are regular and span a complete basis in any physical state including degenerate ones. The renormalization procedure relies on the characterization of the degeneracy types in terms of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field to the wave front in the fluid rest frame. Proper expressions of the renormalized eigenvectors in conserved variables are obtained through the corresponding matrix transformations. Our work completes previous analysis that present different sets of right eigenvectors for non-degenerate and degenerate states, and can be seen as a relativistic generalization of earlier work performed in classical MHD. Based on the full wave decomposition (FWD) provided by the renormalized set of eigenvectors in conserved variables, we have also developed a linearized (Roe-type) Riemann solver. Extensive testing against one- and two-dimensional standard numerical problems allows us to conclude that our solver is very robust. When compared with a family of simpler solvers that avoid the knowledge of the full characteristic structure of the equations in the computation of the numerical fluxes, our solver turns out to be less diffusive than HLL and HLLC, and comparable in accuracy to the HLLD solver. The amount of operations needed by the FWD solver makes it less efficient computationally than those of the HLL family in one-dimensional problems. However, its relative efficiency increases in multidimensional simulations.

Anton, Luis; MartI, Jose M; Ibanez, Jose M; Aloy, Miguel A.; Mimica, Petar [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Miralles, Juan A. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d'Alacant, Ap. Correus 99, 03080 Alacant (Spain)

2010-05-01

118

Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157

Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2014-07-15

119

Combined three-dimensional finite-difference and integral method. [Blast wave loading on rigid four-sided structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined integral, explicit finite-difference method is presented. The example calculation predicts the three-dimensional compressible blast wave loading on a rigid four-sided structure. Previous techniques for the inviscid slip flow pressure loading on such structures include a variety of linear interpolation and extrapolation techniques to predict the transient pressure distribution on the structure walls. The present approach introduced a combination

A. C. Buckingham; N. K. Birnbaum

1976-01-01

120

Another self-similar blast wave: Early time asymptote with shock heated electrons and high thermal conductivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate approximations are presented for the self-similar structures of nonradiating blast waves with adiabatic ions, isothermal electrons, and equation ion and electron temperatures at the shock. The cases considered evolve in cavities with power law ambient densities (including the uniform density case) and have negligible external pressure. The results provide the early time asymptote for systems with shock heating of electrons and strong thermal conduction. In addition, they provide analytical results against which two fluid numerical hydrodynamic codes can be checked.

Cox, D. P.; Edgar, R. J.

1982-01-01

121

Linear wave dispersion laws in unmagnetized relativistic plasma: Analytical and numerical results  

E-print Network

plasma frequency pe , Debye wave number kD and the thermal velocity vth,e is established. The approximate of the plasma frequency and thermal velocity, which can then be used in the approximate relativistic dispersionLinear wave dispersion laws in unmagnetized relativistic plasma: Analytical and numerical results

122

Wave Function Orthogonality in Relativistic Nucleon Knockout Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleon knockout reactions such as (e,e'N) and (?,N) are usually treated using the Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA). The standard DWIA amplitude suffers from an orthogonality defect which results from the use of nucleon continuum and bound state wave functions that belong to different Hamiltonians. In the past this problem has been discussed mainly within the framework of a nonrelativistic calculation of the amplitude. In the present work, we study the effect of nonorthogonality in the relativistic treatment of the above reactions. The continuum nucleon wave function is made orthogonal to the relevant bound states using the Gram-Schmidt procedure.The orthogonality effects are found to be negligible for (e,e'p) reactions for missing momenta up to 700 MeV/c,for all the three standard coplanar kinematics. By contrast the orthogonalization of the wave functions appears to have a more pronounced effect in the case of (?,p) reactions, particularly at large angles. For these reactions, the spin dependent observables show more sensitivity than the cross sections.

Sherif, H. S.; Johansson, J. I.

1999-10-01

123

First Principles Calculations of the Interaction of Blast Waves with Aqueous Foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations using the two-dimensional ARA SHARC code was made with the objective of understanding the behavior of aqueous foams in the presence of a C-4 generated blast wave. A full three-phase water equation of state was incorporated in the first calculation. Comparison of the results of the first calculation with experimental data indicated that the interaction was more complicated than could be represented by a mixture of detonation products, air and water in local temperature, and pressure equilibrium. Other models were incorporated in the code to examine the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between water and the gasses. An additional model was incorporated in the calculations which allowed for two-phase flow. Another model was incorporated to dynamically reduce the droplet size as a function of the shear velocities encountered. Conclusions are drawn based on the relative improvement of the agreement between calculated results and various parameters in the experimental data.

Crepeau, Joseph; Needham, Charles; Caipen, Terry; Harper, Fred

1999-06-01

124

Numerical simulation of long-duration blast wave evolution in confined facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research effort was to investigate the quasi-steady flow field produced by explosives in confined facilities. In this effort we modeled tests in which a high explosive (HE) cylindrical charge was hung in the center of a room and detonated. The HEs used for the tests were C-4 and AFX 757. While C-4 is just slightly under-oxidized and is typically modeled as an ideal explosive, AFX 757 includes a significant percentage of aluminum particles, so long-time afterburning and energy release must be considered. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-produced thermo-chemical equilibrium algorithm, “Cheetah”, was used to estimate the remaining burnable detonation products. From these remaining species, the afterburning energy was computed and added to the flow field. Computations of the detonation and afterburn of two HEs in the confined multi-room facility were performed. The results demonstrate excellent agreement with available experimental data in terms of blast wave time of arrival, peak shock amplitude, reverberation, and total impulse (and hence, total energy release, via either the detonation or afterburn processes.

Togashi, F.; Baum, J. D.; Mestreau, E.; Löhner, R.; Sunshine, D.

2010-10-01

125

Moving shocks through metallic grids: their interaction and potential for blast wave mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations and laboratory measurements have been used to illuminate the interaction of a moving shock wave impacting on metallic grids at various shock strengths and grid solidities. The experimental work was carried out in a large scale shock tube facility while computational work simulated the flow field with a time-dependent inviscid and a time-dependent viscous model. The pressure drop measured across the grids is a result of two phenomena which are associated with the impact of the shock on the metallic grids. First are the reflection and refraction of the incoming shock on the grid itself. This appears to be the main inviscid mechanism associated with the reduction of the strength of the transmitted shock. Second, viscous phenomena are present during the reflection and refraction of the wave as well as during the passage of the induced flow of the air through the grid. The experimental data of pressure drop across the grid obtained in the present investigation are compared with those obtained from computations. The numerical results slightly overpredict the experimental data of relative pressure drop which increases substantially with grid solidity at fixed flow Mach numbers. The processes of shock reflection and refraction are continuous and they can be extended in duration by using thicker grids that will result in lower compression rates of the structural loading and increase the viscous losses associated with these phenomena which will further attenuate the impacting shock. Preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that the use of a graded porosity/solidity material will result in higher pressure drop than a constant porosity/solidity material and thus provide effective blast mitigation.

Andreopoulos, Y.; Xanthos, S.; Subramaniam, K.

2007-07-01

126

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

127

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

128

Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-thermal electron beams travelling away from the Sun on the open magnetic field lines are widely accepted to be the source of the Type-III bursts. The earliest idea of the generation of the Type-III bursts was based on the plasma emission mechanism. A fast moving electron beam excites Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency, ?p. The Langmuir waves are partially transformed via scattering at ?p and 2?p, with ion sound and oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, respectively, into electromagnetic waves. As the electron beam propagates away from the Sun, through less dense coronal and interplanetary environment, the frequency of the emitted electromagnetic radiation decreases, because plasma frequency is a function of the square root of the plasma density. Type-III bursts have been subject of theoretical, observational and numerical studies. The first detailed theory of the Type-III emission invoked coherent plasma waves, generated by a stream of fast particles, which are due to Rayleigh and combination scattering at ?p and 2?p subsequently transformed into radio waves. Stochastic growth of the density irregularities was invoked in order to produce stochastically generated clumpy Langmuir waves, where the ambient density perturbations cause the beam to fluctuate around marginal stability. Other theories on the mechanism which generates the Type-III emission include: linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves, Langmuir waves producing electromagnetic radiation as antennas and non-gyroptropic electron beam emission [1] of commensurable properties to the Type-III bursts. In Refs. [2,3] it was found that the non-gyrotropic beam excites electromagnetic radiation by the current transverse to the magnetic field, which results in (?,k)-space drift while propagating along the 1-dimensional spatial domain throughout the decreasing plasma density profile. The role of the electron beam pitch angle and the background density gradient profile was investigated in [4]. In this study [5], for the first time, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented. Features of the wave component propagating backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic, beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile are studied by using the Particle-In-Cell code EPOCH. Magnetic field in the 1.5-dimensional system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave is harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The analysis has lead to the identification of the backwards travelling waves as whistlers. Moreover, the whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal and anomalous Doppler resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves. [1] D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011). [2] D. Tsiklauri, H. Schmitz, Geophys. Res. Abs. 15, EGU2013-5403 (2013). [3] H. Schmitz, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013). [4] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012). [5] M. Skender, D. Tsiklauri, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2013): http://astro.qmul.ac.uk/ tsiklauri/

Skender, Marina; Tsiklauri, David

2014-05-01

129

High-efficiency coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator.  

PubMed

This paper studies the coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator (CRBWO) through analytical, numerical, and experimental methods. This new type of device is remarked by its high efficiency of more than 35%, which is predicted by the theoretical calculation and the numerical simulation and validated by experiment. The two primary hindrances preventing CRBWO from achieving the expected high efficiency, the poor coaxiality and the power capacity, are discussed in detail and some advanced methods are developed. The theoretical and numerical conclusions agree with the experiment results, which are obtained from the electric probe and the calorimeter simultaneously for each shot of CRBWO. Employing the electron beam pulse of the full width at half maximum 28 ns, a microwave pulse of the width about 20 ns is generated in the experiment; the power is 710 MW and the efficiency is higher than 33%. PMID:21361620

Teng, Yan; Xiao, Renzhen; Song, Zhimin; Jun, Sun; Chen, Changhua; Shao, Hao; Liu, Guozhi; Tang, Chuanxiang

2011-02-01

130

Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].

Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.

2011-10-01

131

Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design  

E-print Network

Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G

2008-01-01

132

Subharmonic Resonances in Plasmas: Exponential and Superexponential Growth of Driven Relativistic Plasma Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subharmonic resonant beat-wave excitation of nonlinear relativistic plasma waves is studied analytically and in particle-in-cell simulations. We find that if the frequency separation of the lasers, ??, is 2?p or 3?p ( ?p is the plasma frequency), then plasma waves are still excited at ?p but they grow exponentially or superexponentially rather than secularly. Both of these subharmonic resonant instabilities saturate due to relativistic detuning. The analytical growth rates and saturation levels agree with the simulation results.

Ren, C.; Dodd, E. S.; Gordon, D.; Mori, W. B.

2000-10-01

133

First principles calculations of the interaction of blast waves with aqueous foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of two-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations using the two-dimensional Second-order Hydrodynamic Automated Mesh Refinement Code (SHAMRC) developed by Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA), was made with the objective of understanding the behavior of aqueous foams in the presence of a C4-generated blast wave. A full three-phase water-air equation-of-state was incorporated in the first calculation. Comparison of the results of the first calculation with experimental data collected by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) indicated that the interaction was much more complicated than could be represented by a mixture of detonation products, air, and water in local temperature and pressure equilibrium. Other models were incorporated in the code to examine the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between water and the gases and allowed for two-phase flow. The water droplets were allowed to slip relative to the gas velocity, providing non-equilibrium for the velocity distribution. These models permitted heated liquid droplets to be accelerated at high pressures and transported through and ahead of the decaying shock front. The droplets then exchanged momentum and energy with the foam ahead of the shock and preconditioned the medium through which the shock was propagating. This process had the effect of diffusing the shock front and its associated energy. These relatively high resolution calculations develop numerical representations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the detonation products/foam interface. This unstable interface plays in important role in understanding the behavior of the interaction of the detonation products with the foam. Figure 4 clearly shows the developing instabilities at the interface and an inward facing shock at a radius of 25 cm. The results of the calculations using the various models can be edited to provide the total energy exchanged between materials, the fraction of water vaporized, and the extent of detonation products as a function of time.

Crepeau, Joseph; Needham, Charles; Caipen, Terry; Grady, Dennis; Harper, Fred

2000-04-01

134

Fireball Loading and the Blast-Wave Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple function for the spectral power P(?,t)??L(?) is proposed to model, with nine parameters, the spectral and temporal evolution of the observed nonthermal synchrotron power flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the blast-wave model. Here ?=h?/mec2 is the observed dimensionless photonenergy, and t is the observing time. Assumptions and an issue of lack of self-consistency are spelled out. The spectra are found to be most sensitive to baryon loading, expressed in terms of the initial bulk Lorentz factor ?0 and an equipartition term q, which is assumed to be constant in time and independent of ?0. Expressions are given for the peak spectral power Pp(t)=P(?p,t) at the photon energy ?=?p(t) of the spectral power peak. A general rule is that the total fireball particle kinetic energy E0~?0td, where td~?-8/30 is the deceleration timescale, and ?0?P(?p,td)~?8/30 is the maximum measured bolometric power output in radiation during which it is carried primarily by photons with energy \\Escr0=?p(td)~q?40. This rule governs the general behavior of fireballs with different baryon loading. Clean fireballs with small baryon loading (?0>>300) are intense, subsecond, medium-to-high-energy gamma-ray events and are difficult to detect because of dead time and sensitivity limitations of previous gamma-ray detectors like EGRET on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Dirty fireballs with large baryon loading (?0<<300) produce transient emissions that are longer lasting and most luminous at X-ray energies and below, but these events are lost behind the glow of the X-ray and lower energy background radiations, except for rare serendipitous detections by pointed instruments. The correlation between hardness and duration of loaded GRB fireballs (100<~?0<~1000) follows from this rule.

Dermer, Charles D.; Chiang, James; Böttcher, Markus

1999-03-01

135

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM02.

Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Tong, Changjiang; Li, Xiaoze; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Shuang; Lu, Xicheng

2013-04-01

136

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2013-04-15

137

Experimental study on hundreds of MW at X-band for relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BWO-circuit was designed to generate hundreds MW electromagnetic wave on X-band in this study. A RF coupler is designed and fabricated to measure the power of an electromagnetic wave which is generated in the slow wave structure of a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) before this wave is radiated through an antenna. To pickup about -63 dB of total output

S. H. Min; H. C. Jung; G. S. Park; J. H. An; S. H. Lee; Y. J. Yoon; J. Y. Kim; J. H. Choi; J. H. So

2009-01-01

138

Gravitational waves from axisymmetrically oscillating neutron stars in general relativistic simulations  

E-print Network

Gravitational waves from axisymmetrically oscillating neutron stars in general relativistic, Tokyo 153­8902, Japan ~Received 24 May 2003; published 20 November 2003! Gravitational waves from­invariant wave extraction method as well as a quadrupole formula are adopted for computation of gravitational

Shibata, Masaru

139

Gravitational waves from stochastic relativistic sources: primordial turbulence and magnetic fields  

E-print Network

Gravitational waves from stochastic relativistic sources: primordial turbulence and magnetic fields the gravitational waves induced by an incompressible turbulent fluid and by a causal magnetic field present in the early universe. The gravitational wave power spectra show common features: they are both blue on large

Durrer, Ruth

140

Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

Moss, William C.; King, Michael J.; Blackman, Eric G.

2009-09-01

141

Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design. PMID:19792349

Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

2009-09-01

142

Variational wave equations for relativistic few-body systems in QFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of quantum field theory is used to derive relativistic few-body wave equations for scalar and Fermion fields. Analytic and approximate solutions of some two-body bound states are presented.

Darewych, J. W.

2006-06-01

143

Relation between classical and relativistic shock wave theories by means of shock tube tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes a laboratory simulation of cosmic shock waves by means of the mathematical correlations between the shock equations in the classical and the relativistic fluid dynamics, respectively. In the present note only the normal shock is treated.

M. Z. Krzywoblocki

1968-01-01

144

Relation between Classical and Relativistic Shock Wave Theories by Means of Shock Tube Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes a laboratory simulation of cosmic shock waves by means of the mathematical correlations between the shock equations in the classical and the relativistic fluid dy- namics, respectively. In the present note only the normal shock is treated

M. Z. V. Krzywoblocki

1968-01-01

145

Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flux level of outer-zone relativistic electrons (above 1 MeV) is extremely variable during geomagnetic storms, and controlled by a competition between acceleration and loss. Precipitation of these electrons due to resonant pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is considered one of the major loss mechanisms. This mechanism was suggested in early theoretical studies more than three decades ago. However, direct experimental evidence of the wave role in relativistic electrons precipitation is difficult to obtain because of lack of concurrent measurements of precipitating electrons at low altitudes and the waves in a magnetically conjugate equatorial region. Recently, the data from balloon-borne X-ray instruments provided indirect but strong evidence on an efficiency of the EMIC wave induced loss for the outer-zone relativistic electrons. These observations stimulated theoretical studies that, particularly, demonstrated that EMIC wave induced pitch-angle diffusion of MeV electrons can operate in the strong diffusion limit and this mechanism can compete with relativistic electron depletion caused by the Dst effect during the initial and main phases of storm. Although an effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves depends strongly on the wave spectral properties, the most favorable assumptions regarding wave characteristics has been made in all previous theoretical studies. Particularly, only quasi field-aligned EMIC waves have been considered as a driver for relativistic electron loss. At the same time, there is growing experimental and theoretical evidence that these waves can be highly oblique; EMIC wave energy can occupy not only the region of generation, i.e. the region of small wave normal angles, but also the entire wave normal angle region, and even only the region near 90 degrees. The latter can dramatically change he effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves. In the present study, we calculate the pitch-angle diffusion coefficients using the typical wave normal distributions obtained from our self-consistent ring current-EMIC wave model, and try to quantify the effect of EMIC wave normal angle characteristics on relativistic electron scattering.

Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

2006-01-01

146

Plasma Wave Generation in a Self-Focused Channel of a Relativistically Intense Laser Pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for self-channeling of a relativistically intense laser pulse in an underdense plasma is presented through Schlieren and 90° Thomson sidescatter images. Using collective Thomson scattering of a probe beam, we observe that relativistically propagating plasma waves are excited over the entire length of the channel, up to 12 Rayleigh lengths \\(~4 mm\\). From the wave amplitude, the intensity inside the channel is estimated to be ~1018 W/cm 2.

Clayton, C. E.; Tzeng, K.-C.; Gordon, D.; Muggli, P.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Malka, V.; Najmudin, Z.; Modena, A.; Neely, D.; Dangor, A. E.

1998-07-01

147

Electron Acoustic Solitary Waves in Magnetized Quantum Plasma with Relativistic Degenerated Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the nonlinear properties of obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves in a two-electron populated relativistically quantum magnetized plasma is presented. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived and this equation gives the solitary wave solution. It is observed that the relativistic effects, the ratio of the cold to hot electron unperturbed number density and the magnetic field normalized by electron cyclotron frequency significantly influence the solitary structures.

Zhu, Zhenni; Wu, Zhengwei; Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong

2014-11-01

148

A ceramic damage model for analyses of multi-layered ceramic-core sandwich panels under blast wave pressure loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A damage model for ceramic materials is developed and incorporated into the geometrically nonlinear solid shell element formulation for dynamic analyses of multi-layered ceramic armor panels under blast wave pressure loading. The damage model takes into account material behaviors observed from multi-axial dynamic tests on Aluminum Nitride (AlN) ceramic. The ceramic fails in a brittle or gradual fashion, depending upon the hydrostatic pressure and applied strain-rate. In the model, the gradual failure is represented by two states: the initial and final failure states. These states are described by two separate failure surfaces that are pressure-dependent and strain-rate-dependent. A scalar damage parameter is defined via using the two failure surfaces, based on the assumption that the local stress state determines material damage and its level. In addition, the damage model accounts for the effect of existing material damage on the new damage. The multi-layered armor panel of interest is comprised of an AlN-core sandwich with unidirectional composite skins and a woven composite back-plate. To accommodate the material damage effect of composite layers, a composite failure model in the open literature is adopted and modified into two separate failure models to address different failure mechanisms of the unidirectional and woven composites. In addition, the effect of strain-rates on the material strengths is incorporated into the composite failure models. For finite element modeling, multiple eighteen-node elements are used in the thickness direction to properly describe mechanics of the multi-layered panel. Dynamic analyses of a multi-layered armor panel are conducted under blast wave pressure loadings. The resulting dynamic responses of the panel demonstrate that dynamic analyses that do not take into account material damage and failure significantly under-predict the peak displacement. The under-prediction becomes more pronounced as the blast load level increases. Numerical analyses also indicate that the multi-layered armor design, while tailored for penetration resistance, performs poorly against blast shock wave. An alternative design is proposed and its performance is compared with the original design. Computational modeling of the fundamental material behaviors of ceramics would help expanding the use of ceramics to other structural applications, via enabling designers to efficiently explore design options.

Lee, Keejoo

2005-11-01

149

Quarkonium and hydrogen spectra with spin dependent relativistic wave equation  

E-print Network

A non-linear non-perturbative relativistic atomic theory introduces spin in the dynamics of particle motion. The resulting energy levels of Hydrogen atom are exactly same as the Dirac theory. The theory accounts for the energy due to spin-orbit interaction and for the additional potential energy due to spin and spin-orbit coupling. Spin angular momentum operator is integrated into the equation of motion. This requires modification to classical Laplacian operator. Consequently the Dirac matrices and the k operator of Dirac's theory are dispensed with. The theory points out that the curvature of the orbit draws on certain amount of kinetic and potential energies affecting the momentum of electron and the spin-orbit interaction energy constitutes a part of this energy. The theory is developed for spin 1/2 bound state single electron in Coulomb potential and then further extended to quarkonium physics by introducing the linear confining potential. The unique feature of this quarkonium model is that the radial distance can be exactly determined and does not have a statistical interpretation. The established radial distance is then used to determine the wave function. The observed energy levels are used as the input parameters and the radial distance and the string tension are predicted. This ensures 100% conformance to all observed energy levels for the heavy quarkonium.

Vikram H. Zaveri

2014-11-25

150

Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions S. Ganpulea  

E-print Network

conflicts, result in blast traumatic brain injuries (bTBI) to the soldiers wearing tightly/loosely fitting helmets, or to the civilians even without helmets. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center has reported/deceleration-induced injury, typi- cally associated with the impact TBI encountered in sports and automobile accidents (Cernak

Farritor, Shane

151

Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

2012-03-01

152

Modeling of modified electron-acoustic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of a theoretical and numerical study on the nonlinear propagation of modified electron-acoustic (mEA) solitary waves has been carried out in an unmagnetized, collisionless, relativistic, degenerate quantum plasma (containing non-relativistic degenerate inertial cold electrons, both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate hot electron and inertial positron fluids, and positively-charged static ions). A reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the planar and the nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equations, which admit a localized wave solution for the solitary profile. The solitary wave's characteristics are found to have been influenced significantly forin the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic limits. The mEA solitary waves are also found to have been significantly modified due to the effects of the degenerate pressure and the number densities of this dense plasma's constituents. The properties of the planar K-dV solitary wave are quite different from those of the nonplanar K-dV solitary wave. The relevance of our results to astrophysical objects (like white dwarfs and neutron stars), which are of scientific interest, is briefly mentioned.

Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

2014-12-01

153

Electrostatic solitary waves in a quantum plasma with relativistically degenerate electrons  

SciTech Connect

A model for nonlinear ion waves in an unmagnetized plasma with relativistically degenerate electrons and cold fluid ions is presented here. The inertia is given here by the ion mass while the restoring force is provided by the relativistic electron degeneracy pressure, and the dispersion is due to the deviation from charge neutrality. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for small but finite amplitude waves and is used to study the properties of localized ion acoustic solitons for parameters relevant for dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars. Different degrees of relativistic electron degeneracy are discussed and compared.

Masood, W. [TPPD, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan) and National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Eliasson, B. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany) and Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

2011-03-15

154

Smooth Light Curves from a Bumpy Ride: Relativistic Blast Wave Encounters a Density Jump  

E-print Network

Some GRB afterglow light curves show significant variability, which often includes episodes of rebrightening. This was attributed in several cases to large fluctuations in the external density. Here we examine the effect of a sharp increase in the external density on the light curve by considering, for the first time, a full treatment of both the hydrodynamic evolution and the radiation in this scenario. To this end we develop a semi-analytic model for the light curve and carry out several elaborate numerical simulations using a 1D hydrodynamic code together with a synchrotron radiation code.Two spherically symmetric cases are explored in detail: a density jump in a uniform external medium, and a wind termination shock. Contrary to previous works, we find that even a sharp (step function) and large (by a factor of $a>>1$) increase in the external density does not produce sharp features in the light curve, and cannot account for significant temporal variability. For a wind termination shock, the light curve smoothly transitions between the asymptotic power-laws over about one decade in time, and there is no rebrightening in the optical or X-rays to serve as a clear observational signature. For a sharp jump in a uniform density we find that the maximal deviation $\\Delta\\alpha_max$ of the temporal decay index $\\alpha$ from its asymptotic value, is bounded (e.g., $\\Delta\\alpha_max <0.4$ for $a=10$); $\\Delta\\alpha_max$ slowly increases with $a$, converging to $\\Delta\\alpha_{max} \\approx 1$ at very large $a$ values. Therefore, no optical rebrightening is expected here as well. In the X-rays, while the asymptotic flux is unaffected by the density jump, the fluctuations in $\\alpha$ are found to be comparable to those in the optical. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the origin of the fluctuations in several afterglows.

Ehud Nakar; Jonathan Granot

2006-06-01

155

Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high-density plasmas suitable for the propagation of large-amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20-kV arc-driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 < Mach < 60) in argon gas, which leaves in its wake a high-density plasma (np > 1017

R. L. Williams

1993-01-01

156

Matter Density and Relativistic Models of Wave Function Collapse Daniel Bedingham  

E-print Network

) Mathematical models for the stochastic evolution of wave functions that combine the unitary evolution according with a fully relativistic law for the wave function evolution, a problem with relativity remains: Different. We show that the predictions that follow from this proposal agree with all known experimental facts

Goldstein, Sheldon

157

Causal Wave Propagation for Relativistic Massive Particles: Physical Asymptotics in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wavepackets representing relativistic quantum particles injected into a half-space, from a source that is switched on at a definite time, are represented by superpositions of plane waves that must include negative frequencies. Propagation is causal: it is a consequence of analyticity that at time t no part of the wave has travelled farther than…

Berry, M. V.

2012-01-01

158

Three dimensional electrostatic solitary waves in a dense magnetoplasma with relativistically degenerate electrons  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, small but finite amplitude electrostatic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma, consisting of relativistically degenerate electrons and non-degenerate cold ions, are investigated. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique and its solitary wave solution is analyzed. It is shown that only compressive electrostatic solitary structures can propagate in such a degenerate plasma system. The effects of plasma number density, ion cyclotron frequency, and direction cosines on the profiles of ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated and discussed at length. The relevance of the present investigation vis-a-vis pulsating white dwarfs is also pointed out.

Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan) [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Masood, W. [National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan) [National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Eliasson, B. [Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom)] [Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2013-09-15

159

Subharmonic resonances in plasmas: exponential and superexponential growth of driven relativistic plasma waves  

PubMed

Subharmonic resonant beat-wave excitation of nonlinear relativistic plasma waves is studied analytically and in particle-in-cell simulations. We find that if the frequency separation of the lasers, Deltaomega, is 2omega(p) or 3omega(p) ( omega(p) is the plasma frequency), then plasma waves are still excited at omega(p) but they grow exponentially or superexponentially rather than secularly. Both of these subharmonic resonant instabilities saturate due to relativistic detuning. The analytical growth rates and saturation levels agree with the simulation results. PMID:11030909

Ren; Dodd; Gordon; Mori

2000-10-16

160

Three dimensional electrostatic solitary waves in a dense magnetoplasma with relativistically degenerate electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, small but finite amplitude electrostatic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma, consisting of relativistically degenerate electrons and non-degenerate cold ions, are investigated. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique and its solitary wave solution is analyzed. It is shown that only compressive electrostatic solitary structures can propagate in such a degenerate plasma system. The effects of plasma number density, ion cyclotron frequency, and direction cosines on the profiles of ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated and discussed at length. The relevance of the present investigation vis-a-vis pulsating white dwarfs is also pointed out.

Ata-ur-Rahman; Masood, W.; Eliasson, B.; Qamar, A.

2013-09-01

161

The Construction of a 'Relativistic' Wave-Particle: The Soliton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most waves studied by students satisfy the linear equation, particle physicists have become interested in nonlinear waves--those not satisfying the superposition principle. A mechanical wave system, satisfying the sine-Gordon equation, can be constructed using a modified transverse wave system to demonstrate nonlinear wave-particle…

Isenberg, Cyril

1982-01-01

162

Self-modulation of nonlinear Alfvén waves in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the self-modulation of a circularly polarized Alfvén wave in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite temperature. This nonlinear wave corresponds to an exact solution of the equations, with a dispersion relation that has two branches. For a large magnetic field, the Alfvén branch has two different zones, which we call the normal dispersion zone (where d?/dk>0) and the anomalous dispersion zone (where d?/dk<0). A nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived in the normal dispersion zone of the Alfvén wave, where the wave envelope can evolve as a periodic wave train or as a solitary wave, depending on the initial condition. The maximum growth rate of the modulational instability decreases as the temperature is increased. We also study the Alfvén wave propagation in the anomalous dispersion zone, where a nonlinear wave equation is obtained. However, in this zone the wave envelope can evolve only as a periodic wave train.

López, Rodrigo A.; Asenjo, Felipe A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Valdivia, J. A.

2013-08-01

163

Blast-wave diagnosis of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse in a cluster medium  

SciTech Connect

Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a gas of atomic clusters is diagnosed in both long (>700 fs) and short (<100 fs) pulse regimes. This investigation uses blast-wave analysis techniques, which are sensitive to deposited energy, as a tool to identify locations of self-focusing. The detection of highly energetic x rays from the interaction of the short pulse with the clusters suggests the activation of electron acceleration in the self-focused high-intensity channels produced. The self-focusing is attributed to the optical properties of the clusters since it occurs at moderate laser powers and the cluster parameters are critical to the extent of the channel that forms.

Symes, Daniel R.; Moore, Alastair S.; Comley, Andrew J.; Lazarus, James; Hohenberger, Matthias; Tisch, John W. G.; Smith, Roland A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2007-06-15

164

Infrared and X-Ray Evidence for Circumstellar Grain Destruction by the Blast Wave of Supernova 1987A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiwavelength observations of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A show that its morphology and luminosity are rapidly changing at X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths as the blast wave from the explosion expands into the circumstellar equatorial ring, produced by mass loss from the progenitor star. The observed infrared (IR) radiation arises from the interaction of dust grains that formed in mass outflow with the soft X-ray emitting plasma component of the shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectra at 5 - 30 microns taken on day 6190 since the explosion show that the emission arises from approx. 1.1 x 10(exp -6) solar mass of silicate grains radiating at a temperature of approx. 180+/-(15-20) K. Subsequent observations on day 7137 show that the IR flux had increased by a factor of 2 while maintaining an almost identical spectral shape. The observed IR-to-X-ray flux ratio (IRX) is consistent with that of a dusty plasma with standard LMC dust abundances. This flux ratio has decreased by a factor of approx. 2 between days 6190 and 7137, providing the first direct observation of the ongoing destruction of dust in an expanding SN blast wave on dynamic time scales. Detailed models consistent with the observed dust temperature, the ionization fluence of the soft X-ray emission component, and the evolution of IRX suggest that the radiating si1icate grains are immersed in a 3.5 x 10(exp 6) K plasma with a density of (0.3 - 1) x 10(exp 4)/cu cm, and have a size distribution that is confined to a narrow range of radii between 0.02 and 0.2 microns. Smaller grains may have been evaporated by the initial UV flash from the supernova.

Dwek, Eliahu; Arendt, Richard G.; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Danziger, John; DeBuizer James M.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kirshner, Robert P.; McCray, Richard; Park, Sangwok; Polomski, Elisha; Woodward, Charles

2007-01-01

165

Weakly relativistic quantum kinetic theory for electrostatic wave modes in magnetized plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have derived the electrostatic dispersion relation in a magnetized plasma using a recently developed quantum kinetic model based on the Dirac equation. The model contains weakly relativistic spin effects such as Thomas precession, the polarization currents associated with the spin and the spin-orbit coupling. It turns out that for strictly electrostatic perturbations the non-relativistic spin effects vanish, and the modification of the classical dispersion relation is solely associated with the relativistic terms. Several new wave modes appear due the electron spin effects, and an example for astrophysical plasmas are given.

Hussain, Azhar [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan)] [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Stefan, Martin; Brodin, Gert [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

2014-03-15

166

Weakly Relativistic Quantum Effects in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas: Dispersion of Langmuir Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A weakly-relativistic quantum-hydrodynamic model for charged spinless particles applied to low-dimensional systems is described in detail. The equations are constructed in the self-consistent field approximation. The Darwin term, the current-current interaction, and the weakly relativistic correction to the kinetic energy, all described by the Breit Hamiltonian, are considered together with the Coulomb interaction. The contributions of the described effects and also of relativistic-temperature effects to the dispersion of the Langmuir waves in a two-dimensional electron gas are calculated. A comparison with the corresponding formula for a three-dimensional system of particles is presented.

Andreev, P. A.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

2015-01-01

167

Nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of Cherenkov emission of longitudinal Langmuir waves in a plasma  

SciTech Connect

A nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of stimulated Cherenkov emission of longitudinal waves by a relativistic monoenergetic electron beam in a cold isotropic plasma is presented. The theory makes use of a quantum model based on the Klein-Gordon equation. The instability growth rates are obtained in the linear approximation and are shown to go over to the familiar growth rates in the classical limit. The mechanisms for the nonlinear saturation of relativistic Cherenkov beam instabilities are described with allowance for quantum effects, and the corresponding analytic solutions are derived.

Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15

168

Ultrafast ignition with relativistic shock waves induced by high power lasers  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider laser intensities larger than $10^{16} W/cm^2$ where the ablation pressure is negligible in comparison with the radiation pressure. The radiation pressure is caused by the ponderomotive force acting mainly on the electrons that are separated from the ions to create a double layer (DL). This DL is accelerated into the target, like a piston that pushes the matter in such a way that a shock wave is created. Here we discuss two novel ideas. First is the transition domain between the relativistic and non-relativistic laser induced shock waves. Our solution is based on relativistic hydrodynamics also for the above transition domain. The relativistic shock wave parameters, such as compression, pressure, shock wave and particle flow velocities, sound velocity and rarefaction wave velocity in the compressed target, and the temperature are calculated. Secondly, we would like to use this transition domain for shock wave induced ultrafast ignition of a pre-compressed target. The laser parameters...

Eliezer, Shalom; Pinhasi, Shirly Vinikman; Raicher, Erez; Val, José Maria Martinez

2014-01-01

169

The role of stress waves in thoracic visceral injury from blast loading: modification of stress transmission by foams and high-density materials.  

PubMed

Materials have been applied to the thoracic wall of anaesthetised experimental animals exposed to blast overpressure to investigate the coupling of direct stress waves into the thorax and the relative contribution of compressive stress waves and gross thoracic compression to lung injury. The ultimate purpose of the work is to develop effective personal protection from the primary effects of blast overpressure--efficient protection can only be achieved if the injury mechanism is identified and characterized. Foam materials acted as acoustic couplers and resulted in a significant augmentation of the visceral injury; decoupling and elimination of injury were achieved by application of a high acoustic impedance layer on top of the foam. In vitro experiments studying stress wave transmission from air through various layers into an anechoic water chamber showed a significant increase in power transmitted by the foams, principally at high frequencies. Material such as copper or resin bonded Kevlar incorporated as a facing upon the foam achieved substantial decoupling at high frequencies--low frequency transmission was largely unaffected. An acoustic transmission model replicated the coupling of the blast waves into the anechoic water chamber. The studies suggest that direct transmission of stress waves plays a dominant role in lung parenchymal injury from blast loading and that gross thoracic compression is not the primary injury mechanism. Acoustic decoupling principles may therefore be employed to reduce the direct stress coupled into the body and thus reduce the severity of lung injury--the most simple decoupler is a high acoustic impedance material as a facing upon a foam, but decoupling layers may be optimized using acoustic transmission models. Conventional impacts producing high body wall velocities will also lead to stress wave generation and transmission--stress wave effects may dominate the visceral response to the impact with direct compression and shear contributing little to the aetiology of the injury. PMID:2050704

Cooper, G J; Townend, D J; Cater, S R; Pearce, B P

1991-01-01

170

Synphase operation of nanosecond relativistic 37-GHz backward-wave oscillators without electrodynamic coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of in-phase excitation of two independent nanosecond-pulsed relativistic 37-GHz backward-wave oscillators (BWOs) with high-current electron beams has been studied. This regime can be achieved using BWO switching with a picosecond precision. It is shown that long-term (up to 100-200 periods of the field) phase locking in each channel is stably reproduced from pulse to pulse, which ensures coherent summation of the output wave beams at a megawatt power.

Yalandin, M. I.; Shunailov, S. A.; Ul'maskulov, M. R.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; El'chaninov, A. A.; Klimov, A. I.

2012-10-01

171

The evolution of beamed GRB afterglow: non-relativistic case  

E-print Network

There has been increasing evidence that at least some GRBs are emission beamed. The beamed GRB afterglow evolution has been discussed by several authors in the ultra-relativistic case. It has been shown that the dynamics of the blast wave will be significantly modified by the sideways expansion, and there may be a sharp break in the afterglow light curves under certain circumstances. However, this is true only when the fireball is still relativistic. Here we present an analytical approach to the evolution of the beamed GRB blast wave expanding in the surrounding medium (density $n\\propto r^{-s}$) in the non-relativistic case, our purpose is to explore whether the sideways expansion will strongly affect the blast wave evolution as in the relativistic case. We find that the blast wave evolution is strongly dependent on the speed of the sideways expansion. If it expands with the sound speed, then the jet angle $\\theta $ increases with time as $\\theta \\propto ln t$, which means that the sideways expansion has little effect on the afterglow light curves, the flux $F\\propto t^{-\\frac{3(5\\alpha -1)}{5}}$ for $s=0$ and $F\\propto t^{-\\frac{7\\alpha +1}{3}}$ for $s=2$.It is clear that the light curve of $s=2$ is not always steeper than that of $s=0$, as in the relativistic case.We also show that if the expansion speed is a constant, then the jet angle $\\theta \\propto t$, and the radius $r \\propto t^{0}$, in this case the sideways expansion has the most significant effect on the blast wave evolution, the flux $F\\propto t^{-(5\\alpha -1)}$ independent of $s$, and we expect that there should be a smooth and gradual break in the light curve.

D. M. Wei; T. Lu

2000-08-07

172

Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in weakly relativistic quantum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We consider a recently derived kinetic model for weakly relativistic quantum plasmas. We find that that the effects of spin-orbit interaction and Thomas precession may alter the linear dispersion relation for a magnetized plasma in case of high plasma densities and/or strong magnetic fields. Furthermore, the ponderomotive force induced by an electromagnetic pulse is studied for an unmagnetized plasma. It turns out that for this case the spin-orbit interaction always gives a significant contribution to the quantum part of the ponderomotive force.

Stefan, Martin; Brodin, Gert [Department of Physics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

2013-01-15

173

Statistical analysis of relativistic electron energies for cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves observed on CRRES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which propagate at frequencies below the proton gyrofrequency can undergo cyclotron resonant interactions with relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and cause pitch-angle scattering and electron loss to the atmosphere. Typical storm-time wave amplitudes of 1-10 nT cause strong diffusion scattering which may lead to significant relativistic electron loss at energies above the minimum energy for resonance, Emin. A statistical analysis of over 800 EMIC wave events observed on the CRRES spacecraft is performed to establish whether scattering can occur at geophysically interesting energies (?2 MeV). While Emin is well above 2 MeV for the majority of these events, it can fall below 2 MeV in localized regions of high plasma density and/or low magnetic field (fpe/fce,eq > 10) for wave frequencies just below the hydrogen or helium ion gyrofrequencies. These lower energy scattering events, which are mainly associated with resonant L-mode waves, are found within the magnetic local time range 1300 < MLT < 1800 for L > 4.5. The average wave spectral intensity of these events (4-5 nT2/Hz) is sufficient to cause strong diffusion scattering. The spatial confinement of these events, together with the limited set of these waves that resonate with ?2 MeV electrons, suggest that these electrons are only subject to strong scattering over a small fraction of their drift orbit. Consequently, drift-averaged scattering lifetimes are expected to lie in the range of several hours to a day. EMIC wave scattering should therefore significantly affect relativistic electron dynamics during a storm. The waves that resonate with the ˜MeV electrons are produced by low-energy (˜keV) ring current protons, which are expected to be injected into the inner magnetosphere during enhanced convection events.

Meredith, Nigel P.; Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.; Summers, Danny; Fraser, Brian J.; Anderson, Roger R.

2003-06-01

174

On Using Cyclotron Waves for Output of Radiation from High-Power Relativistic Backward-Wave Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the scheme of a high-power relativistic backward-wave oscillator operating with a high-current explosive-emission electron beam. The radiation output from the tube is based on reflection of the operating wave into a fast cyclotron wave which transmits the energy of the high-frequency field towards the collector. At the collector, reverse conversion into the output electromagnetic wave takes place. The proposed scheme allows one to increase electric strength, as well as the transverse size of the working space of the backward-wave oscillator. It is shown that within the proposed scheme, one can reduce the focusing magnetic field without decreasing the power of the output radiation.

Goykhman, M. B.; Gromov, A. V.; Kladukhin, V. V.; Kovalev, N. F.; Kolganov, N. G.; Palitsin, A. V.

2014-09-01

175

Compression-related EMIC waves and associated precipitation of relativistic electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With conjugate observations of the NOAA 15 satellite and ground-based magnetometer, we present observations of solar wind compression-related dayside electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated precipitation of relativistic electrons in geoquiescence on Jan 1, 2007. Associated with the enhanced solar wind compression, a dayside Pc1 pulsation was observed by the OUL station. Such a Pc1 pulsation can be considered as a signature of an EMIC wave propagating from the geomagnetic equatorial plane to lower altitudes. Simultaneously, within the proton anisotropic zone the NOAA 15 satellite registered an enhancement of precipitating electrons count rates with energies >3 MeV, which can be interpreted by the theoretical calculation of the pitch angle diffusion coefficients. Our observations suggest that after an enhancement of solar wind pressure, the compression-related EMIC waves can cause a loss of relativistic electrons and play an important role in the evolution of radiation belt electrons.

Wang, D.; Yuan, Z.; Deng, X.; Zhou, M.; Huang, S.; Li, M.; Li, H.; Raita, T.; Pang, Y.

2013-12-01

176

Frequency multiplication of light back-reflected from a relativistic wake wave  

SciTech Connect

A method of coherent high-frequency electromagnetic radiation generation, proposed by Bulanov, Esirkepov, and Tajima [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001 (2003)], is experimentally demonstrated. This method is based on the radiation frequency multiplication during reflection at a mirror flying with relativistic velocity. The relativistic mirror is formed by the electron density modulations in a strongly nonlinear wake wave, excited in an underdense plasma in the wake behind an ultrashort laser pulse. In our experiments, the reflection of a countercrossing laser pulse from the wake wave is observed. The detected frequency multiplication factor is in the range from 55 to 114, corresponding to a reflected radiation wavelength from 7 to 15 nm. This may open a way towards tunable high-intensity sources of ultrashort coherent electromagnetic pulses in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray spectral regions. Parameters of the reflecting wake wave can be determined using the reflected radiation as a probe.

Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ma, J.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2007-12-15

177

Underwater blast wave pressure sensor based on polymer film fiber Fabry-Perot cavity.  

PubMed

This paper describes the theoretical and experimental aspects of an optical underwater shock wave sensor based on a polymer film optical fiber Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured by vacuum deposition technology. The transduction mechanism of the sensor involves a normally incident acoustic stress wave that changes the thickness of the polymer film, thereby giving rise to a phase shift. This transient interferometric phase is interrogated by a three-phase-step algorithm. Theoretically, the sensor-acoustic-field interaction principle is analyzed, and the phase modulation sensitivity based on the theory of waves in the layered media is calculated. Experimentally, a static calibration test and a dynamic calibration test are conducted using a piston-type pressure calibration machine and a focusing-type electromagnetic shock wave. Results indicate that the repeatability, hysteresis, nonlinearity, and the overall measurement accuracy of the sensor within the full pressure range of 55 MPa are 1.82%, 0.86%, 1.81%, and 4.49%, respectively. The dynamic response time is less than 0.767 ?s. Finally, three aspects that need further study for practical use are pointed out. PMID:25322237

Wang, Junjie; Wang, Meng; Xu, Jian; Peng, Li; Yang, Minghong; Xia, Minghe; Jiang, Desheng

2014-10-01

178

Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions  

SciTech Connect

We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler

2010-09-01

179

A dual-resonant reflector in powerful relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A dual-resonant reflector is proposed to suppress the radio frequency breakdown and enhance the reflection in a high power relativistic backward wave oscillator. The backward wave is reflected by two reflector cavities step by step, therefore, a high reflectivity is obtained. A preliminary high power microwave generation experiment of backward wave oscillator (BWO) with a general resonant reflector and a dual-resonant reflector was carried out. A microwave with power over 3 GW, frequency 9.6 GHz, efficiency 30%, and pulse width 22 ns was generated. The experiment results show that the efficiency of BWO with a dual-RR is enhanced about 2%-6%.

Song Wei; Chen Changhua; Zhang Ligang; Hu Yongmei; Yang Meng; Zhang Xiaowei; Zhang Lijun [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shanxi 710024 (China)

2011-06-15

180

Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ?50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.

Di Stefano, C. A., E-mail: carlosds@umich.edu; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Malamud, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States) [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel) [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-05-15

181

Relativistic electron precipitation events driven by electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves  

SciTech Connect

We adopt a canonical approach to describe the stochastic motion of relativistic belt electrons and their scattering into the loss cone by nonlinear EMIC waves. The estimated rate of scattering is sufficient to account for the rate and intensity of bursty electron precipitation. This interaction is shown to result in particle scattering into the loss cone, forming ?10?s microbursts of precipitating electrons. These dynamics can account for the statistical correlations between processes of energization, pitch angle scattering, and relativistic electron precipitation events, that are manifested on large temporal scales of the order of the diffusion time ?tens of minutes.

Khazanov, G., E-mail: george.v.khazanov@nasa.gov; Sibeck, D. [NASA Goddard Space FlightCenter, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Tel'nikhin, A.; Kronberg, T. [Department of Physics and Technology, Altai State University, Barnaul (Russian Federation)

2014-08-15

182

Blood brain barrier dysfunction and delayed neurological deficits in mild traumatic brain injury induced by blast shock waves.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs) is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa) initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa) causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred. PMID:25165433

Shetty, Ashok K; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Hattiangady, Bharathi

2014-01-01

183

Compression-related EMIC waves and associated precipitation of relativistic electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have presented observations of solar wind compression-related dayside electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated precipitation of relativistic electrons on Jan 1, 2007. Dayside structured EMIC waves were observed by the Finish network of search coil magnetometers for several hours during the period of enhanced solar wind compression. Simultaneously, NOAA 15 and NOAA 16 satellites passing through the region of EMIC wave activity and registered a localized enhancements of precipitating electrons flux with energies >3MeV .While in this region, precipitations of protons with energies >30 keV enhanced. The footprints of NOAA 15 and NOAA 16 during this precipitation event fit well with the Finish network of search coil magnetometers observing Pc1 waves simultaneously. Since such a Pc1 wave can be considered as a signature of an EMIC wave propagating off the equatorial plane to low altitudes. Our observations suggest that compression-related EMIC waves can interact with relativistic electrons and cause them to precipitate into the atmosphere.

Wang, Dedong; Yuan, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Meng; Huang, Shiyong

2013-04-01

184

Propagation of solitary waves in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasmas with kappa distributed electrons and positrons  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic ion acoustic solitary waves are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistic ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. The increase in the relativistic streaming factor and positron and electron kappa parameters cause the soliton amplitude to thrive. However, the soliton amplitude diminishes as the positron concentration is increased in the system. Our results are general and may be helpful, in understanding nonlinear phenomena in the presence of kappa distibuted electrons, positrons, and relativistically streaming ions.

Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-11-15

185

Relativistic electron precipitation by EMIC waves from self-consistent global simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave scattering on radiation belt electrons during the large geomagnetic storm of 21 October 2001 with minimum Dst = -187 nT. We use our global physics-based model, which solves the kinetic equation for relativistic electrons and H+, O+, and He+ ions as a function of radial distance in the equatorial plane, magnetic local time, energy, and pitch angle. The model includes time-dependent convective transport and radial diffusion and all major loss processes and is coupled with a dynamic plasmasphere model. We calculate the excitation of EMIC waves self-consistently with the evolving plasma populations. Particle interactions with these waves are evaluated according to quasi-linear theory, using diffusion coefficients for a multicomponent plasma and including not only field-aligned but also oblique EMIC wave propagation. The pitch angle diffusion coefficients increase from 0° to ˜60° during specific storm conditions. Pitch angle scattering by EMIC waves causes significant loss of radiation belt electrons at E ? 1 MeV and precipitation into the atmosphere. However, the relativistic electron flux dropout during the main phase at large L ? 5 is due mostly to outward radial diffusion, driven by the flux decrease at geosynchronous orbit. We show first results from global simulations indicating significant relativistic electron precipitation within regions of enhanced EMIC instability, whose location varies with time but is predominantly in the afternoon-dusk sector. The precipitating electron fluxes are usually collocated with precipitating ion fluxes but occur at variable energy range and magnitude. The minimum resonant energy increases at low L and relativistic electrons at E ? 1 MeV do not precipitate at L < 3 during this storm.

Jordanova, V. K.; Albert, J.; Miyoshi, Y.

2008-03-01

186

RELATIVISTIC JET DYNAMICS AND CALORIMETRY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

We present numerical solutions of the two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics equations describing the deceleration and expansion of highly relativistic conical jets, of opening angles 0.05 {<=} {theta}{sub 0} {<=} 0.2, propagating into a medium of uniform density. Jet evolution is followed from a collimated relativistic outflow to the quasi-spherical non-relativistic phase. We show that relativistic sideways expansion becomes significant beyond the radius r{sub {theta}} at which the expansion Lorentz factor drops to {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}. This is consistent with simple analytic estimates, which predict faster sideways expansion than has been claimed based on earlier numerical modeling. For t > t{sub s} = r{sub {theta}}/c the emission of radiation from the jet blast wave is similar to that of a spherical blast wave carrying the same energy (significant deviations at t {approx} t{sub s} occur only for well off-axis observers, {theta}{sub obs} {approx} 1 >> {theta}{sub 0}). Thus, the total (calorimetric) energy of gamma-ray burst blast waves may be estimated with only a small fractional error based on t > t{sub s} observations.

Wygoda, N.; Waxman, E. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

2011-09-10

187

Pitch-Angle Scattering of Relativistic Electrons by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which propagate at frequencies near the proton gyrofrequency can interact with relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, through cyclotron resonance, and cause pitch-angle scattering. During magnetic storms EMIC wave amplitudes can exceed the level required for strong diffusion scattering and significant electron losses to the atmosphere can occur over many drift orbits. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was ideally situated to observe EMIC waves in the middle magnetosphere. In this study observations from CRRES are used to obtain spectral properties of EMIC waves (1-10 nT), and thus determine typical pitch-angle diffusion coefficients, D? ? , during different phases of a storm. These diffusion rates are then compared to theoretical calculations assuming a simple functional form for D? ? based on quasi-linear theory that is valid for parallel propagating electromagnetic waves.

Loto'Aniu, T. M.; Thorne, R. M.; Fraser, B. J.; Horne, R.

2003-12-01

188

Relativistic Wave Equations of n-BODY Systems of Fermions and Antifermions of Various Masses in Quantum Electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive relativistic wave equations for systems consisting of n fermions and antifermions of various masses. The derived interaction kernels of these equations include one-photon exchange interactions. The equations have the expected Schrödinger non-relativistic limit. Application to some exotic few lepton systems is discussed briefly.

Emami-Razavi, Mohsen; Bergeron, Nantel; Darewych, Jurij W.

2012-11-01

189

Trapped electron acceleration by a laser-driven relativistic plasma wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE aim of new approaches for high-energy particle acceleration1 is to push the acceleration rate beyond the limit (~100 MeV m-1) imposed by radio-frequency breakdown in conventional accelerators. Relativistic plasma waves, having phase velocities very close to the speed of light, have been proposed2-6 as a means of accelerating charged particles, and this has recently been demonstrated7,8. Here we show that the charged particles can be trapped by relativistic plasma waves-a necessary condition for obtaining the maximum amount of energy theoretically possible for such schemes. In our experiments, plasma waves are excited in a hydrogen plasma by beats induced by two collinear laser beams, the difference in whose frequencies matches the plasma frequency. Electrons with an energy of 2 MeV are injected into the excited plasma, and the energy spectrum of the exiting electrons is analysed. We detect electrons with velocities exceeding that of the plasma wave, demonstrating that some electrons are 'trapped' by the wave potential and therefore move synchronously with the plasma wave. We observe a maximum energy gain of 28 MeV, corresponding to an acceleration rate of about 2.8 GeV m-1.

Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Gordon, D.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.

1994-04-01

190

Three-dimensional modeling of the asymmetric blast wave from the 2006 outburst of RS Ophiuchi: Early X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Chandra/HETG observations of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi at day 13.9 of its 2006 outburst reveal a spectrum covering a large range in plasma temperature and characterized by asymmetric and blue-shifted emission lines (Nelson et al. 2008; ApJ, 673, 1067; Drake et al. 2008, ApJ, in press). Aims: We investigate the origin of asymmetries and broadening of the emission lines observed with Chandra/HETG. We explore possible diagnostics of the early blast wave and of the circumstellar medium (CSM) in which the explosion occurred. Methods: We perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the blast wave from the 2006 outburst, propagating through the inhomogeneous CSM. The model takes into account the thermal conduction (including the effects of heat flux saturation) and the radiative cooling. From the simulations, we synthesize the X-ray emission and derive the spectra as they would be observed with Chandra/HETG. Results: The simulated nova remnant is highly aspherical and the blast wave is efficiently collimated by the inhomogeneous CSM. Our model reproduces the observed X-ray emission in a natural way if the CSM in which the outburst occurred is characterized by an equatorial density enhancement. Our “best-fit” model predicts that most of the early X-ray emission originates from a small region propagating in the direction perpendicular to the line-of-sight and localized just behind the interaction front between the blast wave and the equatorial density enhancement. The model predicts asymmetric and blue-shifted line profiles remarkably similar to those observed. These asymmetries are due to substantial X-ray absorption of red-shifted emission by ejecta material. Conclusions: The comparison of high quality data of Chandra/HETG with detailed hydrodynamic modeling has allowed us to unveil, for the first time, the details of the structure emitting in the X-ray band in early phases of the outburst evolution, contributing to a better understanding of the physics of interactions between nova blasts and CSM in recurrent novae. This may have implications for whether or not RS Ophiuchi is a type Ia SN progenitor system. Two movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Orlando, S.; Drake, J. J.; Laming, J. M.

2009-01-01

191

Method of accelerating photons by a relativistic plasma wave  

DOEpatents

Photons of a laser pulse have their group velocity accelerated in a plasma as they are placed on a downward density gradient of a plasma wave of which the phase velocity nearly matches the group velocity of the photons. This acceleration results in a frequency upshift. If the unperturbed plasma has a slight density gradient in the direction of propagation, the photon frequencies can be continuously upshifted to significantly greater values.

Dawson, John M. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wilks, Scott C. (Santa Monica, CA)

1990-01-01

192

Experiments to assess preheat in blast-wave-drive instability experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of multi-kilojoule, ns lasers to launch shock waves has become a standard method for initiating hydrodynamic experiments in Laboratory Astrophysics. However, the intense laser ablation that creates moving plasma also leads to the production of unwanted energetic x-rays and suprathermal electrons, both of which can be sources of material preheating. In principle, this preheat can alter the conditions of the experimental setup prior to the occurrence of the intended dynamics. At the University of Michigan, ongoing Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are defined by precise initial conditions, and potential deformation due to preheat could greatly affect their accuracy. An experiment devised and executed in an attempt to assess the preheat in this specific case will be presented, along with the quantitative analysis of the data obtained and comparison with 2D simulations.

Krauland, Christine; Drake, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn; Grosskopf, Michael; Boehly, Tom

2009-11-01

193

Exact relativistic expressions for wave refraction in a generally moving fluid.  

PubMed

The law for the refraction of a wave when the two fluids and the interface are moving with relativistic velocities is given in an exact form, at the same time correcting a first order error in a previous paper [Cavalleri and Tonni, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3478 (1998)]. The treatment is then extended to a generally moving fluid with variable refractive index, ready to be applied to the refraction of acoustic, electromagnetic, or magnetohydrodynamic waves in the atmosphere of rapidly rotating stars. In the particular case of a gas cloud receding because of the universe expansion, our result can be applied to predict observable micro- and mesolensings. The first order approximation of our exact result for the deviation due to refraction of the light coming from a further quasar has a relativistic dependence equal to the one obtained by Einsteins' linearized theory of gravitation. PMID:23679540

Cavalleri, G; Tonni, E; Barbero, F

2013-04-01

194

Wave amplification by a relativistic electron beam in a planar electrostatic system with sinusoidal-ripple boundary  

SciTech Connect

Primary study is devoted to the amplification mechanism of electromagnetic fast wave by a relativistic electron beam in a planar electrostatic system, where the superplate of two parallel metallic plates is corrugated with sinusoidal ripples and connected to a negative voltage, while the subplate is smooth and grounded. In the system the electrostatic field governs the electrons to move along approximately sinusoidal trajectories and pumps the kinetic energy of electrons to the wave. Under exclusion of the space-charge wave effect and the Smith-Purcell effect, the fast wave gets relativistic Doppler upshift frequency and gain by extracting energy from a sheet electron beam, which is very similar to that in a free-electron laser pumped by a magnetostatic wiggler. Formulas derived and numerical analysis indicate that the amplification mechanism of wave pumped by the planar electrostatic system with sinusoidal ripples is favorable for a mildly relativistic electron beam to generate terahertz wave.

Zhang Shichang [Institute of Photoelectronics, Campus Mail Box 50, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu SC610031 (China)

2009-09-15

195

Relativistic theory of wave-particle resonant diffusion with application to electron acceleration in the magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant diffusion curves for electron cyclotron resonance with field-aligned electromagnetic R mode and L mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are constructed using a fully relativistic treatment. Analytical solutions are derived for the case of a single-ion plasma, and a numerical scheme is developed for the more realistic case of a multi-ion plasma. Diffusion curves are presented for plasma parameters

Danny Summers; Richard M. Thorne; Fuliang Xiao

1998-01-01

196

Newtonian and relativistic theory of orbits and emission of gravitational waves  

E-print Network

This review paper is devoted to the theory of orbits. We start with the discussion of the Newtonian problem of motion then we consider the relativistic problem of motion, in particular the PN approximation and the further gravitomagnetic corrections. Finally by a classification of orbits in accordance with the conditions of motion, we calculate the gravitational waves luminosity for different types of stellar encounters and orbits.

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

2010-04-06

197

Dusty Blast Waves of Two Young Large Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants: Constraints on Post-shock Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from mid-IR spectroscopic observations of two young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We imaged SNRs B0509-67.5 and B0519-69.0 with Spitzer in 2005, and follow-up spectroscopy presented here confirms the presence of warm, shock-heated dust, with no lines present in the spectrum. We use model fits to Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) data to estimate the density of the post-shock gas. Both remnants show asymmetries in the infrared images, and we interpret bright spots as places where the forward shock is running into material that is several times denser than elsewhere. The densities we infer for these objects depend on the grain composition assumed, and we explore the effects of differing grain porosity on the model fits. We also analyze archival XMM-Newton RGS spectroscopic data, where both SNRs show strong lines of both Fe and Si, coming from ejecta, as well as strong O lines, which may come from ejecta or shocked ambient medium. We use model fits to IRS spectra to predict X-ray O line strengths for various grain models and values of the shock compression ratio. For 0509-67.5, we find that compact (solid) grain models require nearly all O lines in X-ray spectra to originate in reverse-shocked ejecta. Porous dust grains would lower the strength of ejecta lines relative to those arising in the shocked ambient medium. In 0519-69.0, we find significant evidence for a higher than standard compression ratio of 12, implying efficient cosmic-ray acceleration by the blast wave. A compact grain model is favored over porous grain models. We find that the dust-to-gas mass ratio of the ambient medium is significantly lower than what is expected in the interstellar medium.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Smith, R. Chris; Points, Sean; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean P.

2011-03-01

198

Monopole gravitational waves from relativistic fireballs driving gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

Einstein's general relativity predicts that pressure, in general stresses, play a similar role to energy density in generating gravity. The source of gravitational field, the active gravitational mass density, sometimes referred to as Whittaker's mass density, is not conserved, hence its changes can propagate as monopole gravitational waves. Such waves can be generated only by astrophysical sources with varying gravitational mass. Here we show that relativistic fireballs, considered in modelling gamma-ray burst phenomena, are likely to radiate monopole gravitational waves from high-pressure plasma with varying Whittaker's mass. Also, ejection of a significant amount of initial mass-energy of the progenitor contributes to the monopole gravitational radiation. We identify monopole waves with h^11+h^22 waves of Eddington's classification which propagate (in the z-direction) together with the energy carried by massless fields. We show that the monopole waves satisfy Einstein's equations, with a common stress-energy tensor for massless fields. The polarization mode of monopole waves is Phi_22, i.e. these are perpendicular waves which induce changes of the radius of a circle of test particles only (breathing mode). The astrophysical importance of monopole gravitational waves is discussed.

M. Kutschera

2003-09-16

199

Exit from Inflation with a First-Order Phase Transition and a Gravitational Wave Blast  

E-print Network

In double-field inflation, which exploits two scalar fields, one of the fields rolls slowly during inflation whereas the other field is trapped in a meta-stable vacuum. The nucleation rate from the false vacuum to the true one becomes substantial enough that triggers a first order phase transition and ends inflation. We revisit the question of first order phase transition in an "extended" model of hybrid inflation, realizing the double-field inflationary scenario, and correctly identify the parameter space that leads to a first order phase transition at the end of inflation. We compute the gravitational wave profile which is generated during this first order phase transition. Assuming instant reheating, the peak frequency falls in the $1$ GHz to $10$ GHz frequency band and the amplitude varies in the range $10^{-8}\\lesssim \\Omega_{\\rm GW} h^2 \\lesssim 10^{-11}$, depending on the value of the cosmological constant in the false vacuum. The signature could be observed by the planned Chongqing high frequency grav...

Ashoorioon, Amjad

2015-01-01

200

Ku-band radiation produced by a relativistic backward wave oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported in this paper are the results of an experiment to produce high-power Ku-band (12-18 GHz) microwave radiation from a backward wave oscillator (BWO) driven by a relativistic electron beam. Experimentally measured output power was about 250 MW at 12.5 GHz and 100 MW at 14 GHz. A description of the slow wave structure is given along with theoretical predictions of the vacuum waveguide dispersion relations. The diagnostics to determine the frequency and power of the device are described. Finally, comparisons between the experimentally measured frequency and power, and the analytic and numerical simulations of the BWO are made.

Leifeste, G. T.; Earley, L. M.; Swegle, J. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Miller, R. B.

1986-02-01

201

Relativistic surface-wave oscillators with 1D and 2D periodic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear nonstationary theory of surface-wave oscillators with 1D and 2D periodic structures is constructed in terms of a quasi-optical approach. The radiation field is represented as a superposition of quasi-optical wave beams coupled on a corrugated surface and forming a self-consistent structure. Synchronous interaction with rectilinear relativistic ribbon and cylindrical electron beams is observed when the surface wave slows down. The results obtained in terms of the average approach are compared with those obtained by direct numerical particle-in-cell simulation. The feasibility of creating small-size millimeterwave gigawatt power supplies based on 2D planar and cylindrical surface-wave oscillators is demonstrated.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavskii, V. Yu.; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

2012-12-01

202

Experimental study on Smith-Purcell radiations of weakly relativistic oversized backward wave oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smith-Purcell (SP) radiations of weakly relativistic oversized backward wave oscillator (BWO) are examined experimentally. A bunching section composed of a coaxial slow wave structure with inner K-band corrugation is placed upstream from the oversized BWO. An annular beam less than 100 kV is self-bunched in the bunching section and then excites the oversized BWO. SP radiations are examined by using 25.5- and 45.0-GHz oversized BWOs. The beam is too far away from the walls of the oversized BWO for SP radiation to occur without the self-bunching. When the corrugation parameters of the bunching section are the same as those of the oversized BWO, enhanced SP radiations in the frequency region above the surface wave are observed even when the beam propagates outside the interaction region of the surface wave.

Iwasaki, Takayuki; Ogura, Kazuo; Magori, Shota; Kojima, Junpei; Yambe, Kiyoyuki

2014-10-01

203

The Supernova Blast Wave and the Molecular Cloud: an Observational Study of Molecular Shock Emission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock waves in molecular clouds heat, compress, accelerate, and chemically alter the gas they encounter. Despite their crucial role in determining the physical state of the dense interstellar medium and despite their making possible direct observations of H_2, molecular shocks are still poorly understood, as evidenced by the many discrepancies between theory and observations. In my dissertation, I use the supernova remnant IC 443 as a laboratory to test our understanding of shock -excited H_2 emission. By examining roughly 20 separate 2-4 ?m Ha transitions, I find the non-uniform temperature structure essentially reproduces that found in Orion Peak 1, and so is consistent with the partially dissociating J-shock model presented by Brand and collaborators. Subsequent mid-infrared observations of the pure rotational S(2) transition at 12 mu m strengthens these conclusions. Velocity resolved line profiles of the strong 1-0 S(1) transition uncover a relationship between the remnant's large-scale geometry and the line profile's full-width at 10% intensity, centroid, and shape. The relationship contradicts any model requiring local bow geometries to explain broad H_2 line widths. Comparing the 1-0 S(1) data with similar observations of the 2-1 S(1) line, I demonstrate that the excitation temperature in the shocked gas depends primarily on position, not velocity. Taken together, the identical velocity extent of the 1-0 S(1) and the 2-1 S(1) lines and their upper state energy separation of E/k ~ 6000 K proves the H_2 -emitting gas reaches its full velocity dispersion prior to cooling below roughly 1500 K. Finally, I compare, with similar spatial and spectral resolution, H_2 and HCO^+ J = 1 - 0 and find evidence for temperature gradients as a result of both preshock density inhomogeneities and postshock cooling.

Richter, Matthew Joseph

1995-01-01

204

Angular size and emission time scales of relativistic fireballs  

E-print Network

The detection of delayed X-ray, optical and radio emission, ``afterglow,'' associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is consistent with models, where the bursts are produced by relativistic expanding blast waves, driven by expanding fireballs at cosmological distances. In particular, the time scales over which radiation is observed at different wave bands agree with model predictions. It had recently been claimed that the commonly used relation between observation time t and blast wave radius r, t=r/2\\gamma^{2}c where \\gamma(r) is the fluid Lorentz factor, should be replaced with t=r/16\\gamma^{2}c due to blast wave deceleration. Applying the suggested deceleration modification would make it difficult to reconcile observed time scales with model predictions. It would also imply an apparent source size which is too large to allow attributing observed radio variability to diffractive scintillation. We present a detailed analysis of the implications of the relativistic hydrodynamics of expanding blast waves to the observed afterglow. We find that modifications due to shock deceleration are small, therefore allowing for both the observed afterglow time scales and for diffractive scintillation. We show that at time t the fireball appears on the sky as a narrow ring of radius h=r/\\gamma and width 0.1h, where r and t are related by t=r/2\\gamma^{2}c.

Eli Waxman

1997-09-18

205

Statistical characteristics of EMIC wave-driven relativistic electron precipitation with observations of POES satellites: Revisit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric dynamics and can scatter relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt into the loss cone leading to the rapid loss of relativistic electrons. In this paper, we present characteristics of EMIC wave-driven relativistic electron precipitation (REP) with observations of six Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES). Based on the simultaneity between spikes in the P1 0° (Ep = 30 keV-80 keV) and P6 0° (Ee > 1 MeV) channels, in comparison with the criterion of Carson et al. (2013), we improve the algorithm and make it stricter. A total of 436,286 individual half orbits between 1998 and 2010 are inspected by this algorithm. The majority of selected events are observed at L values within the outer radiation belt (3 < L < 7) and more common in 1800-2200 magnetic local time. The distribution of normalized events follows the location of plasmapause contracting toward lower L value with the decrease of the Dst index, implying a strong link between detected events and the plasmapause. The cluster of normalized events moves to later afternoon sector where the peak occurrence of plasmaspheric plumes is located during geomagnetic storms. It is suggested that there is a connection between plasmaspheric plumes and detected events. Corresponding to the peak of event occurrence in 2003, solar wind dynamic pressure has a same peak. In addition, the minimum values of them are coincident. These results indicate that the increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure enhances the likelihood of EMIC wave-driven relativistic electron precipitation.

Wang, Zhenzhen; Yuan, Zhigang; Li, Ming; Li, Huimin; Wang, Dedong; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng

2014-07-01

206

Effect of non-uniform slow wave structure in a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a fresh insight into the effect of non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) used in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a resonant reflector. Compared with the uniform SWS, the reflection coefficient of the non-uniform SWS is higher, leading to a lower modulating electric field in the resonant reflector and a larger distance to maximize the modulation current. Moreover, for both types of RBWOs, stronger standing-wave field takes place at the rear part of the SWS. In addition, besides Cerenkov effects, the energy conversion process in the RBWO strongly depends on transit time effects. Thus, the matching condition between the distributions of harmonic current and standing wave field provides a profound influence on the beam-wave interaction. In the non-uniform RBWO, the region with a stronger standing wave field corresponds to a higher fundamental harmonic current distribution. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with a diode voltage of 1.02 MV and beam current of 13.2 kA, a microwave power of 4 GW has been obtained, compared to that of 3 GW in the uniform RBWO.

Chen, Changhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Huo, Shaofei; Bai, Xianchen; Shi, Yanchao; Liu, Guozhi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2013-11-15

207

Derivation of the lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

A detailed derivation of the lattice Boltzmann scheme for relativistic fluids recently proposed in M. Mendoza, B. Boghosian, H. Herrmann, and S. Succi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 014502 (2010) is presented. The method is numerically validated and applied to the case of two quite different relativistic fluid-dynamic problems, namely, shock-wave propagation in quark-gluon plasmas and the impact of a supernova blast wave on massive interstellar clouds. Close to second-order convergence with the grid resolution, as well as linear dependence of computational time on the number of grid points and time steps, are reported.

Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J. [Computational Physics for Engineering Materials, Institute for Building Materials, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 6, HIF, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Boghosian, B. M. [Department of Mathematics, Tufts University, Bromfield-Pearson, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Succi, S. [Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo C.N.R., Via dei Taurini, 19 00185, Rome, Italy, and Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albertstrasse, 19, D-79104, Freiburg (Germany)

2010-11-15

208

An optimization method of relativistic backward wave oscillator using particle simulation and genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.

Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui; Guo, Weijie

2013-11-01

209

Planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in relativistic degenerate astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.

Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

2013-04-15

210

Effects of initially energetic electrons on relativistic laser-driven electron plasma waves  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using kinetic calculations and accurate 1D2V particle-in-cell simulations, we point out the important role of initially energetic electrons of the distribution tail in the behavior of high amplitude electron plasma waves (EPWs). In the presence of these electrons, the conventional warm fluid theory (WFT) breaks at very high wave amplitudes that are still noticeably lower than the wave breaking amplitude (WBA). The fluid breakdown results in electron super-heating with respect to the adiabatic laws. Indeed, a new kinetic regime of the relativistic EPWs appears below the WBA. It is argued that the mentioned super-heating results in WBA values lower than the corresponding WFT prediction.

Yazdanpanah, J., E-mail: jamal.yazdan@gmail.com; Anvari, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 1155-4161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 1155-4161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-02-15

211

Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions  

SciTech Connect

We present the effective range expansions for the {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data{approx_equal}}1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) and Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Evora, P-7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

2010-09-15

212

Planar and nonplanar ion acoustic shock waves in relativistic degenerate astrophysical electron-positron-ion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the propagation of ion acoustic shock waves involving planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are non-degenerate ultra-cold ions, relativistically degenerate electrons, and positrons. By using the reductive perturbation technique, Korteweg-deVries Burger and modified Korteweg-deVries Burger equations are derived. It is shown that only compressive shock waves can propagate in such a plasma system. The effects of geometry, the ion kinematic viscosity, and the positron concentration are examined on the ion acoustic shock potential and electric field profiles. It is found that the properties of ion acoustic shock waves in a non-planar geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The present study has relevance to the dense plasmas, produced in laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter experiments) and in dense astrophysical objects.

Ata-ur-Rahman, Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Qamar, A.

2013-04-01

213

Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering in Outer RB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the equatorial and bounce average pitch angle diffusion coefficients for scattering of relativistic electrons by the H+ mode of EMIC waves. Both the model (prescribed) and self consistent distributions over the wave normal angle are considered. The main results of our calculation can be summarized as follows: First, in comparison with field aligned waves, the intermediate and highly oblique waves reduce the pitch angle range subject to diffusion, and strongly suppress the scattering rate for low energy electrons (E less than 2 MeV). Second, for electron energies greater than 5 MeV, the |n| = 1 resonances operate only in a narrow region at large pitch-angles, and despite their greatest contribution in case of field aligned waves, cannot cause electron diffusion into the loss cone. For those energies, oblique waves at |n| greater than 1 resonances are more effective, extending the range of pitch angle diffusion down to the loss cone boundary, and increasing diffusion at small pitch angles by orders of magnitude.

Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

2007-01-01

214

Drift-Resonant Interaction of Magnetospheric Relativistic Electrons with Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) Waves: Comparison between Observations and Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By analyzing CRRES and GOES observations on Aug. 27 1991, Tan et al. [2004] reported evidence of magnetospheric relativistic electron acceleration by resonant interactions with PC5 ULF waves. The event showed strong ULF wave activities after a storm sudden commencement (SSC) and energetic electron fluxes were enhanced in 2 hours. The electron flux peak observed in energy channels (0.6 - 1.1 MeV) were modulated by local electric field observed by CRRES. In this study, we set up a drift-resonant interaction model between ULF wave and magnetospheric relativistic electrons to model the observed electron flux in the event. In this model, the poloidal mode wave is concentrated in the dayside and the toroidal mode wave is concentrated in two flanks. The toroidal mode waves in the dawn and dusk flanks are in anti-phase. We found that electron can be accelerated jointly by the poloidal wave in the dayside and toroidal wave in flanks. The dayside poloidal wave serves as the dominant source of electron acceleration. The simulated electron flux variations agree well with observations both in fine details and long period behavior. These agreements in electron behavior indicate that the ULF wave plays an important role in accelerating MeV relativistic electrons around the geosynchronous orbit.

Fung, Shing

2007-01-01

215

Solutions of relativistic wave equations in superpositions of Aharonov-Bohm, magnetic, and electric fields  

E-print Network

We present new exact solutions (in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions) of relativistic wave equations (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) in external electromagnetic fields of special form. These fields are combinations of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field and some additional electric and magnetic fields. In particular, as such additional fields, we consider longitudinal electric and magnetic fields, some crossed fields, and some special non-uniform fields. The solutions obtained can be useful to study Aharonov-Bohm effect in the corresponding electromagnetic fields.

Bagrov, V G; Tlyachev, V B

2001-01-01

216

Towards non-commutative deformations of relativistic wave equations in 2+1 dimensions  

E-print Network

We consider the deformation of the Poincar\\'e group in 2+1 dimensions into the quantum double of the Lorentz group and construct Lorentz-covariant momentum-space formulations of the irreducible representations describing massive particles with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 in the deformed theory. We discuss ways of obtaining non-commutative versions of relativistic wave equations like the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Proca equations in 2+1 dimensions by applying a suitably defined Fourier transform, and point out the relation between non-commutative Dirac equations and the exponentiated Dirac operator considered by Atiyah and Moore.

Schroers, Bernd

2014-01-01

217

Solutions of relativistic wave equations in superpositions of Aharonov-Bohm, magnetic, and electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new exact solutions (in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions) of relativistic wave equations (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) in external electromagnetic fields of special form. These fields are combinations of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field and some additional electric and magnetic fields. In particular, as such additional fields, we consider longitudinal electric and magnetic fields, some crossed fields, and some special nonuniform fields. The solutions obtained can be useful to study the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the corresponding electromagnetic fields.

Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Tlyachev, V. B.

2001-05-01

218

A periodic pulsed relativistic backward wave oscillator mechanically tunable in an expanded frequency band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a periodic pulse train regime (1 s, 50 Hz) of a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector, which can be mechanically tuned from pulse to pulse within a frequency band of 9% on a level of -3 dB of the maximum in the entire microwave peak power range in a magnetic field of 0.36 T. The maximum peak power in a pulse train amounted to 2.5 GW at a frequency of 3.6 GHz, an efficiency of 20%, and a microwave pulse duration of 20 ns.

Klimov, A. I.; Kurkan, I. K.; Polevin, S. D.; Rostov, V. V.; Tot'meninov, E. M.

2007-12-01

219

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-print Network

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01

220

Gravitational waves from nonlinear couplings of radial and polar nonradial modes in relativistic stars  

SciTech Connect

The postbounce oscillations of newly-born relativistic stars are expected to lead to gravitational-wave emission through the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. At the same time, the star is oscillating in its radial modes, with a central density variation that can reach several percent. Nonlinear couplings between radial oscillations and polar nonradial modes lead to the appearance of combination frequencies (sums and differences of the linear mode frequencies). We study such combination frequencies using a gauge-invariant perturbative formalism, which includes bilinear coupling terms between different oscillation modes. For typical values of the energy stored in each mode we find that gravitational waves emitted at combination frequencies could become detectable in galactic core-collapse supernovae with advanced interferometric or wideband resonant detectors.

Passamonti, Andrea; Stergioulas, Nikolaos [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nagar, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, Turin (Italy)

2007-04-15

221

Relativistic magnetosonic shock waves in synchrotron sources - Shock structure and nonthermal acceleration of positrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical properties of relativistic, transverse, magnetosonic collisionless shock waves in electron-positron-heavy ion plasmas of relevance to astrophysical sources of synchrotron radiation are investigated. Both 1D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations and quasi-linear theory are used to examine the spatial and kinetic structure of these nonlinear flows. A new process of shock acceleration of nonthermal positrons, in which the gyrating reflected heavy ions dissipate their energy in the form of collectively emitted, left-handed magnetosonic waves which are resonantly absorbed by the positrons immediately behind the ion reflection region, is described. Applications of the results to the termination shocks of pulsar winds and to the termination shocks of jets emanating from the AGN are outlined.

Hoshino, Masahiro; Arons, Jonathan; Gallant, Yves A.; Langdon, A. B.

1992-01-01

222

An overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator with efficient dual-mode operation  

SciTech Connect

A dual-mode operation mechanism in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator is presented. The electron beam interacts with the ?1st space harmonic of TM{sub 01} mode synchronously in the slow wave structure. Then the backward propagating TM{sub 01} mode is converted to the forward propagating TM{sub 02} mode. As the phase velocity of the volume harmonic of TM{sub 02} mode is about twice that of the surface harmonic of TM{sub 01} mode, the TM{sub 02} mode also plays an important role in the high-power microwave generation. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that an efficiency of 48% and a significant improvement of the power capacity have been obtained.

Xiao, Renzhen; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan; Ye, Hu; Li, Xiaoze; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Zhang, Xiaowei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-03-03

223

Minimisation of the explosion shock wave load onto the occupants inside the vehicle during trinitrotoluene charge blast.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elaborate identification method of crew overload as a result of trinitrotoluene charge explosion under the military wheeled vehicle. During the study, an experimental military ground research was carried out. The aim of this research was to verify the mine blast resistance of the prototype wheeled vehicle according to STANG 4569 as well as the anti-explosive seat. Within the work, the original methodology was elaborated along with a prototype research statement. This article presents some results of the experimental research, thanks to which there is a possibility to estimate the crew's lives being endangered in an explosion through the measurement of acceleration as well as the pressure on the chest, head and internal organs. On the basis of our acceleration results, both effectiveness and infallibility of crew protective elements along with a blast mitigation seat were verified. PMID:25307173

Krzysta?a, Edyta; M??yk, Arkadiusz; Kciuk, S?awomir

2014-10-13

224

Investigation of EMIC Wave Scattering as the Cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 Relativistic Electron Precipitation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been suggested to be a major cause of relativistic electron precipitation (REP). This mechanism has also been proposed as the cause for REP observed by balloon-borne detectors predominantly in the dusk sector. Observations from the recent BARREL balloon campaign, along with simultaneous detailed spacecraft measurements of waves and plasma conditions, give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate this mechanism. We simulate relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion by EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by GOES and the Van Allen Probes, and compare the energy distribution of the resulting precipitation with BARREL observations of precipitation made on January 17, 2013. This comparison sheds light on the role of EMIC waves in causing REP as well as the effectiveness of the quasi-linear model.

Li, Z.; Millan, R. M.; Hudson, M. K.; Woodger, L. A.; Fennell, J. F.; Engebretson, M. J.; MacDonald, E.

2013-12-01

225

A 0.14 THz relativistic coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new kind of device for generating the high power terahertz wave by using a coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure (SWS). A metallic metamaterial SWS is used to avoid the damage of the device driven by a high-voltage electron beam pulse. The overmoded structure is adopted to make it much easy to fabricate and assemble the whole device. The coaxial structure is used to suppress the mode competition in the overmoded device. Parameters of an electron beam and geometric structure are provided. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that the high power terahertz wave at the frequency of 0.14 THz is generated with the output power 255 MW and conversion efficiency about 21.3%.

Guo, Weijie; Wang, Jianguo; Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Yue; Cai, Libing; Wang, Guangqiang; Qiao, Hailiang

2014-12-01

226

Theoretical analysis of a thermal plasma-loaded relativistic traveling wave tube having corrugated slow wave structure with solid electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic traveling wave tube with thermal plasma-filled corrugated waveguide is driven by a finite solid electron beam with the entire system immersed in a strong longitudinal magnetic field that magnetized plasma and electron beam. The dispersion relation for the relativistic traveling wave tube is obtained by linear fluid theory. The numerical results show that the growth rate decreases by increasing plasma temperature, waveguide radius, plasma density and electron beam energy. As show in this paper the effect of electron beam density and corrugation period is to increase growth rate.

Javadi, Zahra; Saviz, Shahrooz

2015-01-01

227

Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

Christopher Griffith

228

FIVE YEARS OF MID-INFRARED EVOLUTION OF THE REMNANT OF SN 1987A: THE ENCOUNTER BETWEEN THE BLAST WAVE AND THE DUSTY EQUATORIAL RING  

SciTech Connect

We have used the Spitzer satellite to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a five year period spanning the epochs between days {approx}6000 and 8000 since the explosion. The supernova (SN) has evolved into a supernova remnant and its radiative output is dominated by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the pre-existing equatorial ring (ER). The mid-IR spectrum is dominated by emission from {approx}180 K silicate dust, collisionally heated by the hot X-ray emitting gas with a temperature and density of {approx}5 x 10{sup 6} K and {approx}3 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The mass of the radiating dust is {approx}1.2 x 10{sup -6} M{sub sun} on day 7554 and scales linearly with IR flux. Comparison of the IR data with the soft X-ray flux derived from Chandra observations shows that the IR-to-X-ray flux ratio, IRX, is roughly constant with a value of 2.5. Gas-grain collisions therefore dominate the cooling of the shocked gas. The constancy of IRX is most consistent with the scenario that very little grain processing or gas cooling has occurred throughout this epoch. The shape of the dust spectrum remained unchanged during the observations while the total flux increased by a factor of {approx}5 with a time dependence of t'{sup 0.87{+-}0.20}, t' being the time since the first encounter between the blast wave and the ER. These observations are consistent with the transitioning of the blast wave from free expansion to a Sedov phase as it propagates into the main body of the ER, as also suggested by X-ray observations. The constant spectral shape of the IR emission provides strong constraints on the density and temperature of the shocked gas in which the interaction takes place. Silicate grains, with radii of {approx}0.2 {mu}m and temperature of T {approx} 180 K, best fit the spectral and temporal evolution of the {approx}8-30 {mu}m data. The IR spectra also show the presence of a secondary population of very small, hot (T {approx}> 350 K), featureless dust. If these grains spatially coexist with the silicates, then they must have shorter lifetimes. The data show slightly different rates of increase of their respective fluxes, lending some support to this hypothesis. However, the origin of this emission component and the exact nature of its relation to the silicate emission is still a major unsolved puzzle.

Dwek, Eli [Observational Cosmology Lab., Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bouchet, Patrice [DSM/DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Burrows, David N.; Park, Sangwook [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Challis, Peter; Slavin, Jonathan D. [Harvard-Smithsonian, CfA, 60 Garden Street, MS-19, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Danziger, I. John [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, Trieste (Italy); De Buizer, James M. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Polomski, Elisha F., E-mail: eli.dwek@nasa.go, E-mail: Patrice.Bouchet@cea.f [University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States)

2010-10-10

229

Five Years of Mid-Infrared Evolution of the Remnant of SN 1987A: The Encounter Between the Blast Wave and the Dusty Equatorial Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have used the Spitzer satellite to monitor the laid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period spanning the epochs between days 6000 and 8000 since the explosion. The supernova (SN) has evolved into a supernova remnant (SNR) and its radiative output, is dominated by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the pre-existing equatorial ring (ER). The mid-IR spectrum is dominated by emission from approximately 180 K silicate dust, collisionally-heated by the hot X-ray emitting gas with a temperature and density of 5 x 10(exp 6) K and approximately 3 x 10(exp 4) per cubic centimeter, respectively. The mass of the radiating dust is approximately 1.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass on day 7554, and scales linearly with IR flux. Comparison of the IR data with the soft X-ray flux derived from Chandra observations shows that the IR-to-X-ray flux ratio, IRX, is roughly constant with a value of 2.5. Gas-grain collisions therefore dominate the cooling of the shocked gas. The constancy of IRX is most consistent with the scenario that very little grain processing or gas cooling have occurred throughout this epoch. The shape of the dust spectrum remained unchanged during the observations while the total flux increased by a factor of approximately 5 with a time dependence of t(sup '0.87 plus or minus 0.20), t' being the time since the first encounter between the blast wave and the ER. These observations are consistent with the transitioning of the blast wave from free expansion to a Sedov phase as it propagates into the main body of the ER, as also suggested by X-ray observations. The constant spectral shape of they IR, emission provides strong constraints on the density and temperature of the shocked gas in which the interaction takes place. The IR spectra also suggest the presence of a secondary population of very small, hot (T greater than or equal to 350 K), featureless dust. If these grains spatially coexists with the silicates, then they must have shorter lifetimes. The data show slightly different rates of increase of their respective fluxes, lending some support to this hypothesis. However, the origin of this emission component and the exact nature of its relation to the silicate emission is still a major unsolved puzzle.

Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Danziger, I. John; De Buizer, James M.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Park, Sangwook; Polomski, Elisha F.; Slavin, Jonathan D.; Woodward, Charles E.

2010-01-01

230

Cosmic Ray Acceleration at Relativistic Shock Waves with a "Realistic" Magnetic Field Structure  

E-print Network

The process of cosmic ray first-order Fermi acceleration at relativistic shock waves is studied with the method of Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are based on numerical integration of particle equations of motion in a turbulent magnetic field near the shock. In comparison to earlier studies, a few "realistic" features of the magnetic field structure are included. The upstream field consists of a mean field component inclined at some angle to the shock normal with finite-amplitude sinusoidal perturbations imposed upon it. The perturbations are assumed to be static in the local plasma rest frame. Their flat or Kolmogorov spectra are constructed with randomly drawn wave vectors from a wide range $(k_{min}, k_{max})$. The downstream field structure is derived from the upstream one as compressed at the shock. We present particle spectra and angular distributions obtained at mildly relativistic sub- and superluminal shocks and also parallel shocks. We show that particle spectra diverge from a simple power-law, the exact shape of the spectrum depends on both the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbations and the wave power spectrum. Features such as spectrum hardening before the cut-off at oblique subluminal shocks and formation of power-law tails at superluminal ones are presented and discussed. At parallel shocks, the presence of finite-amplitude magnetic field perturbations leads to the formation of locally oblique field configurations at the shock and the respective magnetic field compressions. This results in the modification of the particle acceleration process, introducing some features present in oblique shocks, e.g., particle reflections from the shock. We demonstrate for parallel shocks a (nonmonotonic) variation of the particle spectral index with the turbulence amplitude.

Jacek Niemiec; Michal Ostrowski

2004-07-30

231

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the resonantly excited relativistic plasma wave driven by a CO2 laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a relativistic plasma wave (RPW) resonantly excited by a two frequency CO2 laser pulse and the effects of this wave on a co-propagating relativistic electron beam were studied through experiments and supporting simulations. The amplitude of the RPW and its harmonics were resolved in time and space with a Thomson scattering diagnostic. In addition, the plasma wave amplitude-length product and temporal duration were independently measured through time and frequency resolved forward scattering. The transverse electric and magnetic fields associated with the RPW were studied by the scattering of a 2 MeV electron beam, and the eventual heating of the plasma after the breakup of the RPW was measured from the x-ray radiation spectrum. The experiments and simulations show that the RPW reaches a peak amplitude of approximately 30%, with the amplitude limited by plasma blowout driven by the radial ponderomotive forces of the plasma wave.

Lal, A. K.; Gordon, D.; Wharton, K.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Everett, M. J.; Johnston, T. W.

1997-05-01

232

A Ka-band TM02 mode relativistic backward wave oscillator with cascaded resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the Cerenkov-type generator with the cascaded resonators, this paper proposes a Ka-band relativistic backward wave oscillator operating under the guide magnetic field 1.0 T with high power handling capability and high conversion efficiency. It is found that TM02 can be selected as the operation mode in order to increase the power handling capability and provide sufficient coupling with the electron beam. In slow wave structure (SWS), ripples composed of semicircle on top of the rectangle enhance the wave-beam interaction and decrease the intensity of the electric field on the metallic surface. Taking advantage of the resonator cascades, the output power and the conversion efficiency are promoted greatly. The front cascaded resonators efficiently prevent the power generated in SWS from leaking into the diode region, and quicken the startup of the oscillation due to the premodulation of the beam. However, the post cascade slightly postpones the startup because of the further energy extraction from the electron beam. The numerical simulation shows that generation with power 514 MW and efficiency 41% is obtained under the diode voltage 520 kV and current 2.4 kA. And the microwave with the pure frequency spectrum of 29.35 GHz radiates in the pure TM01 mode.

Teng, Yan; Cao, Yinbin; Song, Zhimin; Ye, Hu; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun

2014-12-01

233

Dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in plasmas with weak relativistic effects in electrons and ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the new investigation of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) waves with negative dust charges and weakly relativistic ions and electrons in the plasma, compressive and rarefactive DIA solitons of interesting characters are established through the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Eventually, the amplitudes of the compressive DIA solitons are found to be constant at some critical temperature ratio ? c (electron to ion temperature ratio) identifying some critical dust charge Z dc . It is predicted, that the reception of dust charges by the plasma particles at the variation of temperature starts functioning to the growth of compressive soliton's constant stage of amplitude after the state of critical ? c . The identification of critical dust charge ( Z dc ) which is found to be very great for solitons of constant amplitudes becomes feasible for very small dust to ion density ratio ( ?). But it can be achieved, we observe, due to the relativistic increase in ion-density as in mass, which is also a salient feature of this investigation.

Kalita, B. C.; Das, Samiran

2014-08-01

234

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). II. In vivo canine results of blast path treatment of human gallstones.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of ESWL in vivo for the treatment of human gallstones positioned on the blast path, a canine model was developed to determine the efficacy of stone fragmentation and the subsequent histopathological injury that occurs as a result of this therapeutic technique. Twenty-four 16- to 20-kg mongrel dogs were divided into five groups: I: ESWL without stone, autopsy at 48 hr (N = 6); II: ESWL with stone (mean diameter 16.8 mm, range = 14-19 mm), autopsy at 48 hr (N = 10); III: ESWL without stone, autopsy at 41-46 days (N = 6); IV: ESWL without stone, autopsy immediately after ESWL (N = 1); V: No ESWL or stone, autopsy 2 hr after anesthesia induction (N = 1). A human gallstone (96% cholesterol) was inserted by cholecystotomy (N = 10) in Group II only. All groups (N = 24) had operative placement of a 6.5 Fr accordion catheter into the gallbladder for radiographic visualization. For each blast path treatment, 2000 discharges were delivered at 18-24 kV. Histopathologically, the Group V gallbladder served as a control. Groups I, II, and IV revealed mild subacute injury; dog gallbladders in Group III showed regression of these changes. Total surface area (TSA) of Group II stones increased from a pre-ESWL mean of 6.60 +/- 0.0.84 cm2 to 53.84 +/- 26.8 cm2 post-ESWL (P less than 0.001). Cumulative post-ESWL fragment sizes for particles in less than or equal to 2-, less than or equal to 3-, less than or equal to 5-, less than 10- and greater than or equal to 10-mm categories represented 32.9, 41.6, 49.4, 74.3, and 100% of pretreatment stone weight, respectively. These data indicate that human gallstones can be fractured to a variable degree when treated on the ESWL blast path and that TSA increased significantly. Gallbladder histopathologic changes appear to be reversible by 41-46 days post-ESWL. PMID:3374122

Newman, R C; Bland, K I; Gravenstein, N; Hackett, R L; Paulus, D A; Finlayson, B; Hawkins, I F; Copeland, E M

1988-05-01

235

Evanescent waves propagation along a periodically corrugated surface and their amplification by relativistic electron beam (quasi-optical theory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using a quasi-optical approach, we study propagation of evanescent waves along a periodically corrugated surface and their excitation by relativistic electron beams. Under assumption of a shallow (in the scale of period) corrugation, the dispersion equation for normal waves is derived and two particular cases are studied. In the first case, the wave frequency is far from the Bragg resonance; therefore, the evanescent wave propagation can be described by using the impedance approximation with deceleration of the zeroth spatial harmonic. The second case takes place at the frequencies close to the Bragg resonance. There, the field can be represented as two counter-propagating quasi-optical wave beams, which are coupled on the corrugated surface and form an evanescent normal wave. With regard to the interaction with an electron beam, the first case corresponds to the convective instability that can be used for amplification of radiation, while the second case corresponds to the absolute instability used in surface-wave oscillators. This paper is focused on studying main features of amplifier schemes, such as the increments, electron efficiency, and formation of a self-consistent spatial structure of the radiated field. For practical applications, the feasibility of realization of relativistic surface-wave amplifiers in the submillimeter wavelength range is estimated.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Malkin, A. M.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

2013-06-01

236

A high-efficiency overmoded klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator with low guiding magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator with a ratio of transverse dimension to free-space wavelength being about four is presented. In the beam-wave interaction region, the electron beam interacts with surface wave and volume wave simultaneously. The cathode holder plays an important role in the reflection of backward waves. A guard electrode, an electron collector ring, and a reflection ring are used to optimize the beam-wave interaction. The particle in cell simulation results reveal that microwaves with a power of 2 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz are generated with an efficiency of 42% when the diode voltage is 400 kV, the beam current 12 kA, and the magnetic field 0.48 T.

Xiao Renzhen; Tan Weibing; Li Xiaoze; Song Zhimin; Sun Jun; Chen Changhua [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Power Microwave, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2012-09-15

237

Relativistic linear response wave functions and dynamic scattering tensor for the ns1/2 states in hydrogenlike atoms.  

PubMed

We report a novel closed-form analytic representation for the linear response relativistic wave function of the hydrogenic ns(1/2) level that is exposed to dipole radiation of frequency omega. This result is derived by means of a direct analytical solution of the inhomogeneous omega-dependent Dirac equation. The utility of the formulas obtained is demonstrated by new analytic and numerical calculations of the static and dynamic relativistic dynamic polarizabilities of the lowest hydrogenic ns(1/2) states. PMID:14525178

Yakhontov, V

2003-08-29

238

On plane-wave relativistic electrodynamics in plasmas and in vacuum  

E-print Network

We revisit the exact microscopic equations (in differential, and equivalent integral form) ruling a relativistic cold plasma after the plane-wave Ansatz, without customary approximations. We show that in the Eulerian description the motion of a very diluted plasma initially at rest and excited by an arbitrary transverse plane electromagnetic travelling-wave has a very simple and explicit dependence on the transverse electromagnetic potential; for a non-zero density plasma the above motion is a good approximation of the real one as long as the back-reaction of the charges on the electromagnetic field can be neglected, i.e. for a time lapse decreasing with the plasma density, and can be used as initial step in an iterative resolution scheme. As one of many possible applications, we use these results to describe how the ponderomotive force of a very intense and short plane laser pulse hitting normally the surface of a plasma boosts the surface electrons into the ion background. Because of this penetration the electrons are then pulled back by the electric force exerted by the ions and may leave the plasma with high energy in the direction opposite to that of propagation of the pulse [G. Fiore, R. Fedele, U. De Angelis, "The slingshot effect: a possible new laser-driven high energy acceleration mechanism for electrons", arXiv:1309.1400].

Gaetano Fiore

2014-05-02

239

Purification of the output modes of overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators  

SciTech Connect

Successful suppression of mode competition in the beam-wave interaction process of overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) cannot ensure the output modes purity. Optimizing the magnitude and the phase of the mode conversion coefficients in the devices is significant for purifying the output modes. A universal method of purifying the TM{sub 01} and TM{sub 02} mixed modes output by overmoded RBWOs without decreasing the total output power is presented in this paper. With this method, we purify the TM{sub 01} and TM{sub 02} mixed modes generated in an X-band overmoded RBWO (D/????2.6) operated at the constant diode voltage of 730?kV. Dependence of modes purification effect on the variation of diode voltage is also analyzed in particle-in-cell simulation. Our analysis indicates that when the diode voltage is in the range of (730 ± 60) kV, the percentage of output power carried by TM{sub 01} mode will be higher than 95%.

Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Yuan, Yuzhang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-02-15

240

Relativistic form factors for hadrons with quark-model wave functions  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between relativistic form factors and quark-potential-model wave functions is examined using an improved version of an approach by Licht and Pagnamenta. Lorentz-contraction effects are expressed in terms of an effective hadron mass which varies as the square root of the number of quark constituents. The effective mass is calculated using the rest-frame wave functions from the mean-square momentum along the direction of the momentum transfer. Applications with the parameter-free approach are made to the elastic form factors of the pion, proton, and neutron using a Hamiltonian which simultaneously describes mesons and baryons. A comparison of the calculated radii for pions and kaons suggests that the measured kaon radius should be slightly smaller than the corresponding pion radius. The large negative squared charge radius for the neutron is partially explained via the quark model but a full description requires the inclusion of a small component of a pion ''cloud'' configuration. The problematic connection between the sizes of hadrons deduced from form factors and the ''measured'' values of average transverse momenta is reconciled in the present model.

Stanley, D.P.; Robson, D.

1982-07-01

241

A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.  

PubMed

Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit. PMID:23591604

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

2014-01-01

242

Gravitational waves and the deformation of compact objects: Topics in relativistic astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, we present various theoretical investigations of sources of gravitational waves, relevant to interpreting the data from current and planned gravitational wave detectors; an idee fixe is the deformation of compact objects. We begin in the strong field, vacuum regime, with a construction of initial data for the numerical simulation of black hole binaries (specializing to the case of nonspinning holes in a quasicircular orbit). The data we construct contain more of the binary's expected physics than any other current data set. In particular, they contain both the binary's outgoing radiation and the expected tidal deformations of the holes. Such improved initial data will likely be necessary for simulations to achieve the accuracy required to supply advanced gravitational wave detectors with templates for parameter estimation. We end in the weak field, hydrodynamic regime with a calculation of the expected accuracy with which one can combine standard electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations of white dwarf binaries to measure the masses of the binary's components. In particular, we show that this measurement will not be contaminated by finite size effects for realistic sources observed by LISA, though such effects could be important for exceptional sources and/or advanced mHz gravitational wave detectors. In the middle, we make a detour into the messy and poorly constrained realm of the physics of neutron star interiors, calculating the shear modulus of hadron--quark mixed phase in hybrid stars. Here we include a rough treatment of charge screening, dimensional continuation of the lattice, and the contributions from changing the cell volume when shearing lowerdimensional lattices. We find that the last of these contributions is necessary to stabilize the lattice for those dimensions, where it makes a considerable contribution to the shear modulus. We then move back to sounder theoretical footing in making a general relativistic calculation of the maximum elastic quadrupole deformation that could be sustained by a star with a known shear modulus and breaking strain (provided by, e.g., the hadron--quark mixed phase in the core, or the more standard lattice of nuclei in the crust). We find that the standard Newtonian calculation considerably overestimates the quadrupole, particularly for massive, compact stars. We also present the dimensionally continued Poisson summation formula we discovered while performing the shear modulus calculation, and thought interesting enough to prove rigorously. Our method of proof also provides a new way of proving other (Voronoi) summation formulae obtained from functions satisfying modular transformations, and allows one to relax certain of the standard hypotheses.

Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan Kieran

243

Effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on solitary waves in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on the solitary waves of the laser field envelope and the potential of the electrostatic field in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma are investigated. The parameter region for the existence of solitary waves is obtained analytically, and a reasonable choice of parameters is clarified. Both cases of mobile and immobile ions are considered. It is found that the amplitudes of solitary waves in the former case are larger compared to the latter case. For small plasma density, the localized solitary wave solutions in terms of the approximate perturbation analytical method are very consistent with those by exact numerical calculations. However, as the plasma density increases the analytical method loses its validity more and more. The influence of the positron fraction on the amplitudes of solitary waves shows a monotonous increasing relation. The implications of our results to particle acceleration are also discussed briefly.

Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song

2013-09-01

244

Proceedings of the eleventh annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 26 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to performance of explosives, blast wave propagation, charge malfunctions, building response to ground vibrations, tunnel excavations, detonator design, reduction of ground vibration, blast design, blast fragmentation measurement, and blast analysis. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31

245

Coherent quantum states of a relativistic particle in an electromagnetic plane wave and a parallel magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle.

Colavita, E. [Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México, D.F., 09790 (Mexico)] [Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México, D.F., 09790 (Mexico); Hacyan, S., E-mail: hacyan@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 20-364, México D. F., 01000 (Mexico)

2014-03-15

246

Powerful electromagnetic millimeter-wave oscillations produced by stimulated scattering of microwave radiation by relativistic electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of analytical and experimental studies of stimulated electron scattering in relativistic cm- and mm-wave generators are reported. Carcinotrons and an orotron served as pump generators equipped with corrugated sides to produce a weak harmonic. The resulting beam collided with an electron beam propagating in the opposite direction and produced a scattered beam. The scattered wave frequencies are quantified, noting that the waves in the carcinotrons sometimes satisfied the Bragg condition and run in opposite directions, reflect off one another, oscillate, and can satisfy a synchronism criterion, which induces stimulated scattering. Trials performed with three different generating systems and beam voltages showed that a first order harmonic in a periodic waveguide of the carcinotrons was the same frequency as the scattering radiation. It is concluded that stimulated scattering is a viable technique for obtaining strong single-mode mm-wave signals when mode selection is used.

Denisov, G. G.; Smorgonskii, A. V.; Gubanov, V. P.; Korovin, S. D.; Rostov, V. V.; Ialandin, M. I.

1984-10-01

247

Instabilities and generation of a quasistationary magnetic field by the interaction of relativistically intense electromagnetic wave with a plasma  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the interaction of the superstrong laser radiation with an isotropic plasma leads to the generation of low frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves and in particular a quasistationary magnetic field. When the relativistic circularly polarized transverse EM wave propagates along z-axis, it creates a ponderomotive force, which affects the motion of particles along the direction of its propagation. On the other hand, motion of the particles across the direction of propagation is defined by the ponderomotive potential. The dispersion relation for the transverse EM wave using a special distribution function, which has an anisotropic form, is derived. The dispersion relation is subsequently investigated for a number of special cases. In general, it is shown that the growth rate of the EM wave strongly depends upon its intensity.

Gillani, S. S. A.; Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Tsintsadze, N. L. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Institute of Physics, Tbilisi 380077 (Georgia); Razzaq, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2010-08-15

248

Traumatic brain injury caused by laser-induced shock wave in rats: a novel laboratory model for studying blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed mechanism of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has not been revealed yet. Thus, reliable laboratory animal models for bTBI are needed to investigate the possible diagnosis and treatment for bTBI. In this study, we used laser-induced shock wave (LISW) to induce TBI in rats and investigated the histopathological similarities to actual bTBI. After craniotomy, the rat brain was exposed to a single shot of LISW with a diameter of 3 mm at various laser fluences. At 24 h after LISW exposure, perfusion fixation was performed and the extracted brain was sectioned; the sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Evans blue (EB) staining was also used to evaluate disruption of the blood brain barrier. At certain laser fluence levels, neural cell injury and hemorrhagic lesions were observed in the cortex and subcortical region. However, injury was limited in the tissue region that interacted with the LISW. The severity of injury increased with increasing laser fluence and hence peak pressure of the LISW. Fluorescence originating from EB was diffusively observed in the injuries at high fluence levels. Due to the grade and spatial controllability of injuries and the histological observations similar to those in actual bTBI, brain injuries caused by LISWs would be useful models to study bTBI.

Hatano, Ben; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Otani, Naoki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tokuno, Shinichi; Satoh, Yasushi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Sato, Shunichi

2011-03-01

249

Effects of relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearties on the beat wave generation of electron plasma wave and particle acceleration in non-paraxial region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication, the combined effect of relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities on the generation of electron plasma wave by cross focusing of two intense laser beams at difference frequency ( ?? ? ? 1 - ? 2 ? ? p) and acceleration of electrons in laser produced homogeneous plasma is analysed in the non-paraxial region. On account of these nonlinearities, two laser beams affect the dynamics of each other, and cross focusing takes place. It is observed that the focusing of laser beams becomes fast in the non-paraxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of the radial distance ( r). Modified coupled equations for the beam width of laser beams, electric field amplitude of the excited electron plasma wave and energy gain at beat wave frequency are derived, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are operative. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the cross focusing of two intense laser beams in plasma and its effect on the variation of the amplitude of the electron plasma wave and energy gain. It is observed from the results that both nonlinearities significantly affect the amplitude of plasma wave excitation and particle acceleration in the non-paraxial region in comparison to the paraxial region.

Rawat, Priyanka; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, Ram Pal; Purohit, Gunjan

2014-03-01

250

Long range correlations and the soft ridge in relativistic nuclear collisions  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider experiments exhibit correlations peaked in relative azimuthal angle and extended in rapidity. Called the ridge, this peak occurs both with and without a jet trigger. We argue that the untriggered ridge arises when particles formed by flux tubes in an early Glasma stage later manifest transverse flow. Combining a blast wave model of flow fixed by single-particle spectra with a simple description of the Glasma, we find excellent agreement with current data.

Gavin, Sean; Moschelli, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); McLerran, Larry [Physics Department and RIKEN Brookhaven Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2009-05-15

251

Responsibility of a Filament Eruption for the Initiation of a Flare, CME, and Blast Wave, and its Possible Transformation into a Bow Shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-instrument observations of two filament eruptions on 24 February and 11 May 2011 suggest the following updated scenario for eruptive flare, coronal mass ejection (CME), and shock wave evolution. An initial destabilization of a filament results in stretching out of the magnetic threads belonging to its body that are rooted in the photosphere along the inversion line. Their reconnection leads to i) heating of parts of the filament or its environment, ii) an initial development of the flare cusp, arcade, and ribbons, iii) an increasing similarity of the filament to a curved flux rope, and iv) to its acceleration. Then the pre-eruption arcade enveloping the filament becomes involved in reconnection according to the standard model and continues to form the flare arcade and ribbons. The poloidal magnetic flux in the curved rope developing from the filament progressively increases and forces its toroidal expansion. This flux rope impulsively expands and produces a magnetohydrodynamical disturbance, which rapidly steepens into a shock. The shock passes through the arcade that expands above the filament and then freely propagates for some time ahead of the CME like a decelerating blast wave. If the CME is slow, then the shock eventually decays. Otherwise, the frontal part of the shock changes into the bow-shock regime. This was observed for the first time in the 24 February 2011 event. When reconnection ceases, the flux rope relaxes and constitutes the CME core-cavity system. The expanding arcade develops into the CME frontal structure. We also found that reconnection in the current sheet of a remote streamer forced by the shock passage results in a running flare-like process within the streamer responsible for a type II burst. The development of dimming and various associated phenomena are discussed.

Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Chertok, I. M.; Kalashnikov, S. S.

2015-01-01

252

Macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foams. Part II: reliability of pressure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological study of the process occurring when a plane shock wave reflected off an aqueous foam column filling the test section of a vertical shock tube has been undertaken. The experiments were conducted with initial shock wave Mach numbers in the range 1.25le {M}_s le 1.7 and foam column heights in the range 100-450 mm. Miniature piezotrone circuit electronic pressure transducers were used to record the pressure histories upstream and alongside the foam column. The aim of these experiments was to find a simple way to eliminate a spatial averaging as an artifact of the pressure history recorded by the side-on transducer. For this purpose, we discuss first the common behaviors of the pressure traces in extended time scales. These observations evidently quantify the low frequency variations of the pressure field within the different flow domains of the shock tube. Thereafter, we focus on the fronts of the pressure signals, which, in turn, characterize the high-frequency response of the foam column to the shock wave impact. Since the front shape and the amplitude of the pressure signal most likely play a significant role in the foam destruction, phase changes and/or other physical factors, such as high capacity, viscosity, etc., the common practice of the data processing is revised and discussed in detail. Generally, side-on pressure measurements must be used with great caution when performed in wet aqueous foams, because the low sound speed is especially prone to this effect. Since the spatial averaged recorded pressure signals do not reproduce well the real behaviors of the pressure rise, the recorded shape of the shock wave front in the foam appears much thicker. It is also found that when a thin liquid film wet the sensing membrane, the transducer sensitivity was changed. As a result, the pressure recorded in the foam could exceed the real amplitude of the post-shock wave flow. A simple procedure, which allows correcting this imperfection, is discussed in detail.

Britan, A.; Liverts, M.; Shapiro, H.; Ben-Dor, G.

2013-02-01

253

Correlated Gravitational Wave and Neutrino Signals from General-Relativistic Rapidly Rotating Iron Core Collapse  

E-print Network

We present results from a new set of 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of rotating iron core collapse. We assume octant symmetry and focus on axisymmetric collapse, bounce, the early postbounce evolution, and the associated gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals. We employ a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state, parameterized electron capture in the collapse phase, and a multi-species neutrino leakage scheme after bounce. The latter captures the important effects of deleptonization, neutrino cooling and heating and enables approximate predictions for the neutrino luminosities in the early evolution after core bounce. We consider 12-solar-mass and 40-solar-mass presupernova models and systematically study the effects of (i) rotation, (ii) progenitor structure, and (iii) postbounce neutrino leakage on dynamics, GW, and, neutrino signals. We demonstrate, that the GW signal of rapidly rotating core collapse is practically independent of progenitor mass and precollapse structure. Moreover, we show that the effects of neutrino leakage on the GW signal are strong only in nonrotating or slowly rotating models in which GW emission is not dominated by inner core dynamics. In rapidly rotating cores, core bounce of the centrifugally-deformed inner core excites the fundamental quadrupole pulsation mode of the nascent protoneutron star. The ensuing global oscillations (f~700-800 Hz) lead to pronounced oscillations in the GW signal and correlated strong variations in the rising luminosities of antineutrino and heavy-lepton neutrinos. We find these features in cores that collapse to protoneutron stars with spin periods <~ 2.5 ms and rotational energies sufficient to drive hyper-energetic core-collapse supernova explosions. Hence, joint GW + neutrino observations of a core collapse event could deliver strong evidence for or against rapid core rotation. [abridged

C. D. Ott; E. Abdikamalov; E. O'Connor; C. Reisswig; R. Haas; P. Kalmus; S. Drasco; A. Burrows; E. Schnetter

2013-03-25

254

High-Power Traveling Wave Tubes Powered by a Relativistic Electron Beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the results of a high power traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier experiment. The experiment tested the feasibility of a high power, rippled wall waveguide TWT powered by a relativistic electron beam. Initially, the amplifiers consisted of a single section of slow wave structure. Two TWTs of this type were used, with lengths of 11 and 22 periods. These single stage tubes were linear and operated in the TM_{01} mode at maximum gains of 33 dB and bandwidths on order of 20 MHz centered at 8.76 GHz. The maximum efficiency was 11% corresponding to an output power of 110 MW. Below beam currents of 1.4 kA, the single stage tubes were monochromatic and phase stable to within +/-8 ^circ; however, above this current, a "sideband"-like structure developed in the frequency spectrum. The two "sidebands" were unequally displaced from the center frequency. As the current was increased still further to 1.6 kA, the single stage amplifier oscillated due to positive feedback arising from reflections at the exit taper of the TWT. At this point, the TWT was no longer useful as an amplifier. To reduce the positive feedback and stop the oscillations, we severed the amplifier. Two different lengths of sever were used, the shorter of the two having the highest gain. The shorter sever saturated at 975 A, with a total gain of 37 dB and total power output of 410 MW. Beyond this current, the tube was no longer linear with respect to the input power. The bandwidth of the severed tube was about 100 MHz centered at 8.76 GHz. The severed amplifiers showed the "sideband"-like behaviour at all the beam currents used. The "sideband" frequency separation from the center frequency increased with beam current. The relative importance of the "sidebands" increased with increasing beam current and the total power in the amplifier. As much as 32% of the total power could be in any one "sideband". When the "sidebands" were taken into account, the total power at the magnetron frequency was 209 MW, giving an efficiency of 24%.

Shiffler, Donald Albert, Jr.

255

Structural blast design  

E-print Network

Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

2004-01-01

256

Conversion of piston-driven shocks from powerful solar flares to blast waves in the solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Published observational data on 39 combined type-II/type-IV solar radio bursts from the period 1972-1982 are analyzed, with a focus on the potential use of the type-IV burst duration to predict the time of arrival at earth of piston-driven shock waves (extending and modifying the prediction method proposed by Smart and Shea, 1985). The data and analysis results are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. It is found that a typical shock of this type leaves the solar flare at velocity 1560 km/sec and continues for a distance of 0.12 AU, decelerates as it is convected by the solar wind, and has a travel time of about 48.5 h. The mean deviation between predicted and measured arrival times is 1.40 h, with standard deviation 1.25 h.

Pinter, S.; Dryer, M.

1990-01-01

257

June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami - Duration: 0:08.  

NASA Video Gallery

In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

258

Air blast loading of a cylindrical body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure measurements were performed on the surface of a cylinder in shock tube experiments and in free field tests. In shock tube measurements, pressure waves with a rather sharp profile were observed, with overpressures ranging from 0.2 to 2 bar. Unsteady gain coefficients were obtained for weak and moderately strong incident shocks. In free field tests, blast waves at the

W. Heilig

1981-01-01

259

First-order Fermi Particle Acceleration at Relativistic Shock Waves with a 'Realistic' Magnetic Field Turbulence Model  

E-print Network

First-order Fermi acceleration process at a relativistic shock wave is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations involving numerical integration of particle equations of motion in a turbulent magnetic field near the shock. In comparison to earlier studies a few 'realistic' features of the magnetic field structure are included. The upstream field consists of a mean field component inclined at some angle to the shock normal and finite-amplitude perturbations imposed upon it. The perturbations are assumed to be static in the local plasma rest frame. We apply an analytic model for the turbulence with a flat or a Kolmogorov spectrum within a finite (wide) wave vector range. The magnetic field is continuous across the shock -- the downstream field structure is derived from the upstream one from the hydrodynamical shock jump conditions. We present and discuss the obtained particle spectra and angular distributions at mildly relativistic sub- and superluminal shocks. We show that particle spectra diverge from a simple power-law, an exact shape of the spectrum depends on both an amplitude of the magnetic field perturbations and the considered wave power spectrum.

Jacek Niemiec; Michal Ostrowski

2003-07-11

260

Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

2010-12-01

261

A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube  

E-print Network

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

2011-01-01

262

Particle-in-cell simulation for parametric decays of a circularly polarized Alfvén wave in relativistic thermal electron-positron plasma  

SciTech Connect

Parametric decays of a left-handed circularly polarized Alfvén wave propagating along a constant background magnetic field in a relativistic thermal electron-positron plasma are studied by means of a one dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell simulation. Relativistic effects are included in the Lorentz equation for the momentum of the particles and in their thermal motion, by considering a Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution function for the initial condition. In the linear stage of the simulation, we find many instabilities that match the predictions of relativistic fluid theory. In general, the growth rates of the instabilities increase as the pump wave amplitude is increased, and decrease with a raise in the plasma temperatures. We have confirmed that for very high temperatures the Alfvén branch is suppressed, consistent with analytical calculations.

López, Rodrigo A., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Alejandro Valdivia, J. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile) [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

2014-03-15

263

Approximative analytic study of fermions in magnetar's crust; ultra-relativistic plane waves, Heun and Mathieu solutions and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working with a magnetic field periodic along Oz and decaying in time, we deal with the Dirac-type equation characterizing the fermions evolving in magnetar's crust. For ultra-relativistic particles, one can employ the perturbative approach, to compute the conserved current density components. If the magnetic field is frozen and the magnetar is treated as a stationary object, the fermion's wave function is expressed in terms of the Heun's Confluent functions. Finally, we are extending some previous investigations on the linearly independent fermionic modes solutions to the Mathieu's equation and we discuss the energy spectrum and the Mathieu Characteristic Exponent.

Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

2012-10-01

264

Multi-dimensional instability of electrostatic solitary waves in ultra-relativistic degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features and multi-dimensional instability of electrostatic (EA) solitary waves propagating in an ultra-relativistic degenerate dense magnetized plasma (containing inertia-less electrons, inertia-less positrons, and inertial ions) have been theoretically investigated by reductive perturbation method and small- k perturbation expansion technique. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation has been derived, and its numerical solutions for some special cases have been analyzed to identify the basic features (viz. amplitude, width, instability, etc.) of these electrostatic solitary structures. The implications of our results in some compact astrophysical objects, particularly white dwarfs and neutron stars, are briefly discussed.

Masum Haider, M.; Akter, Suraya; Duha, Syed S.; Mamun, Abdullah A.

2012-10-01

265

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4. .supplment au /;" 11-12. Tome 31. Nov.-Dc. 1970. page C4-221 RELATIVISTIC ATOMIC WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR OPEN SHELLS  

E-print Network

, or one electron outside closed shells, since open shells present a problem in the relativistic-221 RELATIVISTIC ATOMIC WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR OPEN SHELLS D. F. MAYERS Oxford University Computing Laboratory Oxford to configurations involving open shells. A shell with angular quantum number / splits relativistically

Boyer, Edmond

266

Particle Acceleration at Ultra-Relativistic Shocks and the Spectra of Relativistic Fireballs  

E-print Network

We examine Fermi-type acceleration at relativistic shocks, and distinguish between the initial boost of the first shock crossing cycle, where the energy gain per particle can be very large, and the Fermi process proper with repeated shock crossings, in which the typical energy gain is of order unity. We calculate by means of numerical simulations the spectrum and angular distribution of particles accelerated by this Fermi process, in particular in the case where particle dynamics can be approximated as small-angle scattering. We show that synchrotron emission from electrons or positrons accelerated by this process can account remarkably well for the observed power-law spectra of GRB afterglows and Crab-like supernova remnants. In the context of a decelerating relativistic fireball, we calculate the maximum particle energy attainable by acceleration at the external blast wave, and discuss the minimum energy for this acceleration process and its consequences for the observed spectrum.

Yves A. Gallant; Abraham Achterberg; John G. Kirk; Axel W. Guthmann

2000-01-28

267

Quasi-optical theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators with one-dimensional and two-dimensional periodic planar structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of a quasi-optical approach, we develop 2D and 3D self-consistent theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators. Presenting the radiation field as a sum of two counter-propagating wavebeams coupled on a shallow corrugated surface, we describe formation of an evanescent slow wave. Dispersion characteristics of the evanescent wave following from this method are in good compliance with those found from the direct cst simulations. Considering excitation of the slow wave by a sheet electron beam, we simulate linear and nonlinear stages of interaction, which allows us to determine oscillation threshold conditions, electron efficiency, and output coupling. The transition from the model of surface-wave oscillator operating in the ?-mode regime to the canonical model of relativistic backward wave oscillator is considered. We also described a modified scheme of planar relativistic surface-wave oscillators exploiting two-dimensional periodic gratings. Additional transverse propagating waves emerging on these gratings synchronize the emission from a wide sheet rectilinear electron beam allowing realization of a Cherenkov millimeter-wave oscillators with subgigawatt output power level.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.

2013-11-01

268

Improved power capacity in a high efficiency klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator by distributed energy extraction  

SciTech Connect

With the efficiency increase of a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator, the maximum axial electric field and harmonic current simultaneously appear at the end of the beam-wave interaction region, leading to a highly centralized energy exchange in the dual-cavity extractor and a very high electric field on the cavity surface. Thus, we present a method of distributed energy extraction in this kind of devices. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with the microwave power of 5.1?GW and efficiency of 70%, the maximum axial electric field is decreased from 2.26 MV/cm to 1.28 MV/cm, indicating a threefold increase in the power capacity.

Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Cao, Yibing; Sun, Jun [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2013-12-07

269

Tunability over three frequency bands induced by mode transition in relativistic backward wave oscillator with strong end reflections  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an efficient approach to realizing the frequency tunability of a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) over three frequency bands by mode transition without changing the slow wave structure (SWS). It is figured out that the transition of the operation mode in the RBWO can be efficiently achieved by using the strong end reflection of the SWS. This mode transition results in the tunability of the RBWO over three frequency bands at high power and high efficiency without changing the SWS. In numerical simulation, the output frequency of the RBWO can jump over 7.9?GHz in C-band, 9.9?GHz in X-band, and 12.4?GHz in Ku-band with output power exceeding 3.0?GW and conversion efficiency higher than 35% by just reasonably transforming the structures of the front and post resonant reflectors which provide the strong end reflection for the SWS.

Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Fan, Juping; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Sun, Jun [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2014-10-15

270

Nonthermal power dissipation and nonlinear wave dynamics in a plasma penetrated by a momentum-scattered relativistic electron stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous analysis of the nonlinear dissipative equilibrium of a beam-penetrated plasma with nonthermal electron "tails" [D. V. Rose, J. Guillory, and J. H. Beall, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1000 (2002)] is extended to the case of a relativistic, momentum-angle-scattered electron beam (with or without accompanying ions) penetrating a fully ionized low-density nearly collisionless plasma, and to include the energy balance of the nonthermal plasma tail electron population on electron collisional timescales long compared with the primary instability growth time. Quasistationary nonlinear "dissipative equilibrium" states are quantified for various ranges of relativistic beam parameters and various tail-enhanced Landau damping rates for shorter-wavelength space-charge waves. Conditions for quasisteady wave populations are found, and for energy balance between beam energy input to and dynamic friction cooling of the nonthermal "tail electrons." Finally, some potentially incorrect inferences based on a thermal interpretation of bremsstrahlung from such a plasma are quantified. All of these microphysical processes evolve on timescales inaccessible to conventional magnetohydrodynamic modeling of astrophysical jets, and may lead to energetics corrections to such fluid models.

Guillory, J.; Rose, D. V.; Beall, J. H.

2008-07-01

271

Symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-wave treatment of electron-impact ionization  

SciTech Connect

The symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-wave treatment of electron-impact ionization are investigated. It is shown that the square modulus of the scattering matrix element in which the spin states of all four electrons are determined is not invariant under the reversal of the direction of alignment of all spins. The largest of two contributions to this noninvariance originates from the relativistic modifications of the continuum wave functions induced by the distorting potential of the target atom. A second smaller contribution is manifested on reducing the eight-dimensional matrix elements of the QED covariant propagator to purely spatial two-electron integrals. The triple differential cross section (TDCS) exhibits a spin asymmetry unless the entire scattering process occurs in a single plane. There will be a difference in the TDCS between an (e,2e) event in which the initial beam is polarized parallel or antiparallel with respect to the beam direction even if the target is unpolarized and the final spin states are not determined. The TDCS will remain unchanged if, in addition to reversal of the direction of spin alignment, one appropriate momentum component of one of the two outgoing electrons is reversed.

Pyper, N. C.; Kampp, Marco; Whelan, Colm T. [University Chemical Laboratory, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0116 (United States)

2005-05-15

272

A Experimental Investigation of a Tandem Relativistic Backward Wave Oscillator - Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier System for Generating High-Power Microwaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental investigation described in this dissertation demonstrates the feasibility of generating long (>=50 nsec) pulses of high-power (>=100 MW), X-band frequency microwaves. In these experiments, a relativistic Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) is used in tandem with a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier to generate microwave radiation. The tandem BWO-TWT system is driven in the TM_{01 } mode by a single annular, relativistic electron beam, which is guided through the two rippled-wall slow wave structures by an applied axial magnetic field. A special RF sever placed between the BWO and TWT slow wave structures prevents electromagnetic coupling between the oscillator and amplifier while allowing the electron beam to pass from one structure to the other. In this way, the BWO serves to modulate the beam that subsequently drives the TWT producing high-power, phase stable microwave radiation. To obtain microwave pulses with pulsewidths comparable to the electron beam duration, the BWO is operated below saturation levels in order to minimize the pulse -shortening effects that are characteristic of very high -power BWOs. A set of BWO characterization experiments are conducted to determine the optimum operating conditions for this oscillator/modulator. When driven with a beam of ~100 nsec duration, the tandem BWO-TWT device is found capable of producing 50-60 nsec wide microwave pulses with peak output powers in excess of 100 MW. Overall beam-to-microwave efficiencies as high as 35% are observed. The operating frequency of the tandem device is tuned between 11-12 GHz by varying the effective energy of the beam. The tandem BWO-TWT system described here can be scaled up in size to produce peak output power levels in the gigawatt range. This type of system is ideal for use in phased array antenna applications that require an easily controlled source of high power density microwave radiation.

Barreto, Gilberto

273

An experimental investigation of a tandem relativistic backward wave oscillator-travelling wave tube amplifier system for generating high-power microwaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental investigation described in this dissertation demonstrates the feasibility of generating long (greater than or equal to 50 nsec) pulses of high-power (greater than or equal to 100 MW), X-band frequency microwaves. In these experiments, a relativistic Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) is used in tandem with a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier to generate microwave radiation. The tandem BWO TWT system is driven in the TM(sub 01) mode by a single annular, relativistic electron beam, which is guided through the two rippled-wall slow wave structures by an applied axial magnetic field. A special RF sever placed between the BWO and TWT slow wave structures prevents electromagnetic coupling between the oscillator and amplifier while allowing the electron beam to pass from one structure to the other. In this way, the BWO serves to modulate the beam that subsequently drives the TWT producing high-power, phase stable microwave radiation. To obtain microwave pulses with pulsewidths comparable to the electron beam duration, the BWO is operated below saturation levels in order to minimize the pulse-shortening effects that are characteristic of very high-power BWOs. A set of BWO characterization experiments are conducted to determine the optimum operating conditions for this oscillator/modulator. When driven with a beam of approx. 100 nsec duration, the tandem BWO-TWT device is found capable of producing 50-60 nsec wide microwave pulses with peak output powers in excess of 100 MW. Overall beam-to-microwave efficiencies as high as 35 percent are observed. The operating frequency of the tandem device is tuned between 11-12 GHz by varying the effective energy of the beam. The tandem BWO-TWT system described here can be scaled up in size to produce peak output power levels in the gigawatt range. This type of system is ideal for use in phased array antenna applications that require an easily controlled source of high power density microwave radiation.

Barreto, Gilberto

274

Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

2009-12-01

275

Dry ice blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

1992-04-01

276

Relativistic electron beam induced amplification of surface wave propagating over a corrugated metal surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An impedance model is constructed in the framework of a quasi-optical approach, which describes the propagation of radiation over a corrugated metal surface and its amplification by a rectilinear relativistic electron beam. It is shown that this scheme can provide effective amplification of radiation in a submillimeter wavelength range.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Malkin, A. M.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Kocharovskaya, E. R.

2013-03-01

277

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

278

Subshell fitting of relativistic atomic core electron densities for use in QTAIM analyses of ECP-based wave functions.  

PubMed

Scalar-relativistic, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations were done for free, neutral atoms of all elements of the periodic table using the universal Gaussian basis set. Each core, closed-subshell contribution to a total atomic electron density distribution was separately fitted to a spherical electron density function: a linear combination of s-type Gaussian functions. The resulting core subshell electron densities are useful for systematically and compactly approximating total core electron densities of atoms in molecules, for any atomic core defined in terms of closed subshells. When used to augment the electron density from a wave function based on a calculation using effective core potentials (ECPs) in the Hamiltonian, the atomic core electron densities are sufficient to restore the otherwise-absent electron density maxima at the nuclear positions and eliminate spurious critical points in the neighborhood of the atom, thus enabling quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses to be done in the neighborhoods of atoms for which ECPs were used. Comparison of results from QTAIM analyses with all-electron, relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular wave functions validates the use of the atomic core electron densities for augmenting electron densities from ECP-based wave functions. For an atom in a molecule for which a small-core or medium-core ECPs is used, simply representing the core using a simplistic, tightly localized electron density function is actually sufficient to obtain a correct electron density topology and perform QTAIM analyses to obtain at least semiquantitatively meaningful results, but this is often not true when a large-core ECP is used. Comparison of QTAIM results from augmenting ECP-based molecular wave functions with the realistic atomic core electron densities presented here versus augmenting with the limiting case of tight core densities may be useful for diagnosing the reliability of large-core ECP models in particular cases. For molecules containing atoms of any elements of the periodic table, the production of extended wave function files that include the appropriate atomic core densities for ECP-based calculations, and the use of these wave functions for QTAIM analyses, has been automated. PMID:21780749

Keith, Todd A; Frisch, Michael J

2011-11-17

279

Blast injury research models  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

280

Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL 17 January 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: A quantitative comparison of simulation with observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) balloons and was magnetically mapped close to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES 13 and the Van Allen Probes. We show that the count rate, the energy distribution, and the time variation of the simulated precipitation all agree very well with the balloon observations, suggesting that EMIC wave scattering was likely the cause for the precipitation event. The event reported here is the first balloon REP event with closely conjugate EMIC wave observations, and our study employs the most detailed quantitative analysis on the link of EMIC waves with observed REP to date.

Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn M.; Hudson, Mary K.; Woodger, Leslie A.; Smith, David M.; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan V.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Goldstein, Jerry; Fennell, Joseph F.; Spence, Harlan E.

2014-12-01

281

Modulational instability and nonlinear evolution of two-dimensional electrostatic wave packets in ultra-relativistic degenerate dense plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We consider the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in an ultra-relativistic (UR) degenerate dense electron-ion plasma, whose dynamics is governed by the nonlocal two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger-like equations. The coupled set of equations is then used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a uniform wave train to an infinitesimal perturbation of multidimensional form. The condition for the MI is obtained, and it is shown that the nondimensional parameter, {beta}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sub C}n{sub 0}{sup 1/3} (where {lambda}{sub C} is the reduced Compton wavelength and n{sub 0} is the particle number density) associated with the UR pressure of degenerate electrons, shifts the stable (unstable) regions at n{sub 0{approx}}10{sup 30}cm{sup -3} to unstable (stable) ones at higher densities, i.e., n{sub 0} > or approx. 7x10{sup 33}. It is also found that the higher the values of n{sub 0}, the lower is the growth rate of MI with cut-offs at lower wave numbers of modulation. Furthermore, the dynamical evolution of the wave packets is studied numerically. We show that either they disperse away or they blowup in a finite time, when the wave action is below or above the threshold. The results could be useful for understanding the properties of modulated wave packets and their multidimensional evolution in UR degenerate dense plasmas, such as those in the interior of white dwarfs and/or pre-Supernova stars.

Misra, Amar Prasad [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Shukla, Padma Kant [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); RUB International Chair, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2011-04-15

282

Configuration mixing of angular-momentum projected triaxial relativistic mean-field wave functions. II. Microscopic analysis of low-lying states in magnesium isotopes  

E-print Network

The recently developed structure model that uses the generator coordinate method to perform configuration mixing of angular-momentum projected wave functions, generated by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes (3DAMP+GCM), is applied in a systematic study of ground states and low-energy collective states in the even-even magnesium isotopes $^{20-40}$Mg. Results obtained using a relativistic point-coupling nucleon-nucleon effective interaction in the particle-hole channel, and a density-independent $\\delta$-interaction in the pairing channel, are compared to data and with previous axial 1DAMP+GCM calculations, both with a relativistic density functional and the non-relativistic Gogny force. The effects of the inclusion of triaxial degrees of freedom on the low-energy spectra and E2 transitions of magnesium isotopes are examined.

J. M. Yao; H. Mei; H. Chen; J. Meng; P. Ring; D. Vretenar

2010-06-08

283

Porcine head response to blast  

E-print Network

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

284

Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2012-10-01

285

General Relativistic Numerical Simulation on Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars and Gauge-Invariant Gravitational Wave Extraction  

E-print Network

We are developing 3 dimensional simulation codes for coalescing binary neutron stars. A code using the maximal slicing condition is obtained. To evaluate the gravitational radiation, we implemented a gauge-invariant wave extraction and compared the wave forms with the metric tensors at the wave zone. The energy spectrum of the waves was also evaluated to investigate the possibility that the excitation of the quasi-normal modes of the black hole, which may be formed after the merger of two stars, can be observed.

Mari Kawamura; Ken-ichi Oohara; Takashi Nakamura

2003-06-24

286

On The Relationship Between Cross L-shell Pc5 ULF Wave Power and Relativistic Electron Flux Enhancements In The Outer Radiation Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted the possibility that large-amplitude ULF pulsations may act as an acceleration mechanism for generating relativistic electron populations in the outer zone magnetosphere. We examine solar wind characteristics, Pc5 ULF wave power and outer magnetospheric measurements of high energy electron flux dur- ing the recurrent fast solar wind speed streams which occurred during the first half of

I. R. Mann; R. A. Mathie; R. H. A. Iles; A. N. Fazakerley

2002-01-01

287

Lightweight blast shield  

DOEpatents

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

288

Relativistic scattering coherence  

SciTech Connect

Wave propagation through inhomogeneous, turbulent media is investigated for the case where the signal and inhomogeneities move relativistically. Although in classical treatments the mean-square angular deviations grow as the path length, this is found not to be true relativistically. Special attention is given to the problem of light propagating through a cosmological background of gravitational waves.

Linder, E.V.

1986-09-15

289

The Relativistic Transformation for an Electromagnetic Plane Wave with General Time Dependence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In special relativity, the transformation between inertial frames for an electromagnetic plane wave is usually derived for the time-harmonic case (the field is a sinusoid of infinite duration), even though all practical waves are of finite duration and may not even contain a dominant sinusoid. This paper presents an alternative derivation in which…

Smith, Glenn S.

2012-01-01

290

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21

291

Relativistic analytical wave functions and scattering factors for neutral atoms beyond Kr and for all chemically important ions up to I-.  

PubMed

Relativistic wave functions for elements with Z = 37-54 [Su & Coppens (1998). Acta Cryst. A54, 646-652] have been fitted with a linear combination of Slater-type functions as defined by Bunge, Barrientos & Bunge [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1993), 53, 113-162], for use in charge-density analysis and other applications. In addition, numerical relativistic wave functions have been calculated for all chemically relevant ions up to Z = 54, and corresponding analytical expressions have been derived. X-ray scattering factors calculated from the numerical wave functions are parameterized [in the sin(straight theta)/lambda ranges 0.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-6.0 A(-1)] with six Gaussian functions, using the same method applied previously by Su & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1997), A53, 749-762]. PMID:11679695

Macchi, P; Coppens, P

2001-11-01

292

Passive blast pressure sensor  

SciTech Connect

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

293

Test Particle Simulations of Interaction Between Monochromatic Chorus Waves and Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chorus waves have been suggested to be effective in acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Here we perform gyro-averaged test-particle simulations to calculate the bounce-averaged pitch angle and energy diffusion coefficients for parallel-propagating monochromatic chorus waves, and perform a comparison of test-particle (TP) model with quasi-linear (QL) theory to evaluate the influence of nonlinear processes. For small amplitude chorus waves, the diffusion coefficients of TP and QL models are in good agreement. As the wave amplitude reaches a threshold value, two nonlinear processes (phase trapping and phase bunching) start to occur, especially at large equatorial pitch angles. Phase trapping yields rapid increases in pitch angle and kinetic energy. In contrast, phase bunching causes overall decreases in pitch angle and kinetic energy. For the waves with amplitudes slightly above the threshold value, the average behavior is dominated by the phase trapping, and TP diffusion coefficients are larger than QL ones. As wave amplitude increases, TP diffusion coefficients become smaller than QL ones, indicating that phase trapping gradually reduces the dominance over phase bunching.

Gao, Zhonglei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Lewei; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Xiao, Fuliang

2014-06-01

294

Spatial Localization and Ducting of EMIC Waves: Effect on Ultra-Relativistic Electron Populations using Ground-based and Van Allen Probes Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the loss and pitch-angle scattering of relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on October 11, 2012. The EMIC wave activity was observed in-situ on the Van Allen Probes confined to very narrow (DeltaL 0.1-0.4) left-hand polarized emission in regions of mass density gradient at the outer edge of the plasmasphere at L 4. Conversely, conjugate on the ground, EMIC wave were seen across the CARISMA array throughout an extended 18 hour interval. The waves have complex polarization patterns on the ground, in good agreement with model results from Woodroffe and Lysak [2012] and consistent with Earth’s rotation sweeping magnetometer stations across multiple polarization reversals in the fields in the Earth-ionosphere duct. Despite the extended interval of EMIC waves, reductions in Van Allen Probe 90o pitch-angle ultra-relativistic electron flux were not observed, but loss was seen at lower pitch angles. Computed radiation belt electron pitch-angle diffusion rates demonstrate that rapid pitch-angle diffusion is confined to low pitch angles and cannot reach 90o. For the first time, from both observational and modeling perspectives, we show evidence of EMIC waves triggering ultra-relativistic ( 2-8 MeV) electron loss, but which is confined to pitch angles below around 45 degrees and not affecting the core distribution. This work has received funding from the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-Space) under grant agreement n 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

Mann, Ian; Shprits, Yuri; Murphy, Kyle; Baker, Daniel N.; Usanova, Maria; Wygant, John; Orlova, Ksenia; Reeves, Geoffrey; Turner, Drew; Kletzing, Craig; Raita, Tero; Spence, Harlan; Milling, D. K.; Drozdov, Alexander; Robertson, Matthew; Kale, Andy; Thaller, Scott

295

Gravitational waves from stochastic relativistic sources: primordial turbulence and magnetic fields  

E-print Network

The power spectrum of a homogeneous and isotropic stochastic variable, characterized by a finite correlation length, does in general not vanish on scales larger than the correlation scale. If the variable is a divergence free vector field, we demonstrate that its power spectrum is blue on large scales. Accounting for this fact, we compute the gravitational waves induced by an incompressible turbulent fluid and by a causal magnetic field present in the early universe. The gravitational wave power spectra show common features: they are both blue on large scales, and peak at the correlation scale. However, the magnetic field can be treated as a coherent source and it is active for a long time. This results in a very effective conversion of magnetic energy in gravitational wave energy at horizon crossing. Turbulence instead acts as a source for gravitational waves over a time interval much shorter than a Hubble time, and the conversion into gravitational wave energy is much less effective. We also derive a strong constraint on the amplitude of a primordial magnetic field when the correlation length is much smaller than the horizon.

Chiara Caprini; Ruth Durrer

2006-03-17

296

A fully general relativistic numerical simulation code for spherically symmetric matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fully general relativistic open-source code that can be used for simulating a system of spherically symmetric perfect fluid matter. It is based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism with maximal slicing and isotropic spatial coordinates. For hydrodynamic matter High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) schemes with a monotonized central-difference limiter and approximated Riemann solvers are used in the Eulerian viewpoint. The accuracy and the convergence of our numerical code are verified by performing several test problems. These include a relativistic blast wave, relativistic spherical accretion of matter into a black hole, Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) stars and Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS) dust collapses. In particular, a dynamical code test is done for the OS collapse by explicitly performing numerical coordinate transformations between our coordinate 8system and the one used for the analytic solution. Finally, some TOV star solutions are presented for the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity theory.

Park, Dong-Ho; Cho, Inyong; Kang, Gungwon; Lee, Hyung Mok

2013-02-01

297

Structure formation in the presence of relativistic heat conduction: corrections to the Jeans wave number with a stable first order in the gradients formalism  

E-print Network

The problem of structure formation in relativistic dissipative fluids was analyzed in a previous work within Eckart's framework, in which the heat flux is coupled to the hydrodynamic acceleration, additional to the usual temperature gradient term. It was shown that in such case, the pathological behavior of fluctuations leads to the disapperance of the gravitational instability responsible for structure formation. In the present work the problem is revisited now using a constitutive equation derived from relativistic kinetic theory. The new relation, in which the heat flux is not coupled to the hydrodynamic acceleration, leads to a consistent first order in the gradients formalism. In this case the gravitational instability remains, and only relativistic corrections to the Jeans wave number are obtained. In the calculation here shown the non-relativistc limit is recovered, opposite to what happens in Eckart's case.

J. H. Mondragon-Suarez; A. Sandoval-Villalbazo; A. L. Garcia-Perciante

2012-01-21

298

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

299

Relativistic particle acceleration in the process of whistler-mode chorus wave generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that efficient acceleration of resonant electrons takes place in a self-consistent particle simulation reproducing whistler-mode chorus emissions. While the majority of electrons lose energy contributing to the generation of chorus emissions, a fraction of resonant electrons having large pitch angle are simultaneously energized through nonlinear wave trapping by the generated chorus emissions. A small fraction of energetic

Yuto Katoh; Yoshiharu Omura

2007-01-01

300

The 'Regularity Singularity' at Points of General Relativistic Shock Wave Interaction  

E-print Network

A proof that a new kind of non-removable {\\it "regularity singularity"} forms when two shock waves collide within the theory of General Relativity, was first announced in ProcRoySoc A \\cite{ReintjesTemple}. In the present paper we give complete proofs of the claims in \\cite{ReintjesTemple} and extend the results on the regularity of the Einstein curvature tensor to the full Riemann curvature tensor. The main result is that, in a neighborhood of a point where two shock waves collide in a spherically symmetric spacetime, the gravitational metric tensor cannot be lifted from C0,1 to C1 within the class of C1,1 coordinate transformations. This contrasts Israel's celebrated theorem \\cite{Israel}, which states that around each point on a {\\it single} shock surface there exist a coordinate system in which the metric is C1,1 regular. Moreover, at points of shock wave interaction, delta function sources exist in the second derivatives of the gravitational metric tensor in all coordinate systems of the C1,1-atlas, but due to cancellation, the Einstein and Riemann curvature tensor remain sup-norm bounded. We conclude that points of shock wave interaction are a new kind of spacetime singularity, (which we name "regularity singularity"), singularities that can form from the evolution of smooth initial data for perfect fluids and that lie in physical spacetime, but at such points {\\it locally inertial} coordinates fail to exist.

Moritz Reintjes

2014-09-18

301

Blast furnace key to earth's birth P11 Balancing the body clock P14  

E-print Network

Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory This article has been downloaded from IOPscience to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;Building simulations and focus here on the Sedov blast wave test. The blast wave problem describes the evolution

Liley, David

302

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

303

Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths for the 16 ?n = 0 optically allowed transitions with n = 2 in the 67 O-like ions with 26 ? Z ? 92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths have been calculated for the 16 ?n = 0 optically allowed transitions with n = 2 in the 67 O-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 26 ? Z ? 92. The calculations were made for the four final, or scattered, electron energies E? = 0.20 , 0.42 , 0.80, and 1.40, where E? is in units of Zeff2 Ry with Zeff = Z - 5.83. In the present calculations, an improved 'top-up' method, which employs relativistic plane waves, was used to obtain the high partial-wave contribution for each transition, in contrast to the partial-relativistic Coulomb-Bethe approximation used in previous work by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 82 (2002) 357]. In that earlier work, collision strengths were also provided for O-like ions, but for a more comprehensive data set consisting of all possible 45 ?n = 0 transitions, six scattered energies, and the 79 ions with Z in the range 14 ? Z ? 92. The collision strengths covered in the present work should be more accurate than the corresponding data given by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 82 (2002) 357] and are presented here to replace those earlier results.

Fontes, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hong Lin

2015-01-01

304

Post-test blast response analyses of DICE THROW vehicles. Final report, 26 July 1977-1 March 1978  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a blast response study of select truck configurations fielded in the DICE THROW test. Using the TRUCK computer code, the response time-histories of four different Army wheeled vehicle systems exposed to both blast overpressure and dynamic pressure loadings were obtained. Important motions of the total systems subsequent to blast wave interception, particularly vehicle overturning, are plotted.

Wetmore, K.R.

1980-01-01

305

Relativistic Lighthouses: The Role of the Binary Pulsar in proving the existence of Gravitational Waves  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the role of the discovery and analysis of the first binary pulsar in settling the long-running quadrupole formula controversy over the status of gravitational waves as a prediction of general relativity. It also discusses how we should understand the resolution of this controversy in the context of the so-called science wars. In other words it discusses whether concepts such as interpretive flexibility and the experimenters' regress can shed light on what can also be seen as a classical confirmation of realist expectations, in which a theoretical controversy is settled by a conclusive experiment.

Kennefick, Daniel

2014-01-01

306

Mechanism of phase control in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator by an input signal  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical analyses and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to understand the mechanism of microwave phase control realized by the external RF signal in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO). Theoretical calculations show that a modulated electron beam can lead the microwave field with an arbitrary initial phase to the same equilibrium phase, which is determined by the phase factor of the modulated current, and the difference between them is fixed. Furthermore, PIC simulations demonstrate that the phase of input signal has a close relation to that of modulated current, which initiates the phase of the irregularly microwave during the build-up of oscillation. Since the microwave field is weak during the early time of starting oscillation, it is easy to be induced, and a small input signal is sufficient to control the phase of output microwave. For the klystron-like RBWO with two pre-modulation cavities and a reentrant input cavity, an input signal with 100?kW power and 4.21?GHz frequency can control the phase of 5?GW output microwave with relative phase difference less than 6% when the diode voltage is 760?kV, and beam current is 9.8?kA, corresponding to a power ratio of output microwave to input signal of 47?dB.

Xiao, Renzhen; Song, Zhimin; Deng, Yuqun; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2014-09-15

307

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2012-07-01

308

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2013-07-01

309

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2011-07-01

310

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2014-07-01

311

Amplification of a fast wave by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear model and simulation technique of the interaction and energy transfer between a fast wave and a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler are presented. Unlike the situations in a magnetostatic-wiggler free-electron laser (MWFEL) and in an electron cyclotron maser (ECM), the electrostatic potential of the electrons plays an important role and participates in the energy exchange between the wave and the electron beam. Compared to MWFEL and ECM, the coaxial electrostatic-wiggler configuration has a distinguishing peculiarity that besides the electron-beam's kinetic energy, its electrostatic potential energy can be effectively transferred to the fast wave. Simulation shows that wave could be amplified with ultrahigh gain by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of the electron beam.

Zhang Shichang [Institute of Photoelectronics, Campus Mail Box 50, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

2010-05-15

312

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01

313

A general solution to non-linear particle acceleration at non-relativistic shock waves  

E-print Network

Diffusive acceleration at collisionless shock waves remains one of the most promising acceleration mechanisms for the description of the origin of cosmic rays at all energies. A crucial ingredient to be taken into account is the reaction of accelerated particles on the shock, which in turn determines the efficiency of the process. Here we propose a semi-analytical kinetic method that allows us to calculate the shock modification induced by accelerated particles together with the efficiency for particle acceleration and the spectra of accelerated particles. The shock modification is calculated for arbitrary environment parameters (Mach number, maximum momentum, density) and for arbitrary diffusion properties of the medium. Several dependences of the diffusion coefficient on particle momentum and location are considered to assess the goodness of the method.

Elena Amato; Pasquale Blasi

2005-09-22

314

Investigation of shock waves in the relativistic Riemann problem: A comparison of viscous fluid dynamics to kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in viscous matter using the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the relativistic causal dissipative fluid-dynamical approach of Israel and Stewart. Comparisons between these two approaches clarify and point out the regime of validity of second-order fluid dynamics in relativistic shock phenomena. The transition from ideal to viscous shocks is demonstrated by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio {eta}/s. We also find that a good agreement between these two approaches requires a Knudsen number Kn<1/2.

Bouras, I.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molnar, E. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); KFKI, Research Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Niemi, H. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Xu, Z.; Rischke, D. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-08-15

315

Large blast and thermal simulator advanced concept driver design by computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a large test facility is proposed for simulating the blast and thermal environment resulting from nuclear explosions. This facility would be used to test the survivability and vulnerability of military equipment such as trucks, tanks and helicopters in a simulated thermal and blast environment, and to perform research into nuclear blast phenomenology. The proposed advanced design concepts, heating of driver gas and fast-acting throat valves for wave shaping, are described and the results of CFD studies to advance these new technical concepts for simulating decaying blast waves are reported.

Opalka, Klaus O.

1989-08-01

316

Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain injury. Methods This study developed and validated a set of modelling tools to simulate blast loading to the human head. Using these tools, the blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave motions that lead to focal brain damage were simulated. Results The simulations predict the deposition of three distinct wave energy components, two of which can be related to injury-inducing mechanisms, namely cavitation and shear. Furthermore, the results suggest that the spatial distributions of these damaging energy components are independent of blast direction. Conclusions The predictions reported herein will simplify efforts to correlate simulation predictions with clinical measures of TBI and aid in the development of protective headwear. PMID:24766453

Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

2014-01-01

317

Theory of Relativistic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic jets can be modeled as magnetohydrodynamic flows. We analyze the related equations and discuss the involved acceleration mechanisms, their relation to the collimation, to the jet confinement by its environment, and to possible rarefaction waves triggered by pressure imbalances.

Vlahakis, Nektarios

318

MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PARALLEL TRANS-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of a parallel collisionless shock undergoing particle acceleration. Our simulation, which contains parameterized scattering and a particular thermal leakage injection model, calculates the feedback between accelerated particles ahead of the shock, which influence the shock precursor and 'smooth' the shock, and thermal particle injection. We show that there is a transition between nonrelativistic shocks, where the acceleration efficiency can be extremely high and the nonlinear compression ratio can be substantially greater than the Rankine-Hugoniot value, and fully relativistic shocks, where diffusive shock acceleration is less efficient and the compression ratio remains at the Rankine-Hugoniot value. This transition occurs in the trans-relativistic regime and, for the particular parameters we use, occurs around a shock Lorentz factor ?{sub 0} = 1.5. We also find that nonlinear shock smoothing dramatically reduces the acceleration efficiency presumed to occur with large-angle scattering in ultra-relativistic shocks. Our ability to seamlessly treat the transition from ultra-relativistic to trans-relativistic to nonrelativistic shocks may be important for evolving relativistic systems, such as gamma-ray bursts and Type Ibc supernovae. We expect a substantial evolution of shock accelerated spectra during this transition from soft early on to much harder when the blast-wave shock becomes nonrelativistic.

Ellison, Donald C.; Warren, Donald C. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Bykov, Andrei M., E-mail: don_ellison@ncsu.edu, E-mail: ambykov@yahoo.com [Ioffe Institute for Physics and Technology, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2013-10-10

319

Monte Carlo Simulations of Nonlinear Particle Acceleration in Parallel Trans-relativistic Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of a parallel collisionless shock undergoing particle acceleration. Our simulation, which contains parameterized scattering and a particular thermal leakage injection model, calculates the feedback between accelerated particles ahead of the shock, which influence the shock precursor and "smooth" the shock, and thermal particle injection. We show that there is a transition between nonrelativistic shocks, where the acceleration efficiency can be extremely high and the nonlinear compression ratio can be substantially greater than the Rankine-Hugoniot value, and fully relativistic shocks, where diffusive shock acceleration is less efficient and the compression ratio remains at the Rankine-Hugoniot value. This transition occurs in the trans-relativistic regime and, for the particular parameters we use, occurs around a shock Lorentz factor ?0 = 1.5. We also find that nonlinear shock smoothing dramatically reduces the acceleration efficiency presumed to occur with large-angle scattering in ultra-relativistic shocks. Our ability to seamlessly treat the transition from ultra-relativistic to trans-relativistic to nonrelativistic shocks may be important for evolving relativistic systems, such as gamma-ray bursts and Type Ibc supernovae. We expect a substantial evolution of shock accelerated spectra during this transition from soft early on to much harder when the blast-wave shock becomes nonrelativistic.

Ellison, Donald C.; Warren, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.

2013-10-01

320

Quasi-optical theory of coaxial and cylindrical relativistic surface-wave oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of a quasi-optical approach, a nonlinear nonstationary theory of surface-wave oscillators, coaxial and cylindrical multiwave Cherenkov oscillators (MCOs) fed by large-diameter tubular electron beams, is constructed. The small curvature of the waveguide walls allows one to appreciably simplify the MCO dynamics analysis by considering a quasi-plane model. In this model, local surface fields near the corrugated cylindrical wall are close to fields of a plane corrugated with the same depth and period and the cylindrical geometry is taken into account by introducing azimuthal periodicity conditions. The results obtained in terms of the averaged approach are compared with those of direct numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and experimental data. Remarkably, PIC simulation demonstrates the existence of a single-frequency oscillation regime at long perimeters in which the self-synchronization of different azimuthal modes takes place. As a result, an azimuthally asymmetric stationary field distribution sets in, which can be assigned to dissipative structures well known in the theory of self-sustained oscillation systems.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavskii, V. Yu.; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

2013-02-01

321

The spectrum of cosmic rays escaping from relativistic shocks  

SciTech Connect

We derive expressions for the time integrated spectrum of Cosmic Rays (CRs) that are accelerated in a decelerating relativistic shock wave and escape ahead of the shock. It is assumed that at any given time the CRs have a power law form, carry a constant fraction of the energy E of the shocked plasma, and escape continuously at the maximal energy attainable. The spectrum of escaping particles is highly sensitive to the instantaneous spectral index due to the fact that the minimal energy, ?{sub min} ? ?{sup 2}m{sub p}c{sup 2} where ? is the shock Lorentz factor, changes with time. In particular, the escaping spectrum may be considerably harder than the canonical N(?)??{sup ?2} spectrum. For a shock expanding into a plasma of density n, a spectral break is expected at the maximal energy attainable at the transition to non relativistic velocities, ? ? 10{sup 19}(?{sub B}/0.1)(n/1cm{sup ?3}){sup 1/6}(E/10{sup 51}erg){sup 1/3}eV where ?{sub B} is the fraction of the energy flux carried by the magnetic field. If ultra-high energy CRs are generated in decelerating relativistic blast waves arising from the explosion of stellar mass objects, their generation spectrum may therefore be different than the canonical N(?)??{sup ?2}.

Katz, Boaz; Waxman, Eli [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mészáros, Peter, E-mail: boaz.katz@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2010-10-01

322

CRCHD E-blast  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD E-blast CRCHD Web Site Updates The Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) has recently updated some of its Web pages! Please take the time to browse through these updates. Site updates include: 2013 Annual Report to the Nation on

323

Air blast loading of a cylindrical body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure measurements were performed on the surface of a cylinder in shock tube experiments and in free field tests. In shock tube measurements, pressure waves with a rather sharp profile were observed, with overpressures ranging from 0.2 to 2 bar. Unsteady gain coefficients were obtained for weak and moderately strong incident shocks. In free field tests, blast waves at the point of contact with the body produced a reflected pressure of 4.3 bar, corresponding to an overpressure of 1.4 bar or a shock Mach number of 1.5. The results are presented in graphical form.

Heilig, W.

324

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.  

PubMed

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

2014-10-28

325

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K.; Zheng, James Q.; Moore, David F.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Radovitzky, Raúl

2014-01-01

326

Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed for the higher blast loads case. Widespread tensile matrix damage was experienced for both blast load cases, while only for 875 g blast load fiber failure damage was observed. This agrees well with the experimental data showing that the composite panel was not able to resist to the 875 g blast load.

Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

2012-06-01

327

Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.  

PubMed

Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration. PMID:24247639

Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

2013-12-01

328

Acceleration of Magnetospheric Relativistic Electrons by Ultra-Low Frequency Waves: A Comparison between Two Cases Observed by Cluster and LANL Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the origin and acceleration of magnetospheric relativistic electrons (MREs) in the Earth's radiation belt during geomagnetic storms is an important subject and yet one of outstanding questions in space physics. It has been statistically suggested that during geomagnetic storms, ultra-low-frequency (ULF) Pc-5 wave activities in the magnetosphere are correlated with order of magnitude increase of MRE fluxes in the outer radiation belt. Yet, physical and observational understandings of resonant interactions between ULF waves and MREs remain minimum. In this paper, we show two events during storms on September 25, 2001 and November 25, 2001, the solar wind speeds in both cases were > 500 km/s while Cluster observations indicate presence of strong ULF waves in the magnetosphere at noon and dusk, respectively, during a approx. 3-hour period. MRE observations by the Los Alamos (LANL) spacecraft show a quadrupling of 1.1-1.5 MeV electron fluxes in the September 25, 2001 event, but only a negligible increase in the November 2.5, 2001 event. We present a detailed comparison between these two events. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of MRE acceleration during the September 25, 2001 event can be attributed to the compressional wave mode with strong ULF wave activities and the physical origin of MRE acceleration depends more on the distribution of toroidal and poloidal ULF waves in the outer radiation belt.

Shao, X.; Fung, S. F.; Tan, L. C.; Sharma, A. S.

2010-01-01

329

STUDY ON MEASUREMENT OF BLAST-INDUCED SEISM AND BUILDING SAFETY CRITERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationality of using particle vibration velocity to describe blast-induced seismic effect is testified by using the stress-strain relation of rock and soil,and characteristics of wave propagation. A lot of seismic wave diagrams and frequency spectrograms are obtained from a lot of blast-induced seism. The propagation law and parameters of seismic wave in different places are studied. The regulations of

Yan Zhixin; Wang Yonghe; Jiang Ping; Wang Houyu

330

On The Relationship Between Cross L-shell Pc5 ULF Wave Power and Relativistic Electron Flux Enhancements In The Outer Radiation Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has highlighted the possibility that large-amplitude ULF pulsations may act as an acceleration mechanism for generating relativistic electron populations in the outer zone magnetosphere. We examine solar wind characteristics, Pc5 ULF wave power and outer magnetospheric measurements of high energy electron flux dur- ing the recurrent fast solar wind speed streams which occurred during the first half of 1995. We find a close correlation between extended intervals of significant pulsation power and GOES7 observations of enhanced relativistic (> 2 MeV) electron flux in the outer zone magnetosphere, suggesting that these two features may be causally re- lated. We demonstrate that significant electron flux increases at geosynchronous orbit are only observed in response to ULF wave power which is sustained at high lev- els over a number of days following storm onset. Further, using data from the STRV microsatellites, we examine the evolution of cross L-shell ULF wave power and rel- ativistic (> 750 keV) electron flux from L = 3.75 to L = 6.79. We find that for specific events, the fluxes in these fixed energy detectors can rise across the whole of this L-shell range. In contrast, ULF wave power increases with increasing L-shell, and is typically an order of magnitude higher at L = 6.6 than at L = 4. Our obser- vations suggest that ULF pulsations may play a role in the acceleration mechanism for generating MeV energy "killer" electrons in the magnetosphere, particularly at geosyncronous orbit. Further research should examine in detail the relationship be- tween ULF wave power and MeV energy electron flux rises in the heart of the outer radiation belts around L 4.

Mann, I. R.; Mathie, R. A.; Iles, R. H. A.; Fazakerley, A. N.

331

Generation of 3 GW microwave pulses in X-band from a combination of a relativistic backward-wave oscillator and a helical-waveguide compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of passive compression of frequency-modulated (FM) pulses in a dispersive media (DM) was used to increase the peak microwave power up to the multigigawatt level. A helically corrugated waveguide was used as the DM, while a relativistic X-band backward-wave oscillator (RBWO) with a descending-during-the-pulse accelerating voltage served as a source of FM pulses. Compression of pulses down to a halfwidth of 2.2 ns accompanied by a 4.5-fold power increase up to a value of about 3.2 GW has been demonstrated.

Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Kolganov, N. G.; Mishakin, S. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Cross, A. W.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; McStravick, M.; Whyte, C. G.; Young, A. R.; Ronald, K.; Robertson, C. W.; Phelps, A. D. R.

2010-11-01

332

Impulsive, Stochastic, and Shock Wave Acceleration of Relativistic Protons in Large Solar Events of 1989 September 29, 2000 July 14, 2003 October 28, and 2005 January 20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the data from neutron monitors and applying various techniques, the parameters of relativistic solar protons (RSPs) outside the magnetosphere are currently being derived by several research groups. Such data, together with direct proton measurements from balloons and spacecraft, allow the determination of particle energy spectra near the Earth's orbit in successive moments of time. Spectra of RSPs in a number of large solar events tend to indicate the existence of multistep acceleration at/near the Sun. In this paper, we study the generation of RSP by neutral current sheet, stochastic, and shock-wave acceleration, within the framework of two-component concepts for ground level enhancements (GLEs) of solar cosmic rays (SCRs). Our analysis is extended to large solar events (GLEs) of 1989 September 29, 2000 July 14, 2003 October 28, and 2005 January 20. We found two different particle populations (components) in the relativistic energy range: a prompt component (PC), characterized by an early impulselike intensity increase, hard spectrum and high anisotropy, and a delayed component, presenting a gradual late increase, soft spectrum and low anisotropy. Based on a two-source model for SCR spectrum formation at the Sun, we carried out theoretical calculations of spectra in the sources for both components. We conclude that the processes in neutral current sheet, together with stochastic acceleration in expanding magnetic trap in the solar corona, are able to explain the production of two different relativistic components. Shock acceleration in the presence of coronal mass ejection (CME) fits fairly only the nonrelativistic range of the SCR spectrum, but fails in the description of relativistic proton spectra, especially for the PC.

Pérez-Peraza, J.; Vashenyuk, E. V.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Balabin, Yu. V.; Gallegos-Cruz, A.

2009-04-01

333

Experimental analysis of blast mitigation associated with water sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explosion yielding a blast wave can cause catastrophic damage to a building and its personnel. This threat defines an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available materials. An unconfined mass of water in the form of a free flowing sheet has been experimentally tested and analyzed as a readily available mitigant. A single water sheet, with an approximate sheet thickness of 3 mm, was experimentally tested with an explosively driven shock tube at three different standoff distances. At the strongest shock strength considered, the water sheet decreased the peak overpressure of the blast wave by 80% and the impulse by 60%. Additionally, the peak overpressure transmitted through the water sheet was roughly constant regardless of standoff distance and explosive strength.

Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Miklaszewski, Eric J.; Guildenbecher, Daniel R.; Son, Steven F.

2012-03-01

334

Deuteron production and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

SciTech Connect

The hadronic transport model ART is extended to include the production and annihilation of deuterons via the reactions BB{r_reversible}dM, where B and M stand for baryons and mesons, respectively, as well as their elastic scattering with mesons and baryons in the hadronic matter. This new hadronic transport model is used to study the transverse momentum spectrum and elliptic flow of deuterons in relativistic heavy ion collisions, with the initial hadron distributions after hadronization of the produced quark-gluon plasma taken from a blast wave model. The results are compared with those measured by the PHENIX and STAR Collaborations for Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV and also with those obtained from the coalescence model based on freeze-out nucleons in the transport model.

Oh, Yongseok [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lin Ziwei [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 (United States); Ko, Che Ming [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2009-12-15

335

Blast injuries--and the pivotal role of trauma surgeons.  

PubMed

An explosion is the sudden release of energy and its radial propagation through air, solid structures and living tissue. Treatment of blast injuries is complex and combines the principles of penetrating and blunt trauma, chemical or thermal burns and disaster and mass casualty management. Primary blast injuries are a direct result of the explosion itself. The sudden release of energy is translated into a shock wave that travels at supersonic speed (5000 metres/second). There is a sudden and short-lived rise in pressure, followed by a prolonged negative pressure, or vacuum, responsible for additional injury. The organs most at risk for primary blast injuries are the lungs, the ears and the gastrointestinal tract. The explosion also sets solid objects in motion; these act as projectiles, and can travel over far greater distances (secondary blast injuries), and their management is no different from penetrating or blunt trauma from other causes. The explosion may cause not only "projectiles," but the body itself to be displaced: These tertiary blast injuries include traumatic amputations and crush injuries following land mine explosions. Finally, quaternary blast injuries comprise other forms of associated trauma, such as burns, asphyxia or poisoning from release of noxious substances by the blast. These injuries can be particularly taxing for rescue teams because of their tendency to affect large amounts of patients and the risk they pose to the rescuers themselves. Individual management of the blast injury victim requires a multidisciplinary team; terrorist or wartime bombings also require expertise in disaster management and triage. PMID:21158326

Luks, F I

2010-01-01

336

Blast trauma: the fourth weapon of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Injury from blast is becoming more common in the non-military population. This is primarily a result of an increase in politically motivated bombings within the civilian sector. Explosions unrelated to terrorism may also occur in the industrial setting. Civilian physicians and surgeons need to have an understanding of the pathomechanics and physiology of blast injury and to recognize the hallmarks of severity in order to increase survivorship. Because victims may be transported rapidly to the hospital, occult injury to gas and fluid containing organs (particularly the ears, bowel and lungs) may go unrecognized. Information surrounding the physical environment of the explosion (whether inside or outside, underwater, associated building collapse, etc) will prove useful. Most of the immediate deaths are caused by primary blast injury from the primary blast wave, but secondary blast injury from flying debris can also be lethal and involve a much wider radius. Liberal use of X-ray examination in areas of skin punctures will help to identify a need for exploration and/or foreign body removal. Biologic serum markers may have a role in identifying victims of primary blast injury and assist in monitoring their clinical progress. Tertiary blast injury results from the airborne propulsion of the victim by the shockwave and is a source of additional blunt head and torso trauma as well as fractures. Miscellaneous (quaternary) blast injury include thermal or dust inhalation exposure as well as crush and compartment syndromes from building collapse. Any explosion has the potential to be associated with nuclear, biologic or chemical contaminants, and this should remain a consideration for healthcare givers until proven otherwise. PMID:16425623

Born, C T

2005-01-01

337

Development of a finite element model for blast brain injury and the effects of CSF cavitation.  

PubMed

Blast-related traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent injury for combat personnel seen in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet as a research community,we still do not fully understand the detailed etiology and pathology of this injury. Finite element (FE) modeling is well suited for studying the mechanical response of the head and brain to blast loading. This paper details the development of a FE head and brain model for blast simulation by examining both the dilatational and deviatoric response of the brain as potential injury mechanisms. The levels of blast exposure simulated ranged from 50 to 1000 kPa peak incident overpressure and 1–8 ms in positive-phase duration, and were comparable to real-world blast events. The frontal portion of the brain had the highest pressures corresponding to the location of initial impact, and peak pressure attenuated by 40–60% as the wave propagated from the frontal to the occipital lobe. Predicted brain pressures were primarily dependent on the peak overpressure of the impinging blast wave, and the highest predicted brain pressures were 30%less than the reflected pressure at the surface of blast impact. Predicted shear strain was highest at the interface between the brain and the CSF. Strain magnitude was largely dependent on the impulse of the blast, and primarily caused by the radial coupling between the brain and deforming skull.The largest predicted strains were generally less than 10%,and occurred after the shock wave passed through the head.For blasts with high impulses, CSF cavitation had a large role in increasing strain levels in the cerebral cortex and periventricular tissues by decoupling the brain from the skull. Relating the results of this study with recent experimental blast testing suggest that a rate-dependent strain-based tissue injury mechanism is the source primary blast TBI. PMID:22298329

Panzer, Matthew B; Myers, Barry S; Capehart, Bruce P; Bass, Cameron R

2012-07-01

338

Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

339

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

340

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

341

Investigation of the behaviour of steel and laminated fabric plates under blast load and fragment impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was undertaken in order to study the behaviour of laminated fabric and steel plates when subjected to impulsive load and fragment impact. Fully clamped rectangular plates were loaded by the blast wave generated due to explosion of TNT charges and by a steel fragment accelerated by the explosion products. The velocities of steel fragments and blast wave impulses were estimated experimentally and theoretically.

Trzci?ski, W. A.; Cudzi?o, S.

2006-08-01

342

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

343

Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will review some basic properties of waves and then further explore sound and light. For a quick overview of some properties of all waves, click on this first site. Make sure you fill out your hand out as you work! Waves and Wave Motion : Describing Waves Practice what you've already learned about waves with this site: Waves This site will let you play around some more with transverse waves: Wave on a String Sound waves are mechanical waves, ...

Petersen, Mrs.

2014-05-27

344

A relativistic wave equation with a local kinetic operator and an energy-dependent effective interaction for the study of hadronic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a fully relativistic, two-body, quadratic wave equation for equal mass interacting particles. With this equation the difficulties related to the use of the square roots in the kinetic energy operators are avoided. An energy-dependent effective interaction, also containing quadratic potential operators, is introduced. For pedagogical reasons, it is previously shown that a similar procedure can be also applied to the well-known case of a one-particle Dirac equation. The relationships of our model with other relativistic approaches are briefly discussed. We show that it is possible to write our equation in a covariant form in any reference frame. A generalization is performed to the case of two particles with different mass. We consider some cases of potentials for which analytic solutions can be obtained. We also study a general numerical procedure for solving our equation taking into account the energy-dependent character of the effective interaction. Hadronic physics represents the most relevant field of application of the present model. For this reason we perform, as an example, specific calculations to study the charmonium spectrum. The results show that the adopted equation is able to reproduce with good accuracy the experimental data.

De Sanctis, Maurizio

2014-04-01

345

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by

A. D. Devir; Y. Bushlin; I. Mendelewicz; A. B. Lessin; M. Engel

2011-01-01

346

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah  

E-print Network

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah by Ben Weintraub A senior thesis submitted sequences is fun- damental to many research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment the performance of the BLAST algorithm is a problem of great interest. BLAST compares a single query sequence

Hauck, Scott

347

Relativistic calculation of atomic structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art in relativistic calculation of atomic structures is surveyed. The theory is modelled on the practice in non-relativistic calculations, using many-particle wave functions built from Dirac central field spinors. The Hamiltonian includes quantum electrodynamic effects in the form of the Breit approximation for the interaction energy of two electrons. Within the limits for which this

I. P. Grant

1970-01-01

348

Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools  

SciTech Connect

In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

349

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

350

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01

351

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

352

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

353

Effects of Low-Level Blast Exposure on the Nervous System: Is There Really a Controversy?  

PubMed Central

High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in human beings. However, in combat settings, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We describe how?TBI is defined in human beings and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in human beings is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments, a condition of “low-level” blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet, animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain, low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological, and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system. PMID:25566175

Elder, Gregory A.; Stone, James R.; Ahlers, Stephen T.

2014-01-01

354

Shock Wave Impact on Weak Concrete , K.D. Gardner1  

E-print Network

to a structure from blast waves [1]. The best way to protect an existing structure is hardening like building/19, Moscow, Russia Abstract. A blast wave front possesses characteristics similar to a shock wave created in a shock tube and a reasonably realistic simulation of bomb blast loading on structures can be made using

Texas at Arlington, University of

355

An exact solution to the relativistic equation of motion of a charged particle driven by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exact analytic solution is found for a basic electromagnetic wave-charged particle interaction by solving the nonlinear equations of motion. The particle position, velocity, and corresponding time are found to be explicit functions of the total phase of the wave. Particle position and velocity are thus implicit functions of time. Applications include describing the motion of a free electron driven by an intense laser beam..

Shebalin, John V.

1988-01-01

356

Spacetime is Locally Inertial at Points of General Relativistic Shock Wave Interaction between Shocks from Different Characteristic Families  

E-print Network

We prove that spacetime is locally inertial at points of shock wave collision in General Relativity. The result applies for collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. We give a constructive proof that there exist coordinate transformations which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from $C^{0,1}$ to $C^{1,1}$ in a neighborhood of such points of shock wave interaction, and a $C^{1,1}$ metric regularity suffices for locally inertial frames to exist. This result corrects an error in our earlier RSPA-publication, which led us to the wrong conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to $C^{1,1}$, cannot exist. Our result here proves that regularity singularities, (a type of mild singularity introduced in our RSPA-publication), do \\emph{not exist} at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this generalizes Israel's famous 1966 result to the case of such shock wave interactions. The strategy of proof here is an extension of the strategy outlined in our RSPA-paper, but differs fundamentally from the method used by Israel. The question whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein Euler equations still remains open.

Moritz Reintjes

2014-09-17

357

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2010-07-01

358

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2012-07-01

359

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2014-07-01

360

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2011-07-01

361

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2013-07-01

362

The Importance of Systemic Response in the Pathobiology of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma  

PubMed Central

Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body parallel, blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine–immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast–body–nervous system interactions such as (1) direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and (2) via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body's fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain. PMID:21206523

Cernak, Ibolja

2010-01-01

363

Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics  

E-print Network

A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski spacetime become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

Masafumi Fukuma; Yuho Sakatani

2011-04-07

364

Continuum modeling of neuronal cell under blast loading  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injuries have recently been put under the spotlight as one of the most important causes of accidental brain dysfunctions. Significant experimental and modeling efforts are thus ongoing to study the associated biological, mechanical and physical mechanisms. In the field of cell mechanics, progresses are also being made at the experimental and modeling levels to better characterize many of the cell functions such as differentiation, growth, migration and death, among others. The work presented here aims at bridging both efforts by proposing a continuum model of neuronal cell submitted to blast loading. In this approach, cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane (plus cortex) are differentiated in a representative cell geometry, and different material constitutive models are adequately chosen for each one. The material parameters are calibrated against published experimental work of cell nanoindentation at multiple rates. The final cell model is ultimately subjected to blast loading within a complete fluid-structure interaction computational framework. The results are compared to the nanoindentation simulation and the specific effects of the blast wave on the pressure and shear levels at the interfaces are identified. As a conclusion, the presented model successfully captures some of the intrinsic intracellular phenomena occurring during its deformation under blast loading and potentially leading to cell damage. It suggests more particularly the localization of damage at the nucleus membrane similarly to what has already been observed at the overall cell membrane. This degree of damage is additionally predicted to be worsened by a longer blast positive phase duration. As a conclusion, the proposed model ultimately provides a new three dimensional computational tool to evaluate intracellular damage during blast loading. PMID:22562014

Jérusalem, Antoine; Dao, Ming

2012-01-01

365

Synergy of seismic, acoustic, and video signals in blast analysis  

SciTech Connect

The range of mining applications from hard rock quarrying to coal exposure to mineral recovery leads to a great variety of blasting practices. A common characteristic of many of the sources is that they are detonated at or near the earth`s surface and thus can be recorded by camera or video. Although the primary interest is in the seismic waveforms that these blasts generate, the visual observations of the blasts provide important constraints that can be applied to the physical interpretation of the seismic source function. In particular, high speed images can provide information on detonation times of individuals charges, the timing and amount of mass movement during the blasting process and, in some instances, evidence of wave propagation away from the source. All of these characteristics can be valuable in interpreting the equivalent seismic source function for a set of mine explosions and quantifying the relative importance of the different processes. This paper documents work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Southern Methodist University to take standard Hi-8 video of mine blasts, recover digital images from them, and combine them with ground motion records for interpretation. The steps in the data acquisition, processing, display, and interpretation are outlined. The authors conclude that the combination of video with seismic and acoustic signals can be a powerful diagnostic tool for the study of blasting techniques and seismology. A low cost system for generating similar diagnostics using consumer-grade video camera and direct-to-disk video hardware is proposed. Application is to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Weigand, J. [Vibronics Inc. (United States)

1997-09-01

366

A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part II: Methodology for Inducing Blast Injury to in vitro Models  

PubMed Central

Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) results from the translation of a shock wave in-air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull–brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530?±?17.7-kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026?±?0.017-ms duration and 190?±?10.7?kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581?±?10.0?kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067?±?0.006-ms duration and 222?±?6.9?kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI. PMID:22375134

Effgen, Gwen B.; Hue, Christopher D.; Vogel, Edward; Panzer, Matthew B.; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.; Morrison, Barclay

2012-01-01

367

A new scheme of causal viscous hydrodynamics for relativistic heavy-ion collisions: A Riemann solver for quark–gluon plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we present a state-of-the-art algorithm for solving the relativistic viscous hydrodynamics equation with the QCD equation of state. The numerical method is based on the second-order Godunov method and has less numerical dissipation, which is crucial in describing of quark–gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We apply the algorithm to several numerical test problems such as sound wave propagation, shock tube and blast wave problems. In sound wave propagation, the intrinsic numerical viscosity is measured and its explicit expression is shown, which is the second-order of spatial resolution both in the presence and absence of physical viscosity. The expression of the numerical viscosity can be used to determine the maximum cell size in order to accurately measure the effect of physical viscosity in the numerical simulation.

Akamatsu, Yukinao, E-mail: akamatsu@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nonaka, Chiho [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan) [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Takamoto, Makoto [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan) [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

2014-01-01

368

Porcine Head Response to Blast  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

2012-01-01

369

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

370

MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

371

Law Vendor Coupon Co2 Blasting Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives identified in the test specification for the vendor CO2 blasting tests are to determine the ability of CO2 blasting to remove a measurable amount of surface material from Type 304L stainless steel and to identify the approximate blasting parameters for future testing on radioactively contaminated coupons.

May, C.G.

2003-07-25

372

Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the 185 ?n = 0 transitions with n = 2 in the 67 C-like ions with 26 ? Z ? 92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths have been calculated for the 185 ?n = 0 transitions with n = 2 in the 67 C-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 26 ? Z ? 92. The calculations were made for the six final, or scattered, electron energies E? = 0.03 , 0.08 , 0.20 , 0.42 , 0.80 ,  and  1.40, where E? is in units of Zeff2 Ry with Zeff = Z - 4.17. In addition, electric dipole oscillator strengths are provided. In the present collision-strength calculations, an improved 'top-up' method, which employs relativistic plane waves, was used to obtain the high partial-wave contribution for each transition, in contrast to the partial-relativistic Coulomb-Bethe approximation used in previous work by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63 (1996) 275]. In that earlier work, collision strengths were also provided for the same 185 ?n = 0 transitions in C-like ions, but for the more limited list of 46 ions with Z in the range 9 ? Z ? 54. The collision strengths covered in the present work, particularly those for optically allowed transitions, should be more accurate than the corresponding data given by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63 (1996) 275] and are presented here to replace those earlier results.

Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J.

2015-01-01

373

Non linear particle acceleration at non-relativistic shock waves in the presence of self-generated turbulence  

E-print Network

Particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks may be very efficient if magnetic scattering is self-generated by the same particles. This nonlinear process adds to the nonlinear modification of the shock due to the dynamical reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock. Building on a previous general solution of the problem of particle acceleration with arbitrary diffusion coefficients (Amato & Blasi, 2005), we present here the first semi-analytical calculation of particle acceleration with both effects taken into account at the same time: charged particles are accelerated in the background of Alfven waves that they generate due to the streaming instability, and modify the dynamics of the plasma in the shock vicinity.

Elena Amato; Pasquale Blasi

2006-06-23

374

Phase locking of an S-band wide-gap klystron amplifier with high power injection driven by a relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments on the phase-locking characteristics of an inductively loaded 2-cavity wide-gap klystron amplifier (WKA) with high power injection driven by a GW-class relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) are presented. Electric power of the amplifier and oscillator is supplied by a single accelerator being capable of producing dual electron beams. The well phase-locking effect of the RBWO-WKA system requires the oscillator have good frequency reproducibility and stability from pulse to pulse. Thus, the main switch of the accelerator is externally triggered to stabilize the diode voltage and then the working frequency. In the experiment, frequency of the WKA is linearly locked by the RBWO. With a diode voltage of 530 kV and an input power of {approx}22 MW, an output power of {approx}230 MW with the power gain of {approx}10.2 dB is obtained from the WKA. As the main switch is triggered, the relative phase difference between the RBWO and the WKA is less than {+-}15 Degree-Sign in a single shot, and phase jitter of {+-}11 Degree-Sign is obtained within a series of shots with duration of about 40 ns.

Bai Xianchen; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2012-12-15

375

In silico investigation of intracranial blast mitigation with relevance to military traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent military injury in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet little is known about the mechanical effects of blasts on the human head, and still less is known about how personal protective equipment affects the brain’s response to blasts. In this study we investigated the effect of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) and a conceptual face shield on the propagation of stress waves within the brain tissue following blast events. We used a sophisticated computational framework for simulating coupled fluid–solid dynamic interactions and a three-dimensional biofidelic finite element model of the human head and intracranial contents combined with a detailed model of the ACH and a conceptual face shield. Simulations were conducted in which the unhelmeted head, head with helmet, and head with helmet and face shield were exposed to a frontal blast wave with incident overpressure of 10 atm. Direct transmission of stress waves into the intracranial cavity was observed in the unprotected head and head with helmet simulations. Compared to the unhelmeted head, the head with helmet experienced slight mitigation of intracranial stresses. This suggests that the existing ACH does not significantly contribute to mitigating blast effects, but does not worsen them either. By contrast, the helmet and face shield combination impeded direct transmission of stress waves to the face, resulting in a delay in the transmission of stresses to the intracranial cavity and lower intracranial stresses. This suggests a possible strategy for mitigating blast waves often associated with military concussion. PMID:21098257

Nyein, Michelle K.; Jason, Amanda M.; Yu, Li; Pita, Claudio M.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Moore, David F.; Radovitzky, Raul A.

2010-01-01

376

A miniature pressure sensor for blast event evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to people who deal with explosive devices. Protection from TBI has attracted more and more interest. Great efforts have been taken to the studies on the understanding of the propagation of the blast events and its effect on TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the current available pressure sensors are not fast enough to capture the blast wave especially the transient period. This paper reports an ultrafast pressure sensor that could be very useful for analysis of the fast changing blast signal. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. It uses a 45º angle polished fiber sitting in a V-groove on a silicon chip. The endface of the angle polished fiber and the diaphragm which is lifted off on the side wall of the V-groove form the FP cavity. The sensor is very small and can be mounted on different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. The tests were conducted at Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, MA. The sensors were mounted in a shock tube, side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increased pressure. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors and their response time is comparable.

Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

377

Detailed Comparison of Blast Effects in Air and Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

Although blast mitigation is most often achieved with solid shielding, ambient gas pressure can also affect the coupling of shock waves to solid targets. In this work the role of air as an energy transfer medium was examined experimentally by subjecting identical large-area rectangular witness plates to short-range blast effects in air and vacuum ({approx}50 mtorr) at 25 C. The expanding reactant front of 3 kg C4 charges was observed by fast camera to be cylindrically symmetric in both air and vacuum. The horizontal component of the reactant cloud velocity (perpendicular to the witness plates) was constant in both cases, with values of 3.0 and 5.9 km/s for air and vacuum, respectively. As a result of the blast, witness plates were plastically deformed into a shallow dish geometry, with local maxima 30 and 20 mm deep for air and vacuum, respectively. The average plate deflection from the air blast was 11 mm, {approx}10% deeper than the average vacuum plate deflection. Shock pressure estimates were made with a simple impedance-matching model, and indicate peak values in the 30-50 MPa range are consistent with the reactant cloud density and velocity. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to definitely establish the mechanisms by which air couples shock energy to the plates.

Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Garza, R G; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J D; Lauderbach, L M; Vincent, E R; Wong, B M

2007-07-26

378

Dynamic Theory of Relativistic Electrons Stochastic Heating by Whistler Mode Waves with Application to the Earth Magnetosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Hamiltonian approach an electron motion in a coherent packet of the whistler mode waves propagating along the direction of an ambient magnetic field is studied. The physical processes by which these particles are accelerated to high energy are established. Equations governing a particle motion were transformed in to a closed pair of nonlinear difference equations. The solutions of these equations have shown there exists the energetic threshold below that the electron motion is regular, and when the initial energy is above the threshold an electron moves stochastically. Particle energy spectra and pitch angle electron scattering are described by the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. Calculating the stochastic diffusion of electrons due to a spectrum of whistler modes is presented. The parametric dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the plasma particle density, magnitude of wave field, and the strength of magnetic field is studies. It is shown that significant pitch angle diffusion occurs for the Earth radiation belt electrons with energies from a few keV up to a few MeV.

Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

2007-01-01

379

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

380

GAMMA-RAY BURST DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW RADIATION FROM ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT, SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: fabio@ucolick.org [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

2012-02-20

381

An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event.

Wu, Nan; Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

2012-05-01

382

Blast dynamics at Mount St Helens on 18 May 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At 8.32 a.m. on 18 May 1980, failure of the upper part of the north slope of Mount St Helens triggered a lateral eruption ('the blast') that devastated the conifer forests in a sector covering ???500 km2 north of the volcano. I present here a steady flow model for the blast dynamics and propose that through much of the devastated area the blast was a supersonic flow of a complex multiphase (solid, liquid, vapour) mixture. The shape of the blast zone; pressure, temperature, velocity (Mach number) and density distributions within the flow; positions of weak and strong internal shocks; and mass flux, energy flux, and total energy are calculated. The shape of blast zone was determined by the initial areal expansion from the reservoir, by internal expansion and compression waves (including shocks), and by the density of the expanding mixture. The pressure within the flow dropped rapidly away from the source of the blast until, at a distance of ???11 km, the flow became underpressured relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Weak shocks within the flow subparallel to the east and west margins coalesced at about this distance into a strong Mach disk shock, across which the flow velocities would have dropped from supersonic to subsonic as the pressure rose back towards ambient. The positions of the shocks may be reflected in differences in the patterns of felled trees. At the limits of the devastated area, the temperature had dropped only 20% from the reservoir temperature because the entrained solids thermally buffered the flow (the dynamic and thermodynamic effects of the admixture of the surrounding atmosphere and the uprooted forest and soils into the flow are not considered). The density of the flow decreased with distance until, at the limits of the blast zone, 20-25 km from the volcano, the density became comparable with that of the surrounding (dirty) atmosphere and the flow became buoyant and ramped up into the atmosphere. According to the model, the mass flux per unit area at the source was 0.6 ?? 104 g s-1 cm-2 and the energy flux per unit area was 2.5 MW cm-2. From the measured total ejected mass, 0.25 ?? 1015 g, the total energy released during the eruption was 1024 erg or 24 megatons. The model, triggering of the eruption and the transition from unsteady to steady flow, and applications to eyewitness observations and atmospheric effects are discussed in ref. 1. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

Kieffer, S.W.

1981-01-01

383

REFLECT-4 code computations of 40 kt nuclear blast waves reflected from the ground for four heights-of-burst. Volume 2. Detailed data and plots. Technical report, 1 September 1983-31 August 1984  

SciTech Connect

The REFLECT-4/FAB-2D two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer codes were used to compute the blast-flow characteristics for 40-kt nuclear bursts reflected from the surface of the earth in a nonhomogeneous atmosphere for four heights of burst. Detailed results are presented for overpressure, dynamic pressure, positive impulses, positive pressure durations and arrival times for 40-kt bursts in a standard non-uniform atmosphere for heights of burst of 1026, 1710 and 2052 feet (scaled heights of burst of 300, 500, and 600 ft/kt to the 1/3 power) down to ground peak overpressure levels less than 0.4 psi. In addition, results are presented from a very-high-resolution run for a 40-kt burst at 1368-ft HOB (400-ft SHOB) for ground ranges through the transition range. The numerical results are generally in agreement with nuclear test results and indicate a possible need for revisions of present height-of-burst charts. Effects of small heights above the ground on the overpressure and dynamic-pressure blast environment are discussed. Volume I of this report summarizes the computed data obtained. Volume II presents detailed tabular data and time histories of overpressure and dynamic pressure at the ground and the associated impulses.

Smiley, R.F.; Ruetenik, J.R.; Tomayko, M.A.

1984-09-14

384

Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

385

Extragalactic Submillimetric Surveys with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 ?m. We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 ?m by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.

Pascale, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Ngo, H.; Olmi, L.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

386

Developments in blast fragmentation measurement  

SciTech Connect

The digital image analysis program WipFrag has been developed under contract to INCO for use in quality control of underground blasting operations. This paper outlines the relevance of fragmentation to underground mining, the hardware and photography requirements, and key features and operating principles of the software. The science of granulometry offers a wide choice of statistics relating to the size and shape of fragments and the fabric and geometry of the rockpile. From these the authors have chosen to represent size distribution by the mass median diameter and the Rosin-Rammler coefficients. Fragment shape is measured by practical sphericity, a useful index to the slabbiness of the rock, which is often a factor in increased costs for loading, transportation and crushing. Concepts of resolution and accuracy are reviewed as they apply to digital image analysis systems. A method of calibration is described, using sieved crushed rock standards that simulate a range of rockpile uniformity conditions. Alternative zoom-merge procedures that combine images at various scales of magnification are expected to replace the empirical methods. Further research into blast optimization will require quantification of the triangular relationship between rock quality, blast parameters, and fragmentation statistics. Any one of these can be predicted knowing the other two, thus suggesting a new approach to measurement of rock mass quality. Routine fragmentation measurements might therefore give early warning of the need for modifications in stope spans, pit wall angles, and ground reinforcement and stabilization systems. Applications to measurement of rockfalls and rockbursts are also proposed.

Franklin, J.A. [Franklin Geotechnical Ltd., Orangeville, Ontario (Canada); [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Maerz, N.H.; Santamarina, J.C. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

387

Magnetic moment of relativistic fermions  

E-print Network

In the paper a new class of exact localized solutions of Dirac's equation in the field of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave and a constant magnetic field is presented. These solutions possess unusual properties and are applicable only to relativistic fermions. The problem of the magnetic resonance is considered in the framework of the classical theory of fields. It is shown that interpretation of the magnetic resonance for relativistic fermions must be changed. Numerical examples of parameters of the electromagnetic wave, constant magnetic field and the localization length scale for real measurements are presented.

Boris V. Gisin

2011-09-29

388

Testing of an inertial-reference system concept to measure blast-induced displacements of vehicles. Final contract report, 23 March23 July 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is the first phase of a project to develop an inertial-reference system to measure the displacement of military vehicles exposed to a blast wave in large shock tubes or high-explosive simulations of nuclear weapons. Experimental data describing the movement of military vehicles by blast is required for survivability assessments of such vehicles and for validation of computer models

N. H. Ethridge; L. A. Dixon; W. F. Jackson

1987-01-01

389

Ionospheric gravity waves from nuclear surface bursts. Final report 14 Nov 83-31 Jan 84  

SciTech Connect

The rising fireball and the blast wave are investigated as possible sources of atmospheric gravity waves in a stratified medium (isothermal atmosphere) using previously developed methods. Exact and approximate calculations are carried out and the results are compared with observations. We conclude that the blast wave is the predominant source of large amplitude gravity waves.

Goldflam, R.; McCartor, G.; Wortman, B.

1984-03-15

390

On relativistic brane probes in singular spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the relativistic dynamics of brane probes in singular warped spacetimes and establish limits for such an analysis. The behavior of the semiclassical brane probe wave functions implies that unitarity boundary conditions can be imposed at the singularity.

Per Berglund; Djordje Minic; Tristan Hübsch

2001-01-01

391

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2010-07-01

392

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2011-07-01

393

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2014-07-01

394

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2013-07-01

395

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2012-07-01

396

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

397

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

398

Primary blast injury after a bomb explosion in a civilian bus.  

PubMed Central

A 6-kg explosive charge detonated under a seat in the center of a crowded city bus in Jerusalem, killing three passengers immediately. Of the 55 survivors, all of whom were transferred to two major medical centers, 29 were hospitalized. Among those admitted, a high rate of primary blast injuries was found, including perforated ear drums (76%), blast lung (38%), and abdominal blast injuries (14%). Two of the latter patients suffered bowel perforations, which were diagnosed with considerable delay. Eight patients (31%) had sustained life-threatening trauma, consisting of a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. The large number of primary blast injuries, including the unexpected finding of bowel perforations, is explained by the high amplitude of the air pressure wave (3.8-5.2 atm) and its relatively long duration (2-3 msec) resulting from the detonation of the high-energy explosive charge in the small, enclosed space of the bus. Besides the usual wounds sustained by victims of an explosion that occurs in a confined space, the possibility of primary blast injury to the abdomen and to the lungs should be taken into account by the treating surgeon. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2930293

Katz, E; Ofek, B; Adler, J; Abramowitz, H B; Krausz, M M

1989-01-01

399

Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

400

BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras  

E-print Network

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Marie Rex; Edward Chapin; Mark J. Devlin; Joshua Gundersen; Jeff Klein; Enzo Pascale; Donald Wiebe

2006-05-01

401

Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury in rats leads to increased prion protein in plasma: a potential biomarker for blast-induced traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is deemed the "signature injury" of recent military conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, largely because of increased blast exposure. Injuries to the brain can often be misdiagnosed, leading to further complications in the future. Therefore, the use of protein biomarkers for the screening and diagnosis of TBI is urgently needed. In the present study, we have investigated the plasma levels of soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of primary blast-induced TBI (bTBI). We hypothesize that the primary blast wave can disrupt the brain and dislodge extracellular localized PrPC, leading to a rise in concentration within the systemic circulation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to single pulse shockwave overpressures of varying intensities (15-30 psi or 103.4-206.8 kPa] using an advanced blast simulator. Blood plasma was collected 24?h after insult, and PrPC concentration was determined with a modified commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for PrPC. We provide the first report that mean PrPC concentration in primary blast exposed rats (3.97?ng/mL±0.13 SE) is significantly increased compared with controls (2.46?ng/mL±0.14 SE; two tailed test p<0.0001). Furthermore, we report a mild positive rank correlation between PrPC concentration and increasing blast intensity (psi) reflecting a plateaued response at higher pressure magnitudes, which may have implications for all military service members exposed to blast events. In conclusion, it appears that plasma levels of PrPC may be a novel biomarker for the detection of primary bTBI. PMID:25058115

Pham, Nam; Sawyer, Thomas W; Wang, Yushan; Jazii, Ferdous Rastgar; Vair, Cory; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2015-01-01

402

Instabilities driven by relativistic electrons in radio jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilities of wave modes travelling along the magnetic field are discussed based on plasma dispersion relation with relativistic electron beams. It is found that statical Langmuir waves and Alfvén waves are unstable, but high frequency electromagnetic modes and whistler modes are stable. Langmuir waves and fire-hose instability of Alfvén waves can be used to explain the turn on hotspots,

Chunyu Ma; Deyu Wang; Guangli Huang

1995-01-01

403

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent...

2013-04-01

404

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent...

2011-04-01

405

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent...

2012-04-01

406

Blast-related traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

2013-09-01

407

Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure  

PubMed Central

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

2010-01-01

408

The Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace. ...

409

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The problem of detecting similarities between different genetic sequences is fun- damental to many,research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool) is the most commonly,used tool for identi- fying and assessing the significance of such similarities. With the quantity of available genetic sequence data rapidly increasing, improving the performance of the BLAST algorithm is

Ben Weintraub

410

PROTECTIVE DESIGNS FOR BLAST AND IMPACT THREATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast and impact resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as

J. E. Crawford

411

Earthquake Engineering Mitigation of Blast Loading  

E-print Network

Earthquake Engineering Mitigation of Blast Loading Health Monitoring & Condition Assessment-structural building components, and visual sensing for dy- namic testing. Associate Professor Hyonny Kim comes to UC-fluidics and protective/energy absorbing materials provides synergy with the Department's ongoing work in blast mitigation

Wang, Deli

412

Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation  

SciTech Connect

A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-14

413

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

414

A Method for Monitoring the Underground Mining Position Based on the Blasting Source Location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some small and medium-sized coal mines are mining beyond their mining boundary driven by profit. The illegal activities cause many mine disasters but effective supervision is very hard to achieve, especially for underground coal mining. Nowadays, artificial blasting operation is widely used in tunneling or mining in small and medium-sized coal mines. A method for monitoring the underground mining position by monitoring the blasting source position is firstly introduced in this paper. The blasting vibration waves are picked up by the detectors and dealt by the signal acquisition sub-station, and then sent to the principal computer. The blasting source is located by the principal computer and displayed in the mine’s electronic map. The blasting source position is located in 10 seconds after the first P wave reaching the detector, whose error is registered within 20 meters by field-proven method. Auto-monitoring of the underground mining position in real-time is solved better and management level is improved using this method.

Meng, Xiu-zhi; Wang, Zong-sheng; Zhang, Zeng-zhi; Wang, Feng-qian

2013-01-01

415

Experiments and numerical analyses of blast and fragment impacts on concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete structures are commonly used as protective structures. An important issue is how the blast wave and fragment impacts from an explosion affect the concrete. It is well known that the fragments penetrate or even perforate the structure. Moreover, spalling occurs in the impact zone and scabbing may occur on the reverse side of a wall that receives an impact.

Joosef Leppänen

2005-01-01

416

Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator  

SciTech Connect

The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

Yamamoto, Masaaki [Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

1995-12-31

417

Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

2013-06-01

418

Back yard blasting on the quiet  

SciTech Connect

When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

Chironis, N.P.

1983-06-01