Relativistic gravity and parity-violating nonrelativistic effective field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chaolun; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-06-01
We show that the relativistic gravity theory can offer a framework to formulate the nonrelativistic effective field theory in a general coordinate invariant way. We focus on the parity violating case in 2 +1 dimensions which is particularly appropriate for the study on quantum Hall effects and chiral superfluids. We discuss how the nonrelativistic spacetime structure emerges from relativistic gravity. We present covariant maps and constraints that relate the field contents in the two theories, which also serve as the holographic dictionary in the context of gauge/gravity duality. A low energy effective action for fractional quantum Hall states is constructed, which captures universal geometric properties and generates nonuniversal corrections systematically. We give another holographic example with dyonic black brane background to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of strongly coupled nonrelativistic fluids in magnetic field. In particular, by identifying the shift function in the gravity as a minus of guiding center velocity, we obtain the Hall viscosity with its relation to Landau orbital angular momentum density proportional to Wen-Zee shift. Our formalism has a good projection to lowest Landau level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Barceló, Carlos; Garay, Luis J.
2015-04-01
There exists a nonlinear theory of gravity which is not structurally equivalent to general relativity and that, in the non-interacting limit, describes a free massless particle with helicity ±2. We have recently shown that this theory can be understood as the result of self-coupling, in complete parallelism to the well-known case of general relativity. This special relativistic field theory of gravity exhibits a decoupling of vacuum zero-point energies of matter and passes all the known experimental tests in gravitation. It is explicitly demonstrated that there is no flow of the effective cosmological constant under the action of the renormalization group at one-loop level, while simple symmetry arguments show that this would continue to be true for higher-loop corrections. The important lesson is that just mild local assumptions concerning the nature of the particle mediating the gravitational interactions are enough to motivate theories which are free of the cosmological constant problem.
Non-relativistic Limit of Dirac Equations in Gravitational Field and Quantum Effects of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ning
2006-03-01
Based on unified theory of electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions, the non-relativistic limit of the equation of motion of a charged Dirac particle in gravitational field is studied. From the Schrödinger equation obtained from this non-relativistic limit, we can see that the classical Newtonian gravitational potential appears as a part of the potential in the Schrödinger equation, which can explain the gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments. And because of this Newtonian gravitational potential, a quantum particle in the earth's gravitational field may form a gravitationally bound quantized state, which has already been detected in experiments. Three different kinds of phase effects related to gravitational interactions are studied in this paper, and these phase effects should be observable in some astrophysical processes. Besides, there exists direct coupling between gravitomagnetic field and quantum spin, and radiation caused by this coupling can be used to directly determine the gravitomagnetic field on the surface of a star.
Non-relativistic fields from arbitrary contracting backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2016-09-01
We discuss a non-relativistic contraction of massive and massless field theories minimally coupled to gravity. Using the non-relativistic limiting procedure introduced in our previous work, we (re-)derive non-relativistic field theories of massive and massless spins 0 to 3/2 coupled to torsionless Newton–Cartan backgrounds. We elucidate the relativistic origin of the Newton–Cartan central charge gauge field {m}μ and explain its relation to particle number conservation.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markley, Larry C.; Lindner, John F.
Using computer algebra to run Einstein's equations "backward", from field to source rather than from source to field, we design an artificial gravity field for a space station or spaceship. Everywhere inside astronauts experience normal Earth gravity, while outside they float freely. The stress-energy that generates the field contains exotic matter of negative energy density but also relies importantly on pressures and shears, which we describe. The same techniques can be readily used to design other interesting spacetimes and thereby elucidate the connection between the source and field in general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja
2016-04-01
CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.
Existence of relativistic stars in f(R) gravity
Upadhye, Amol; Hu, Wayne
2009-09-15
We refute recent claims in the literature that stars with relativistically deep potentials cannot exist in f(R) gravity. Numerical examples of stable stars, including relativistic (GM{sub *}/r{sub *}{approx}0.1), constant density stars, are studied. As a star is made larger, nonlinear 'chameleon' effects screen much of the star's mass, stabilizing gravity at the stellar center. Furthermore, we show that the onset of this chameleon screening is unrelated to strong gravity. At large central pressures P>{rho}/3, f(R) gravity, like general relativity, does have a maximum gravitational potential, but at a slightly smaller value: GM{sub *}/r{sub *}|{sub max}=0.345<4/9 for constant density and one choice of parameters. This difference is associated with negative central curvature R under general relativity not being accessed in the f(R) model, but does not apply to any known astrophysical object.
Test of Relativistic Gravity for Propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felber, Franklin
2010-01-01
A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. An exact time-dependent solution of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirms that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated `antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.
Vector-tensor nature of Bekenstein's relativistic theory of modified gravity
Zlosnik, T. G.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2006-08-15
Bekenstein's theory of relativistic gravity is conventionally written as a bimetric theory. The two metrics are related by a disformal transformation defined by a dynamical vector field and a scalar field. In this paper we show that the theory can be rewritten as vector-tensor theory akin to Einstein-Aether theories with noncanonical kinetic terms. We discuss some of the implications of this equivalence.
Relativistic stars in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsuragawa, Taishi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yamazaki, Masashi
2016-06-01
We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without a ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with general relativity and F (R ) gravity. It is shown that the theory under investigation leads to a small deviation from general relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such a deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.
Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2011-08-01
We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Jüttner equilibrium at the inverse temperature β-1 = mc2. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).
Gravity: Newtonian, Post-Newtonian, and General Relativistic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Clifford M.
We present a pedagogical introduction to gravitational theory, with the main focus on weak gravitational fields. We begin with a thorough survey of Newtonian gravitational theory. After a brief introduction to general relativity, we develop the post-Minkowskian formulation of the field equations, which is ideally suited to studying weak-field gravity. We then discuss applications of this formulation, including post-Newtonian theory, the parametrized post-Newtonian framework, and gravitational radiation.
Relativistic mean-field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhao, Pengwei
In this chapter, the covariant energy density functional is constructed with both the meson-exchange and the point-coupling pictures. Several widely used functionals with either nonlinear or density-dependent effective interactions are introduced. The applications of covariant density functional theory are demonstrated for infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei with spherical symmetry, axially symmetric quadrupole deformation, and triaxial quadrupole shapes. Finally, a relativistic description of the nuclear landscape has been discussed, which is not only important for nuclear structure, but also important for nuclear astrophysics, where we are facing the problem of a reliable extrapolation to the very neutron-rich nuclei.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Franz
1999-04-01
An accessible, comprehensive reference to modern quantum mechanics and field theory. In surveying available books on advanced quantum mechanics and field theory, Franz Gross determined that while established books were outdated, newer titles tended to focus on recent developments and disregard the basics. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory fills this striking gap in the field. With a strong emphasis on applications to practical problems as well as calculations, Dr. Gross provides complete, up-to-date coverage of both elementary and advanced topics essential for a well-rounded understanding of the field. Developing the material at a level accessible even to newcomers to quantum mechanics, the book begins with topics that every physicist should know-quantization of the electromagnetic field, relativistic one body wave equations, and the theoretical explanation of atomic decay. Subsequent chapters prepare readers for advanced work, covering such major topics as gauge theories, path integral techniques, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and an introduction to QCD, chiral symmetry, and the Standard Model. A special chapter is devoted to relativistic bound state wave equations-an important topic that is often overlooked in other books. Clear and concise throughout, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory boasts examples from atomic and nuclear physics as well as particle physics, and includes appendices with background material. It is an essential reference for anyone working in quantum mechanics today.
Optical measurements of gravity fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maleki, L.; Yu, N.; Matsko, A.
2003-01-01
Optical measurements of a gravitational field with sensitivity close to the sensitivity of atomic devices are possible if one detects properties of light after its interaction with optically thick atomic cloud moving freely in the gravity field. A nondestructive detection of a number of ultracold atoms in a cloud as well as tracking of the ground state population distribution of the atoms is possible by optical means.
Torsion-gravity for Dirac fields and their effective phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca
2014-08-01
We will consider the torsional completion of gravity for a background filled with Dirac matter fields, studying the weak-gravitational non-relativistic approximation, in view of an assessment about their effective phenomenology: we discuss how the torsionally-induced nonlinear interactions among fermion fields in this limit are compatible with all experiments and remarks on the role of torsion to suggest new physics are given.
Relativistic generation of vortex and magnetic field
Mahajan, S. M.; Yoshida, Z.
2011-05-15
The implications of the recently demonstrated relativistic mechanism for generating generalized vorticity in purely ideal dynamics [Mahajan and Yoshida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095005 (2010)] are worked out. The said mechanism has its origin in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity; these distortions break the topological constraint (conservation of generalized helicity) forbidding the emergence of magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. After delineating the steps in the ''evolution'' of vortex dynamics, as the physical system goes from a nonrelativistic to a relativistically fast and hot plasma, a simple theory is developed to disentangle the two distinct components comprising the generalized vorticity--the magnetic field and the thermal-kinetic vorticity. The ''strength'' of the new universal mechanism is, then, estimated for a few representative cases; in particular, the level of seed fields, created in the cosmic setting of the early hot universe filled with relativistic particle-antiparticle pairs (up to the end of the electron-positron era), are computed. Possible applications of the mechanism in intense laser produced plasmas are also explored. It is suggested that highly relativistic laser plasma could provide a laboratory for testing the essence of the relativistic drive.
Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)
1989-01-01
Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neronov, A.; Vovk, Ie.
2016-01-01
We show that observation of the time-dependent effect of microlensing of relativistically broadened emission lines (such as e.g. the Fe K α line in x rays) in strongly lensed quasars could provide data on celestial mechanics of circular orbits in the direct vicinity of the horizon of supermassive black holes. This information can be extracted from the observation of evolution of the red/blue edge of the magnified line just before and just after the period of crossing of the innermost stable circular orbit by the microlensing caustic. The functional form of this evolution is insensitive to numerous astrophysical parameters of the accreting black hole and of the microlensing caustics network system (as opposed to the evolution of the full line spectrum). Measurement of the temporal evolution of the red/blue edge could provide a precision measurement of the radial dependence of the gravitational redshift and of velocity of the circular orbits, down to the innermost stable circular orbit. These measurements could be used to discriminate between general relativity and alternative models of the relativistic gravity in which the dynamics of photons and massive bodies orbiting the gravitating center is different from that of the geodesics in the Schwarzschild or Kerr space-times.
Some properties of the dynamics of collapse in massive and massless relativistic theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antipin, K. V.; Dubikovsky, A. I.; Silaev, P. K.
2016-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of collapse in massive and massless relativistic theories of gravity for different equations of state for matter numerically and analytically. This allows clarifying the character of the collapse dynamics in the massive relativistic theory of gravity; in particular, we establish the graviton-mass dependence of the time of reaching the turning point ( i.e., the point of transition from contraction to expansion). For the massless relativistic theory of gravity, we clarify the relation between the known general relativity solution for cold dust and the corresponding solution in the relativistic theory of gravity. We show that the harmonic time is singular, including the case of a smooth distribution of matter corresponding to a compact object with a strongly diffused boundary, which means that the Oppenheimer-Snyder solution cannot be fully embedded into the Minkowski space. We in addition investigate the effect of a nonzero pressure on the collapse dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofuoğlu, Değer; Mutuş, Haşim
2014-12-01
By adopting a metric based approach and making use of -gravity extended tetrad equations, we have considered three spatially homogeneous metrics in order to investigate the existence of simultaneously rotating and expanding solutions of the -gravity field equations with shear-free perfect fluids as sources. We have shown that the Gödel type expanding universe, as well as a rotating Bianchi-type II spacetime allow no such solutions of the field equations of this modified gravity. On the other hand, we have found that there exist two types of models in which a shear-free Bianchi-type IX universe can expand and rotate at the same time. The matter content of this universe is described by a perfect fluid having positive or negative pressure, depending on the type of model and on the cosmological constant; in the particular case of a vanishing cosmological constant we have found that the universe is filled with a pure radiation. Whatsoever the cases, the universe exhibits always coasting anisotropic expansions along three spatial directions evolving like a flat Milne universe, and has a vorticity inversely proportional to cosmic time. A further result is that, due to the nonvanishing of the gravito-magnetic part of the Weyl tensor, this model allows for gravitational waves. Our solution constitutes one more example giving support to that in -gravity there is no counterpart of the general relativistic shear-free conjecture.
Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1989-01-01
The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.
CSR Gravity Field Data Products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, Srinivas
2014-05-01
The joint NASA/DLR GRACE mission has successfully operated for nearly 12 years, and has provided a remarkable record of global mass flux due to a large variety of geophysical and climate processes at various spatio-temporal scales. The University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) hosts the mission PI, and is responsible for delivery of operational (presently denoted as Release-05 or RL05) gravity field data products. In addition, CSR generates and distributes a variety of other gravity field data products, including products generated from the use of satellite laser ranging data. This poster will provide an overview of all these data products, their relative quality, potential applications, and future plans for their development and delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong
2015-11-01
The Newtonian and general-relativistic position and velocity probability densities, which are calculated from the same initial Gaussian ensemble of trajectories using the same system parameters, are compared for a low-speed weak-gravity bouncing ball system. The Newtonian approximation to the general-relativistic probability densities does not always break down rapidly if the trajectories in the ensembles are chaotic -- the rapid breakdown occurs only if the initial position and velocity standard deviations are sufficiently small. This result is in contrast to the previously studied single-trajectory case where the Newtonian approximation to a general-relativistic trajectory will always break down rapidly if the two trajectories are chaotic. Similar rapid breakdown of the Newtonian approximation to the general-relativistic probability densities should also occur for other low-speed weak-gravity chaotic systems since it is due to sensitivity to the small difference between the two dynamical theories at low speed and weak gravity. For the bouncing ball system, the breakdown of the Newtonian approximation is transient because the Newtonian and general-relativistic probability densities eventually converge to invariant densities which are close in agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucchesi, David M.; Peron, Roberto
2010-12-01
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein’s theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α|≲1×10-11, a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius.
Lucchesi, David M; Peron, Roberto
2010-12-01
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein's theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α| ≲ 1 × 10(-11), a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius. PMID:21231446
Relativistic diffusive motion in thermal electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2013-04-01
We discuss relativistic dynamics in a random electromagnetic field which can be considered as a high temperature limit of the quantum electromagnetic field in a heat bath (cavity) moving with a uniform velocity w. We derive a diffusion approximation for the particle’s dynamics generalizing the diffusion of Schay and Dudley. It is shown that the Jüttner distribution is the equilibrium state of the diffusion.
Weak-field general relativistic dynamics and the Newtonian limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooperstock, F. I.
2016-01-01
We show that the generally held view that the gravity of weak-field nonrelativistic-velocity sources being invariably almost equivalent to Newtonian gravity (NG) (the “Newtonian limit” approach) is in some instances misleading and in other cases incorrect. A particularly transparent example is provided by comparing the Newtonian and general relativistic analyses of a simple variant of van Stockum’s infinite rotating dust cylinder. We show that some very recent criticisms of our work that had been motivated by the Newtonian limit approach were incorrect and note that no specific errors in our work were found in the critique. In the process, we underline some problems that arise from inappropriate coordinate transformations. As further support for our methodology, we note that our weak-field general relativistic treatment of a model galaxy was vindicated recently by the observations of Xu et al. regarding our prediction that the Milky Way was 19-21 kpc in radius as opposed to the commonly held view that the radius was 15 kpc.
Magnetized relativistic stellar models in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime
2015-04-01
We consider the structure of the magnetic fields inside the neutron stars in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. In order to construct the magnetic fields, we derive the relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation in EiBI and numerically determine the magnetic distribution in such a way that the interior magnetic fields should be connected to the exterior distribution. Then, we find that the magnetic distribution inside the neutron stars in EiBI is qualitatively similar to that in general relativity, where the deviation of magnetic distribution in EiBI from that in general relativity is almost comparable to uncertainty due to the equation of state for the neutron star matter. However, we also find that the magnetic fields in the crust region are almost independent of the coupling constant in EiBI, which suggests a possibility of obtaining the information about the crust equation of state independent from the gravitational theory via the observations of the phenomena associated with the crust region. In any case, since the imprint of EiBI gravity on the magnetic fields is weak, the magnetic fields could be a poor probe of gravitational theories, considering the many magnetic uncertainties.
PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium on the Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edvard Chubaryan, Professor; Aram Saharian, Professor; Armen Sedrakian, Professor
2014-03-01
The international conference ''The Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity'' took place in Yerevan, Armenia, from 18-21 September 2013. This was the second in a series of conferences which aim to bring together people working in astrophysics of compact stars, physics of dense matter, gravitation and cosmology, observations of pulsars and binary neutron stars and related fields. The conference was held on the occasion of 100th birthday of the founder of the Theoretical Physics Chair at the Department of Physics of Yerevan State University and prominent Armenian scientist Academician Gurgen S Sahakyan. The field of compact stars has seen extraordinary development since the discovery of pulsars in 1967. Even before this discovery, pioneering work of a number of theoretical groups had laid the foundation for this development. A pioneer of this effort was Professor G S Sahakyan who, together with Professor Victor Ambartsumyan and a group of young scientists, started in the early sixties their fundamental work on the properties of superdense matter and on the relativistic structure of compact stellar objects. This conference explored the vast diversity of the manifestations of compact stars, including the modern aspects of the equation of state of superdense matter, its magnetic and thermal properties, rotational dynamics, superfluidity and superconductivity, phase transition from hadronic to quark matter, etc. The articles on these subjects collected in this volume are evidence of liveliness of the field and of the continuous feedback between theory and the experiment. A part of this volume is devoted to the cosmology and the theories of gravity — the subfields of astrophysics that are of fundamental importance to our understanding of the universe. The reader will find here articles touching on the most diverse aspects of these fields such as modern problems in Einstein's classical theory of gravity and its alternatives, string theory motivated
Global marine gravity field map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sloss, Peter W.
A color relief image of the marine gravity field from SEASAT altimeter measurements of the topography of the ocean surface is now available through the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This image, prepared by William F. Haxby (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, N.Y.), has been published by NGDC for the Office of Naval Research, which was the principal sponsor of the effort leading to the development of the image. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, printed the map.
Relativistic electron in curved magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
An, S.
1985-01-01
Making use of the perturbation method based on the nonlinear differential equation theory, the author investigates the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a class of curved magnetic fields which may be written as B=B(O,B sub phi, O) in cylindrical coordinates (R. phi, Z). Under general astrophysical conditions the author derives the analytical expressions of the motion orbit, pitch angle, etc., of the electron in their dependence upon parameters characterizing the magnetic field and electron. The effects of non-zero curvature of magnetic field lines on the motion of electrons and applicabilities of these results to astrophysics are also discussed.
(Re-)inventing the relativistic wheel: gravity, cosets, and spinning objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Endlich, Solomon; Monin, Alexander; Penco, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco
2014-11-01
Space-time symmetries are a crucial ingredient of any theoretical model in physics. Unlike internal symmetries, which may or may not be gauged and/or spontaneously broken, space-time symmetries do not admit any ambiguity: they are gauged by gravity, and any conceivable physical system (other than the vacuum) is bound to break at least some of them. Motivated by this observation, we study how to couple gravity with the Goldstone fields that non-linearly realize spontaneously broken space-time symmetries. This can be done in complete generality by weakly gauging the Poincaré symmetry group in the context of the coset construction. To illustrate the power of this method, we consider three kinds of physical systems coupled to gravity: superfluids, relativistic membranes embedded in a higher dimensional space, and rotating point-like objects. This last system is of particular importance as it can be used to model spinning astrophysical objects like neutron stars and black holes. Our approach provides a systematic and unambiguous parametrization of the degrees of freedom of these systems.
General Relativistic Theory of the VLBI Time Delay in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopeikin, Sergei
2003-01-01
The general relativistic theory of the gravitational VLBI experiment conducted on September 8, 2002 by Fomalont and Kopeikin is explained. Equations of radio waves (light) propagating from the quasar to the observer are integrated in the time-dependent gravitational field of the solar system by making use of either retarded or advanced solutions of the Einstein field equations. This mathematical technique separates explicitly the effects associated with the propagation of gravity from those associated with light in the integral expression for the relativistic VLBI time delay of light. We prove that the relativistic correction to the Shapiro time delay, discovered by Kopeikin (ApJ, 556, L1, 2001), changes sign if one retains direction of the light propagation but replaces the retarded for the advanced solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, this correction is associated with the propagation of gravity. The VLBI observation measured its speed, and that the retarded solution is the correct one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, J. D.
1976-01-01
Preliminary analysis of two-way Doppler data from Pioneers 10 and 11 has provided the first detailed model of the Jovian gravity field. A review of the determination of the zonal harmonic coefficients through the sixth degree is presented, and the results are used to derive a number of geodetic parameters in the atmospheric region of the planet. On a level surface at a pressure of one bar, the net acceleration due to gravity is found to vary from a maximum of 2707 cm/sec squared at the poles to a minimum of 2322 cm/sec squared at the equator. The large dynamical flattening at the one-bar level produces a significant deviation of the local vertical from the Jovicentric radius vector. The angular difference is as much as 3.83 degrees of arc in the high temperature zones of the planet. These considerations are important for the accurate modeling of the atmosphere of Jupiter and for the interpretation of occultation data.
Dirac fields in loop quantum gravity and big bang nucleosynthesis
Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam; Scherrer, Robert J.
2008-04-15
Big bang nucleosynthesis requires a fine balance between equations of state for photons and relativistic fermions. Several corrections to equation of state parameters arise from classical and quantum physics, which are derived here from a canonical perspective. In particular, loop quantum gravity allows one to compute quantum gravity corrections for Maxwell and Dirac fields. Although the classical actions are very different, quantum corrections to the equation of state are remarkably similar. To lowest order, these corrections take the form of an overall expansion-dependent multiplicative factor in the total density. We use these results, along with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, to place bounds on these corrections and especially the patch size of discrete quantum gravity states.
Gravity Field Characterization around Small Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Yu
A small body rendezvous mission requires accurate gravity field characterization for safe, accurate navigation purposes. However, the current techniques of gravity field modeling around small bodies are not achieved to the level of satisfaction. This thesis will address how the process of current gravity field characterization can be made more robust for future small body missions. First we perform the covariance analysis around small bodies via multiple slow flybys. Flyby characterization requires less laborious scheduling than its orbit counterpart, simultaneously reducing the risk of impact into the asteroid's surface. It will be shown that the level of initial characterization that can occur with this approach is no less than the orbit approach. Next, we apply the same technique of gravity field characterization to estimate the spin state of 4179 Touatis, which is a near-Earth asteroid in close to 4:1 resonance with the Earth. The data accumulated from 1992-2008 are processed in a least-squares filter to predict Toutatis' orientation during the 2012 apparition. The center-of-mass offset and the moments of inertia estimated thereof can be used to constrain the internal density distribution within the body. Then, the spin state estimation is developed to a generalized method to estimate the internal density distribution within a small body. The density distribution is estimated from the orbit determination solution of the gravitational coefficients. It will be shown that the surface gravity field reconstructed from the estimated density distribution yields higher accuracy than the conventional gravity field models. Finally, we will investigate two types of relatively unknown gravity fields, namely the interior gravity field and interior spherical Bessel gravity field, in order to investigate how accurately the surface gravity field can be mapped out for proximity operations purposes. It will be shown that these formulations compute the surface gravity field with
The facets of relativistic quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dosch, H. G.; Müller, V. F.
2010-04-01
Relativistic quantum field theory is generally recognized to form the adequate theoretical frame for subatomic physics, with the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a major achievement. We point out that quantum field theory in its present form is not a monolithic theory, but rather consists of distinct facets, which aim at a common ideal goal. We give a short overview of the strengths and limitations of these facets. We emphasize the theory-dependent relation between the quantum fields, and the basic objects in the empirical domain, the particles. Given the marked conceptual differences between the facets, we argue to view these, and therefore also the Standard Model, as symbolic constructions. We finally note that this view of physical theories originated in the 19th century and is related to the emergence of the classical field as an autonomous concept.
The facets of relativistic quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dosch, H. G.; Müller, V. F.
2011-04-01
Relativistic quantum field theory is generally recognized to form the adequate theoretical frame for subatomic physics, with the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a major achievement. We point out that quantum field theory in its present form is not a monolithic theory, but rather consists of distinct facets, which aim at a common ideal goal. We give a short overview of the strengths and limitations of these facets. We emphasize the theory-dependent relation between the quantum fields, and the basic objects in the empirical domain, the particles. Given the marked conceptual differences between the facets, we argue to view these, and therefore also the Standard Model, as symbolic constructions. We finally note that this view of physical theories originated in the 19th century and is related to the emergence of the classical field as an autonomous concept.
Relativistic Mean Field description of exotic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambhir, Y. K.
1994-03-01
The Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) approach which essentially is an extension of the original σ — ω model of Walecka, has been applied to exotic nuclei as an illustration. We consider nuclei near Z = 34 in the very interesting 2p-1f region. The calculated binding energies, root mean square radii, deformations and other observables are very satisfactory and are in accordance with the experiment (where available) and also with the available empirical studies. Large deformations and shape co-existence are obtained for several cases.
Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.
2011-01-01
The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.
Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander
2014-12-01
We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a Λ CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kahn, W. D.
1984-01-01
The spaceborne gravity gradiometer is a potential sensor for mapping the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field. Error analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of the determination of the Earth's gravity field from a gravity field satellite mission. The orbital height of the spacecraft is the dominating parameter as far as gravity field resolution and accuracies are concerned.
Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.
1989-01-01
Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.
Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.
1989-01-01
Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.
Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eardley, D. M.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.; Wagoner, R. V.; Will, C. M.
1973-01-01
Approaches regarding the role of gravitational wave observations in the investigation of relativistic theories of gravity are treated as providing greater potential in the prediction of wave propagation speed and the polarization properties of gravitational waves. The invariant classes of waves discussed have the same post-Newtonian limit as general relativity for a reasonable choice of cosmological models.
Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.
1971-01-01
Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.
Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.
1975-01-01
Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, Robert G.
1993-01-01
Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
On the weak field approximation of the de Sitter gauge theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Huang, Chao-Guang
2013-01-01
The weak field approximation of a model of de Sitter gauge theory of gravity is studied in two cases. Without torsion and spin current, the model cannot give the right non-relativistic approximation unless the density is a constant. With small torsion, a satisfactory Newtonian approximation can be obtained.
Tunnelling of relativistic particles from new type black hole in new massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gecim, Ganim; Sucu, Yusuf
2013-02-01
In the framework of the three dimensional New Massive Gravity theory introduced by Bergshoeff, Hohm and Townsend, we analyze the behavior of relativistic spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles in the New-type Black Hole backgroud, solution of the New Massive Gravity.We solve Dirac equation for spin-1/2 and Klein-Gordon equation for spin-0. Using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we discuss tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature of the spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles for the black hole. We observe that the tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature are same for the spin-1/2 and spin-0.
Condensation for non-relativistic matter in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jiliang; Chen, Songbai; Pan, Qiyuan
2015-10-01
We study condensation for non-relativistic matter in a Hořava-Lifshitz black hole without the condition of the detailed balance. We show that, for the fixed non-relativistic parameter α2 (or the detailed balance parameter ɛ), it is easier for the scalar hair to form as the parameter ɛ (or α2) becomes larger, but the condensation is not affected by the non-relativistic parameter β2. We also find that the ratio of the gap frequency in conductivity to the critical temperature decreases with the increase of ɛ and α2, but increases with the increase of β2. The ratio can reduce to the Horowitz-Roberts relation ωg /Tc ≈ 8 obtained in the Einstein gravity and Cai's result ωg /Tc ≈ 13 found in a Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the condition of the detailed balance for the relativistic matter. Especially, we note that the ratio can arrive at the value of the BCS theory ωg /Tc ≈ 3.5 by taking proper values of the parameters.
Gravity Field Recovery with Simulated GOCE Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marty, J.; Bruinsma, S.; Balmino, G.; Abrikosov, O.; Foerste, C.; Rothacher, M.
2005-12-01
Numerical simulations of the gravity field parameter recovery using the direct method, with satellite positions as pseudo observations instead of simulated GPS Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tracking data, and with gravity gradients (SGG data), were done and are ongoing in the framework of the European GOCE Gravity Consortium test and validation plan for GOCE mission data processing. This work shows the latest results from the CNES and GFZ software packages, GINS and EPOS, respectively. After the iterative least-squares orbit adjustment procedure has converged to the highest attainable precision level, the gravity field normal equations are computed in a subsequent step. These SST normal equations, representing the long wavelength gravity field signal, are then reduced for arc-dependent parameters (i.e. state vector at epoch, empirical parameters) and cumulated over the entire observation period. Secondly, the gravity gradient measurements (SGG) are processed, taking into account the coloured noise in these data, and yield (high resolution) normal equations. They are combined with the SST normal equations and the gravity field and gradiometer common mode calibration parameters are simultaneously estimated. The coloured noise in the SGG data is based on the latest and realistic gradiometer specifications. The precision in the measurement bandwidth is approximately 3-5 milliEotvos, but rapidly decreasing for lower frequencies. Due to this behaviour, the observation equations have to be filtered in order to obtain the most accurate recovery. The filter algorithm, design and results are presented to considerable detail since this particular step is the key element that will enable the achievement of the GOCE mission objectives from the ground segment point of view.
Superoscillations underlying remote state preparation for relativistic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ber, Ran; Kenneth, Oded; Reznik, Benni
2015-05-01
We present a physical (gedanken) implementation of a generalized remote state preparation of relativistic quantum field states for an arbitrary set of observers. The prepared states are created in regions that are outside the future light cone of the generating region. The mechanism, which is based on utilizing the vacuum state of a relativistic quantum field as a resource, sheds light on the well known Reeh-Schlieder theorem, indicating its strong connection with the mathematical phenomenon of superoscillations.
Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsumoto, Koji; Heki, Kosuke; Hanada, Hideo
2002-01-01
Results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the global gravity field recovery capability of the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) which will be launched in 2005. New characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry include four-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of main orbiter and differential VLBI tracking of two small free-flier satellites. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will improve lunar gravity field in wide range of wavelength as well as far-side selenoid.
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-03-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-06-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renk, Janina; Zumalacárregui, Miguel; Montanari, Francesco
2016-07-01
We address the impact of consistent modifications of gravity on the largest observable scales, focusing on relativistic effects in galaxy number counts and the cross-correlation between the matter large scale structure (LSS) distribution and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our analysis applies to a very broad class of general scalar-tensor theories encoded in the Horndeski Lagrangian and is fully consistent on linear scales, retaining the full dynamics of the scalar field and not assuming quasi-static evolution. As particular examples we consider self-accelerating Covariant Galileons, Brans-Dicke theory and parameterizations based on the effective field theory of dark energy, using the hi class code to address the impact of these models on relativistic corrections to LSS observables. We find that especially effects which involve integrals along the line of sight (lensing convergence, time delay and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect—ISW) can be considerably modified, and even lead to O(1000%) deviations from General Relativity in the case of the ISW effect for Galileon models, for which standard probes such as the growth function only vary by O(10%). These effects become dominant when correlating galaxy number counts at different redshifts and can lead to ~ 50% deviations in the total signal that might be observable by future LSS surveys. Because of their integrated nature, these deep-redshift cross-correlations are sensitive to modifications of gravity even when probing eras much before dark energy domination. We further isolate the ISW effect using the cross-correlation between LSS and CMB temperature anisotropies and use current data to further constrain Horndeski models. Forthcoming large-volume galaxy surveys using multiple-tracers will search for all these effects, opening a new window to probe gravity and cosmic acceleration at the largest scales available in our universe.
Using Clocks and Atomic Interferometry for Gravity Field Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Jürgen
2016-07-01
New technology developed in the frame of fundamental physics may lead to enhanced capabilities for geodetic applications such as refined observations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, we will present new sensor measurement concepts that apply atomic interferometry for gravimetry and clock measurements for observing potential values. In the first case, gravity anomalies can be determined by observing free-falling atoms (quantum gravimetry). In the second case, highly precise optical clocks can be used to measure differences of the gravity potential over long distances (relativistic geodesy). Principally, also inter-satellite ranging between test masses in space with nanometer accuracy belongs to these novel developments. We will show, how the new measurement concepts are connected to classical geodetic concepts, e.g. geopotential numbers and clock readings. We will illustrate the application of these new methods and their benefit for geodesy, where local and global mass variations can be observed with unforeseen accuracy and resolution, mass variations that reflect processes in the Earth system. We will present a few examples where geodesy will potentially benefit from these developments. Thus, the novel technologies might be applied for defining and realizing height systems in a new way, but also for fast local gravimetric surveys and exploration.
Induced gravity I: real scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy
2016-01-01
We show that classically scale invariant gravity coupled to a single scalar field can undergo dimensional transmutation and generate an effective Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, coupled to a massive dilaton. The same theory has an ultraviolet fixed point for coupling constant ratios such that all couplings are asymptotically free. However the catchment basin of this fixed point does not include regions of coupling constant parameter space compatible with locally stable dimensional transmutation. In a companion paper, we will explore whether this more desirable outcome does obtain in more complicated theories with non-Abelian gauge interactions.
Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.
2008-12-01
The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or
A comprehensive study of relativistic gravity using PSR B1534+12
Fonseca, Emmanuel; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Thorsett, Stephen E. E-mail: stairs@astro.ubc.ca
2014-05-20
We present updated analyses of pulse profiles and their arrival times from PSR B1534+12, a 37.9 ms radio pulsar in orbit with another neutron star. A high-precision timing model is derived from 22 yr of timing data and accounts for all astrophysical processes that systematically affect pulse arrival times. Five 'post-Keplerian' parameters are measured that represent relativistic corrections to the standard Keplerian quantities of the pulsar's binary orbit. These relativistic parameters are then used to test general relativity by comparing the measurements with their predicted values. We conclude that relativity theory is confirmed to within 0.17% of its predictions. Furthermore, we derive the following astrophysical results from our timing analysis: a distance of d {sub GR} = 1.051 ± 0.005 kpc to the pulsar-binary system, by relating the 'excess' orbital decay to Galactic parameters; evidence for pulse 'jitter' in PSR B1534+12 due to short-term magnetospheric activity; and evolution in pulse-dispersion properties. As a secondary study, we also present several analyses on pulse-structure evolution and its connection to relativistic precession of the pulsar's spin axis. The precession-rate measurement yields a value of Ω{sub 1}{sup spin}=0.59{sub −0.08}{sup +0.12}° yr{sup –1} (68% confidence) that is consistent with expectations and represents an additional test of relativistic gravity.
Electromagnetic field and cylindrical compact objects in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousaf, Z.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem ul Haq
2016-05-01
In this paper, we have investigated the role of different fluid parameters particularly electromagnetic field and f(R) corrections on the evolution of cylindrical compact object. We have explored the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and dynamical equations. An expression for the mass function has been found in comparison with the Misner-Sharp formalism in modified gravity, after which different mass-radius diagrams are drawn. The coupled dynamical transport equation have been formulated to discuss the role of thermoinertial effects on the inertial mass density of the cylindrical relativistic interior. Finally, we have presented a framework, according to which all possible solutions of the metric f(R)-Maxwell field equations coupled with static fluid can be written through set of scalar functions. It is found that modified gravity induced by Lagrangians f(R) = αR2, f(R) = αR2 - βR and f(R)=α R^2-β R/1+γ R are likely to host more massive cylindrical compact objects with smaller radii as compared to general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.
2016-07-01
An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.
Twinsat earth gravity field mapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lowrey, B. E.
1975-01-01
Results of a sensitivity study on the proposed Lo-Lo (Twinsat) satellite-to-satellite tracking mission are described. The relative range-rate signal due to a local gravitational anomaly is investigated as a function of height and satellite separation. It is shown that the signal strength is weak and that an optimal combination of signal strength and resolution is achieved when the satellites are separated by 3 deg along-track. The signal does not resolve point masses closer than 5 deg apart when the satellites are at 300 km altitude. The influence of other factors on the system is evaluated, including the low frequency gravitation field effect on the orbit and the dependence of the noise of the data type on (electronic) integration time.
Gravity Field Parameter Estimation Using QR Factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klokocnik, J.; Wagner, C. A.; McAdoo, D.; Kostelecky, J.; Bezdek, A.; Novak, P.; Gruber, C.; Marty, J.; Bruinsma, S. L.; Gratton, S.; Balmino, G.; Baboulin, M.
2007-12-01
This study compares the accuracy of the estimated geopotential coefficients when QR factorization is used instead of the classical method applied at our institute, namely the generation of normal equations that are solved by means of Cholesky decomposition. The objective is to evaluate the gain in numerical precision, which is obtained at considerable extra cost in terms of computer resources. Therefore, a significant increase in precision must be realized in order to justify the additional cost. Numerical simulations were done in order to examine the performance of both solution methods. Reference gravity gradients were simulated, using the EIGEN-GL04C gravity field model to degree and order 300, every 3 seconds along a near-circular, polar orbit at 250 km altitude. The simulation spanned a total of 60 days. A polar orbit was selected in this simulation in order to avoid the 'polar gap' problem, which causes inaccurate estimation of the low-order spherical harmonic coefficients. Regularization is required in that case (e.g., the GOCE mission), which is not the subject of the present study. The simulated gravity gradients, to which white noise was added, were then processed with the GINS software package, applying EIGEN-CG03 as the background gravity field model, followed either by the usual normal equation computation or using the QR approach for incremental linear least squares. The accuracy assessment of the gravity field recovery consists in computing the median error degree-variance spectra, accumulated geoid errors, geoid errors due to individual coefficients, and geoid errors calculated on a global grid. The performance, in terms of memory usage, required disk space, and CPU time, of the QR versus the normal equation approach is also evaluated.
Gravity field determination using boundary element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klees, Roland
1993-09-01
The Boundary Element Method (BEM), a numerical technique for solving boundary integral equations, is introduced to determine the earth's gravity field. After a short survey on its main principles, we apply this method to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem (BVP), i.e. the determination of the earth's gravitational potential from measurements of the intensity of the gravity field in points on the earth's surface. We show how to linearize this nonlinear BVP using an implicit function theorem and how to transform the linearized BVP into a boundary integral equation using the single layer representation. A Galerkin method is used to transform the boundary integral equation using the single layer representation. A Galerkin method is used to transform the boundary integral equation into a linear system of equations. We discuss the major problems of this approach for setting up and solving the linear system. The BVP is numerically solved for a bounded part of the earth's surface using a high resolution reference gravity model, measured gravity values of high density, and a 50 ṡ 50 m2 digital terrain model to describe the earth's surface. We obtain a gravity field resolution of 1 ṡ 1 km2 with an accuracy of the order 10-3 to 10-4 in about 1 CPU-hour on a Siemens/Fujitsu SIMD vector pipeline machine using highly sophisticated numerical integration techniques and fast equation solvers. We conclude that BEM is a powerful numerical tool for solving boundary value problems and may be an alternative to classical geodetic techniques.
Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for relativistic particles in external fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silenko, Alexander J.
2003-07-01
A method of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for relativistic spin-1/2 particles in external fields is proposed. It permits the determination of the Hamilton operator in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation with any accuracy. Interactions between a particle having an anomalous magnetic moment and nonstationary electromagnetic and electroweak fields are investigated.
The Role of Magnetic Fields in Relativistic Astrophysical Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Newman, W. I.
2012-05-01
We explore, analytically and by numerical simulation, the evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in a relativistic magnetized astrophysical jet. Our results successfully reproduce numerous magnetohydrodynamic features observed in relativistic astrophysical environments. The KH instability arises from a variation in flow speed orthogonal to the flow. Many astrophysical jets are relativistic, evidenced by apparent superluminal motion, and are likely collimated by a magnetic field, according to commonly accepted models. We find convergence of our numerical results between the hydrodynamic, magnetohydrodynamic, relativistic hydrodynamic, and relativistic magnetohydrodynamic regimes. We observe complementarity between fluid flow and magnetic field behavior. The early nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of large vortices connected by a dual filamentary structure reminiscent of the cosmic double helix in the extragalactic jet 3C 273. These vortices are disrupted by the field, followed by a complex turbulent regime, and then an approach to an equilibrium configuration consisting of flow-aligned filaments. For stronger fields, this process occurs more rapidly, and sufficiently strong fields suppress vortices entirely. The jet also widens and decelerates by an amount depending on field strength. These results are in qualitative agreement with observations of numerous jets, including NGC 5128, 3C 273, and HH 30. Relativistic flows break synchronicity between longitudinal and transverse motions, thereby destabilizing the system, and enhancing the complexity of vortex disruption and turbulent breakdown. This desynchronization also causes early numerical breakdown at high Lorentz factors, a long-standing problem. Using a uniform-flow model, we provide the first mathematical analysis showing that for sufficiently high Lorentz factors, artificial diffusion not only fails to suppress numerical instability, but introduces growing modes which destabilize the
Relativistic generation of vortex and magnetic field a)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahajan, S. M.; Yoshida, Z.
2011-05-01
The implications of the recently demonstrated relativistic mechanism for generating generalized vorticity in purely ideal dynamics [Mahajan and Yoshida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095005 (2010)] are worked out. The said mechanism has its origin in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity; these distortions break the topological constraint (conservation of generalized helicity) forbidding the emergence of magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. After delineating the steps in the "evolution" of vortex dynamics, as the physical system goes from a nonrelativistic to a relativistically fast and hot plasma, a simple theory is developed to disentangle the two distinct components comprising the generalized vorticity—the magnetic field and the thermal-kinetic vorticity. The "strength" of the new universal mechanism is, then, estimated for a few representative cases; in particular, the level of seed fields, created in the cosmic setting of the early hot universe filled with relativistic particle-antiparticle pairs (up to the end of the electron-positron era), are computed. Possible applications of the mechanism in intense laser produced plasmas are also explored. It is suggested that highly relativistic laser plasma could provide a laboratory for testing the essence of the relativistic drive.
On the usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soffel, Michael; Frutos, Francisco
2016-07-01
The usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field is investigated. A variety of exact vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations (Schwarzschild, Erez and Rosen, Gutsunayev and Manko, Hernández-Pastora and Martín, Kerr, Quevedo, and Mashhoon) are investigated in that respect. It is argued that because of their multipole structure and influences from external bodies, all these exact solutions are not really useful for the central problem. Then, approximate space-times resulting from an MPM or post-Newtonian approximation are considered. Only in the DSX formalism that is of the first post-Newtonian order, all aspects of the problem can be tackled: a relativistic description (a) of the Earth's gravity field in a well-defined geocentric reference system (GCRS), (b) of the motion of solar system bodies in a barycentric reference system (BCRS), and (c) of inertial and tidal terms in the geocentric metric describing the external gravitational field. A relativistic SLR theory is also discussed with respect to our central problem. Orders of magnitude of many effects related to the Earth's gravitational field and SLR are given. It is argued that a formalism with accuracies better than of the first post-Newtonian order is not yet available.
Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorgolewski, S.
For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal
Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eardley, D. M.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.
1973-01-01
Gravitational radiation in the far field was examined using a formalism that encompassed all metric theories of gravity. There are six possible modes of polarization, which can be completely resolved by feasible experiments. A theoretical framework is set forth for classification of waves and theories, based on the Lorentz transformation properties of the six modes. Also shown in detail is how the six modes may be experimentally identified and to what extent such information limits the correct theory of gravity.
Near field properties in relativistic heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Fries, Rainer; Kapusta, Joseph
2006-04-01
We study the properties of the soft gluon field produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the spirit of McLerran-Venugopalan model, we write the field potential in a power series of the proper time τ and solve the Yang-Mills equation along with color current conservation equations simultaneously. We find that the classical gluon field at small τ, i.e., the near field, is mainly longitudinal. We also calculate the energy-momentum tensor of the field. This gluon field will decay and thermalize into a quark gluon plasma. Our results can be used as the initial conditions for the consequent relativistic hydrodynamic description of the dense parton matter.
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Bertone, Stefano; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos
2015-11-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) inherited its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. We present lunar gravity fields based on the data of GRAIL's primary mission phase. Gravity field recovery is realized in the framework of the Celestial Mechanics Approach, using a development version of the Bernese GNSS Software along with Ka-band range-rate data series as observations and the GNI1B positions provided by NASA JPL as pseudo-observations. By comparing our results with the official level-2 GRAIL gravity field models we show that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced pseudo-stochastic pulses (i.e., instantaneous velocity changes). We present and evaluate two lunar gravity field solutions up to degree and order 200 - AIUB-GRL200A and AIUB-GRL200B. While the first solution uses no gravity field information beyond degree 200, the second is obtained by using the official GRAIL field GRGM900C up to degree and order 660 as a priori information. This reduces the omission errors and demonstrates the potential quality of our solution if we resolved the gravity field to higher degree.
A framework for modelling kinematic measurements in gravity field applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwarz, K. P.; Wei, M.
1989-01-01
To assess the resolution of the local gravity field from kinematic measurements, a state model for motion in the gravity field of the earth is formulated. The resulting set of equations can accommodate gravity gradients, specific force, acceleration, velocity and position as input data and can take into account approximation errors as well as sensor errors.
Parametrization of light clusters within relativistic mean field models
Ferreira, Marcio; Providencia, Constanca
2013-06-10
Light clusters are included in the equation of state of nuclearmatter within the relativistic mean field theory. The effect of the cluster-meson coupling constants on the dissolution density is discussed. Theoretical and experimental constraints are used to fix the cluster-meson couplings at T Almost-Equal-To 5 MeV.
Radiation from Relativistic Shocks with Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishkawa, K.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Mizuno, A.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Oka, M.; Fishman, J.
2009-01-01
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked region. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. New recent calculation of spectra with various different Lorentz factors of jets (two electrons) and initial magnetic fields. New spectra based on small simulations will be presented.
Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei
Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Roy, Subinit
2014-08-14
Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.
FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE: Spinning relativistic particles in external fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pomeranskii, Andrei A.; Sen'kov, Roman A.; Khriplovich, Iosif B.
2000-10-01
The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars.
External Electromagnetic Fields of Slowly Rotating Relativistic Magnetized NUT Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmedov, B. J.; Khugaev, A. V.
2006-08-01
Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with non-vanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation in specific angular momentum and NUT parameter . The relativistic star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and ii) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. It has been shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, it has been obtained that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.
Reference-ellipsoid and the normal gravity field in post-Newtonian geodesy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei; Mazurova, Elena
2016-07-01
We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting relativistic calculation of the geoid undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry. We reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by previous researchers to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up the algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. We explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field inside and outside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on its eccentricity. We fully explore the coordinate freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and evaluate the deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Newtonian (Maclaurin) ellipsoid. We also derive the post-Newtonian normal gravity field of the rotating fluid in terms of the parameters characterizing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including relativistic mass, angular velocity and eccentricity. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the Earth figure to physically measurable force of gravity at its pole and equator.
Non-perturbative methods in relativistic field theory
Franz Gross
2013-03-01
This talk reviews relativistic methods used to compute bound and low energy scattering states in field theory, with emphasis on approaches that John Tjon and I discussed (and argued about) together. I compare the Bethe–Salpeter and Covariant Spectator equations, show some applications, and then report on some of the things we have learned from the beautiful Feynman–Schwinger technique for calculating the exact sum of all ladder and crossed ladder diagrams in field theory.
Measurement of the gravity-field curvature by atom interferometry.
Rosi, G; Cacciapuoti, L; Sorrentino, F; Menchetti, M; Prevedelli, M; Tino, G M
2015-01-01
We present the first direct measurement of the gravity-field curvature based on three conjugated atom interferometers. Three atomic clouds launched in the vertical direction are simultaneously interrogated by the same atom interferometry sequence and used to probe the gravity field at three equally spaced positions. The vertical component of the gravity-field curvature generated by nearby source masses is measured from the difference between adjacent gravity gradient values. Curvature measurements are of interest in geodesy studies and for the validation of gravitational models of the surrounding environment. The possibility of using such a scheme for a new determination of the Newtonian constant of gravity is also discussed. PMID:25615464
Charged and Electromagnetic Fields from Relativistic Quantum Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcodía, Marcos; Bellini, Mauricio
2016-06-01
In the Relativistic Quantum Geometry (RQG) formalism recently introduced, was explored the possibility that the variation of the tensor metric can be done in a Weylian integrable manifold using a geometric displacement, from a Riemannian to a Weylian integrable manifold, described by the dynamics of an auxiliary geometrical scalar field $\\theta$, in order that the Einstein tensor (and the Einstein equations) can be represented on a Weyl-like manifold. In this framework we study jointly the dynamics of electromagnetic fields produced by quantum complex vector fields, which describes charges without charges. We demonstrate that complex fields act as a source of tetra-vector fields which describe an extended Maxwell dynamics.
Study of the Earth's short-scale gravity field using the ERTM2160 gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael; Claessens, Sten; Pail, Roland; Seitz, Kurt; Gruber, Thomas
2014-12-01
This paper describes the computation and analysis of the Earth's short-scale gravity field through high-resolution gravity forward modelling using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) global topography model. We use the established residual terrain modelling technique along with advanced computational resources and massive parallelisation to convert the high-pass filtered SRTM topography - complemented with bathymetric information in coastal zones - to implied short-scale gravity effects. The result is the ERTM2160 model (Earth Residual Terrain Modelled-gravity field with the spatial scales equivalent to spherical-harmonic coefficients up to degree 2160 removed). ERTM2160, used successfully for the construction of the GGMplus gravity maps, approximates the short-scale (i.e., ~10 km down to ~250 m) gravity field in terms of gravity disturbances, quasi/geoid heights and vertical deflections at ~3 billion gridded points within ±60° latitude. ERTM2160 reaches maximum values for the quasi/geoid height of ~30 cm, gravity disturbance in excess of 100 mGal, and vertical deflections of ~30″ over the Himalaya mountains. Analysis of the ERTM2160 field as a function of terrain roughness shows in good approximation a linear relationship between terrain roughness and gravity effects, with values of ~1.7 cm (quasi/geoid heights), ~11 mGal (gravity disturbances) and 1.5″ (vertical deflections) signal strength per 100 m standard deviation of the terrain. These statistics can be used to assess the magnitude of omitted gravity signals over various types of terrain when using degree-2160 gravity models such as EGM2008. Applications for ERTM2160 are outlined including its use in gravity smoothing procedures, augmentation of EGM2008, fill-in for future ultra-high resolution gravity models in spherical harmonics, or calculation of localised or global power spectra of Earth's short-scale gravity field. ERTM2160 is freely available via
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation in Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Optical-model potential in a relativistic quantum field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaminon, M.; Mahaux, C.; Rochus, P.
1980-11-01
The average nucleon-nucleus potential at low and medium energy is investigated in the framework of a relativistic quantum field model. Using the same input parameters as Brockmann in his recent study of nuclear ground states, we calculate the self-consistent relativistic Hartree potential at positive energy in the case of infinite nuclear matter and of 16O and 40Ca. This potential is the sum of a scalar operator and of the fourth component of a vector operator. We construct its Schrödinger-equivalent potential by eliminating the small component of the Dirac spinor. The central part of this Schrödinger-equivalent potential is in fair agreement with empirical values at low and intermediate energy. Particular attention is paid to the intermediate energy domain, in which the calculated potential is repulsive in the nuclear interior and attractive at the nuclear surface. This is in keeping with some empirical evidence and is similar to results found in the framework of the nonrelativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The spin-orbit potential of the relativistic Hartree model is also in good agreement with empirical values. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Calculated average nuclear field of nuclear matter, 16O and 40Ca at positive energy from relativistic Hartree approximation.
General relativistic N-body simulations in the weak field limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamek, Julian; Daverio, David; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin
2013-11-01
We develop a formalism for general relativistic N-body simulations in the weak field regime, suitable for cosmological applications. The problem is kept tractable by retaining the metric perturbations to first order, the first derivatives to second order, and second derivatives to all orders, thus taking into account the most important nonlinear effects of Einstein gravity. It is also expected that any significant “backreaction” should appear at this order. We show that the simulation scheme is feasible in practice by implementing it for a plane-symmetric situation and running two test cases, one with only cold dark matter, and one which also includes a cosmological constant. For these plane-symmetric situations, the deviations from the usual Newtonian N-body simulations remain small and, apart from a nontrivial correction to the background, can be accurately estimated within the Newtonian framework. The correction to the background scale factor, which is a genuine backreaction effect, can be robustly obtained with our algorithm. Our numerical approach is also naturally suited for the inclusion of extra relativistic fields and thus for dark energy or modified gravity simulations.
High-order harmonic generation on atoms and ions with laser fields of relativistic intensities
Avetissian, H. K.; Markossian, A. G.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2011-07-15
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) by hydrogenlike atoms or ions in the field of counterpropagating laser beams of standing-wave configuration, with linear polarizations and relativistic intensities, is studied. The relativistic quantum theory of HHG in such field configurations (homogeneous), at which the impeding factor of relativistic magnetic drift of superstrong laser fields can be eliminated, is presented.
Radiation from Relativistic Jets in Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2008-01-01
Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we have investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with an relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations have been performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. The acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to the afterglow emission. We have calculated the time evolution of the spectrum from two electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique.
Relativistic Scott correction in self-generated magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdős, László; Fournais, Søren; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-09-01
We consider a large neutral molecule with total nuclear charge Z in a model with self-generated classical magnetic field and where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. To ensure stability, we assume that Zα < 2/π, where α denotes the fine structure constant. We are interested in the ground state energy in the simultaneous limit Z → ∞, α → 0 such that κ = Zα is fixed. The leading term in the energy asymptotics is independent of κ, it is given by the Thomas-Fermi energy of order Z7/3 and it is unchanged by including the self-generated magnetic field. We prove the first correction term to this energy, the so-called Scott correction of the form S(αZ)Z2. The current paper extends the result of Solovej et al. [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. LXIII, 39-118 (2010)] on the Scott correction for relativistic molecules to include a self-generated magnetic field. Furthermore, we show that the corresponding Scott correction function S, first identified by Solovej et al. [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. LXIII, 39-118 (2010)], is unchanged by including a magnetic field. We also prove new Lieb-Thirring inequalities for the relativistic kinetic energy with magnetic fields.
Gravity fields of the solar system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zendell, A.; Brown, R. D.; Vincent, S.
1975-01-01
The most frequently used formulations of the gravitational field are discussed and a standard set of models for the gravity fields of the earth, moon, sun, and other massive bodies in the solar system are defined. The formulas are presented in standard forms, some with instructions for conversion. A point-source or inverse-square model, which represents the external potential of a spherically symmetrical mass distribution by a mathematical point mass without physical dimensions, is considered. An oblate spheroid model is presented, accompanied by an introduction to zonal harmonics. This spheroid model is generalized and forms the basis for a number of the spherical harmonic models which were developed for the earth and moon. The triaxial ellipsoid model is also presented. These models and their application to space missions are discussed.
Gravity Field Mapping of Mars with MGS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Lemoine, Frank G.
1998-01-01
Tracking of the MGS spacecraft in orbit at Mars by the Deep Space Network since last September has provided doppler and range measurements that are being used to improve the model of the Mars gravity field. During most of October 1997, April 1998, and June thru August 1998 high quality tracking data were obtained while the periapse was in the northern hemisphere at altitudes in the 170 to 190 km range. The eccentric orbit had a period of about 11.5 hrs and an inclination of about 96.2 degrees so that low altitude tracking was obtained over most of the northern hemisphere, including the north polar icecap. Data from the earlier Mariner 9 and Viking missions have been added to the MGS data and a series of experimental gravity models developed from the combined datasets. These models have generally been of degree and order 70 and are a significant improvement over earlier models that did not include the MGS data. Gravity anomalies over the north polar cap region of Mars are generally less than 50 to 100 mgals and show no obvious correlation with the topography. Successive MGS orbits derived using these new models are showing agreement at the 100 meter level, and this has been confirmed with the laser altimeter (MOLA) on MGS These comparisons are expected to improve significantly as more tracking data get included in the solution and the MGS orbit becomes more circular giving a more balanced geographical distribution of data at low altitude. This will happen early in 1999 as the orbit approaches the mapping configuration of a circular orbit at about 400 Km.
Magnetic Fields, Relativistic Particles, and Shock Waves in Cluster Outskirts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brüggen, Marcus; Bykov, Andrei; Ryu, Dongsu; Röttgering, Huub
2012-05-01
It is only now, with low-frequency radio telescopes, long exposures with high-resolution X-ray satellites and γ-ray telescopes, that we are beginning to learn about the physics in the periphery of galaxy clusters. In the coming years, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich telescopes are going to deliver further great insights into the plasma physics of these special regions in the Universe. The last years have already shown tremendous progress with detections of shocks, estimates of magnetic field strengths and constraints on the particle acceleration efficiency. X-ray observations have revealed shock fronts in cluster outskirts which have allowed inferences about the microphysical structure of shocks fronts in such extreme environments. The best indications for magnetic fields and relativistic particles in cluster outskirts come from observations of so-called radio relics, which are megaparsec-sized regions of radio emission from the edges of galaxy clusters. As these are difficult to detect due to their low surface brightness, only few of these objects are known. But they have provided unprecedented evidence for the acceleration of relativistic particles at shock fronts and the existence of μG strength fields as far out as the virial radius of clusters. In this review we summarise the observational and theoretical state of our knowledge of magnetic fields, relativistic particles and shocks in cluster outskirts.
Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comer, G. L.; Joynt, R.
2003-07-01
General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of “relativistic”: relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro’s number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons.
Magnetic fields in relativistic collisionless shocks
Santana, Rodolfo; Kumar, Pawan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo E-mail: pk@astro.as.utexas.edu
2014-04-10
We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) external forward shocks (FSs). There are 60 (35) GRBs in our X-ray (optical) sample, mostly from Swift. We use two methods to study ε {sub B} (fraction of energy in magnetic field in the FS): (1) for the X-ray sample, we use the constraint that the observed flux at the end of the steep decline is ≥ X-ray FS flux; (2) for the optical sample, we use the condition that the observed flux arises from the FS (optical sample light curves decline as ∼t {sup –1}, as expected for the FS). Making a reasonable assumption on E (jet isotropic equivalent kinetic energy), we converted these conditions into an upper limit (measurement) on ε {sub B} n {sup 2/(p+1)} for our X-ray (optical) sample, where n is the circumburst density and p is the electron index. Taking n = 1 cm{sup –3}, the distribution of ε {sub B} measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample has a range of ∼10{sup –8}-10{sup –3} (∼10{sup –6}-10{sup –3}) and median of ∼few × 10{sup –5} (∼few × 10{sup –5}). To characterize how much amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of a seed magnetic field ∼10 μG, we expressed our results in terms of an amplification factor, AF, which is very weakly dependent on n (AF∝n {sup 0.21}). The range of AF measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample is ∼1-1000 (∼10-300) with a median of ∼50 (∼50). These results suggest that some amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations.
Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean
2014-05-01
Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing
Truesdell invariance in relativistic electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walwadkar, B. B.; Virkar, K. V.
1984-01-01
The Truesdell derivative of a contravariant tensor fieldX ab is defined with respect to a null congruencel a analogous to the Truesdell stress rate in classical continuum mechanics. The dynamical consequences of the Truesdell invariance with respect to a timelike vectoru a of the stress-energy tensor characterizing a charged perfect fluid with null conductivity are the conservation of pressure (p), charged density (e) an expansion-free flow, constancy of the Maxwell scalars, and vanishing spin coefficientsα+¯β = ¯σ - λ = τ = 0 (assuming freedom conditionsk = λ = ɛ ψ + ¯γ = 0). The electromagnetic energy momentum tensor for the special subcases of Ruse-Synge classification for typesA andB are described in terms of the spin coefficients introduced by Newman-Penrose.
Global gravity field models and their use for geophysical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, R.
2015-12-01
During the last decade, the successful operation of the dedicated satellite missions GOCE and GRACE have revolutionized our picture of the Earth's gravity field. They delivered static global gravity field maps with high and homogeneous accuracy for spatial length-scales down to 70-80 km. The current satellite-only models of the fifth generation including GOCE data have reached accuracies of about 2 cm in geoid height and less than 0.7 mGal in gravity anomalies at 100 km spatial half-wavelength. However, the spatial resolution of gravity models derived from satellite data is limited. Since precise knowledge of the Earth's gravity field structure with very high resolution is essential in solid Earth applications such as lithospheric modelling, geological interpretation and exploration geophysics, satellite-only models are complemented by combined gravity field models, which contain very high-resolution gravity field information obtained by terrestrial gravity measurements over continents, and satellite altimetry over the oceans. To further increase the spatial resolution beyond 10-20 km, measured terrestrial and satellite data can also be augmented by high-resolution gravity field signals synthesized from topographic models. In this contribution an overview of the construction of satellite-only and combined global gravity field models is given. The specific characteristics of the individual input data and the resulting models will be assessed, and their impact for geophysical modelling will be discussed. On the basis of selected case studies, commission and omission errors and thus the contribution and impact of satellite gravity data on gravity field applications will be quantified, and the benefit of current satellite gravity data shall be investigated and demonstrated. Future gravity field missions beyond GRACE Follow-On will provide global gravity field information with further increased accuracy, spatial and temporal resolution. In an international initiative
Diffusion of relativistic gas mixtures in gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kremer, Gilberto M.
2014-01-01
A mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric is studied on the basis of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields. A BGK-type model equation of the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is used in order to compute the non-equilibrium distribution functions by the Chapman-Enskog method. The main focus of this work is to obtain Fick’s law without the thermal-diffusion cross-effect. Fick’s law has four contributions, two of them are the usual terms proportional to the gradients of concentration and pressure. The other two are of the same nature as those which appear in Fourier’s law in the presence of gravitational fields and are related to an acceleration and a gravitational potential gradient, but unlike Fourier’s law these last two terms are of non-relativistic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the coefficients of diffusion depend on the gravitational potential and become smaller than those in its absence.
Finite- to zero-range relativistic mean-field interactions
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2008-03-15
We study the relation between the finite-range (meson-exchange) and zero-range (point-coupling) representations of effective nuclear interactions in the relativistic mean-field framework. Starting from the phenomenological interaction DD-ME2 with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, we construct a family of point-coupling effective interactions for different values of the strength parameter of the isoscalar-scalar derivative term. In the meson-exchange picture this corresponds to different values of the {sigma}-meson mass. The parameters of the isoscalar-scalar and isovector-vector channels of the point-coupling interactions are adjusted to nuclear matter and ground-state properties of finite nuclei. By comparing results for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter, ground-state masses, charge radii, and collective excitations, we discuss constraints on the parameters of phenomenological point-coupling relativistic effective interaction.
Geodynamics and temporal variations in the gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcadoo, D. C.; Wagner, C. A.
1989-01-01
Just as the Earth's surface deforms tectonically, so too does the gravity field evolve with time. Now that precise geodesy is yielding observations of these deformations it is important that concomitant, temporal changes in the gravity field be monitored. Although these temporal changes are minute they are observable: changes in the J2 component of the gravity field were inferred from satellite (LAGEOS) tracking data; changes in other components of the gravity field would likely be detected by Geopotential Research Mission (GRM), a proposed but unapproved NASA gravity field mission. Satellite gradiometers were also proposed for high-precision gravity field mapping. Using simple models of geodynamic processes such as viscous postglacial rebound of the solid Earth, great subduction zone earthquakes and seasonal glacial mass fluctuations, we predict temporal changes in gravity gradients at spacecraft altitudes. It was found that these proposed gravity gradient satellite missions should have sensitivities equal to or better than 10(exp -4) E in order to reliably detect these changes. It was also found that satellite altimetry yields little promise of useful detection of time variations in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flury, J.
2016-06-01
Quantum metrology enables new applications in geodesy, including relativistic geodesy. The recent progress in optical atomic clocks and in long-distance frequency transfer by optical fiber together pave the way for using measurements of the gravitational frequency redshift for geodesy. The remote comparison of frequencies generated by calibrated clocks will allow for a purely relativistic determination of differences in gravitational potential and height between stations on Earth surface (chronometric leveling). The long-term perspective is to tie potential and height differences to atomic standards in order to overcome the weaknesses and inhomogeneity of height systems determined by classical spirit leveling. Complementarily, gravity measurements with atom interferometric setups, and satellite gravimetry with space borne laser interferometers allow for new sensitivities in the measurement of the Earth's gravity field.
A generally relativistic gauge classification of the Dirac fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca
2016-04-01
We consider generally relativistic gauge transformations for the spinorial fields finding two mutually exclusive but together exhaustive classes in which fermions are placed adding supplementary information to the results obtained by Lounesto, and identifying quantities analogous to the momentum vector and the Pauli-Lubanski axial vector. We discuss how our results are similar to those obtained by Wigner by taking into account the system of Dirac field equations. We will investigate the consequences for the dynamics and in particular we shall address the problem of getting the nonrelativistic approximation in a consistent way. We are going to comment on extensions.
Aspects of nonlocality in quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barvinsky, A. O.
2015-01-01
This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining the nonlocal effective equations of motion for the mean quantum field from the Euclidean effective action. This rule is applied to a new model of ghost free nonlocal cosmology which can generate the de Sitter (dS) cosmological evolution at an arbitrary value of Λ — a model of dark energy with the dynamical scale selected by a kind of a scaling symmetry breaking mechanism. This model is shown to interpolate between the superhorizon phase of a scalar mediated gravity and the short distance general relativistic limit in a special metric frame related by a nonlocal conformal transformation to the original metric.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, W.-T.
1972-01-01
Metric theories of gravity are compiled and classified according to the types of gravitational fields they contain, and the modes of interaction among those fields. The gravitation theories considered are classified as (1) general relativity, (2) scalar-tensor theories, (3) conformally flat theories, and (4) stratified theories with conformally flat space slices. The post-Newtonian limit of each theory is constructed and its Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) values are obtained by comparing it with Will's version of the formalism. Results obtained here, when combined with experimental data and with recent work by Nordtvedt and Will and by Ni, show that, of all theories thus far examined by our group, the only currently viable ones are general relativity, the Bergmann-Wagoner scalar-tensor theory and its special cases (Nordtvedt; Brans-Dicke-Jordan), and a recent, new vector-tensor theory by Nordtvedt, Hellings, and Will.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kpadonou, A. V.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Rodrigues, M. E.
2016-07-01
We investigate in this paper the structures of neutron and quark stars in f(T) theory of gravity where T denotes the torsion scalar. Attention is attached to the TOV type equations of this theory and numerical integrations of these equations are performed with suitable EoS. We search for the deviation of the mass-radius diagrams for power-law and exponential type correction from the TT gravity. Our results show that for some values of the input parameters appearing in the considered models, f(T) theory promotes more the structures of the relativistic stars, in consistency with the observational data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
On a spectral method for forward gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, B. C.; Novák, P.; Dirkx, D.; Kaban, M.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2016-07-01
This article reviews a spectral forward gravity field modelling method that was initially designed for topographic/isostatic mass reduction of gravity data. The method transforms 3D spherical density models into gravitational potential fields using a spherical harmonic representation. The binomial series approximation in the approach, which is crucial for its computational efficiency, is examined and an error analysis is performed. It is shown that, this method cannot be used for density layers in crustal and upper mantle regions, because it results in large errors in the modelled potential field. Here, a correction is proposed to mitigate this erroneous behaviour. The improved method is benchmarked with a tesseroid gravity field modelling method and is shown to be accurate within ±4 mGal for a layer representing the Moho density interface, which is below other errors in gravity field studies. After the proposed adjustment the method can be used for the global gravity modelling of the complete Earth's density structure.
GOCE gravity field models following the time-wise approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brockmann, Jan Martin; Höck, Eduard; Loth, Ina; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Pail, Roland; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2015-04-01
Since the launch of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite in 2009 and its end in 2013, a sequence of official GOCE gravity field models was released. One of the series of models follows the so called time-wise approach (EGM_TIM). They are purely based on GOCE observations such that they are independent of any other gravity field information available and describe the Earth's gravity field as seen by GOCE. Recently, the fifth release, EGM_TIM_RL05, was computed and made available to users. The models of the time-wise series were computed within the ESA funded High-level Processing Facility (HPF) and are part of the official ESA GOCE products. Calibrated gravity gradients in the gradiometer reference frame and the satellites position as derived by GPS measurements entered the solutions as observations. Together with the spherical harmonic coefficients, a realistic the full covariance matrix is provided reflecting the model quality. This contribution summarizes the gravity field models derived with the time-wise approach. The method is summarized and the progress along the five releases is highlighted. Special focus is put on the final release 5, the gravity field model which includes all data collected during the entire GOCE mission. This model, parametrized as 78,957 spherical harmonic coefficients (spatial resolution of 71 km), was determined from 4*109,799,264 gravity gradient measurements and 108,754,709 three dimensional positions within a joint least squares adjustment procedure. As this gravity field models only depend on GOCE observations, the gain of GOCE compared to other missions and other gravity field products can be clearly demonstrated. With release 5 of the time-wise model, a pure GOCE based model with a mean global accuracy of 2.4 cm at a spatial resolution of 100 km for the geoid is available (0.7 mGal for gravity anomalies).
The combined satellite gravity field model GOCO05s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer-Guerr, Torsten
2015-04-01
The main objective of the GOCO ("Gravity Observation Combination") project is to compute high-accuracy and high-resolution static global gravity field models based on data of the dedicated satellite gravity missions CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE, SLR data and kinematic orbits from different Low Earth Orbiters. For the computation of the new model GOCO05s more than 800,000,000 observations from 15 satellites are used to estimate about 122,000 gravity field parameters. GOCO05s consists not only of a static field up to degree and order 200, but the temporal variations of the gravity field are modeled as well. These are represented as regularized trend and annual signal. The main focus in the GOCO combination process is on the proper handling of the stochastic behavior of the data. Therefore, the resulting accuracy information in terms of a full variance covariance matrix is quite realistic and also published with the solution.
Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Ikhdair, S. M.
2016-07-01
We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states.
Systematic study of bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, A.; Åberg, S.; Bajpeyi, A.
2016-01-01
We have theoretically studied potential bubble nuclei (20,22O, 34,36Si, and 46Ar), which are experimentally accessible and have attracted several studies in the recent past. Relativistic mean field is employed in conjunction with the NL-SH parameter set. Our results show that among the possible candidates, 22Oand 34Si may be the most prominent candidates, showing significant depletion of density at the center, which could be verified experimentally in the near future with some of the experiments underway.
Time variable Earth's gravity field from SLR satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sośnica, Krzysztof; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Thaller, Daniela; Beutler, Gerhard; Arnold, Daniel; Dach, Rolf
2015-10-01
The time variable Earth's gravity field contains information about the mass transport within the system Earth, i.e., the relationship between mass variations in the atmosphere, oceans, land hydrology, and ice sheets. For many years, satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations to geodetic satellites have provided valuable information of the low-degree coefficients of the Earth's gravity field. Today, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is the major source of information for the time variable field of a high spatial resolution. We recover the low-degree coefficients of the time variable Earth's gravity field using SLR observations up to nine geodetic satellites: LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Starlette, Stella, AJISAI, LARES, Larets, BLITS, and Beacon-C. We estimate monthly gravity field coefficients up to degree and order 10/10 for the time span 2003-2013 and we compare the results with the GRACE-derived gravity field coefficients. We show that not only degree-2 gravity field coefficients can be well determined from SLR, but also other coefficients up to degree 10 using the combination of short 1-day arcs for low orbiting satellites and 10-day arcs for LAGEOS-1/2. In this way, LAGEOS-1/2 allow recovering zonal terms, which are associated with long-term satellite orbit perturbations, whereas the tesseral and sectorial terms benefit most from low orbiting satellites, whose orbit modeling deficiencies are minimized due to short 1-day arcs. The amplitudes of the annual signal in the low-degree gravity field coefficients derived from SLR agree with GRACE K-band results at a level of 77 %. This implies that SLR has a great potential to fill the gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission for recovering of the seasonal variations and secular trends of the longest wavelengths in gravity field, which are associated with the large-scale mass transport in the system Earth.
Experiments to investigate particulate materials in reduced gravity fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowden, M.; Eden, H. F.; Felsenthal, P.; Glaser, P. E.; Wechsler, A. E.
1967-01-01
Study investigates agglomeration and macroscopic behavior in reduced gravity fields of particles of known properties by measuring and correlating thermal and acoustical properties of particulate materials. Experiment evaluations provide a basis for a particle behavior theory and measure bulk properties of particulate materials in reduced gravity.
Validation of GOCE global gravity field models using terrestrial gravity data in Norway
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šprlák, M.; Gerlach, C.; Pettersen, B.
2012-01-01
The GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite gravity gradiometry mission maps the Earth's gravity field. Harmonic analysis of GOCE observations provides a global gravity field model (GGFM). Three theoretical strategies, namely the direct, the space-wise and the time-wise approach, have been proposed for GOCE harmonic analysis. Based on these three methods, several GGFMs have been provided to the user community by ESA. Thereby different releases are derived from different periods of GOCE observations and some of the models are based on combinations with other sources of gravity field information. Due to the multitude of GOCE GGFMs, validation against independent data is a crucial task for the quality description of the different models. In this study, GOCE GGFMs from three releases are validated with respect to terrestrial free-air gravity anomalies in Norway. The spectral enhancement method is applied to avoid spectral inconsistency between the terrestrial and the GOCE free-air gravity anomalies. The results indicate that the time-wise approach is a reliable harmonic analysis procedure in all three releases of GOCE models. The space-wise approach, available in two releases, provides similar results as the time-wise approach. The direct approach seems to be highly affected by a-priori information.
On the speed of gravity and relativistic v/c corrections to the Shapiro time delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Fomalont, Edward B.
2006-07-01
Recent papers by Samuel [S. Samuel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 231101; S. Samuel, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 13 (2004) 1753] declared that the linearized post-Newtonian v/c effects are too small to have been measured in the recent experiment involving Jupiter and quasar J0842+1845 [S.M. Kopeikin, Astrophys. J. Lett. 556 (2001) L1; E.B. Fomalont, S.M. Kopeikin, in: E. Ros, R.W. Porcas, A.P. Lobanov, J.A. Zensus (Eds.), Proc. 6th European VLBI Network Symp., MPIfR, Bonn, 2002 pp. 49 52, gr-qc/0206022; E.B. Fomalont, S.M. Kopeikin, Astrophys. J. 598 (2003) 704] that was used to measure the ultimate speed of gravity defined as a fundamental constant entering in front of each time derivative of the metric tensor in the Einstein gravity field equations. We describe our Lorentz-invariant formulation of the Jovian deflection experiment and confirm that v/c effects are do observed, as contrasted to the erroneous claim by Samuel, and that they vanish if and only if the speed of gravity is infinite.
GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian; Bertone, Stefano; Beutler, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Mervart, Leos; Bock, Heike
2014-05-01
To determine the gravity field of the Moon, the NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) inherits its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach. KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degrees n ≤ 200, also arc- and satellite-specific parameters, like initial state vectors and pseudo-stochastic pulses, are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational accelerations, e.g., caused by solar radiation pressure. In addition, especially for the data of the primary mission phase, it is essential to estimate time bias parameters for the KBRR observations. We compare our results from the nominal and from the extended mission phase with the official Level 2 gravity field models first released in October 2013. Our results demonstrate that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL or pre-SELENE gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced and constrained pseudo-stochastic pulses.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-07-01
It is of great interest to numerous geophysical studies that the time series of global gravity field models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data remains uninterrupted after the end of this mission. With this in mind, some institutes have been spending efforts to estimate gravity field models from alternative sources of gravimetric data. This study focuses on the gravity field solutions estimated from Swarm global positioning system (GPS) data, produced by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, the Astronomical Institute (ASU, Czech Academy of Sciences) and Institute of Geodesy (IfG, Graz University of Technology). The three sets of solutions are based on different approaches, namely the celestial mechanics approach, the acceleration approach and the short-arc approach, respectively. We derive the maximum spatial resolution of the time-varying gravity signal in the Swarm gravity field models to be degree 12, in comparison with the more accurate models obtained from K-band ranging data of GRACE. We demonstrate that the combination of the GPS-driven models produced with the three different approaches improves the accuracy in all analysed monthly solutions, with respect to any of them. In other words, the combined gravity field model consistently benefits from the individual strengths of each separate solution. The improved accuracy of the combined model is expected to bring benefits to the geophysical studies during the period when no dedicated gravimetric mission is operational.
The combined gravity field model GOCO05c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; GOCO Project Team
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the static gravity field is of importance for various scientific disciplines, such as geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. While for geophysics the gravity field provides insight into the Earth's interior, the geoid serves as an important reference surface for oceanographic applications. Moreover this reference surface is a key parameter on the way to a globally unified height system. In order to exploit the full potential of gravity measurements and to achieve the best gravity field solution, all kinds of complementary gravity field information have to be combined. By combining GRACE and GOCE information, a state of the art satellite-only gravity field is available, which is highly accurate at the very long to medium wavelengths (80-100 km). By adding information from terrestrial/airborne gravimetry and satellite altimetry, which both are measurement techniques providing short wavelength gravity information beyond the resolution of GOCE, the full gravity field spectrum can be obtained. This paper focuses on the presentation of the combined gravity field model GOCO05c, a global gravity field model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal equation systems (more than 500,000 parameters). During the calculation of GOCO05c we put emphasis on the question how the complementary data types can be combined in a global gravity field model in the way that all data types keep their specific strengths and are not degraded by the combination with other information in certain wavelengths. Realistic stochastic modelling and a tailored weighting scheme among all available data results in different regional relative weighting of satellite and terrestrial data in the combined solution, mainly depending on the quality of the available terrestrial gravity information. From this procedure, as complementary product realistic error estimates are available in terms of a full-covariance matrix, which can be mapped in a spatial error grid reflecting regionally specific
Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric
2016-04-01
The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.
Rotating and binary relativistic stars with magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, Charalampos
We develop a geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics for perfectly conducting fluids in Einstein--Maxwell--Euler spacetimes. The theory is applied to describe a neutron star that is rotating or is orbiting a black hole or another neutron star. Under the hypotheses of stationarity and axisymmetry, we obtain the equations governing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of rotating neutron stars with poloidal, toroidal or mixed magnetic fields. Under the hypothesis of an approximate helical symmetry, we obtain the first law of thermodynamics governing magnetized equilibria of double neutron star or black hole - neutron star systems in close circular orbits. The first law is written as a relation between the change in the asymptotic Noether charge deltaQ and the changes in the area and electric charge of black holes, and in the vorticity, baryon rest mass, entropy, charge and magnetic flux of the magnetofluid. In an attempt to provide a better theoretical understanding of the methods used to construct models of isolated rotating stars and corotating or irrotational binaries and their unexplained convergence properties, we analytically examine the behavior of different iterative schemes near a static solution. We find the spectrum of the linearized iteration operator and show for self-consistent field methods that iterative instability corresponds to unstable modes of this operator. On the other hand, we show that the success of iteratively stable methods is due to (quasi-)nilpotency of this operator. Finally, we examine the integrability of motion of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. We use a direct approach to seek nontrivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta---in addition to energy and angular momentum about the symmetry axis. We establish the existence and uniqueness of quadratic constants and the nonexistence of quartic constants for stationary axisymmetric Newtonian potentials with equatorial symmetry
Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.
2016-03-01
In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.
Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci-Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation.
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman
2003-02-06
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.
Particlelike distributions of the Higgs field nonminimally coupled to gravity.
Füzfa, André; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Schlögel, Sandrine
2013-09-20
When the Higgs field is nonminimally coupled to gravity, there exists a family of spherically symmetric particlelike solutions to the field equations. These monopoles are the only globally regular and asymptotically flat distributions with finite energy of the Higgs field around compact objects. Moreover, spontaneous scalarization is strongly amplified for specific values of their mass and compactness. PMID:24093242
Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints
Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S.; Stone, J. R.; Providencia, C.; Typel, S.
2013-05-06
This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhuyan, M.; Panda, R. N.; Routray, T. R.; Patra, S. K.
2010-12-01
In the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, we have calculated the density distribution of protons and neutrons for Ca40,42,44,48 with NL3 and G2 parameter sets. The microscopic proton-nucleus optical potentials for p+Ca40,42,44,48 systems are evaluated from the Dirac nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and the density of the target nucleus using relativistic-Love-Franey and McNeil-Ray-Wallace parametrizations. We have estimated the scattering observables, such as the elastic differential scattering cross section, analyzing power and the spin observables with the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA). The results have been compared with the experimental data for a few selective cases and we find that the use of density as well as the scattering matrix parametrizations are crucial for the theoretical prediction.
Bhuyan, M.; Panda, R. N.; Routray, T. R.; Patra, S. K.
2010-12-15
In the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, we have calculated the density distribution of protons and neutrons for {sup 40,42,44,48}Ca with NL3 and G2 parameter sets. The microscopic proton-nucleus optical potentials for p+{sup 40,42,44,48}Ca systems are evaluated from the Dirac nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and the density of the target nucleus using relativistic-Love-Franey and McNeil-Ray-Wallace parametrizations. We have estimated the scattering observables, such as the elastic differential scattering cross section, analyzing power and the spin observables with the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA). The results have been compared with the experimental data for a few selective cases and we find that the use of density as well as the scattering matrix parametrizations are crucial for the theoretical prediction.
A comparison of satellite systems for gravity field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argentiero, P. D.; Lowrey, B. E.
1977-01-01
A detailed and accurate earth gravity field model is important to the understanding of the structure and composition of the earth's crust and upper mantle. Various satellite-based techniques for providing more accurate models of the gravity field are analyzed and compared. A high-low configuration satellite-to-satellite tracking mission is recommended for the determination of both the long wavelength and short wavelength portions of the field. Satellite altimetry and satellite gradiometry missions are recommended for determination of the short wavelength portion of the field.
GOCE Gravity fields established by the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, U.; Jaeggi, A.; Bock, H.; Beutler, G.
2011-12-01
The Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA) was generalized to accept not only GPS- and K-Band-observations, but also the gradiometer Level 2 observables of the GOCE mission. The gradiometer observable is modeled as a linear function of the gravity field parameters and the parameters of a piece-wise linear function, which absorbs the deficiencies of the band-limited gradiometer observable including its once-, twice-, etc. per rev biases. The spacing of successive piecewise linear (and continuous) functions is typically of the order of one to few minutes. The piecewise linear functions have to be defined in a way not to absorb the gravity signal in the measurement bandwidth of the GOCE gradiometer observable. The resulting gravity fields are by construction independent of the underlying a priori gravity field. We analyze about six months of GOCE level 2 data and generate (a) GPS-only solutions, (b) gradiometer-only solutions based on the three diagonal elements of the gravity tensor, (c) combinations of solutions (a) and (b), and (d) combinations of the solutions of type (c) with static GRACE solutions, which were generated with the CMA, as well. Currently, for proof of concept purposes, the gravity fields are limited to degree n=160. Our analysis clearly reveals the spectrally resolved contributions of the individual solution types mentioned on the combined solutions.
Gauss-Bonnet Brane World Gravity with a Scalar Field
Davis, Stephen C.
2004-11-17
The effective four-dimensional, linearised gravity of a brane world model with one extra dimension and a single brane is analysed. The model includes higher order curvature terms (such as the Gauss-Bonnet term) and a conformally coupled scalar field. Large and small distance gravitational laws are derived. In contrast to the corresponding Einstein gravity models, it is possible to obtain solutions with localised gravity which are compatible with observations. Solutions with non-standard large distance Newtonian potentials are also described.
Local Earth's gravity field in view of fractal dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mészárosová, Katarína; Minarechová, Zuzana; Janák, Juraj
2013-04-01
The poster presents the relative roughness of chosen characteristics of the Earth's gravity field in several small regions in area of Slovakia (e.g. free-air anomaly, Bouguer anomaly, gravity disturbance...) using the values of fractal dimension. In this approach, a three dimensional box counting method and the Hurst analysis method are applied to estimate the values of fractal dimensions. Then the computed fractal dimension values are used to compare all 3D models of all chosen characteristics.
Time lapse gravity monitoring at Coso geothermal field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woolf, Rachel Vest
An extensive time lapse gravity data set was acquired over the Coso geothermal field near Ridgecrest, California starting in 1987, with the latest data set acquired in 2013. In this thesis I use these gravity data to obtain a better understanding of mass changes occurring within the geothermal field. Geothermal energy is produced by flashing naturally heated ground water into steam which is used to turn turbines. Brine and re-condensed steam are then re-injected into the reservoir. A percentage of the water removed from the system is lost to the process. The time lapse gravity method consists of gravity measurements taken at the same locations over time, capturing snap shots of the changing field. After careful processing, the final data are differenced to extract the change in gravity over time. This change in gravity can then be inverted to recover the change in density and therefore mass over time. The inversion process also produces information on the three dimensional locations of these mass changes. Thirty five gravity data sets were processed and a subsection were inverted with two different starting times, a sixteen point data set collected continuously between 1991 and 2005, and a thirty-eight point data set collected between 1996 and 2005. The maximum change in gravity in the 1991 data group was -350 microGal observed near station CSE2. For the 1996 data group the maximum gravity change observed over the nine year period was -248 microGal. The gravity data were then inverted using the surface inversion method. Three values of density contrast were used, -0.05 g/cm3, -0.10 g/cm3, and -0.20 g/cm3. The starting surface in 1991 was set to 2,500 ft above sea level. The changes in surfaces were then converted to mass changes. The largest total mass change recovered was -1.39x1011 kg. This mass value is of the same order of magnitude as published well production data for the field. Additionally, the gravity data produces a better understanding of the spatial
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets into ambient plasmas show that acceleration occurs in relativistic shocks. The Weibel instability created in shocks is responsible for particle acceleration, and generation and amplification of highly inhomogeneous, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection in relativistic jets. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than the synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understand the complex time evolution and spectral structure in relativistic jets and gamma-ray bursts. We will present recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration and magnetic field generation. We will also calculate associated self-consistent emission from relativistic shocks.
Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2003-12-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-04-01
The GPS instruments on-board the three Earth's Magnetic Field and Environment Explorer (Swarm) satellites provide the opportunity to measure the gravity field model at basin-wide spatial scales. In spite of being a geo-magnetic satellite mission, Swarm's GPS receiver collects highly accurate hl-SST data (van den IJssel et al., 2015), which has been exploited to produce gravity field models at a number of institutes, namely at the Astronomical Institute (ASU) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Bezděk et al., 2014), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Jäggi et al., 2015) and the Institute of Geodesy (IfG) of the Graz University of Technology (Zehentner et al., 2015). With the help of GRACE gravity field models, which are derived from much more accurate ll-SST data, we investigate the best combination strategy for producing a superior model on the basis of the solutions produced by the three institutes, similarly to the approach taken by the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management project (http://egsiem.eu). We demonstrate that the Swarm-derived gravity field models are able to resolve monthly solutions with 1666km spatial resolutions (roughly up to degree 12). We illustrate how these monthly solutions correlate with GRACE-derived monthly solutions, for the period of 2014 - 2015, as well as indicate which geographical areas are measured more or less accurately.
Effect of Numerical Error on Gravity Field Estimation for GRACE and Future Gravity Missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCullough, Christopher; Bettadpur, Srinivas
2015-04-01
In recent decades, gravity field determination from low Earth orbiting satellites, such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), has become increasingly more effective due to the incorporation of high accuracy measurement devices. Since instrumentation quality will only increase in the near future and the gravity field determination process is computationally and numerically intensive, numerical error from the use of double precision arithmetic will eventually become a prominent error source. While using double-extended or quadruple precision arithmetic will reduce these errors, the numerical limitations of current orbit determination algorithms and processes must be accurately identified and quantified in order to adequately inform the science data processing techniques of future gravity missions. The most obvious numerical limitation in the orbit determination process is evident in the comparison of measured observables with computed values, derived from mathematical models relating the satellites' numerically integrated state to the observable. Significant error in the computed trajectory will corrupt this comparison and induce error in the least squares solution of the gravitational field. In addition, errors in the numerically computed trajectory propagate into the evaluation of the mathematical measurement model's partial derivatives. These errors amalgamate in turn with numerical error from the computation of the state transition matrix, computed using the variational equations of motion, in the least squares mapping matrix. Finally, the solution of the linearized least squares system, computed using a QR factorization, is also susceptible to numerical error. Certain interesting combinations of each of these numerical errors are examined in the framework of GRACE gravity field determination to analyze and quantify their effects on gravity field recovery.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
Westman, Hans F.; Zlosnik, Tom G.
2013-07-15
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the Yang–Mills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a ‘contact vector’ V{sup A} which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being ‘rolled’ on top of it, and (2) a gauge connection A{sub μ}{sup AB}, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartan’s geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energy–momentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energy–momentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of Yang–Mills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are left as
Effects of δ mesons in relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Shailesh K.; Biswal, S. K.; Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S. K.
2014-04-01
The effect of δ- and ω-ρ-meson cross couplings on asymmetry nuclear systems are analyzed in the framework of an effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field formalism. The calculations are done on top of the G2 parameter set, where these contributions are absent. To show the effect of δ meson on the nuclear system, we split the isospin coupling into two parts: (i) gρ due to ρ meson and (ii) gδ for δ meson. Thus, our investigation is based on varying the coupling strengths of the δ and ρ mesons to reproduce the binding energies of the nuclei Ca48 and Pb208. We calculate the root mean square radius, binding energy, single particle energy, density, and spin-orbit interaction potential for some selected nuclei and evaluate the Lsym and Esym coefficients for nuclear matter as function of δ- and ω-ρ-meson coupling strengths. As expected, the influence of these effects are negligible for the symmetric nuclear system, but substantial for the contribution with large isospin asymmetry.
Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields
Huang Xuguang; Sedrakian, Armen; Rischke, Dirk H.
2011-12-15
Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: > Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. > Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. > We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin
2015-09-01
We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.
Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2014-01-15
In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci–Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. -- Highlights: •The perturbative quantum gravity is treated as gauge theory. •BRST and anti-BRST transformations are developed in linear and non-linear gauges. •BRST transformation is generalized by making it finite and field dependent. •Connection between linear and non-linear gauges is established. •Using BV formulation the results are established at quantum level also.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
Validation of the EGSIEM combined monthly GRACE gravity fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhao; van Dam, Tonie; Chen, Qiang; Weigelt, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul
2016-04-01
Observations indicate that global warming is affecting the water cycle. Here in Europe predictions are for more frequent high precipitation events, wetter winters, and longer and dryer summers. The consequences of these changes include the decreasing availability of fresh water resources in some regions as well as flooding and erosion of coastal and low-lying areas in other regions. These weather related effects impose heavy costs on society and the economy. We cannot stop the immediate effects global warming on the water cycle. But there may be measures that we can take to mitigate the costs to society. The Horizon2020 supported project, European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), will add value to EO observations of variations in the Earth's gravity field. In particular, the EGSIEM project will interpret the observations of gravity field changes in terms of changes in continental water storage. The project team will develop tools to alert the public water storage conditions could indicate the onset of regional flooding or drought. As part of the EGSIEM project, a combined GRACE gravity product is generated, using various monthly GRACE solutions from associated processing centers (ACs). Since each AC follows a set of common processing standards but applies its own independent analysis method, the quality, robustness, and reliability of the monthly combined gravity fields should be significantly improved as compared to any individual solution. In this study, we present detailed and updated comparisons of the combined EGSIEM GRACE gravity product with GPS position time series, hydrological models, and existing GRACE gravity fields. The GPS residuals are latest REPRO2 station position residuals, obtained by rigorously stacking the IGS Repro 2 , daily solutions, estimating, and then restoring the annual and semi-annual signals.
High-Resolution Gravity and Time-Varying Gravity Field Recovery using GRACE and CHAMP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shum, C. K.
2002-01-01
This progress report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program 1998 (SENH98) entitled High Resolution Gravity and Time Varying Gravity Field Recovery Using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Package for Geophysical Research and Applications), which included a no-cost extension time period. The investigation has conducted pilot studies to use the simulated GRACE and CHAMP data and other in situ and space geodetic observable, satellite altimeter data, and ocean mass variation data to study the dynamic processes of the Earth which affect climate change. Results from this investigation include: (1) a new method to use the energy approach for expressing gravity mission data as in situ measurements with the possibility to enhance the spatial resolution of the gravity signal; (2) the method was tested using CHAMP and validated with the development of a mean gravity field model using CHAMP data, (3) elaborate simulation to quantify errors of tides and atmosphere and to recover hydrological and oceanic signals using GRACE, results show that there are significant aliasing effect and errors being amplified in the GRACE resonant geopotential and it is not trivial to remove these errors, and (4) quantification of oceanic and ice sheet mass changes in a geophysical constraint study to assess their contributions to global sea level change, while the results improved significant over the use of previous studies using only the SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging)-determined zonal gravity change data, the constraint could be further improved with additional information on mantle rheology, PGR (Post-Glacial Rebound) and ice loading history. A list of relevant presentations and publications is attached, along with a summary of the SENH investigation generated in 2000.
Phobos interior structure from its gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rivoldini, A.
2015-10-01
Phobos origin remains mysterious. It could be a captured asteroid, or an in-situ object co-accreted with Mars or formed by accretion from a disk of impact ejecta.Although it is not straightforward to relate its interior properties to its origin, it is easy to agree that the interior properties of any body has to be accounted for to explain its life's history. What event could explain such an internal structure? Where should this object formed to present such interior characteristics and composition? We perform here numerical simulations to assess the ability of a gravity experiment to constrain the interior structure of the martian moon Phobos, which could in turn allow distinguishing among the competing scenarios for the moon's origin.
New Views of Earth's Gravity Field from GRACE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Map 1Map 2
Gravity and the Earth's Shape Gravity is the force that is responsible for the weight of an object and is determined by how the material that makes up the Earth is distributed throughout the Earth. Because gravity changes over the surface of the Earth, the weight of an object changes along with it. One can define standard gravity as the value of gravity for an perfectly smooth 'idealized' Earth, and the gravity 'anomaly' is a measure of how actual gravity deviates from this standard. Gravity reflects the Earth's surface topography to a high degree and is associated with features that most people are familiar with such as large mountains and deep ocean trenches.
Progress in Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field Through GRACE Prior to GRACE, the Earth's gravity field was determined using measurements of varying quality from different satellites and of incomplete coverage. Consequently the accuracy and resolution of the gravity field were limited. As is shown in Figure 1, the long wavelength components of the gravity field determined from satellite tracking were limited to a resolution of approximately 700 km. At shorter wavelengths, the errors were too large to be useful. Only broad geophysical features of the Earth's structure could be detected (see map 1).
In contrast, GRACE, by itself, has provided accurate gravity information with a resolution of 200 km. Now, much more detail is clearly evident in the Earth's geophysical features (see map 2). High resolution features detected by GRACE that are representative of geophysical phenomena include the Tonga/Kermadec region (a zone where one tectonic plate slides under another), the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau region (an area of uplift due to colliding plates), and the mid-Atlantic ridge (an active spreading center in the middle of the Atlantic ocean where new crust is being created). Future GRACE gravity
TR-GRAV: National Center for Turkish Gravity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simav, Mehmet; Akpınar, İlyas; Sezen, Erdinc; Cingöz, Ayhan; Yıldız, Hasan
2016-04-01
TR-GRAV, the National Center for Turkish Gravity Field (TR-GRAV) that has recently become operational,is a national center that collects, processes and distributes Absolute Gravimetry,Relative Gravimetry, Airborne Gravimetry,Shipborne Gravimetry,Satellite Gravimetry, GNSS/Levelling, Astrogeodetic Vertical Deflection data to model and improve regional gravity field for the Turkish territory and its surrounding regions and to provide accurate, consistent and value-added data & products to the scientific and engineering communities. In this presentation, we will introduce the center web portal and give some details about the database.
Relativistic mean field model based on realistic nuclear forces
Hirose, S.; Serra, M.; Ring, P.; Otsuka, T.; Akaishi, Y.
2007-02-15
In order to predict properties of asymmetric nuclear matter, we construct a relativistic mean field (RMF) model consisting of one-meson exchange (OME) terms and point coupling (PC) terms. In order to determine the density dependent parameters of this model, we use properties of isospin symmetric nuclear matter in combination with the information on nucleon-nucleon scattering data, which are given in the form of the density dependent G-matrix derived from Brueckner calculations based on the Tamagaki potential. We show that the medium- and long-range components of this G-matrix can be described reasonably well by our effective OME interaction. In order to take into account the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, which cannot be described well in this manner, a point coupling term is added. Its analytical form is taken from a model based on chiral perturbation theory. It contains only one additional parameter, which does not depend on the density. It is, together with the parameters of the OME potentials adjusted to the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter. We apply this model for the investigation of asymmetric nuclear matter and find that the results for the symmetry energy as well as for the equation of state of pure neutron matter are in good agreement with either experimental data or with presently adopted theoretical predictions. In order to test the model at higher density, we use its equation of state for an investigation of properties of neutron stars.
Quasinormal modes of relativistic stars and interacting fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macedo, Caio F. B.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Pani, Paolo
2016-03-01
The quasinormal modes of relativistic compact objects encode important information about the gravitational response associated with astrophysical phenomena. Detecting such oscillations would provide us with a unique understanding of the properties of compact stars and may give definitive evidence for the existence of black holes. However, computing quasinormal modes in realistic astrophysical environments is challenging due to the complexity of the spacetime background and of the dynamics of the perturbations. We discuss two complementary methods for computing the quasinormal modes of spherically symmetric astrophysical systems, namely, the direct integration method and the continued-fraction method. We extend these techniques to dealing with generic coupled systems of linear equations, with the only assumption being that the interaction between different fields is effectively localized within a finite region. In particular, we adapt the continued-fraction method to include cases where a series solution can be obtained only outside an effective region. As an application, we compute the polar quasinormal modes of boson stars by using the continued-fraction method for the first time. The methods discussed here can be applied to other situations in which the perturbations effectively couple only within a finite region of space.
Earth's gravity field mapping requirements and concept. [using a supercooled gravity gradiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonbun, F. O.; Kahn, W. D.
1981-01-01
A future sensor is considered for mapping the Earth's gravity field to meet future scientific and practical requirements for earth and oceanic dynamics. These are approximately + or - 0.1 to 10 mgal over a block size of about 50 km and over land and an ocean geoid to 1 to 2 cm over a distance of about 50 km. To achieve these values requires a gravity gradiometer with a sensitivity of approximately 10 to the -4 power EU in a circular polar orbiting spacecraft with an orbital altitude ranging 160 km to 180 km.
Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.
Static scalar field solutions in symmetric gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossenfelder, S.
2016-09-01
We study an extension of general relativity with a second metric and an exchange symmetry between the two metrics. Such an extension might help to address some of the outstanding problems with general relativity, for example the smallness of the cosmological constant. We here derive a family of exact solutions for this theory. In this two-parameter family of solutions the gravitational field is sourced by a time-independent massless scalar field. We find that the only limit in which the scalar field entirely vanishes is flat space. The regular Schwarzschild-solution is left with a scalar field hidden in the second metric’s sector.
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1984-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1986-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
Alternative methods to smooth the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jekeli, C.
1981-01-01
Convolutions on the sphere with corresponding convolution theorems are developed for one and two dimensional functions. Some of these results are used in a study of isotropic smoothing operators or filters. Well known filters in Fourier spectral analysis, such as the rectangular, Gaussian, and Hanning filters, are adapted for data on a sphere. The low-pass filter most often used on gravity data is the rectangular (or Pellinen) filter. However, its spectrum has relatively large sidelobes; and therefore, this filter passes a considerable part of the upper end of the gravity spectrum. The spherical adaptations of the Gaussian and Hanning filters are more efficient in suppressing the high-frequency components of the gravity field since their frequency response functions are strongly field since their frequency response functions are strongly tapered at the high frequencies with no, or small, sidelobes. Formulas are given for practical implementation of these new filters.
Higher derivative gravity: Field equation as the equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Mohd, Arif
2016-08-01
One of the striking features of general relativity is that the Einstein equation is implied by the Clausius relation imposed on a small patch of locally constructed causal horizon. The extension of this thermodynamic derivation of the field equation to more general theories of gravity has been attempted many times in the last two decades. In particular, equations of motion for minimally coupled higher-curvature theories of gravity, but without the derivatives of curvature, have previously been derived using a thermodynamic reasoning. In that derivation the horizon slices were endowed with an entropy density whose form resembles that of the Noether charge for diffeomorphisms, and was dubbed the Noetheresque entropy. In this paper, we propose a new entropy density, closely related to the Noetheresque form, such that the field equation of any diffeomorphism-invariant metric theory of gravity can be derived by imposing the Clausius relation on a small patch of local causal horizon.
Edge detection of gravity field using eigenvalue analysis of gravity gradient tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Boxin; Hu, Xiangyun
2015-03-01
In this paper, eigenvalues of the full gravity gradient tensor (GGT) are used to detect edges of geological structure. First, the solving of GGT eigenvalues is discussed; then a new edge detection method is proposed by using the eigenvalues of GGT. Comparing with the pervious edge detection method based on curvature gravity gradient tensor (CGGT), the full gravity gradient tensor contains more independent gradient components that are helpful to detect more subtle structures of the sources. The proposed method is applied to the synthetic data with and without noise to determine the locations of the edges of the mixed positive/negative contract density bodies. It has also been tested on real field data. All of the experimental results have shown that the newly proposed method is effective for edge detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freire, Paulo C. C.; Wex, Norbert; Esposito-Farèse, Gilles; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Bailes, Matthew; Jacoby, Bryan A.; Kramer, Michael; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Antoniadis, John; Janssen, Gemma H.
2012-07-01
We report the results of a 10-year timing campaign on PSR J1738+0333, a 5.85-ms pulsar in a low-eccentricity 8.5-h orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. We obtained 17 376 pulse times of arrival with a stated uncertainty smaller than ?s and weighted residual rms of ?s. The large number and precision of these measurements allow highly significant estimates of the proper motion μα, δ= (+7.037 ± 0.005, +5.073 ± 0.012) mas yr-1, parallax πx = (0.68 ± 0.05) mas and a measurement of the apparent orbital decay, ? (all 1σ uncertainties). The measurements of μα, δ and πx allow for a precise subtraction of the kinematic contribution to the observed orbital decay; this results in a significant measurement of the intrinsic orbital decay: ?. This is consistent with the orbital decay from the emission of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity, ?, i.e. general relativity passes the test represented by the orbital decay of this system. This agreement introduces a tight upper limit on dipolar gravitational wave emission, a prediction of most alternative theories of gravity for asymmetric binary systems such as this. We use this limit to derive the most stringent constraints ever on a wide class of gravity theories, where gravity involves a scalar-field contribution. When considering general scalar-tensor theories of gravity, our new bounds are more stringent than the best current Solar system limits over most of the parameter space, and constrain the matter-scalar coupling constant ? to be below the 10-5 level. For the special case of the Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke, we obtain the 1σ bound ?, which is within a factor of 2 of the Cassini limit. We also use our limit on dipolar gravitational wave emission to constrain a wide class of theories of gravity which are based on a generalization of Bekenstein's Tensor-Vector-Scalar gravity, a relativistic formulation of modified Newtonian dynamics.
Dirac Field, Gravity, Inertial Effects, and Computer Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Cotăescu, Ion I.
The article presents some new results obtained for the non-relativistic approximation of the Dirac equation in a non-inertial reference frame — rotated and accelerated — and in Schwarzschild gravitational field. These results are obtained with new routines of algebraic programming in REDUCE + EXCALC language for the Dirac equation in a non-inertial reference frame and after three successive Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boynton, Paul; Moore, Michael; Newman, Riley; Berg, Eric; Bonicalzi, Ricco; McKenney, Keven
2014-06-01
Empirical tests of Einstein's metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton's theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under "classical" conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Collapse of charged scalar field in dilaton gravity
Borkowska, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Moderski, Rafal
2011-04-15
We elaborated the gravitational collapse of a self-gravitating complex charged scalar field in the context of the low-energy limit of the string theory, the so-called dilaton gravity. We begin with the regular spacetime and follow the evolution through the formation of an apparent horizon and the final central singularity.
Arctic Ocean Gravity Field Derived From ERS-1 Satellite Altimetry.
Laxon, S; McAdoo, D
1994-07-29
The derivation of a marine gravity field from satellite altimetry over permanently ice-covered regions of the Arctic Ocean provides much new geophysical information about the structure and development of the Arctic sea floor. The Arctic Ocean, because of its remote location and perpetual ice cover, remains from a tectonic point of view the most poorly understood ocean basin on Earth. A gravity field has been derived with data from the ERS-1 radar altimeter, including permanently ice-covered regions. The gravity field described here clearly delineates sections of the Arctic Basin margin along with the tips of the Lomonosov and Arctic mid-ocean ridges. Several important tectonic features of the Amerasia Basin are clearly expressed in this gravity field. These include the Mendeleev Ridge; the Northwind Ridge; details of the Chukchi Borderland; and a north-south trending, linear feature in the middle of the Canada Basin that apparently represents an extinct spreading center that "died" in the Mesozoic. Some tectonic models of the Canada Basin have proposed such a failed spreading center, but its actual existence and location were heretofore unknown. PMID:17752757
On a more rigorous gravity field processing for future LL-SST type gravity satellite missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daras, I.; Pail, R.; Murböck, M.
2013-12-01
In order to meet the augmenting demands of the user community concerning accuracies of temporal gravity field models, future gravity missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type are planned to carry more precise sensors than their precedents. A breakthrough is planned with the improved LL-SST measurement link, where the traditional K-band microwave instrument of 1μm accuracy will be complemented by an inter-satellite ranging instrument of several nm accuracy. This study focuses on investigations concerning the potential performance of the new sensors and their impact in gravity field solutions. The processing methods for gravity field recovery have to meet the new sensor standards and be able to take full advantage of the new accuracies that they provide. We use full-scale simulations in a realistic environment to investigate whether the standard processing techniques suffice to fully exploit the new sensors standards. We achieve that by performing full numerical closed-loop simulations based on the Integral Equation approach. In our simulation scheme, we simulate dynamic orbits in a conventional tracking analysis to compute pseudo inter-satellite ranges or range-rates that serve as observables. Each part of the processing is validated separately with special emphasis on numerical errors and their impact in gravity field solutions. We demonstrate that processing with standard precision may be a limiting factor for taking full advantage of new generation sensors that future satellite missions will carry. Therefore we have created versions of our simulator with enhanced processing precision with primarily aim to minimize round-off system errors. Results using the enhanced precision show a big reduction of system errors that were present at the standard precision processing even for the error-free scenario, and reveal the improvements the new sensors will bring into the gravity field solutions. As a next step, we analyze the contribution of
Rhea gravity field and interior modeling from Cassini data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tortora, Paolo; Zannoni, Marco; Hemingway, Doug; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobson, Robert A.; Iess, Luciano; Parisi, Marzia
2016-01-01
During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini performed two close flybys of Rhea dedicated to gravity investigations, the first in November 2005 and the second in March 2013. This paper presents an estimation of Rhea's fully unconstrained quadrupole gravity field obtained from a joint multi-arc analysis of the two Cassini flybys. Our best estimates of the main gravity quadrupole unnormalized coefficients are J2 × 106 = 946.0 ± 13.9, C22 × 106 = 242.1 ± 4.0 (uncertainties are 1-σ). Their resulting ratio is J2/C22 = 3.91 ± 0.10, statistically not compatible (at a 5-σ level) with the theoretical value of 10/3, predicted for a hydrostatic satellite in slow, synchronous rotation around a planet. Therefore, it is not possible to infer the moment of inertia factor directly using the Radau-Darwin approximation. The observed excess J2 (gravity oblateness) was investigated using a combined analysis of gravity and topography, under different plausible geophysical assumptions. The observed gravity is consistent with that generated by the observed shape for an undifferentiated (uniform density) body. However, because the surface is more likely to be water ice, a two-layer model may be a better approximation. In this case, and assuming a mantle density of 920 kg/m3, some 1-3 km of excess core oblateness is consistent with the observed gravity. A wide range of moments of inertia is allowed, but models with low moments of inertia (i.e., more differentiation) require greater magnitudes of excess core topography to satisfy the observations.
Barbero-Immirzi parameter as a scalar field: K-inflation from loop quantum gravity?
Taveras, Victor; Yunes, Nicolas
2008-09-15
We consider a loop-quantum gravity inspired modification of general relativity, where the Holst action is generalized by making the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter a scalar field, whose value could be dynamically determined. The modified theory leads to a nonzero torsion tensor that corrects the field equations through quadratic first derivatives of the BI field. Such a correction is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with nontrivial kinetic energy. This stress energy of this field is automatically covariantly conserved by its own dynamical equations of motion, thus satisfying the strong equivalence principle. Every general relativistic solution remains a solution to the modified theory for any constant value of the BI field. For arbitrary time-varying BI fields, a study of cosmological solutions reduces the scalar-field stress energy to that of a pressureless perfect fluid in a comoving reference frame, forcing the scale-factor dynamics to be equivalent to those of a stiff equation of state. Upon ultraviolet completion, this model could provide a natural mechanism for k inflation, where the role of the inflaton is played by the BI field and inflation is driven by its nontrivial kinetic energy instead of a potential.
Barbero-Immirzi parameter as a scalar field: K-inflation from loop quantum gravity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taveras, Victor; Yunes, Nicolás
2008-09-01
We consider a loop-quantum gravity inspired modification of general relativity, where the Holst action is generalized by making the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter a scalar field, whose value could be dynamically determined. The modified theory leads to a nonzero torsion tensor that corrects the field equations through quadratic first derivatives of the BI field. Such a correction is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with nontrivial kinetic energy. This stress energy of this field is automatically covariantly conserved by its own dynamical equations of motion, thus satisfying the strong equivalence principle. Every general relativistic solution remains a solution to the modified theory for any constant value of the BI field. For arbitrary time-varying BI fields, a study of cosmological solutions reduces the scalar-field stress energy to that of a pressureless perfect fluid in a comoving reference frame, forcing the scale-factor dynamics to be equivalent to those of a stiff equation of state. Upon ultraviolet completion, this model could provide a natural mechanism for k inflation, where the role of the inflaton is played by the BI field and inflation is driven by its nontrivial kinetic energy instead of a potential.
Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph
2016-04-01
We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.
On the gravity field processing of next generation satellite gravity missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland
2016-04-01
Dedicated gravity field missions delivering observations for a period longer than 16 years have drastically contributed in improving our knowledge of mass transport processes in the Earth system. At the same time, they have left a precious heritage for the design of next generation satellite gravity missions to be launched in the mid-term future. Main subject of this study is the gravity field processing of future Low-Low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (LL-SST) missions. We perform assessment of the contribution of all error sources and develop methods for reducing their effect at the level of gravity field processing. Advances in metrology of sensors such as the inter-satellite ranging instrument, may raise the demands for processing accuracy. We show that gravity field processing with double precision may be a limiting factor for exploiting the nm-level accuracy of a laser interferometer that future missions are expected to carry. An enhanced numerical precision processing scheme is proposed instead, where double and quadruple precision is used in different parts of the processing chain. It is demonstrated that processing with enhanced precision can efficiently handle laser measurements and take full advantage of their accuracy, while keeping the computational times within reasonable levels (Daras, 2015). However, error sources of considerably larger impact are expected to affect future missions, with the accelerometer instrument noise and temporal aliasing effects being the most significant ones. The effect of time-correlated noise such as the one present in accelerometer measurements can be efficiently handled by frequency dependent data weighting. Residual time series that contain the effect of system errors and propagated accelerometer and laser noise, is considered as a noise realization with stationary stochastic properties. The weight matrix is constructed from the auto-correlation functions of these residuals. Applying the weight matrix to a noise case
Computational Relativistic Astrophysics Using the Flow Field-Dependent Variation Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2002-01-01
We present our method for solving general relativistic nonideal hydrodynamics. Relativistic effects become pronounced in such cases as jet formation from black hole magnetized accretion disks which may lead to the study of gamma-ray bursts. Nonideal flows are present where radiation, magnetic forces, viscosities, and turbulence play an important role. Our concern in this paper is to reexamine existing numerical simulation tools as to the accuracy and efficiency of computations and introduce a new approach known as the flow field-dependent variation (FDV) method. The main feature of the FDV method consists of accommodating discontinuities of shock waves and high gradients of flow variables such as occur in turbulence and unstable motions. In this paper, the physics involved in the solution of relativistic hydrodynamics and solution strategies of the FDV theory are elaborated. The general relativistic astrophysical flow and shock solver (GRAFSS) is introduced, and some simple example problems for computational relativistic astrophysics (CRA) are demonstrated.
Effective field theory from modified gravity with massive modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Paolella, Mariacristina; Ricciardi, Giulia
2015-10-01
Massive gravitational modes in effective field theories can be recovered by extending General Relativity and taking into account generic functions of the curvature invariants, not necessarily linear in the Ricci scalar R. In particular, adopting the minimal extension of f(R) gravity, an effective field theory with massive modes is straightforwardly recovered. This approach allows to evade shortcomings like ghosts and discontinuities if a suitable choice of expansion parameters is performed.
Inflation with a massive vector field nonminimally coupled to gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, O.; Bessa, V.; Páramos, J.
2016-03-01
We study the possibility that inflation is driven by a massive vector field with S O (3 ) global symmetry nonminimally coupled to gravity. From an E3-invariant Robertson-Walker metric we propose an Ansatz for the vector field, allowing us to study the evolution of the system. We study the behavior of the equations of motion using the methods of the theory of dynamical systems and find exponential inflationary regimes.
Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy
2015-01-23
We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime. PMID:25658988
Properties of the gravity fields of terrestrial planets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaula, William M.
1992-01-01
The properties of the gravity fields of the earth, Mars, and Venus, as expressed by spherical harmonic coefficients, are examined, using the harmonic expansions of the respective planetary topographies reported by Balmino et al. (1973), Bills and Ferrari (1978), and Bills and Kobrick (1985). The items examined include the spectral magnitudes and slopes of the gravity coefficients; the correlations between gravity and topography; and the correlations among different gravity harmonics, expressed by axiality and angularity. It was found that Venus differs from the other two planets in its great apparent depths of compensation, indicating a tectonics dominated by a stiff upper mantle. In addition, Venus has less activity deep in the mantle than do earth or Mars. Mars is marked by large gravity irregularities, as well as by their axial symmetry on a global scale. Although earth is probably the most peculiar planet, spherical harmonics do not bring out its varied characteristics. It is clearly a more active planet than Venus, with activity deep in the mantle. The lower magnitude of its higher harmonics is considered to be due to water recycled to the upper mantle.
Diffraction patterns in ferrofluids: Effect of magnetic field and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radha, S.; Mohan, Shalini; Pai, Chintamani
2014-09-01
In this paper, we report the experimental observation of diffraction patterns in a ferrofluid comprising of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in hexane by a 10 mW He-Ne laser beam. An external dc magnetic field (0-2 kG) was applied perpendicular to the beam. The diffraction pattern showed a variation at different depths of the sample in both zero and applied magnetic field. The patterns also exhibit a change in shape and size as the external field is varied. This effect arises due to thermally induced self-diffraction under the influence of gravity and external magnetic field.
Rapid 3-D forward modeling of gravity and gravity gradient tensor fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longwei, C.; Dai, S.; Zhang, Q.
2014-12-01
Three-dimensional inversion are the key process in gravity exploration. In the commonly used scheme of inversion, the subsurface of the earth is usually divided into many small prism blocks (or grids) with variable density values. A key task in gravity inversion is to calculate the composite fields (gravity and gravity gradient tensor) generated by all these grids, this is known as forward modeling. In general forward modeling is memory-demanding and time-consuming. One scheme to rapidly calculate the fields is to implement it in Fourier domain and use fast Fourier transform algorithm. The advantage of the Fourier domain method is, obviously, much faster. However, the intrinsic edge effect of the Fourier domain method degrades the precision of the calculated fields. We have developed an innovative scheme to directly calculate the fields in spatial domain. There are two key points in this scheme. One key point is spatial discretization. Spatial convolution formula is discretized using an approach similar to normal difference method. A key idea during discretization is to use the analytical formula of a cubic prism, and this makes the resultant discrete formula have clear physical meaning: it embodies the superposition principle of the fields and is the exact formula to calculate the fields generated by all grids. The discretization only requires the grids have the same dimension in horizontal directions, and grids in different layers may have different dimension in vertical direction, and this offers more flexibility for inversion. Another key point is discrete convolution calculation. We invoke a high efficient two-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm, and it guarantees both time-saving and memory-saving. Its memory cost has the same order as the number of grids. Numerical test result shows that for a model with a dimension of 1000x1000x201 grids, it takes about 300s to calculate the fields on 1000x1000 field points in a personal computer with 3.4-GHz CPU
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griggs, C. E.; Paik, H. J.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.
2015-01-01
We are developing a compact tensor superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) for obtaining gravimetric measurements from planetary orbits. A new and innovative design gives a potential sensitivity of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2)( 1 E = 10(sup -9 S(sup -2) in the measurement band up to 0.1 Hz (suitale for short wavelength static gravity) and of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2) in the frequency band less than 1 mHz (for long wavelength time-variable gravity) from the same device with a baseline just over 10 cm. The measurement band and sensitiy can be optimally tuned in-flight during the mission by changing resonance frequencies, which allows meaurements of both static and time-variable gravity fields from the same mission. Significant advances in the technologies needed for space-based cryogenic instruments have been made in the last decade. In particular, the use of cryocoolers will alleviate the previously severe constraint on mission lifetime imposed by the use of liquid helium, enabling mission durations in the 5 - 10 year range.
Satellite laser ranging and gravity field modeling accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosborough, George W.
1990-01-01
Gravitational field mismodeling procedures errors in the estimated orbital motion of near Earth satellites. This effect is studied using a linear perturbation approach following the analysis of Kaula. The perturbations in the orbital position as defined by either orbital elements or Cartesian components are determined. From these perturbations it is possible to ascertain the expected signal due to gravitational mismodeling that would be present in station-to-satellite laser ranging measurements. This expected signal has been estimated for the case of the Lageos satellite and using the predicted uncertainties of the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models. The results indicate that observable signal still exists in the laser range residuals given the current accuracy of the range measurements and the accuracy of the gravity field models.
Relativistic central-field Green's functions for the RATIP package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan
2005-11-01
From perturbation theory, Green's functions are known for providing a simple and convenient access to the (complete) spectrum of atoms and ions. Having these functions available, they may help carry out perturbation expansions to any order beyond the first one. For most realistic potentials, however, the Green's functions need to be calculated numerically since an analytic form is known only for free electrons or for their motion in a pure Coulomb field. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of Green's functions also for atoms and ions other than the hydrogen-like ions, here we provide an extension to the RATIP program which supports the computation of relativistic (one-electron) Green's functions in an—arbitrarily given—central-field potential V(r). Different computational modes have been implemented to define these effective potentials and to generate the radial Green's functions for all bound-state energies E<0. In addition, care has been taken to provide a user-friendly component of the RATIP package by utilizing features of the Fortran 90/95 standard such as data structures, allocatable arrays, or a module-oriented design. Program summaryTitle of program:XGREENS Catalogue number: ADWM Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWM Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the new version has been tested: PC Pentium II, III, IV, Athlon Installations: University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems: SuSE Linux 8.2, SuSE Linux 9.0 Program language used in the new version: ANSI standard Fortran 90/95 Memory required to execute with typical data: On a standard grid (400 nodes), one central-field Green's function requires about 50 kBytes in RAM while approximately 3 MBytes are needed if saved as two-dimensional array on some external disc space No. of bits in a word: Real variables of double- and quad-precision are used Peripheral used: Disk for input
Gravity- and strain-induced electric fields outside metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, F.; Opat, G. I.
1992-05-01
The gravity-induced electric field outside a metal object supported against gravity is predominantly due to its differential compression which arises in supporting its own weight. This Dessler-Michel-Rorschach-Trammell (DMRT) field, as it has come to be known, is expected to be proportional to the strain derivative of the work function of the surface. We report the results of an experiment designed to produce this effect with mechanically applied strain rather than with gravity. In essence, we have measured the strain-induced contact-potential variation between a metal surface of known strain gradient and an unstrained capacitive probe. We describe useful solutions to the problems faced in such an experiment, which were not adequately addressed by earlier workers. A knowledge of the DMRT field is of considerable importance to experiments designed to compare the gravitational acceleration of charged particles and antiparticles inside a metallic shield. Past experiments with electrons yielded results contrary to the then-expected DMRT field. We review and partially extend the theoretical background by drawing on later results based on the jellium model of metal surfaces. Our results for Cu and Au surfaces are consistent with jellium-based calculations which imply a DMRT field that is about an order of magnitude smaller and of opposite sign to the early estimates.
Time-variable gravity fields from satellite tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, Srinivas; Cheng, Minkang; Ries, John
2014-05-01
At the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR), we routinely deliver time-series of Earth's gravity field variations, some of it spanning more than two decades. These time-series are derived - in a consistent manner - from satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, from low-Earth orbiters tracked using GPS, and from low-low satellite to satellite tracking data from GRACE. In this paper, we review the information content in the gravity field time-series derived from each of these methods. We provide a comparison of the time-series at the decadal and annual time-scales, and identify the spatial modes of variability that are well or poorly estimated by each of the observing systems. The results have important bearing on the prospects of extending GRACE time-variable gravity time-series in the event of gaps between dedicated gravity missions, and for extending the time-series into the past. Support for this research from joint NASA/DLR GRACE mission, the NASA MEASURs program, and the NASA ROSES/GRACE Science Team is gratefully acknowledged.
The Gravity Field of Enceladus from the three Cassini Flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Parisi, M.; Ducci, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Tortora, P.
2013-12-01
The Cassini spacecraft carried out gravity measurements of the small Saturnian moon Enceladus during three close flybys on April 28, 2010, November 30, 2010 and May 2, 2012 (designated E9, E12 and E19), at the low altitudes of 100, 48 and 70 km to maximize the accelerations exerted by the moon on the spacecraft. The goals of these observations were the determination of the gravitational quadrupole and the search for a North-South asymmetry in the gravity field, controlled primarily by the spherical harmonic coefficient C30. The estimation of Enceladus' gravity field is especially complex because of the small surface gravity (0.11 m/s2), the short duration of the gravitational interaction and the small number of available flybys. In addition to the gravitational accelerations, the spacecraft was also subject to small but non-negligible drag when it flew through the plume emitted from the south pole of the satellite. This effect occurred during the two south polar flybys E9 and E19. The inclusion of these non-gravitational accelerations proved to be crucial to attain a stable solution for the gravity field. Our estimation relied entirely on precise range rate measurements enabled by a coherent, two-way, microwave link at X-band (7.2-8.4 GHz). Measurement accuracies of 10 micron/s at 60 s integration times were attained under favorable conditions, thanks also to an advanced tropospheric calibration system. The data were fitted using the MONTE orbit determination code, recently developed by JPL for deep space navigation. In addition to the satellite degree 2 gravity field and C30, the solution included the state vector of the spacecraft (one for each flyby) and corrections to the mass and the initial orbital elements of Enceladus. The effect of the drag in E9 and E19 was modeled either as an unknown, impulsive, vectorial delta-V at closest approach, or by using density profiles from models of the plume and solving for the aerodynamic coefficient of the spacecraft. Both
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombo, Oscar L.
This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.
Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques
Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC
2008-02-01
The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and
Electric Field Effect on Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan
2003-01-01
The subject of the present study, the process of bubble detachment from an orifice in a plane surface, shows some resemblance to bubble departure in boiling. Because of the high heat transfer coefficients associated with phase change processes, boiling is utilized in many industrial operations and is an attractive solution to cooling problems in aerospace engineering. In terrestrial conditions, buoyancy is responsible for bubble removal from the surface. In space, the gravity level being orders of magnitude smaller than on earth, bubbles formed during boiling remain attached at the surface. As a result, the amount of heat removed from the heated surface can decrease considerably. The use of electric fields is proposed to control bubble behavior and help bubble removal from the surface on which they form. The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Bubble cycle life were visualized in terrestrial conditions and for several reduced gravity levels. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured and analyzed for different parameters as gravity level and electric field magnitude. Situations were considered with uniform or non-uni form electric field. Results show that these parameters significantly affect bubble behavior, shape, volume and dimensions.
Application of covariant analytic mechanics to gravity with Dirac field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Satoshi
2016-03-01
We applied the covariant analytic mechanics with the differential forms to the Dirac field and the gravity with the Dirac field. The covariant analytic mechanics treats space and time on an equal footing regarding the differential forms as the basis variables. A significant feature of the covariant analytic mechanics is that the canonical equations, in addition to the Euler-Lagrange equation, are not only manifestly general coordinate covariant but also gauge covariant. Combining our study and the previous works (the scalar field, the abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and the gravity without the Dirac field), the applicability of the covariant analytic mechanics was checked for all fundamental fields. We studied both the first and second order formalism of the gravitational field coupled with matters including the Dirac field. It was suggested that gravitation theories including higher order curvatures cannot be treated by the second order formalism in the covariant analytic mechanics. In addition, we showed that the covariant analytic mechanics is equivalent to corrected De Donder-Weyl theory.
Computation of the gravity field and its gradient: Some applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, C. P.; Tiwari, V. M.
2016-03-01
New measuring instruments of Earth's gravity gradient tensors (GGT) have offered a fresh impetus to gravimetry and its application in subsurface exploration. Several efforts have been made to provide a thorough understanding of the complex properties of the gravity gradient tensor and its mathematical formulations to compute GGT. However, there is not much open source software available. Understanding of the tensor properties leads to important guidelines in the development of real three dimensional geological models. We present a MATLAB computational algorithm to calculate the gravity field and full gravity gradient tensor for an undulated surface followed by regular geometries like an infinite horizontal slab, a vertical sheet, a solid sphere, a vertical cylinder, a normal fault model and a rectangular lamina or conglomerations of such bodies and the results are compared with responses using professional software based on different computational schemes. Real subsurface geometries of complex geological structures of interest are approximated through arrangements of vertical rectangular laminas. The geological application of this algorithm is demonstrated over a horst-type structure of Oklahoma Aulacogen, USA and Vredefort Dome, South Africa, where measured GGT data are available.
High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.
Noncommutative Gravity and Quantum Field Theory on Noncommutative Curved Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schenkel, Alexander
2012-10-01
The focus of this PhD thesis is on applications, new developments and extensions of the noncommutative gravity theory proposed by Julius Wess and his group. In part one we propose an extension of the usual symmetry reduction procedure to noncommutative gravity. We classify in the case of abelian Drinfel'd twists all consistent deformations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies and of the Schwarzschild black hole. The deformed symmetry structure allows us to obtain exact solutions of the noncommutative Einstein equations in many of our models. In part two we develop a new formalism for quantum field theory on noncommutative curved spacetimes by combining methods from the algebraic approach to quantum field theory with noncommutative differential geometry. We also study explicit examples of deformed wave operators and find that there can be noncommutative corrections even on the level of free field theories. The convergent deformation of simple toy models is investigated and it is found that these theories have an improved behaviour at short distances, i.e. in the ultraviolet. In part three we study homomorphisms between and connections on noncommutative vector bundles. We prove that all homomorphisms and connections of the deformed theory can be obtained by applying a quantization isomorphism to undeformed homomorphisms and connections. The extension of homomorphisms and connections to tensor products of bimodules is clarified. As a nontrivial application of the new mathematical formalism we extend our studies of exact noncommutative gravity solutions to more general deformations.
Planetary Gravity Fields and Their Impact on a Spacecraft Trajectory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2005-01-01
The present work touches an interdisciplinary aspect of space exploration: the improvement of spacecraft navigation by means of enhanced planetary interior model derivation. The better the bodies in our solar system are known and modelled, the more accurately (and safely) a spacecraft can be navigated. In addition, the information about the internal structure of a planet, moon or any other planetary body can be used in arguments for different theories of solar system evolution. The focus of the work lies in a new approach for modelling the gravity field of small planetary bodies: the implementation of complex ellipsoidal coordinates (figure 1, [4]) for irregularly shaped bodies that cannot be represented well by a straightforward spheroidal approach. In order to carry out the required calculations the computer programme GRASP (Gravity Field of a Planetary Body and its Influence on a Spacecraft Trajectory) has been developed [5]. The programme furthermore allows deriving the impact of the body s gravity field on a spacecraft trajectory and thus permits predictions for future space mission flybys.
An alternative computation of a gravity field model from GOCE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Weiyong
2012-08-01
GOCE is the first satellite with a gravitational gradiometer (SGG). This allows to determine a gravity field model with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. Four of the six independent components of the gravitational gradient tensors (GGT) are measured with high accuracy in the so-called measurement band (MB) from 5 to 100 mHz by the GOCE gradiometer. Based on more than 1 year of GOCE measurements, two gravity field models have been derived. Here, we introduce a strategy for spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) from GOCE measurements, with a bandpass filter applied to the SGG data, combined with orbit analysis based on the integral equation approach, and additional constraints (or stabilization) in the polar areas where no observation is available due to the orbit geometry. In addition, we combined the GOCE SGG part with a set of GRACE normal equations. This improves the accuracy of the gravity field in the long-wavelength parts, due to the complementarity of GOCE and GRACE. Comparison with other models and with external data shows that our results are rather close to the GPS-levelling data in well-selected test regions, with an uncertainty of 4-7 cm, for truncation at degree 200.
Lunar gravity field recovery: sensitivity studies from simulated tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Baur, O.
2012-04-01
The lunar gravity field is essential for understanding the structure and the thermal evolution of the Moon. Typically, the gravity field is inferred from tracking data to satellites orbiting the Moon. Due to the fact that the Moon is in the state of synchronous rotation with the Earth, direct tracking to the farside is impossible. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), launched in 2009, is equipped with various instruments whose purpose is to prepare for save robotic returns to the Moon. To geolocate LRO, the spacecraft is tracked by means of radiometric techniques (ranges, range rates, angles) and optical laser (laser ranges). We analyzed tracking data to LRO with respect to various aspects, such as the number of observations, their spatial distribution on the lunar surface, and the present noise level. We used these real-data characteristics to simulate tracking data to LRO. We generated three different simulation scenarios: observations were simulated (1) during the exact time spans when LRO was tracked from a specific ground station, (2) whenever the spacecraft was in view from a station, and (3) for the nearside as well as for the farside of the Moon. Based on the resulting trajectories, we estimated three sets of spherical harmonic coefficients representing the lunar gravity field. Moreover, we varied the maximum degree of estimated coefficients and investigated the effect of noise on the estimated parameters. Observation simulation and parameter estimation was accomplished with the software packages GEODYN and SOLVE.
Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.
2014-11-01
Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The
Resolution of the Scripps/NOAA Marine Gravity Field from satellite altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marks, Karen M.
The July 1995 declassification of the entire Geosat GM satellite altimeter data set enabled a joint Scripps/NOAA effort to compute a new (version 7.2) marine gravity field on a 2-minute grid. This gravity field covers the world's oceans between 72°N and 72°S, and is derived from a combination of ERS-1 and Geosat GM and ERM data. An earlier NOAA Geosat-only gravity field solution was confined to the southern latitudes because the 1992 declassification was limited to GM data south of 30°S. A simple coherence analysis between accurately-navigated ship gravity profiles and comparable gravity profiles obtained from the gravity grids reveals that the Scripps/NOAA gravity field is coherent with ship gravity down to ˜≥ 23-30 km. This slight increase in resolution over the previous NOAA Geosat-only gravity field (short-wavelength resolution of ˜26-30 km) implies that the increased spatial coverage provided by the ERS-I altimeter, when combined with Geosat, improves the solution. Coherence analyses between satellite gravity and ship topography, and ship gravity and ship topography, show that even shorter wavelength gravity anomalies (˜13 km) are present in sea-surface measurements made by ship. Even so, the Scripps/NOAA marine gravity field does an excellent job of resolving most of the short-wavelength gravity anomalies covering the world’s oceans.
The gravity field of the Saturnian satellites Enceladus and Dione
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Jacobson, R.; Ducci, M.; Stevenson, D. J.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S.; Racioppa, P.; Rappaport, N. J.; Tortora, P.
2012-12-01
Enceladus and Dione are the innermost moons of the Saturnian system visited by the spacecraft Cassini for gravity investigations. The small surface gravity (0.11 and 0.23 m/s2 respectively for Enceladus and Dione), the short duration of the gravitational interaction and the small number of available flybys (three for Enceladus and just one for Dione) make the determination of their gravity field particularly challenging. In spite of these limitations, we have measured the low degree gravity field of both satellites with sufficient accuracy to draw preliminary geophysical conclusions. The estimation relied primarily on precise range rate data, whose accuracy reached 10 micron/s at 60 s integration times under favorable conditions. In order to disentangle the effects of the spacecraft orbit, the satellite orbit and the satellite gravity, tracking coverage is required not only across closest approach, but also days before and after the flyby. The dynamical model used for the fits includes all relevant gravitational perturbations and the main non-gravitational accelerations (Cassini RTG's anisotropic thermal emission, solar radiation pressure). In addition to the gravity field coefficients a correction to the orbit of the spacecraft and the satellites was also estimated. The first and so far only Dione's flyby with tracking at closest approach occurred on December 12, 2011, at an altitude of 99 km. (A second gravity flyby is scheduled in 2015.) Although the low solar elongation angle caused a significant increase of the plasma noise in Doppler data, the low spacecraft altitude at closest approach and the otherwise favorable geometry allowed an estimation of the harmonic coefficients J2 and C22 to a relative accuracy below 2%. We have produced, in addition to an unconstrained estimate, a second solution where the quadrupole field is constrained by the requirement of hydrostaticity. Doppler residuals are unbiased and consistent with the expected noise in both cases. When
Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian
2015-04-01
Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the
Combined GRACE-SLR monthly gravity field solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Ulrich; Sosnica, Krzysytof; Maier, Andrea; Jäggi, Adrian
2015-04-01
Monthly gravity field solutions from GRACE GPS and GRACE K-Band data provide remarkable information about the mass transport in the system Earth by capturing the temporal variability of the gravity field at long to medium wavelengths. The GRACE solutions suffer, however, from the poor determination of the C20 coefficient from GRACE K-Band data, which describes the Earth's oblateness. C20 and its temporal variability can, on the other hand, be very well determined using satellite laser ranges (SLR) to spherical geodetic satellites such as LAGEOS and LARES. It is common practice to replace the C20 coefficient in GRACE solutions by SLR-derived values. We perform a meaningful combination of GRACE and SLR solutions at the level of normal equations using the SLR-only monthly gravity fields from the combined analysis of up to nine geodetic satellites that capture the temporal variability to degree 10 of the global spherical harmonic expansion. We present combined monthly GRACE-SLR solutions and compare them to GRACE GPS/K-Band, GRACE GPS-only, and SLR-only solutions. We discuss the relative weighting scheme of the normal equations and evaluate the secular and seasonal periodic time variations of the combined solutions at long wavelengths. We observe a positive influence of the SLR data not only on C20 but also on the formal errors of the other degree-2 spherical harmonic coefficients, which correspond to the excitation of the polar motion. A possible reduction of the influence of aliasing with the S2 tide on some GRACE-derived coefficients using a combination with SLR data will also be addressed. The analysis of SLR-only solutions indicates sensitivity to time variable signal for selected coefficients at even higher degree but special care has to be taken not to corrupt coefficients with the inferior quality in SLR solutions in the combined solutions with GRACE data. In recent years, K-Band tracking between GRACE satellites was deactivated several times resulting in
The Gravity Field of Titan From Four Cassini Flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rappaport, N. J.; Jacobson, R. A.; Iess, L.; Racioppa, P.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Stevenson, D. J.; Tortora, P.; di Benedetto, M.; Graziani, A.; Meriggiola, R.
2008-12-01
Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft across four flybys has been used for a preliminary determination of Titan's gravity field. The flybys occurred on February 27, 2006, December 28, 2006, June 29, 2007 and July 31, 2008, with closest approach altitudes between 1300 and 2100 km. X- and Ka-band Doppler data from each flyby have been combined in a multi-arc solution for the Stokes coefficients up to degree-3. The dynamical models employed in the data fit were limited to the static component of the gravity field and did not include eccentricity tides. Tidal variations of the quadrupole coefficients are expected at a level of a few percents if the surface hides an internal ocean, and are therefore accessible to Cassini measurements. As the flybys were evenly distributed about pericenter and apocenter of Titan's orbit, the current analysis provides a good representation of the static component of the quadrupole field. In one setup, Titan's ephemerides were also updated, leading to improved determination of the satellite's orbit and gravitational parameter (GM). The measured gravity field is dominated by a large, nearly hydrostatic, quadrupole component, consistent with an equilibrium response to the perturbations due to rotation and Saturn gravity gradient. The magnitude of the degree-3 coefficients accounts for about 1-3% of the overall field, with significant gravity disturbances (at a level of 2-5 mgal) over broad regions of the surface. The corresponding peak-to-peak geoid height variations amount to a few tens of meters. The ellipsoidal reference surface shows variations among the axes of a few hundred meters. The near hydrostaticity of Titan justifies the application of Radau-Darwin equilibrium theory, which provides the fluid Love number and the average moment of inertia. The latter is consistent with a partial, but not full, differentiation of the interior. This work was partly conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Weak gravity strongly constrains large-field axion inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Rudelius, Tom
2015-12-01
Models of large-field inflation based on axion-like fields with shift symmetries can be simple and natural, and make a promising prediction of detectable primordial gravitational waves. The Weak Gravity Conjecture is known to constrain the simplest case in which a single compact axion descends from a gauge field in an extra dimension. We argue that the Weak Gravity Conjecture also constrains a variety of theories of multiple compact axions including N-flation and some alignment models. We show that other alignment models entail surprising consequences for how the mass spectrum of the theory varies across the axion moduli space, and hence can be excluded if further conjectures hold. In every case that we consider, plausible assumptions lead to field ranges that cannot be parametrically larger than M Pl. Our results are strongly suggestive of a general inconsistency in models of large-field inflation based on compact axions, and possibly of a more general principle forbidding super-Planckian field ranges.
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-07-15
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.
Noncommutative scalar field minimally coupled to nonsymmetric gravity
Kouadik, S.; Sefai, D.
2012-06-27
We construct a non-commutative non symmetric gravity minimally coupled model (the star product only couples matter). We introduce the action for the system considered namely a non-commutative scalar field propagating in a nontrivial gravitational background. We expand the action in powers of the anti-symmetric field and the graviton to second order adopting the assumption that the scalar is weekly coupled to the graviton. We compute the one loop radiative corrections to the self-energy of a scalar particle.
Gravity field determination and characteristics: Retrospective and prospective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nerem, R. S.; Jekeli, C.; Kaula, W. M.
Gravimetry has had a long history, using pendulums, torsion balances, and static spring gravimeters. Relative accuracy adequate for many geophysical problems was already attained by 1900, but it took another half century to build readily portable gravimeters. Calibration and datum definition remained problems until the 1970s when free-fall absolute gravimeters were developed that now have a precision of 10-3 mGal. The problems of geographic inaccessibility and field party costs (notably in areas of greatest tectonic interest) and now being overcome by airborne gravimetry that has already achieved accuracies of 1-3 mGal with resolutions of 10 to 20 km. Satellite techniques are the best way to determine the long-wavelength variations of the gravity field. The resolution of the models has steadily improved with the number of satellites and the precision of the observations. The best current model includes tracking data from more than 30 satellites, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry and has a resolution of about 290 km (harmonic degree 70) with the most recent improvements coming from Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking of the SPOT 2 satellite and satellite laser ranging (SLR), DORIS, and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. Meanwhile, radar altimetry has become the dominant technique to infer the marine geoid with a resolution of tens of kilometers or shorter. Similarly, the gravity fields of the Moon, Venus, and Mars have been determined to harmonic degrees 70, 75, and 50, respectively, although tracking limitations result in variations of spatial resolution. Modeling Earth's gravity field from the abundance of precise data has become an increasingly complex task, with which the development of computer capacity has kept pace. Contemporary solutions now entail about 10,000 parameters, half of them for effects other than the fixed gravity field of Earth. Temporal variations
Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L.; Torrence, Mark H.; Perry, Mark E.; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W.; Taylor, Anthony H.
2012-01-01
Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.
Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.
Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H
2012-04-13
Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core. PMID:22438509
Ultralow Magnetic Fields and Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mester, J. C.; Lockhart, J. M.; Muhlfelder, B.; Murray, D. O.; Taber, M. A.
We describe the generation of an ultralow magnetic field of < 10-11Tesla in the flight dewar of the Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission. The field was achieved using expanded-superconducting-shield techniques and is maintained with the aid of a magnetic materials control program. A high performance magnetic shield system is required for the proper function of gyroscope readout. The readout system employs a dc SQUID to measure the London moment generated by the superconducting gyro rotor in order to resolve sub-milliarcsecond changes in the gyro spin direction. In addition to a low residual dc magnetic field, attenuation of external field variation is required to be 1012 at the gyro positions. We discuss the measurement of the dc magnetic field and ac attenuation factor and the performance of the readout system
Inversion of Gravity and Magnetic Field Data for Tyrrhena Patera
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milbury, C.; Schubert, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.
2011-01-01
Tyrrhena Patera is located to the southeast/northeast of the Isidis/Hellas impact basin. It was geologically active into the Late Amazonian, although the main edifice was formed in the Noachian(approximately 3.7-4.0 Ga). Tyrrhena Patera and the surrounding area contain gravity and magnetic anomalies that appear to be correlated. The results presented here are for the anomalies 1a and 1b (closest to Tyrrhena Patera), however other anomalies in this region have been modeled and will be presented at the conference.The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) free-air gravity signature of Tyrrhena Patera has been studied by Kiefer, who inferred the existence of an extinct magma chamber below it. The magnetic signature has been mapped by Lillis R. J. et al., who compared electron reflectometer data, analogous to the total magnetic field, for Syrtis Major and Tyrrhena Patera and argued for demagnetization of both volcanoes.
Action and entanglement in gravity and field theory.
Neiman, Yasha
2013-12-27
In nongravitational quantum field theory, the entanglement entropy across a surface depends on the short-distance regularization. Quantum gravity should not require such regularization, and it has been conjectured that the entanglement entropy there is always given by the black hole entropy formula evaluated on the entangling surface. We show that these statements have precise classical counterparts at the level of the action. Specifically, we point out that the action can have a nonadditive imaginary part. In gravity, the latter is fixed by the black hole entropy formula, while in nongravitating theories it is arbitrary. From these classical facts, the entanglement entropy conjecture follows by heuristically applying the relation between actions and wave functions. PMID:24483789
A general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2016-04-01
Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall absolute gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall absolute gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.
Wormholes, emergent gauge fields, and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Daniel
2016-01-01
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.
Relativistic electron distribution function of a plasma in a near-critical electric field
Sandquist, P.; Sharapov, S. E.; Helander, P.; Lisak, M.
2006-07-15
A corrected relativistic collision operator is used to derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of relativistic suprathermal electrons in a weakly relativistic plasma, which is then solved by a procedure similar to that employed in Connor and Hastie [Nucl. Fusion 15, 415 (1975)]. Analytical expressions are derived for the electron distribution function in plasmas with the electric field close to critical, which is typical of plasmas with grassy sawteeth on the Joint European Torus. A numerical solution is used for determining the normalization constant, which matches the relativistic region onto the weakly relativistic region. It is found that the scaling of the runaway rate with the electric field obtained by Connor and Hastie is a good approximation in spite of their use of an incomplete form of the collision operator not conserving number of particles. The present analysis determines the proportionality constant and introduces corrections to the earlier scaling of the runaway rate with respect to the electric field. The results obtained for the electron distribution function constitute a basis for studies of experimentally observed phenomena in near-threshold electric field plasmas with a significant suprathermal electron population.
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
Report of the panel on geopotential fields: Gravity field, section 8
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Allen Joel; Kaula, William M.; Lazarewics, Andrew R.; Lefebvre, Michel; Phillips, Roger J.; Rapp, Richard H.; Rummel, Reinhard F.; Smith, David E.; Tapley, Byron D.; Zlotnick, Victor
1991-01-01
The objective of the Geopotential Panel was to develop a program of data acquisition and model development for the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields that meet the basic science requirements of the solid Earth and ocean studies. Presented here are the requirements for gravity information and models through the end of the century, the present status of our knowledge, data acquisition techniques, and an outline of a program to meet the requirements.
Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Margot, Jean-Luc; McNutt, Ralph; Mazarico, Erwan M.; Oberst, Jurgen; Peale, Stanley J.; Perry, Mark; Purucker, Michael E.; Rowlands, David D.; Torrence, Mark H.
2012-01-01
On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe
The role of topography in geodetic gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, R.; Sideris, M. G.
1989-01-01
Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields. On local scales, the short-wavelength gravity variations due to the topography may, in rugged terrain, be an order of magnitude larger than other effects. In such cases, explicit or implicit terrain reduction procedures are mandatory in order to obtain good prediction results. Such effects may be computed by space-domain integration or by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) methods. Numerical examples are given for areas of the Canadian Rockies. In principle, good knowledge of the topographic densities is required to produce the smoothest residual field. Densities may be determined from sample measurements or by gravimetric means, but both are somewhat troublesome methods in practice. The use of a standard density, e.g., 2.67 g/cu cm, may often yield satisfactory results and may be put within a consistent theoretical framework. The independence of density assumptions is the key point of the classical Molodensky approach to the geodetic boundary value problem. The Molodensky solutions take into account that land gravity field observations are done on a non-level surface. Molodensky's problem may be solved by integral expansions or more effective FFT methods, but the solution should not be intermixed with the use of terrain reductions. The methods are actually complimentary and may both be required in order to obtain the smoothest possible signal, least prone to aliasing and other effects coming from sparse data coverage, typical of rugged topography.
Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. 5: Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D. L.; Caves, C. M.
1974-01-01
The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the PPN parameter alpha sub 2, which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific but presumably special form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity--and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.
Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. V - Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D. L.; Ni, W.-T.; Caves, C. M.; Will, C. M.
1976-01-01
The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the post-Newtonian parameter alpha sub 2 (which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves). Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific (but presumably special) form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity - and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.
Gravity Field, Topography, and Interior Structure of Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Anabtawi, A.; Jacobson, R. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Schubert, G.; Taylor, A. H.; Thomas, P. C.; Weinwurm, G.
2002-12-01
A close Galileo flyby of Jupiter's inner moon Amalthea (JV) occurred on 5 November 2002. The final aimpoint was selected by the Galileo Radio Science Team on 5 July 2002. The closest approach distance for the selected aimpoint was 221 km from the center of mass, the latitude was - 45.23 Deg and the west longitude was 266.41 Deg (IAU/IAG/COSPAR cartographic coordinate system). In order to achieve an acceptable impact probability (0.15%), and yet fly close to Amalthea, the trajectory was selected from a class of trajectories running parallel to Amalthea's long axis. The Deep Space Network (DSN) had the capability to generate continuous coherent radio Doppler data during the flyby. Such data can be inverted to obtain information on Amalthea's gravity field. Amalthea is irregular and neither a triaxial ellipsoid nor an equilibrium body. It has a volume of about 2.4 x 106 km3, and its best-fit ellipsoid has dimensions 131x73x67 km. Its mass can be determined from the 2002 flyby, and in combination with the volume, a density can be obtained accurate to about 5%, where the error is dominated by the volume uncertainty. Similarly, gravity coefficients (Cnm Snm) can be detected up to fourth degree and order, and the second degree field (quadrupole) can be measured. Topography data are available from Voyager imaging and from images taken with Galileo's solid state imaging system at various times between February and June 1997. By combining the gravity and topography data, new information can be obtained on Amalthea's interior. For example if the gravity coefficients agree with those calculated from the topography, assuming constant density, we can conclude that Amalthea is homogeneous. On the other hand, if the gravity coefficients are smaller than predicted from topography, we can conclude that there is a concentration of mass toward Amalthea's center. We are presenting preliminary pre-publication results at the Fall meeting. This work was sponsored by the Galileo Project
The determination of Dione's gravity field after four Cassini flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zannoni, Marco; Tortora, Paolo; Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A.; Armstrong, John W.; Asmar, Sami W.
2015-04-01
We present the expected accuracy in the determination of Dione's gravity field obtained through numerical simulations of all radio science flybys currently planned in the entire Cassini mission. During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini already performed two flybys of Dione dedicated to the determination of its mass and gravity field, in October 2005 and December 2011, respectively. Two additional radio science flybys are planned in June 2015 and August 2015. The analysis of the Doppler data acquired during the closest approach of the second flyby allowed the first estimation of Dione's J2 and C22 but, given the limited amount of data, their estimation has a large correlation and cannot be considered fully reliable. Here we infer the expected final accuracy in the determination of Dione's J2 and C22 by combining the available results from the already performed experiments with numerical simulations of future flybys. The main observables considered in the analysis are two-way and three-way Doppler data obtained from the frequency shift of a highly stable microwave carrier between the spacecraft and the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network. White Gaussian noise was added to the simulated data, with a constant standard deviation for each tracking pass, obtained from an accurate noise budget of the Cassini mission. For the two flybys to be carried out in 2015, we consider a continuous coverage during +/-18 hours around the closest approach, plus one tracking pass 36 hours before and after it. The data analysis is carried out using a global, multi-arc fit, and comparing the independent solutions obtained from each flyby and different multi-arc solutions. The analysis of all four flybys is expected to provide the best, unconstrained, reliable estimation of the full quadrupole gravity field of Dione.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reity, O. K.; Reity, V. K.; Lazur, V. Yu.
2016-02-01
A recurrent scheme for finding the quasiclassical solution of the onedimensional equation obtained after the separation of variables in the Schrödinger equation in parabolic coordinates is derived. The method of quasiclassical localized states is developed for the Dirac equation with an arbitrary axially symmetric potential of barrier type which does not allow complete separation of the variables. By means of the proposed quasiclassical methods the non-relativistic and relativistic wavefunctions for hydrogenlike (H-like) atoms in an external uniform electrostatic field of intensity F are constructed in the classically forbidden and allowed regions. The general analytical expressions of the leading term of the asymptotic behaviour (at small F) of the ionization rate of an H-like atom in the uniform electrostatic field are obtained for the non-relativistic and relativistic cases.
Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Pohl, Martin; Niemiec, Jacek; Zhang, Bing; Hardee, Philip E.
2011-01-10
We perform two-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a mildly relativistic shock propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. We show that the postshock region becomes turbulent owing to preshock density inhomogeneity, and the magnetic field is strongly amplified due to the stretching and folding of field lines in the turbulent velocity field. The amplified magnetic field evolves into a filamentary structure in two-dimensional simulations. The magnetic energy spectrum is flatter than the Kolmogorov spectrum and indicates that a so-called small-scale dynamo is occurring in the postshock region. We also find that the amount of magnetic-field amplification depends on the direction of the mean preshock magnetic field, and the timescale of magnetic-field growth depends on the shock strength.
Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches in the Presence of an External Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, E. S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Rassoul, H.; Briggs, M. S.
2015-12-01
Relativistic runaway electron avalanches are known to be produced inside the high electric field regions of thunderstorms. In this work, we include the effects of an external static magnetic field. Previous studies have shown that the magnetic field has a great influence on the electron motion at higher altitudes, e.g. Lehtinen et al., 1997, and Gurevich et al., 1996. This result proves important when studying phenomena such as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, and their effects on the upper atmosphere. Therefore, electron avalanche rates, feedback rates, and electron energy distribution functions will be analyzed and compared to the results of previous studies that did not include a magnetic field. The runaway electron avalanche model (REAM) is a Monte Carlo code that simulates the generation, interactions, and propagation of relativistic runaway electrons in air [Dwyer, 2003, 2004, 2007]. We use this simulation for varying strengths and angles between the electric and magnetic fields to calculate avalanche lengths and angular distribution functions of the relativistic runaway electrons. We will also show electron distribution functions in momentum space. Finally, we will discuss the important regimes for which the magnetic field becomes significant in studying the properties of runaway electron avalanches and relativistic feedback.
Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.
Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning
2013-02-01
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395
Paramagnetic Liquid Bridge in a Gravity-Compensating Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles
1999-01-01
Magnetic levitation was used to stabilize cylindrical columns of a paramagnetic liquid in air between two solid supports. The maximum achievable length to diameter ratio R(sub max) was approx. (3.10 +/- 0.07), very close to the Rayleigh-Plateau limit of pi. For smaller R, the stability of the column was measured as a function of the Bond number, which could be continuously varied by adjusting the strength of the magnetic field. Liquid bridges supported by two solid surfaces have been attracting scientific attention since the time of Rayleigh and Plateau. For a cylindrical bridge of length L and diameter d, it was shown theoretically that in zero gravity the maximum slenderness ratio R (identically = L/d) is pi. The stability and ultimate collapse of such bridges is of interest because of their importance in a number of industrial processes and their potential for low gravity applications. In the presence of gravity, however, the cylindrical shape of an axisymmetric bridge tends to deform, limiting its stability and decreasing the maximum achievable value of R. Theoretical studies have discussed the stability and possible shapes of axisymmetric bridges. Experiments typically are performed in either a Plateau tank, in which the bridge is surrounded by a density-matched immiscible fluid, or in a space-borne microgravity environment. It has been shown, for example, that the stability limit R can be pushed beyond pi by using flow stabilization, by acoustic radiation pressure, or by forming columns in the presence of an axial electric field. In this work, magnetic levitation was used to simulate a low gravity environment and create quasi-cylindrical liquid columns in air. Use of a magnetic field permits us to continuously vary the Bond number B identically equal to (g)(rho)d(exp 2)/4(sigma), where g is the gravitational acceleration, rho is the density of the liquid, and sigma is the surface tension of the liquid in air. The dimensionless Bond number represents the
Warped conformal field theory as lower spin gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofman, Diego M.; Rollier, Blaise
2015-08-01
Two dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs) may represent the simplest examples of field theories without Lorentz invariance that can be described holographically. As such they constitute a natural window into holography in non-AdS space-times, including the near horizon geometry of generic extremal black holes. It is shown in this paper that WCFTs posses a type of boost symmetry. Using this insight, we discuss how to couple these theories to background geometry. This geometry is not Riemannian. We call it Warped Geometry and it turns out to be a variant of a Newton-Cartan structure with additional scaling symmetries. With this formalism the equivalent of Weyl invariance in these theories is presented and we write two explicit examples of WCFTs. These are free fermionic theories. Lastly we present a systematic description of the holographic duals of WCFTs. It is argued that the minimal setup is not Einstein gravity but an SL (2, R) × U (1) Chern-Simons Theory, which we call Lower Spin Gravity. This point of view makes manifest the definition of boundary for these non-AdS geometries. This case represents the first step towards understanding a fully invariant formalism for WN field theories and their holographic duals.
Perturbations of single-field inflation in modified gravity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Taotao; Xia, Jun-Qing
2015-05-01
In this paper, we study the case of single field inflation within the framework of modified gravity theory where the gravity part has an arbitrary form f (R). Via a conformal transformation, this case can be transformed into its Einstein frame where it looks like a two-field inflation model. However, due to the existence of the isocurvature modes in such a multi-degree-of-freedom (m.d.o.f.) system, the (curvature) perturbations are not equivalent in two frames, so despite of its convenience, it is illegal to treat the perturbations in its Einstein frame as the "real" ones as we always do for pure f (R) theory or single field with nonminimal coupling. Here by pulling the results of curvature perturbations back into its original Jordan frame, we show explicitly the power spectrum and spectral index of the perturbations in the Jordan frame, as well as how it differs from the Einstein frame. We also fit our results with the newest Planck data. Since there is large parameter space in these models, we show that it is easy to fit the data very well.
Fugacity and concentration gradients in a gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, C. E.
1986-01-01
Equations are reviewed which show that at equilibrium fugacity and concentration gradients can exist in gravitational fields. At equilibrium, the logarithm of the ratio of the fugacities of a species at two different locations in a gravitational field is proportional to the difference in the heights of the two locations and the molecular weight of the species. An analogous relation holds for the concentration ratios in a multicomponent system. The ratio is calculated for a variety of examples. The kinetics for the general process are derived, and the time required to approach equilibrium is calculated for several systems. The following special topics are discussed: ionic solutions, polymers, multiphase systems, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, and solubility gradients in a gravity field.
Determination of Enceladus' gravity field from Cassini radio science data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, Marzia; Iess, Luciano; Ducci, Marco
2014-05-01
In May 2012 the Cassini spacecraft completed its last gravity flyby of Saturn's moon Enceladus (identified as E19 in the sequence), following E9 in April 2010 and E12 in November 2010. The multiarc analysis of the gravity data collected during these low-altitude encounters has produced a stable solution for the gravity field of Enceladus, leading to compelling inferences and implications on the interior structure, but also raising new questions on the evolution of this small but yet fascinating icy body. The gravitational signature of the satellite was detected by means of precise Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft around closest approach (±3h) of the three flybys. Cassini tracking system exploits both X/X and X/Ka links, with accuracies that range between 0.02 - 0.09 mm/s at 60 s integration time. Range-rate measurements were processed into a multi-arc least square filter so as to attain a solution for the quadrupole field of Enceladus and its degree-3 zonal harmonic J3, the most important indication of hemispherical asymmetries. In addition to these crucial parameters, corrections to the estimated orbits of Cassini and Enceladus were applied. The inclusion in the dynamical model of the neutral particle drag exerted by Enceladus south polar plumes (1) is essential for a satisfactory orbital fit. The results of the analysis show that Enceladus is indeed characterized by a predominant quadrupole term, with its J2/C22 ratio being that of a body not in hydrostatic equilibrium. The estimate of tesseral degree-2 coefficients (C21, S21 and C22), being statistically close to 0 (at a 3-σ level), imply that the adopted rotational model for the satellite is consistent with the observed gravity field. Furthermore, the estimated value for J3 turned out to be statistically significant (although only about 1/50 of J2) and pointing at a significant hemispherical asymmetry that is consistent with the presence of a regional sea at depth. References (1) C.C. Porco et al
KMS2002 Global Marine Gravity Field, Bathymetry And Mean Sea Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, O. B.
2003-12-01
During the last three years the KMS global marine gravity field has been improved in corporation with National Imaginary and Mapping Agency (NIMA). These improvements have resulted in a release of KMS99 and KMS2001 gravity fields. Especially, the KMS99 gravity field presented a significant improvement in comparisons with marine observations, as well as global coverage within the 82 degree parallels by adding the ERS-ERM data. The subsequent, KMS2001 only resulted in minor improved gravity field modelling. A new revised global high resolution marine gravity field KMS2002 is presented in this Combining this fine- tuning with careful edition of data are expected to improve the KMS2002 gravity field, in particularly coastal regions. Improved resolution and data coverage in particularly ice-covered regions are other improvements, which is currently under investigation. The KMS gravity field modelling approach uses the observed sea surface height anomalies relative to EGM96 and converts these into gravity using FFT techniques. For the KMS2002 focus has been on improved mapping of the intermediate wavelength (100-250 km) of the gravity field using the exact repeat mission data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 satellite missions. The KMS2002 gravity field is accompanied with a high-resolution bathymetry model and a high resolution mean sea surface.
DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.
2015-09-01
We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.
A Revolution in Mars Topography and Gravity and Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.
2002-01-01
Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) at Mars in September 1997 and the subsequent beginning of observations of the planet there has been a constant stream of surprises and puzzling observations that have kept scientists looking at new 'out of the box' explanations. Observations of the shape and topography have shown a planet with one hemisphere, the southern, several kilometers higher than the north and a northern hemisphere that is so flat and smooth in places that it's difficult to imagine it was not once the bottom of an ocean. And yet the ocean idea presents some enormous difficulties. The measurements of gravity derived from the tracking of MGS have shown that several Mars volcanoes are enormous positive gravity anomalies much larger than we see on Earth and revealed small errors in the orbit of Mars and or Earth. And the magnetic field is found to be composed of a number of extremely large crustal anomalies; but as far as can be ascertained there is no main dipole field such as we have on Earth. Understanding these diverse observations and placing them in the sequence of the evolution of the planet will be a long, challenging but rewarding task.
Altimeter measurements for the determination of the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1987-01-01
The ability of satellite-borne radar altimeter data to measure the global ocean surface with high precision and dense spatial coverage provides a unique tool for the mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid. The altimeter crossover measurements, created by differencing direct altimeter measurements at the subsatellite points where the orbit ground tracks intersect, have the distinct advantage of eliminating geoid error and other nontemporal or long period oceanographic features. In the 1990's, the joint U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON mission and the European Space Agency's ERS-1 mission will carry radar altimeter instruments capable of global ocean mapping with high precision. This investigation aims at the development and application of dynamically consistent direct altimeter and altimeter crossover measurement models to the simultaneous mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid, the ocean tides and the quasi-stationary component of the dynamic sea surface topography. Altimeter data collected by SEASAT, GEOS-3, and GEOSAT are used for the investigation.
B. Julia-Diaz, H. Kamano, T.-S. H. Lee, A. Matsuyama, T. Sato, N. Suzuki
2009-04-01
Within the relativistic quantum field theory, we analyze the differences between the $\\pi N$ reaction models constructed from using (1) three-dimensional reductions of Bethe-Salpeter Equation, (2) method of unitary transformation, and (3) time-ordered perturbation theory. Their relations with the approach based on the dispersion relations of S-matrix theory are dicusssed.
Pion condensation in a relativistic field theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter
Banerjee, B.; Glendenning, N. K.; Gyulassy, M.
1981-05-01
Pion condensation is investigated in a self-consistent. relativistic mean field theory that is constrained to reproduce the bulk properties of nuclear matter. This constraint and self-consistency provide stringent constraints on the existence and energy of the condensate.
Particle acceleration magnetic field generation, and emission in Relativistic pair jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) are responsible for particle acceleration in relativistic pair jets. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic pair jet propagating through a pair plasma. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Simulation results show that this instability generates and amplifies highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter' I radiation from deflected electrons can have different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. The growth rate of the Weibel instability and the resulting particle acceleration depend on the magnetic field strength and orientation, and on the initial particle distribution function. In this presentation we explore some of the dependencies of the Weibel instability and resulting particle acceleration on the magnetic field strength and orientation, and the particle distribution function.
Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra
2016-04-01
's 20 trading partner countries, for a time frame from 1995 to 2013. The calculations -implemented for each country and each crop- display a network that illustrates the gravity of virtual water trade. It is then possible for us to model the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field, via the statistical examination of its spatial fragmentation or continuity for each traded crop and for each water footprint type. Hence, with the distribution's entropy we may conduct a targeted analysis on the comparative advantages of the Egyptian agriculture. Keywords: entropy, virtual water trade, gravity model, agricultural trade, water footprint, water subsidies, comparative advantage References 1. Antonelli, Marta and Martina Sartori (2014), Unfolding the potential of the Virtual Water concept. What is still under debate?, MPRA Paper No. 60501, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60501/ 2. Fracasso, Andrea (2014), A gravity model of virtual water trade, Ecological Economics, Vol. 108, p. 215-228 3. Fracasso, Andrea; Martina Sartori and Stefano Schiavo (2014), Determinants of virtual water flows in the Mediterranean, MPRA Paper No. 60500, https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60500/ 4. Yang, H. et al. (2006), Virtual water trade: An assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10, p. 443-454
Plasma waves in a relativistic, strongly anisotropic plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onishchenko, O. G.
1980-01-01
The dispersion properties of plasma waves in a relativistic homogeneous plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field are studied. It is shown that the non-damping plasma waves exist in the frequency range omega sub p or = omega or = omega sub L. The values of omega sub p and omega sub L are calculated for an arbitrary homogeneous relativistic function of the particle distribution. In the case of a power ultrarelativistic distribution, it is shown that, if the ultrarelativistic tail of the distribution drops very rapidly, slightly damping plasma waves are possible with the phase velocity (omega/K)c.
Effective field theory of quantum gravity coupled to scalar electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L.; Lehum, A. C.; da Silva, A. J.
2016-05-01
In this work, we use the framework of effective field theory to couple Einstein’s gravity to scalar electrodynamics and determine the renormalization of the model through the study of physical processes below Planck scale, a realm where quantum mechanics and general relativity are perfectly compatible. We consider the effective field theory up to dimension six operators, corresponding to processes involving one-graviton exchange. Studying the renormalization group functions, we see that the beta function of the electric charge is positive and possesses no contribution coming from gravitational interaction. Our result indicates that gravitational corrections do not alter the running behavior of the gauge coupling constants, even if massive particles are present.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuntz, J.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Bourliot, F.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-01
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory’s kinetic index parameter nae can differ significantly from its ΛCDM value.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-15
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, Subhajit
2004-01-01
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.
Singular boundary method for global gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunderlik, Robert
2014-05-01
The singular boundary method (SBM) and method of fundamental solutions (MFS) are meshless boundary collocation techniques that use the fundamental solution of a governing partial differential equation (e.g. the Laplace equation) as their basis functions. They have been developed to avoid singular numerical integration as well as mesh generation in the traditional boundary element method (BEM). SBM have been proposed to overcome a main drawback of MFS - its controversial fictitious boundary outside the domain. The key idea of SBM is to introduce a concept of the origin intensity factors that isolate singularities of the fundamental solution and its derivatives using some appropriate regularization techniques. Consequently, the source points can be placed directly on the real boundary and coincide with the collocation nodes. In this study we deal with SBM applied for high-resolution global gravity field modelling. The first numerical experiment presents a numerical solution to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem. The achieved results are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by MFS or the direct BEM indicating efficiency of all methods. In the second numerical experiments, SBM is used to derive the geopotential and its first derivatives from the Tzz components of the gravity disturbing tensor observed by the GOCE satellite mission. A determination of the origin intensity factors allows to evaluate the disturbing potential and gravity disturbances directly on the Earth's surface where the source points are located. To achieve high-resolution numerical solutions, the large-scale parallel computations are performed on the cluster with 1TB of the distributed memory and an iterative elimination of far zones' contributions is applied.
GRAIL - A Microwave Ranging Instrument to Map Out the Lunar Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enzer, Daphna G.; Wang, Rabi T.; Klipstein, William M.
2010-01-01
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, is a NASA mission to map out the gravity field of the moon to an unprecedented level of detail. The instrument for this mission is based on GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), an earth-orbiting mission currently mapping out the gravity field of the earth. This paper will describe the similarities and differences between these two instruments with a focus on the microwave ranging measurements used to determine the gravity parameters and the testbed built at Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate micron level ranging capability. The onboard ultrastable oscillator and RF instruments will be described and noise contributions discussed.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created by relativistic pair jets are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission in relativistic pair jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Recent simulations show that the Weibel instability created by relativistic pair jets is responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. The Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. This instability is also responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The jitter radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Measurements of the Lunar Gravity Field using a Relay Subsatellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namiki, Noriyuki; Hanada, H.; Kawano, N.; Heki, K.; Iwata, T.; Ogawa, M.; Takano, T.
1998-01-01
Estimating spherical harmonic coefficients of the lunar gravity field has been a focus in selenodesy since the late 1960s when Doppler tracking data from lunar orbiters were first analyzed. Early analyses were limited by the low degree and order of the spherical harmonic solutions, mostly due to the slow speed and low memory of the then-available computers. However, rapid development of the computational ability has increased the resolution of the lunar gravity models significantly. Doppler tracking data from lunar orbiters 1-5 and Apollo subsatellites up to degree and order 60 (Lun60d) have been analyzed. Further, the tracking data from the Clementine spacecraft launched in 1994 has been incorporated, and a model complete to degree and order 70 (GLGM-2) has been developed. These high-resolution gravity models have been used for studies of internal structure and tectonics of the Moon. Interestingly, Lun60d and GLGM-2 show significant differences in the spherical harmonic coefficients for degree greater than 20. Because the semimajor axis of Clementine's orbit is nearly twice as large as the radius of the Moon, the contribution of the new tracking data is prevailed in the low-degree field. Methodologically, the differences in the high-degree field arise from the different weighting of the tracking data and gravity model, but, in principle, these are caused by a lack of tracking data over the farside. While the current Lunar Prospector mission is expected to improve the spatial resolution over the mid- to high-latitude regions of the nearside significantly, the absence of Doppler tracking data over the farside remains unresolved. To complete the coverage of tracking over the farside, we are developing a satellite-to-satellite (four-way) Doppler tracking experiment in SELENE (the SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) project of Japan. Outline of the Mission: The SELENE is a joint project by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the Institute of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.
The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes-Fulford, Millie
1999-01-01
Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.
2010-01-01
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation, which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. We will present detailed spectra for conditions relevant of various astrophysical sites of shock formation via the Weibel instability. In particular we will discuss the application to GRBs and SNRs
Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu
2013-08-01
We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.
Performance of FFT methods in local gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, Rene; Solheim, Dag
1989-01-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods provide a fast and efficient means of processing large amounts of gravity or geoid data in local gravity field modelling. The FFT methods, however, has a number of theoretical and practical limitations, especially the use of flat-earth approximation, and the requirements for gridded data. In spite of this the method often yields excellent results in practice when compared to other more rigorous (and computationally expensive) methods, such as least-squares collocation. The good performance of the FFT methods illustrate that the theoretical approximations are offset by the capability of taking into account more data in larger areas, especially important for geoid predictions. For best results good data gridding algorithms are essential. In practice truncated collocation approaches may be used. For large areas at high latitudes the gridding must be done using suitable map projections such as UTM, to avoid trivial errors caused by the meridian convergence. The FFT methods are compared to ground truth data in New Mexico (xi, eta from delta g), Scandinavia (N from delta g, the geoid fits to 15 cm over 2000 km), and areas of the Atlantic (delta g from satellite altimetry using Wiener filtering). In all cases the FFT methods yields results comparable or superior to other methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Sol, Hélène; Mutel, Robert L.
1998-05-01
We discuss the structure and relativistic kinematics that develop in three spatial dimensions when a moderately hot, supersonic jet propagates into a denser background medium and encounters resistance from an oblique magnetic field. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (1) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (2) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy, and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in three-dimensional space rather than as a two-dimensional slab structure. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging, since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized--but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.
Twisting space-time: relativistic origin of seed magnetic field and vorticity.
Mahajan, S M; Yoshida, Z
2010-08-27
We demonstrate that a purely ideal mechanism, originating in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity, can break the topological constraint (leading to helicity conservation) that would forbid the emergence of a magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. The new mechanism, arising from the interaction between the inhomogeneous flow fields and inhomogeneous entropy, is universal and can provide a finite seed even for mildly relativistic flows. PMID:20868171
Electromagnetic field evolution in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Voronyuk, V.; Toneev, V. D.; Cassing, W.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voloshin, S. A.
2011-05-15
The hadron string dynamics (HSD) model is generalized to include the creation and evolution of retarded electromagnetic fields as well as the influence of the magnetic and electric fields on the quasiparticle propagation. The time-space structure of the fields is analyzed in detail for noncentral Au + Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. It is shown that the created magnetic field is highly inhomogeneous, but in the central region of the overlapping nuclei it changes relatively weakly in the transverse direction. For the impact parameter b=10 fm, the maximal magnetic field - perpendicularly to the reaction plane - is obtained of order eB{sub y}/m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}{approx}5 for a very short time {approx}0.2 fm/c, which roughly corresponds to the time of a maximal overlap of the colliding nuclei. We find that at any time, the location of the maximum in the eB{sub y} distribution correlates with that of the energy density of the created particles. In contrast, the electric field distribution, being also highly inhomogeneous, has a minimum in the center of the overlap region. Furthermore, the field characteristics are presented as a function of the collision energy and the centrality of the collisions. To explore the effect of the back reaction of the fields on hadronic observables, a comparison of HSD results with and without fields is exemplified. Our actual calculations show no noticeable influence of the electromagnetic fields--created in heavy-ion collisions--on the effect of the electric charge separation with respect to the reaction plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.; Koronovskii, A. A.
2013-07-01
The study of the output power of the electromagnetic radiation of the relativistic electron beam (REB) with virtual cathode in the presence of external magnetic field has been found out. The typical dependencies of the output microwave power of the vircator versus external magnetic field have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the power of vircator demonstrates several maxima with external magnetic field growth. The characteristic features of the power behavior are determined by the conditions of the virtual cathode formation in the presence of the external transversal magnetic field and the REB self-magnetic fields.
Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028
2013-07-22
The study of the output power of the electromagnetic radiation of the relativistic electron beam (REB) with virtual cathode in the presence of external magnetic field has been found out. The typical dependencies of the output microwave power of the vircator versus external magnetic field have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the power of vircator demonstrates several maxima with external magnetic field growth. The characteristic features of the power behavior are determined by the conditions of the virtual cathode formation in the presence of the external transversal magnetic field and the REB self-magnetic fields.
Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel
I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax
2001-12-12
The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.
Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.
Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K
2010-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations. PMID:21231152
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K. I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating into an ambient plasma. We find that the growth times depend on the Lorenz factors of jets. The jets with larger Lorenz factors grow slower. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The small scale magnetic field structure generated by the Weibel instability is appropriate to the generation of "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons (positrons) as opposed to synchrotron radiation. The jitter radiation resulting from small scale magnetic field structures may be important for understanding the complex time structure and spectral evolution observed in gamma-ray bursts or other astrophysical sources containing relativistic jets and relativistic collisionless shocks.
New space missions for mapping the Earth's gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balmino, Georges
The knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth and of an associated reference surface of altitudes (the geoid) is necessary for geodesy, for improving theories of the physics of the planet interior and for modeling the ocean circulation in absolute. This knowledge comes from several observing techniques but, although it benefited from the artificial satellite approach, it remains incomplete and erroneous in places. Within a reasonable future, a substantial improvement can only come from new space techniques. Thanks to the intense lobbying by the concerned geoscientists, the coming decade will see the advent of three techniques already proposed in the seventies and to be implemented by different space agencies; these are the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions.
Cosmology from group field theory formalism for quantum gravity.
Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2013-07-19
We identify a class of condensate states in the group field theory (GFT) formulation of quantum gravity that can be interpreted as macroscopic homogeneous spatial geometries. We then extract the dynamics of such condensate states directly from the fundamental quantum GFT dynamics, following the procedure used in ordinary quantum fluids. The effective dynamics is a nonlinear and nonlocal extension of quantum cosmology. We also show that any GFT model with a kinetic term of Laplacian type gives rise, in a semiclassical (WKB) approximation and in the isotropic case, to a modified Friedmann equation. This is the first concrete, general procedure for extracting an effective cosmological dynamics directly from a fundamental theory of quantum geometry. PMID:23909305
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2016-02-01
We analyze a spin precession of slow neutrons in the Einstein-Cartan gravity with torsion, chameleon and magnetic field. For the derivation of the Heisenberg equation of motion of the neutron spin we use the effective low-energy potential, derived by Ivanov and Wellenzohn [Phys. Rev. D 92, 125004 (2015)] for slow neutrons, coupled to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields to order 1 /m , where m is the neutron mass. In addition to these low-energy interactions we switch on the interaction of slow neutrons with a magnetic field. We show that to linear order approximation with respect to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields the Dirac Hamilton operator for fermions (neutrons), moving in spacetimes created by rotating coordinate systems, contains the anti-Hermitian operators of torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions, caused by torsion scalar and tensor space-space-time and time-space-space degrees of freedom. Such anti-Hermitian operators violate C P and T invariance. In the low-energy approximation the C P and T violating torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions appear only to order O (1 /m ). One may assume that in the rotating Universe and galaxies the obtained anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions might be an origin of (i) violation of C P and T invariance in the Universe and (ii) of baryon asymmetry. We show that anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions of relativistic fermions, violating C P and T invariance, (i) cannot be removed by nonunitary transformations of the Dirac fermion wave functions and (ii) are conformal invariant. According to general requirements of conformal invariance of massive particle theories in gravitational fields [see R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 125, 2163 (1962) and A. J. Silenko, Phys. Rev. D 91, 065012 (2015)], conformal invariance of anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions is valid only if the fermion mass is changed by a conformal factor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.
2014-05-01
Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.
Stochastic Motion of Relativistic Particles in the Field of a Wide Wave Packet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagornykh, E.; Tel'nikhin, A.
2003-06-01
Stochastic motion of relativistic particles in the field of a wave packet propagating under an angle to the external magnetic field are investigated. The interplay of the dynamical and statistical aspects of the behavior of the relativistic particle-potential wave packet system is considered. Dynamics of this system are described by nonlinear mapping and corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation in phase space possesses canonical Hamiltonian structure. The following general problems of stochastic motion are disscussed: local instability and the Lyapunov exponents and the Kolmogorov entropy; a fractal structures and its dimension; bifurcations of a vector fields and the boundaries of the region of dynamical chaos. The results of numerical simulation are presented. A possible astrophysical application of the results obtained is discussed.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Relativistic Electron Vortex Beams in a Laser Field.
Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree
2015-11-01
The orbital angular momentum Hall effect and the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams (EVBs) have been studied for the EVBs interacting with a laser field. In the scenario of a paraxial beam, the cumulative effect of the orbit-orbit interaction of EVBs and laser fields drives the orbital Hall effect, which in turn produces a shift of the center of the beam from that of the field-free case towards the polarization axis of the photons. In addition, for nonparaxial beams one can also perceive a similar shift of the center of the beam owing to the spin Hall effect involving spin-orbit interaction. Our analysis suggests that the shift in the paraxial beams will always be larger than that in the nonparaxial beams. PMID:26588389
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hidaka, Jun; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Kuroda, Takami; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ryu, Chung-Yeol; Mathews, Grant J.
2014-05-02
We calculate the neutrino production cross-section in the proto-neutron-star matter under a strong magnetic field in the relativistic mean-field approach. We introduce a new parameter-set which can reproduce the 1.96 solar mass neutron star. We find that the production process increases emitted neutrinos along the direction parallel to the magnetic field and decrease those along its opposite direction. It means that resultant asymmetry due to the neutrino absorption and scattering process in the magnetic field becomes larger by the addition of the neutrino production process.
Propagation of acoustic pulses in random gravity wave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; de La Camara, Alvaro; Lott, François
2015-11-01
A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the normal mode method. The wave mode structure is determined by a sound speed profile that is confining. The environmental uncertainty is described by a stochastic field obtained with a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves (GW). Using the propagating modes of the unperturbed atmosphere, the wave propagation problem is reduced to solving a system of ordinary differential equations. We focus on the asymptotic behavior of the transmitted waves in the weakly heterogeneous regime. In this regime, the coupling between the acoustic pulse and the randomly perturbed waveguides is weak and the propagation distance must be large enough for the wave to experience significant scattering. A general expression for the pressure far-field is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. We present preliminary results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to some eigenvalues and how an ``optimal'' GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. The present model is used to explain the variability of infrasound signals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.; Hardee, P. E.; Richardson, G. A.; Preece, R. D.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2003-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
An Exact Solution of Einstein-Maxwell Gravity Coupled to a Scalar Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turyshev, S. G.
1995-01-01
The general solution to low-energy string theory representing static spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity with a massless scalar field has been found. Some of the partial cases appear to coincide with known solutions to black holes, naked singularities, and gravity and electromagnetic fields.
Estimation of the Earth's gravity field by combining normal equation matrices from GRACE and SLR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberkorn, Christoph; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Bouman, Johannes
2014-05-01
Since 2002, GRACE observes the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution up to 150 km. The main goal of this mission is the determination of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field to detect mass displacements. The GRACE mission consists of two identical satellites, which observe the range along the line of sight of both satellites. GRACE observations can be linked with the Earth's gravitational potential, which is expressed in terms of spherical harmonics for global solutions. However, the estimation of low degree coefficients is difficult with GRACE. In contrast to gravity field missions, which observe the gravity field with high spectral resolution, SLR data allow to estimate the lower degree coefficients. Therefore, the coefficient C20 is often replaced by a value derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). Instead of replacing C20, it can be determined consistently by a combined estimation using GRACE and SLR data. We compute monthly normal equation (NEQ) matrices for GRACE and SLR. Coefficients from monthly GRACE gravity field models of different institutions (Center for Space Research (CSR), USA, Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Germany and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), USA) and coefficients from monthly gravity field models of our SLR processing are then combined using the NEQ matrices from both techniques. We will evaluate several test scenarios with gravity field models from different institutions and with different set ups for the SLR NEQ matrices. The effect of the combination on the estimated gravity field will be analysed and presented.
The nucleon and Delta-resonance masses in relativistic chiral effective-field theory
V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen
2005-11-28
We study the chiral behavior of the nucleon and De-isobar masses within a manifestly covariant chiral effective-field theory, consistent with the analyticity principle. We compute the {pi} N and {pi}{Delta} one-loop contributions to the mass and field-normalization constant, and find that they can be described in terms of universal relativistic loop functions, multiplied by appropriate spin, isospin and coupling constants. We show that these relativistic one-loop corrections, when properly renormalized, obey the chiral power-counting and vanish in the chiral limit. The results including only the {pi} N-loop corrections compare favorably with the lattice QCD data for the pion-mass dependence of the nucleon and De masses, while inclusion of the {pi}/De loops tends to spoil this agreement.
Neutron-skin thickness of finite nuclei in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits
Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen
2007-11-15
We study several structure properties of finite nuclei using relativistic mean-field Lagrangians constructed according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. The models are consistent with current experimental constraints for the equations of state of symmetric matter at both normal and supranormal densities and of asymmetric matter at subsaturation densities. It is shown that these models can successfully describe the binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei. Compared to calculations with usual relativistic mean-field models, these models give a reduced thickness of neutron skin in {sup 208}Pb between 0.17 fm and 0.21 fm. The reduction of the predicted neutron skin thickness is found to be due to not only the softening of the symmetry energy but also the scaling property of {rho} meson required by the partial restoration of chiral symmetry.
Future missions for observing Earth's changing gravity field: a closed-loop simulation tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, P. N.
2008-12-01
The GRACE mission has successfully demonstrated the observation from space of the changing Earth's gravity field at length and time scales of typically 1000 km and 10-30 days, respectively. Many scientific communities strongly advertise the need for continuity of observing Earth's gravity field from space. Moreover, a strong interest is being expressed to have gravity missions that allow a more detailed sampling of the Earth's gravity field both in time and in space. Designing a gravity field mission for the future is a complicated process that involves making many trade-offs, such as trade-offs between spatial, temporal resolution and financial budget. Moreover, it involves the optimization of many parameters, such as orbital parameters (height, inclination), distinction between which gravity sources to observe or correct for (for example are gravity changes due to ocean currents a nuisance or a signal to be retrieved?), observation techniques (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry, accelerometers), and satellite control systems (drag-free?). A comprehensive tool has been developed and implemented that allows the closed-loop simulation of gravity field retrievals for different satellite mission scenarios. This paper provides a description of this tool. Moreover, its capabilities are demonstrated by a few case studies. Acknowledgments. The research that is being done with the closed-loop simulation tool is partially funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). An important component of the tool is the GEODYN software, kindly provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
Axial translation of field-reversing relativistic electron rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rej, D. J.
1981-08-01
As a consequence of experiments: (1) rings were generated for the first time in a low pressure ambient neutral gas (-10 mTorr H1 and D2), increasing their collisionally limited field-reversal times to over 1 millisecond or more than five times over that previously observed; (2) the first experimental test of adiabatic magnetic compression resulted in greater than factor of ten increases in the ring kinetic energy densities; and (3) two axially separted nonfield-reversed rings, generated from a single accelerator pulse, were successfully combined or stacked to form one field-reversed ring. A quantitative analysis of the translation data is made using retarding force calculations. The rings moved axially at the terminal speed associated with a balance between the accelerating and retarding forces. Conditions were found where the major contribution to the retarding force was due to either the resistive wall or plasma currents. The wall (plasma) force dominated when the rings were moved through the low (high) pressure background gas and inside of the higher (lower) conductivity wall.
Correcting for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the static gravity field in northwestern Europe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, Bart; van der Wal, Wouter; Ebbing, Jörg; Novák, Pavel; Vermeersen, Bert
2014-05-01
Around 20,000 years ago, large ice sheets covered the surface of the Earth. In the late-Pleistocene large parts of these ice sheets melted, causing the crustal surface of Earth to relax. This process is called Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and can be observed by sea level indicators, GPS uplift rates, and gravity changes. Several studies have tried to observe GIA in the static gravity field; however, they used simplistic models for the lithosphere. This study has two aims: i) to find out if it is possible to retrieve the GIA gravity signal with current knowledge of the density distribution of the lithosphere and ii) to see what the effect is on geophysical models that are constrained by gravity after correcting for the GIA gravity signal. To remove lithospheric density anomalies from the static gravity field, a spherical harmonic forward gravity field model is used, which calculates the gravity signal of a layered Earth. We found that is not possible to separate the GIA gravity effect from the uncertain density anomalies and boundary geometries in the crust and upper mantle. Therefore, we propose to correct the static gravity field with results from a numerical GIA model. Unknown upper mantle and lower mantle viscosities in such a model are estimated using local GIA observations, and using the global ice loading model history, ICE-5G. The best fitting models produce a free-air gravity anomaly of -28.4 +/-1.5 mGal (peak) and a remaining uplift of 240 m. When gravity observations and topography are corrected for GIA in geophysical modeling, this results in significant changes in the geometry or density of lithospheric structures, up to 30 km for a lithospheric model in Fennoscandia. The correction will also have an impact on the understanding of density anomalies of the lithosphere in other areas where GIA gravity anomalies are significant, such as North America, Greenland, and Antarctica.
Dynamical gap generation in graphene nanoribbons: An effective relativistic field theoretical model
Chaves, A. J.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.; Lima, G. D.; Cordeiro, C. E.; Delfino, A.
2011-04-15
We show that the assumption of a nontrivial zero band gap for a graphene sheet within an effective relativistic field theoretical model description of interacting Dirac electrons on the surface of graphene describes the experimental band gap of graphene nanoribbons for a wide range of widths. The graphene band gap is dynamically generated, corresponding to a nontrivial gapless solution, found in the limit of an infinitely wide graphene ribbon. The nanoribbon band gap is determined by the experimental graphene work function.
On parasupersymmetric oscillators and relativistic vector mesons in constant magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debergh, Nathalie; Beckers, Jules
1995-01-01
Johnson-Lippmann considerations on oscillators and their connection with the minimal coupling schemes are visited in order to introduce a new Sakata-Taketani equation describing vector mesons in interaction with a constant magnetic field. This new proposal, based on a specific parasupersymmetric oscillator-like system, is characterized by real energies as opposed to previously pointed out relativistic equations corresponding to this interacting context.
Self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam in plasma wake field excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhter, T.; Fedele, R.; Nicola, S. De; Tanjia, F.; Jovanović, D.; Mannan, A.
2016-09-01
The self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam is provided within the context of the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The self-consistent description of the beam dynamics is provided by coupling the Vlasov equation with a Poisson-type equation relating the plasma wake potential to the beam density. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are discussed thereby.
Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus {sup 105}Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach
Li Jian; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.
2011-03-15
Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in {sup 105}Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M{chi}D) phenomenon. The existence of the M{chi}D phenomenon in {sup 105}Rh is highly expected.
Gravity capillary waves in fluid layers under normal electric fields.
Papageorgiou, Demetrios T; Petropoulos, Peter G; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc
2005-11-01
We study the formation and dynamics of interfacial waves on a perfect dielectric ideal fluid layer of finite depth, wetting a solid wall, when the region above the fluid is hydrodynamically passive but has constant permittivity, for example, air. The wall is held at a constant electric potential and a second electrode having a different potential is placed parallel to the wall and infinitely far from it. In the unperturbed state the interface is flat and the normal horizontally uniform electric field is piecewise constant in the liquid and air. We derive a system of long wave nonlinear evolution equations valid for interfacial amplitudes as large as the unperturbed layer depth and which retain gravity, surface tension and electric field effects. It is shown that for given physical parameters there exists a critical value of the voltage potential difference between electrodes, below which the system is dispersive and above which a band of unstable waves is possible centered around a finite wavenumber. In the former case nonlinear traveling waves are calculated and their stability is studied, while in the latter case the instability leads to thinning of the layer with the interface touching down in finite time. A similarity solution of the second kind is found to be dominant near the singularity, and the scaling exponents are determined using analysis and computations. PMID:16383611
Electro-optic Measurement of the Wake Fields of a Relativistic Electron Beam
Fitch, M. J.; Melissinos, A. C.; Colestock, P. L.; Carneiro, J.-P.; Edwards, H. T.; Hartung, W. H.
2001-07-16
When a relativistic electron bunch traverses a structure, strong electromagnetic fields are induced in its wake. For a 12 nC bunch of duration 4.2ps FWHM, the peak field is measured >0.5 MV/m . Time resolution of {approx}5 ps is achieved using electro-optic sampling with a lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) crystal and a short-pulse infrared laser synchronized to the beam. We present measurements for both the longitudinal and radial components of the field and relate them to the wall impedance.
Time-dependent scalar fields in modified gravities in a stationary spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yi; Gu, Bao-Ming; Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-07-01
Most no-hair theorems involve the assumption that the scalar field is independent of time. Recently in Graham and Jha (Phys. Rev. D90: 041501, 2014) the existence of time-dependent scalar hair outside a stationary black hole in general relativity was ruled out. We generalize this work to modified gravities and non-minimally coupled scalar field with the additional assumption that the spacetime is axisymmetric. It is shown that in higher-order gravity such as metric f( R) gravity the time-dependent scalar hair does not exist. In Palatini f( R) gravity and the non-minimally coupled case the time-dependent scalar hair may exist.
The GEM (Gravity-Electro-Magnetism) Theory of Field Unification: Experimental Progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, J. E.
2006-01-01
Experimental progress on the GEM (Gravity-Electro-Magnetism) unification theory is summarized as applied to human flight and dynamically modified gravity fields and waves. A VBE (``Vacuum Bernoulli Equation'') is derived. This shows Gravitational energy density to be equated to an EM dynamic pressure that is quadratic in the local Poynting Flux: g2/(2π G) + S2/(c2 L)= Constant, where g and S are the local gravity and Poynting vector magnitudes, respectively, and where L is the Lagrangian density of the vacuum EM field. The VBE can be used to understand anomalous weight loss reported in gyroscope experiments and to understand possible gravity modification for human flight. The GEM gravity modification theory is extended to predict a VHE (Vacuum Hall Effect). Methods for creating dynamic gravity fields via VHE for production and detection of high frequency gravity fields involve electric quadrapole fields normal to static magnetic fields. Earlier experiments at 400Hz had seen lifting effects, however, only when a certain field threshold was crossed. An experiment was performed using 60Hz three phase rotating fields but no effects were seen in low frequency fields thus it appears threshold effects in field intensity and frequency may have been seen.
Antimagnetic rotation in 108,110In with tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wu-Ji; Xu, Hai-Dan; Li, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hao; Ma, Ke-Yan; Yang, Dong; Lu, Jing-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jun
2016-08-01
Based on tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field theory within point-coupling interaction PC-PK1, the rotational structure and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for ΔI = 2 bands in 108,110In are studied. Tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations reproduce the experimental energy spectrum well and are in agreement with the experimental I ∼ ω plot, although the calculated spin overestimates the experimental values. In addition, the two-shears-like mechanism in candidate antimagnetic rotation bands is clearly illustrated and the contributions from two-shears-like orbits, neutron (gd) orbits above Z = 50 shell and Z = 50, N = 50 core are investigated microscopically. The predicted B(E2), dynamic moment of inertia ℑ(2), deformation parameters β and γ, and ℑ(2)/B(E2) ratios in tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations are discussed and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for the bands before and after alignment are shown. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205068, 11205069, 11405072, 11475072, 11547308) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2012M520667)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron)jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simulik, Volodimir
2016-01-01
The new relativistic equations of motion for the particles with arbitrary spin and nonzero mass have been introduced. The axiomatic level description of the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics of the arbitrary mass and spin has been given. The 64-dimensional ClR(0,6) algebra in terms of Dirac gamma matrices has been suggested. The link between the relativistic canonical quantum mechanics of the arbitrary spin and the covariant local field theory has been found. Different methods of the Dirac equation derivation have been reviewed. The manifestly covariant field equations for an arbitrary spin that follow from the quantum mechanical equations have been considered. The covariant local field theory equations for spin s = (1,1) particle-antiparticle doublet, spin s = (1,0,1,0) particle antiparticle multiplet, spin s = (3/2,3/2) particle-antiparticle doublet, spin s = (2,2) particle-antiparticle doublet, spin s = (2,0,2,0) particle-antiparticle multiplet and spin s = (2,1,2,1) particle-antiparticle multiplet have been introduced. The Maxwell-like equations for the boson with spin s = 1 and nonzero mass have been introduced as well.
Lee, H. C.; Jiang, T. F.
2010-11-15
We analytically solve the relativistic equation of motion for an electron in ion plasma channels and calculate the corresponding trajectory as well as the synchrotron radiation. The relativistic effect on a trajectory is strong, i.e., many high-order harmonic terms in the trajectory, when the ratio of the initial transverse velocity (v{sub x0}) to the longitudinal velocity (v{sub z0}) of the electron injected to ion plasma channels is high. Interestingly, these high-order harmonic terms result in a quite broad and intense radiation spectrum, especially at an oblique angle, in contrast to an earlier understanding. As the initial velocity ratio (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}) decreases, the relativistic effect becomes weak; only the first and second harmonic terms remain in the transverse and longitudinal trajectories, respectively, which coincides with the result of Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056505 (2002)]. Our formalism also allows the description of electron's trajectory in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Critical magnetic fields for cyclotron motions are figured out and compared with semiclassical results. The cyclotron motion leads to more high-order harmonic terms than the trajectory without magnetic fields and causes an immensely broad spectrum with vastly large radiation amplitude for high initial velocity ratios (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}). The radiation from hard x-ray to gamma-ray regions can be generated with a broad radiation angle, thus available for applications.
Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xilin; Prakash, Madappa
2016-05-01
Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in the study of core-collapse supernovae, young and old neutron stars, and mergers of compact binary stars. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for cold and β -equilibrated neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a 2 M⊙ neutron star required by recent precise determinations. In addition, radii of 1.4 M⊙ stars are smaller by ˜1 km than those obtained in MFT and lie in the range indicated by analysis of astronomical data. In contrast to MFT, the TL results also give a better account of the single-particle or optical potentials extracted from analyses of medium-energy proton-nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. In degenerate conditions, the thermal variables are well reproduced by results of Landau's Fermi-liquid theory in which density-dependent effective masses feature prominently. The ratio of the thermal components of pressure and energy density expressed as Γth=1 +(Pth/ɛth) , often used in astrophysical simulations, exhibits a stronger dependence on density than on proton fraction and temperature in both MFT and TL calculations. The prominent peak of Γth at supranuclear density found in MFT is, however, suppressed in
Exact Relativistic Newtonian Representation of Gravitational static Spacetime Geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Sarkar, Tamal; Bhadra, Arunava
2016-09-01
We construct a self-consistent relativistic Newtonian analogue corresponding to gravitational static spherical symmetric spacetime geometries, starting directly from a generalized scalar relativistic gravitational action in a Newtonian framework, which gives geodesic equations of motion identical to those of the parent metric. Consequently, the derived velocity-dependent relativistic scalar potential, which is a relativistic generalization of the Newtonian gravitational potential, exactly reproduces the relativistic gravitational features corresponding to any static spherical symmetric spacetime geometry in its entirety, including all the experimentally tested gravitational effects in the weak field up to the present. This relativistic analogous potential is expected to be quite useful in studying a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, especially in strong field gravity.
Time-variable gravity fields derived from GPS tracking of Swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Klokočník, Jaroslav
2016-06-01
Since 2002 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides monthly gravity fields from K-band ranging (KBR) between two GRACE satellites. These KBR gravity monthlies have enabled the global observation of time-varying Earth mass signal at a regional scale (about 400 km resolution). Apart from KBR, monthly gravity solutions can be computed from onboard GPS data. The newly reprocessed GPS monthlies from 13 yr of GRACE data are shown to yield correct time-variable gravity signal (seasonality, trends, interannual variations) at a spatial resolution of 1300 km (harmonic degree 15). We show that GPS fields from new Swarm mission are of similar quality as GRACE GPS monthlies. Thus, Swarm GPS monthlies represent new and independent source of information on time-variable gravity, and, although with lower resolution and accuracy, they can be used for its monitoring, particularly if GRACE KBR/GPS data become unavailable before GRACE Follow-On is launched (2017 August).
Time-variable gravity fields derived from GPS tracking of Swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; da Encarnação, João Teixeira; Klokočník, Jaroslav
2016-03-01
Since 2002 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides monthly gravity fields from K-band ranging (KBR) between two GRACE satellites. These KBR gravity monthlies have enabled the global observation of time-varying Earth mass signal at a regional scale (about 400 km resolution). Apart from KBR, monthly gravity solutions can be computed from onboard GPS data. The newly reprocessed GPS monthlies from 13 years of GRACE data are shown to yield correct time-variable gravity signal (seasonality, trends, interannual variations) at a spatial resolution of 1300 km (harmonic degree 15). We show that GPS fields from new Swarm mission are of similar quality as GRACE GPS monthlies. Thus Swarm GPS monthlies represent new and independent source of information on time-variable gravity, and, although with lower resolution and accuracy, they can be used for its monitoring, particularly if GRACE KBR/GPS data becomes unavailable before GRACE Follow-On is launched (August 2017).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horwitz, Lawrence; Hu, Bei-Lok; Lee, Da-Shin; Gill, Tepper; Land, Martin
2011-12-01
relativity. The opening session of IARD 2010 was held jointly with the closing seesion of the RQI-N workshop on relativistic quantum information that took place from 28-30 May. This joint meeting emphasized the importance of including dynamical models in relativistic quantum information theory, and of utilizing the perspective of quantum information in extracting results with strong implications for application in relativistic dynamics. Topics discussed at the conference and reported in this volume included investigations into problems in general relativity, relations between quantum field theory, cosmology and, in its statistical aspects, to the extraction of classical attributes of macroscopic quantum systems. There was also a very fundamental study by David R Finkelstein, of the stucture of spacetime itself, posing the possibility that the spacetime manifold emerges from an underlying quantum complex, composed of simplices with spin 1/2 and Fermi statistics, resulting in the regularization of the Standard Model and perhaps a regularized structure for quantum gravity. H T Cho and B L Hu study the vacuum expectation value of the stress energy tensor of a minimally coupled massless scalar field and its role as a source in the Einstein-Langevin equations of quantum gravity, governing the induced metric of fluctuations above the mean field dynamics of the semiclassical theory. C H Chou, B L Hu and Y Subasi study macroscopic quantum phenomena from the point of view of correlations, coupling and criticality, and explain how a macroscopic quantum system may, in this way, acquire classical attributes but still retain some quantum features. S Y Lin discusses a connection with quantum information science as one of the consequences of his work on local projective measurements on relativistic fields. In the field of cosmology, F H Ho and J M Nester study Poincaré gauge theory with a metric compatible connection to an independent dynamics associated with torsion and curvature. They
Ionization, photoelectron dynamics and elastic scattering in relativistic, ultra-strong field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Sui
Ultrastrong laser-matter interaction has direct bearing to next generation technologies including plasma acceleration, laser fusion and attosecond X-ray generation. The commonly known physics in strong field becomes different as one progress to ultrastrong field. The works presented in this dissertation theoretically study the influence of relativistic effect and magnetic component of the laser field on the ionization, photoelectron dynamics and elastic scattering processes. The influence of magnetic component (B laser) of circularly polarized (CP) ultrastrong fields (up to3 x 1022 W/cm2) on atomic bound state dynamics is investigated. The Poincare plots are used to find the changes in trajectory energies are on the order of a few percent for intensities up to1 x 1022 W/cm2. It is found that at intensities where ionization approaches 50% for the bound state, the small changes from Blaser of the circular polarized light can actually result in a several-fold decrease in ionization probability. The force on the bound electron exerted by the Lorentz force from B laser is perpendicular to the rotating plane of the circular polarized light, and this nature makes those trajectories which are aligned away from the minimum in the potential barrier stabilized against tunneling ionization. Our results provide a classical understanding for ionization in ultrastrong fields and indicate that relativistic effects in ultrastrong field ionization may most easily be seen with CP fields. The photoelectron energy spectra from elastic rescattering in ultrastrong laser fields (up to 2x1019 W/cm2) is studied by using a relativistic adaption of a semi-classical three-step recollision model. The Hartree-Fock scattering potentials are used in calculating the elastic rescattering for both hydrogenlike and noble gas species. It is found that there is a reduction in elastic rescattering for intensities beyond 6 x 1016 W/cm2 when the laser Lorentz deflection of the photoelectron exceeds its
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry
1993-01-01
Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almosallami, Azzam
2011-03-01
In this paper we derived the relativistic Quantized force, where the force given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper we defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the energy held by a body, and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently we introduce in section one Newton's second law as it is relativistic quantized, and in section two we introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation. At the end we shall generalize the Schwartzschild metric to describe the weak and strong gravitational field.
Recent results on modelling the spatial and temporal structure of the Earth's gravity field.
Moore, P; Zhang, Q; Alothman, A
2006-04-15
The Earth's gravity field plays a central role in sea-level change. In the simplest application a precise gravity field will enable oceanographers to capitalize fully on the altimetric datasets collected over the past decade or more by providing a geoid from which absolute sea-level topography can be recovered. However, the concept of a static gravity field is now redundant as we can observe temporal variability in the geoid due to mass redistribution in or on the total Earth system. Temporal variability, associated with interactions between the land, oceans and atmosphere, can be investigated through mass redistributions with, for example, flow of water from the land being balanced by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, as ocean transport is an important contributor to the mass redistribution the time varying gravity field can also be used to validate Global Ocean Circulation models. This paper will review the recent history of static and temporal gravity field recovery, from the 1980s to the present day. In particular, mention will be made of the role of satellite laser ranging and other space tracking techniques, satellite altimetry and in situ gravity which formed the basis of gravity field determination until the last few years. With the launch of Challenging Microsatellite Payload and Gravity and Circulation Experiment (GRACE) our knowledge of the spatial distribution of the Earth's gravity field is taking a leap forward. Furthermore, GRACE is now providing insight into temporal variability through 'monthly' gravity field solutions. Prior to this data we relied on satellite tracking, Global Positioning System and geophysical models to give us insight into the temporal variability. We will consider results from these methodologies and compare them to preliminary results from the GRACE mission. PMID:16537153
The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus.
Iess, L; Stevenson, D J; Parisi, M; Hemingway, D; Jacobson, R A; Lunine, J I; Nimmo, F; Armstrong, J W; Asmar, S W; Ducci, M; Tortora, P
2014-04-01
The small and active Saturnian moon Enceladus is one of the primary targets of the Cassini mission. We determined the quadrupole gravity field of Enceladus and its hemispherical asymmetry using Doppler data from three spacecraft flybys. Our results indicate the presence of a negative mass anomaly in the south-polar region, largely compensated by a positive subsurface anomaly compatible with the presence of a regional subsurface sea at depths of 30 to 40 kilometers and extending up to south latitudes of about 50°. The estimated values for the largest quadrupole harmonic coefficients (10(6)J2 = 5435.2 ± 34.9, 10(6)C22 = 1549.8 ± 15.6, 1σ) and their ratio (J2/C22 = 3.51 ± 0.05) indicate that the body deviates mildly from hydrostatic equilibrium. The moment of inertia is around 0.335MR(2), where M is the mass and R is the radius, suggesting a differentiated body with a low-density core. PMID:24700854
High field terahertz emission from relativistic laser-driven plasma wakefields
Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander
2015-10-15
We propose a method to generate high field terahertz (THz) radiation with peak strength of GV/cm level in the THz frequency gap range of 1–10 THz using a relativistic laser interaction with a gaseous plasma target. Due to the effect of local pump depletion, an initially Gaussian laser pulse undergoes leading edge erosion and eventually evolves to a state with leading edge being step function. Interacting with such a pulse, electrons gain transverse residual momentum and excite net transverse currents modulated by the relativistic plasma frequency. These currents give rise to the low frequency THz emission. We demonstrate this process with one and two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
Initial fields and instabilities in the classical model of relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Fukushima, Kenji
2007-08-15
Color Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a classical description of dense gluon matter at high energies. Using the McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model we calculate the initial energy density {epsilon}({tau}) in the early stage of the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision. Our analytical formula reproduces the quantitative results from lattice discretized simulations and leads to an estimate {epsilon}({tau}=0.1 fm)=40{approx}50 GeV{center_dot}fm{sup -3} in the (central) Au-Au collision at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We then formulate instabilities with respect to soft fluctuations that violate boost invariance inherent in hard CGC backgrounds. We find unstable modes arising, which are attributed to ensemble average over the initial CGC fields.
Initial fields and instabilities in the classical model of relativistic heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Kenji
2007-08-01
Color Glass Condensate (CGC) provides a classical description of dense gluon matter at high energies. Using the McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model we calculate the initial energy density ɛ(τ) in the early stage of the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision. Our analytical formula reproduces the quantitative results from lattice discretized simulations and leads to an estimate ɛ(τ=0.1fm)=40~50GeV·fm-3 in the (central) Au-Au collision at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We then formulate instabilities with respect to soft fluctuations that violate boost invariance inherent in hard CGC backgrounds. We find unstable modes arising, which are attributed to ensemble average over the initial CGC fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gienko, Elena; Kanushin, Vadim; Tolstikov, Alexander; Karpik, Alexander; Kosarev, Nikolay; Ganagina, Irina
2016-04-01
In 2015 in the research on the grant of the Russian science Foundation No. 14-27-00068 was experimentally confirmed the possibility of measuring the gravity potential difference on relativistic frequency shift of the mobile hydrogen standard CH1-1006 (relative frequency instability of the order 10E-14). Hydrogen frequency standard CH1-1006 was calibrated in the system of secondary standard WET 1-19 (SNIIM, Novosibirsk, Russia) and transported to the place of experiment (a distance of 550 km, the Russian Federation, Republic of Altai), where it moved between the measured points at a distance of 35 km with a height difference of 850 meters. To synchronize spatially separated standard CH1-1006 and secondary standard WET 1-19 was applied the method "CommonView", based on the processing results of pseudorange phase GNSS measurements at the point of placement hours. Changing the frequency standard CH1-1006, measured in the system of secondary standard WET 1-19 and associated with his movement between points and the change of gravitational potential, was equal to 7.98•10E-14. Evaluation of root-mean-square two-sample frequency deviation of the standard at the time interval of the experiment was equal to the value of 7.27•10E-15. To control the results of the frequency determination of the gravity potential difference between the points were made high precision gravimetric measurements with an error of 6 MkGal and GNSS measurements for the coordinate determinations in ITRF2008 with an accuracy of 2-5 cm. The difference between the results of the frequency determination of the gravity potential difference with control data from GNSS and gravimetric measurements was estimated 16% of the total value that corresponds to the error of frequency measurement in the experiment. The possibility of using a single moveable frequency standard to determine the gravity potential difference at spaced points using the method of "CommonView", without the use of optical communications
Generation of relativistic electrons and ultra-high magnetic field for fast ignition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shvets, Gennady; Fisch, Nathaniel
1997-11-01
Certain plasma processes would play a crutialal role during fast ignition (M. Tabak et. al., Phys. Plasmas 1,) 1626 (1994)., including the production of relativistic electrons in laser-matter interactions, the resulting generation of multi-megagauss magnetic fields, and the self-consistent effect on the relativistic electrons. We present an analytical model of fast electron generation by ``snow-plowing'' the plasma by an intense laser pulse and evaluate the electron beam current and energy. Since focused propagation of the electron beam is essential, and self-magnetic field can provide the required focusing, collisional and collisionless mechanisms of magnetic field penetration into the plasma are evaluated. Another mechanism of magnetic field generation is the inverse Faraday effect (IFE), whereby angular momentum is transfered from the ions to the electrons in the presence of circularly polarized laser. Implications of IFE to fast ignition are discussed. Another mechanism of B-field generation is the modification of electron-ion collisions in the presence of intense laser field. (G. Shvets and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 4,) 428 (1997).
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.
2011-01-01
Using our new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value as predicted by hydrodynamic compression. Behind the bow shock, in the jet shock, strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. In order to go beyond the standard synchrotron model used in astrophysical objects we have used PIC simulations and calculated radiation based on first principles. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the technique to calculate emission from electrons based on simulations with a small system. We obtain spectra which are consistent with those generated from electrons propagating in turbulent magnetic fields. This turbulent magnetic field is similar to the magnetic field generated at an early nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. A fully developed shock within a larger system may generate a jitter/synchrotron spectrum.
The mass, gravity field, and ephemeris of Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, John D.; Esposito, Pasquale B.; Lau, Eunice L.; Trager, Gayle B.; Colombo, Giuseppe
1987-01-01
In the present gravity analysis of Mariner 10/Deep Space Network radio Doppler and range data for Mercury encounters in March 1974 and March 1975, a combined least-squares fit to the Doppler data has determined two second-degree gravity harmonics that are referred to a 2439-km equatorial radius. It is noted that the 1-sigma error limits on the gravity results encompass the possibility that harmonics other than J2 and C22 significantly differ from zero. The Deep Space Network radio range data obtained with Mariner 10 are primarily applicable to such improvements of Mercury's ephemeris as the more precise determination of perihelion precession.
Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals.
Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O
2016-08-19
We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types. PMID:27588870
The delineation and interpretation of the earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, Bruce D.
1989-01-01
In an attempt to understand the mechanical interaction of a growing lithosphere containing fracture zones with small and large scale mantle convection, which gives rise to geoid anomalies in oceanic regions, a series of fluid dynamical experiments is in progress to investigate: (1) the influence of lithosphere structure, fluid depth and viscosity field on the onset, scale, and evolution of sublithospheric convection; (2) the role of this convection in determining the rate of growth of lithosphere, especially in light of the flattening of the lithosphere bathymetry and heat flow at late times; and (3) combining the results of both numerical and laboratory experiments to decide the dominate factors in producing geoid anomalies in oceanic regions through the thermo-mechanical interaction of the lithosphere and subjacent mantle. The clear existence of small scale convection associated with a downward propagating solidification front (i.e., the lithosphere) and a larger scale flow associated with a discontinuous upward heat flux (i.e., a fracture zone) has been shown. The flows exist simultaneously and each may have a significant role in deciding the thermal evolution of the lithosphere and in understanding the relation of shallow mantle convection to deep mantle convection. This overall process is reflected in the geoid, gravity, and topographic anomalies in the north-central Pacific. These highly correlated fields of intermediate wavelength (approx. 200 to 2000 km) show isostatic compensation by a thin lithosphere for shorter (less than or equal to approx. 500 km), but not the longer, wavelengths. The ultimate, dynamic origin of this class of anomalies is being investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, S. S.; Grugan, P. D.; Walker, B. C.
2015-03-01
Using a relativistic adaptation of a three-step recollision model we calculate photoelectron energy spectra for ionization with elastic scattering in ultrastrong laser fields up to 24 a.u. (2 ×1019 W/cm 2) . Hydrogenlike and noble gas species with Hartree-Fock scattering potentials show a reduction in elastic rescattering beyond 6 ×1016 W/cm 2 when the laser Lorentz deflection of the photoelectron exceeds its wave-function spread. A relativistic rescattering enhancement occurs at 2 ×1018 W/cm 2, commensurate with the relativistic motion of a classical electron in a single field cycle. The noble gas results are compared with available experiments. The theory approach is well suited to modeling scattering in the ultrastrong intensity regime that lies between traditional strong fields and extreme relativistic interactions.
Gravity Field Recovery from the Cartwheel Formation by the Semi-analytical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huishu; Reubelt, Tilo; Antoni, Markus; Sneeuw, Nico; Zhong, Min; Zhou, Zebing
2016-04-01
Past and current gravimetric satellite missions have contributed drastically to our knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Nevertheless, several geoscience disciplines push for even higher requirements on accuracy, homogeneity and time- and space-resolution of the Earth's gravity field. Apart from better instruments or new observables, alternative satellite formations could improve the signal and error structure. With respect to other methods, one significant advantage of the semi-analytical approach is its effective pre-mission error assessment for gravity field missions. The semi-analytical approach builds a linear analytical relationship between the Fourier spectrum of the observables and the spherical harmonic spectrum of the gravity field. The spectral link between observables and gravity field parameters is given by the transfer coefficients, which constitutes the observation model. In connection with a stochastic model, it can be used for pre-mission error assessment of gravity field mission. The cartwheel formation is formed by two satellites on elliptic orbits in the same plane. The time dependent ranging will be considered in the transfer coefficients via convolution including the series expansion of the eccentricity functions. The transfer coefficients are applied to assess the error patterns, which are caused by different orientation of the cartwheel for range-rate and range acceleration. This work will present the isotropy and magnitude of the formal errors of the gravity field coefficients, for different orientations of the cartwheel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Jared R.
The two hyperbolic systems of PDEs we consider in this work are the source-free Maxwell-Born-Infeld (MBI) field equations and the Euler-Nordstrom system for gravitationally self-interacting fluids. The former system plays a central role in Kiessling's recently proposed self-consistent model of classical electrodynamics with point charges, a model that does not suffer from the infinities found in the classical Maxwell-Maxwell model with point charges. The latter system is a scalar gravity caricature of the incredibly more complex Euler-Einstein system. The primary original contributions of the thesis can be summarized as follows: (1) We give a sharp non-local criterion for the formation of singularities in plane-symmetric solutions to the source-free MBI field equations. We also use a domain of dependence argument to show that 3-d initial data agreeing with certain plane-symmetric data on a large enough ball lead to solutions that form singularities in finite time. This work is an extension of a theorem of Brenier, who studied singularity formation in periodic plane-symmetric solutions. (2) We prove well-posedness for the Euler-Nordstrom system with a cosmological constant (ENkappa) for initial data that are an HN perturbation (not necessarily small) of a uniform, quiet fluid, for N ≥ 3. The method of proof relies on the framework of energy currents that has been recently developed by Christodoulou. We turn to this method out of necessity: two common frameworks for showing well-posedness in HN, namely symmetric hyperbolicity and strict hyperbolicity, do not apply to the ENkappa system, while Christodoulou's techniques apply to all hyperbolic systems derivable from a Lagrangian, of which the ENkappa system is an example. (3) We insert the speed of light c as a parameter into the ENkappa system (and designate the family of systems ENck ) in order to study the non-relativistic limit c to infinity. Taking the formal limit in the equations gives the Euler
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach - status report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jäggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Mervart, L.
2015-10-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory [1]) inherits its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment)mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data aquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth [2]. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we dis- cuss our latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese Software.
Notes on Translational and Rotational Properties of Tensor Fields in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvoeglazov, V. V.
Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We study the massless limits. In fact, a theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers of Ogievetskiĭ and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. Ogievetskiĭ and Polubarinov proposed the concept of the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. It appears to be possible to describe both photon and notoph degrees of freedom on the basis of the modified Bargmann-Wigner formalism for the symmetric second-rank spinor. Next, we proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism in a straightforward way. The symmetric multispinor of the fourth rank is used. Due to serious problems with the interpretation of the results obtained on using the standard procedure we generalize it and obtain the spin-2 relativistic equations, which are consistent with the general relativity. Thus, in fact we deduced the gravitational field equations from relativistic quantum mechanics. The relations of this theory with the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation and f(R) are discussed. Particular attention has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents in the electromagnetic theory, the relativistic theory of gravitation, the general relativity, and their generalizations. We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph, and we conclude that they can probably be seen in experiments in the next few years.
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegelich, B. Manuel
2011-10-01
A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of <20%, have been accelerated at up to ~500 MeV, demonstrating 3 out of 4 for key requirements for ion fast ignition. The shown results now approach or exceed the limits set by many applications from ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can
Combined absolute and relative gravity measurement for microgravity monitoring in Aso volcanic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Shin; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Fukuda, Yoichi
2014-05-01
Absolute measurement with a portable A10-017 absolute gravimeter at some benchmarks in the Aso volcanic field are valuable for reducing uncertainties of regional gravity variations and will be useful for delineating the long term trends of gravity changes. A10 absolute gravimeter is a new generation of portable absolute instrument and has accuracy 10 microGal. To further the development of a high precision gravity data, we also conducted measurement using two relative gravimeter (Scintrex CG-5 [549] and LaCoste type G-1016) to be combined with an A10 absolute gravimeter. The using absolute gravimeter along with relative gravimeter can reduce drift correction factor and improve the result of gravity change data in microgravity monitoring. Microgravity monitoring is a valued tool for mapping the redistribution of subsurface mass and for assessing changes in the fluid as a dynamic process in volcanic field. Gravity changes enable the characterization of subsurface processes: i.e., the mass of the intrusion or hydrothermal flow. A key assumption behind gravity monitoring is that changes in earth's gravity reflect mass-transport processes at depth [1]. The absolute gravity network was installed at seven benchmarks using on May 2010, which re-occupied in October 2010, and June 2011. The relative gravity measurements were performed at 28 benchmarks in one month before the eruption on May 2011 and then followed by series of gravity monitoring after the eruption in every three to five months. Gravity measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. Some gravity benchmarks were measured using both absolute and relative gravimeter and is used as the reference benchmarks. In longer time period, the combined gravity method will improve the result of gravity change data for monitoring in the Aso volcanic field. As a result, the gravity changes detected the hydrothermal flow in the subsurface which has a correlation to water level fluctuation in the
A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.
2015-02-01
A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.
Higher-order nonlocal effects of a relativistic ponderomotive force in high-intensity laser fields.
Iwata, Natsumi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2014-01-24
We have developed a new formula for a relativistic ponderomotive force of transversely localized laser fields based on the noncanonical Lie perturbation method by finding proper coordinates and gauges in the variational principle. The formula involves new terms represented by second and third spatial derivatives of the field amplitude, so that the ponderomotive force depends not only on the local field gradient, but also on the curvature and its variation. The formula is then applicable to a regime in which the conventional formula is hardly applied such that nonlocal and/or global extent of the field profile becomes important. The result can provide a theoretical basis for describing nonlinear laser-plasma interaction including such nonlocal effects, which is examined via particle-in-cell simulation of laser propagation in a plasma with a super Gaussian transverse field profile. PMID:24484146
Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan; Iacona, Estelle
2002-01-01
The objective of the research is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Situations were considered with both uniform and nonuniform electric fields. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized in terrestrial gravity as well as for several levels of reduced gravity (lunar, martian and microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angles at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment in an initially uniform electric field was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. The results of the study indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble behavior as well as shape, volume and dimensions.
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2009-01-01
Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation, which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. New spectra based on simulations will be presented.
Magnetic Field Generation, Particle Energization and Radiation at Relativistic Shear Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Spisak, Jake; Boettcher, Markus
2015-11-01
Recent large scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have demonstrated that in unmagnetized relativistic shear flows, strong transverse d.c. magnetic fields are generated and sustained by ion-dominated currents on the opposite sides of the shear interface. Instead of dissipating the shear flow free energy via turbulence formation and mixing as it is usually found in MHD simulations, the kinetic results show that the relativistic boundary layer stabilizes itself via the formation of a robust vacuum gap supported by a strong magnetic field, which effectively separates the opposing shear flows, as in a maglev train. Our new PIC simulations have extended the runs to many tens of light crossing times of the simulation box. Both the vacuum gap and supporting magnetic field remain intact. The electrons are energized to reach energy equipartition with the ions, with 10% of the total energy in electromagnetic fields. The dominant radiation mechanism is similar to that of a wiggler, due to oscillating electron orbits around the boundary layer.
In-depth Analysis and Evaluation of GSFC GRAIL Gravity Field Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012. Primary mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the GRAIL gravity field determination at GSFC. We especially focus on the Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data, and on the use of GRAIL gravity models on tracking data of other spacecraft. We also investigate to what extent the addition of other tracking data (especially Lunar Prospector data) can help to further enhance the lunar gravity field models. Since the orbit of the GRAIL spacecraft was not constant during the primary mission and sensibly elliptical at the beginning and end of the science phase (20 by 80 kilometers, in altitude above lunar surface), there are areas on the Moon where the spacecraft altitude was relatively low compared to the global average. This results in remaining signal in especially the KBRR data that is not necessarily captured by the global models expressed in spherical harmonics. We explore the performance of the GRAIL gravity field models over certain regions with low-altitude KBRR data, and we also investigate analysis methods to estimate local adjustments to the gravity field models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, S.; Klinger, B.; Baur, O.; Mayr-Guerr, T.
2015-10-01
We present an updated version of the lunar gravity field model GrazLGM300a,b [1,2] based on intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations collected by the GRAIL mission. We propose to exploit the ranging measurements by an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs [4].Compared to the predecessor model we increase the spectral resolution to degree and order 450 and refined the parameterization. Validation shows that the applied technique is well suited to recover the lunar gravity field.
Observation of self-sustaining relativistic ionization wave launched by a sheath field.
McCormick, M; Arefiev, A V; Quevedo, H J; Bengtson, R D; Ditmire, T
2014-01-31
We present experimental evidence supported by simulations of a relativistic ionization wave launched into a surrounding gas by the sheath field of a plasma filament with high energy electrons. Such a filament is created by irradiating a clustering gas jet with a short pulse laser (115 fs) at a peak intensity of 5×10(17) W/cm2. We observe an ionization wave propagating radially through the gas for about 2 ps at 0.2-0.5 c after the laser has passed, doubling the initial radius of the filament. The gas is ionized by the sheath field, while the longevity of the wave is explained by a moving field structure that traps the high energy electrons near the boundary, maintaining a strong sheath field despite the significant expansion of the plasma. PMID:24580461
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-06-01
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-06-01
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.
COOLING RATES FOR RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS UNDERGOING COMPTON SCATTERING IN STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS
Baring, Matthew G.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Gonthier, Peter L. E-mail: zw1@rice.edu
2011-05-20
For inner magnetospheric models of hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars, resonant Compton upscattering is anticipated to be the most efficient process for generating continuum radiation. This is in part due to the proximity of a hot soft photon bath from the stellar surface to putative radiation dissipation regions in the inner magnetosphere. Moreover, because the scattering process becomes resonant at the cyclotron frequency, the effective cross section exceeds the classical Thomson value by over two orders of magnitude, thereby enhancing the efficiency of continuum production and the cooling of relativistic electrons. This paper presents computations of the electron cooling rates for this process, which are needed for resonant Compton models of non-thermal radiation from such highly magnetized pulsars. The computed rates extend previous calculations of magnetic Thomson cooling to the domain of relativistic quantum effects, sampled near and above the quantum critical magnetic field of 44.13 TG. This is the first exposition of fully relativistic, quantum magnetic Compton cooling rates for electrons, and it employs both the traditional Johnson and Lippmann cross section and a newer Sokolov and Ternov (ST) formulation of Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields. Such ST formalism is formally correct for treating spin-dependent effects that are important in the cyclotron resonance and has not been addressed before in the context of cooling by Compton scattering. The QED effects are observed to profoundly lower the rates below extrapolations of the familiar magnetic Thomson results, as expected, when recoil and Klein-Nishina reductions become important.
Proton and neutron skins of light nuclei within the relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, L. S.; Toki, H.; Ozawa, A.; Meng, J.
2004-01-01
The relativistic mean field (RMF) theory is applied to the analysis of ground-state properties of Ne, Na, Cl and Ar isotopes. In particular, we study the recently established proton skin in Ar isotopes and neutron skin in Na isotopes as a function of the difference between the proton and the neutron separation energy. We use the TMA effective interaction in the RMF Lagrangian, and describe pairing correlation by the density-independent delta-function interaction. We calculate single neutron and proton separation energies, quadrupole deformations, nuclear matter radii and differences between proton radii and neutron radii, and compare these results with the recent experimental data.
Systematic study of Bh isotopes in a relativistic mean field formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, M. S.; Raj, B. K.; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.
2002-10-01
The binding energy, charge radius, and quadrupole deformation parameter for the isotopic chain of the superheavy element bohrium (107Bh), from proton to neutron drip line, are calculated by using an axially deformed relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces for some of the selected nuclei are plotted and the various possible shapes are investigated. The rms radii, density distributions, and two-neutron separation energies are also evaluated and the single-particle energies for some illustrative cases are analyzed to see the magic structures. Furthermore, the α-decay rates are calculated and compared with the available experimental data for the recently observed new isotopes 266,267Bh.
Improved gravity field of the moon from lunar prospector
Konopliv; Binder; Hood; Kucinskas; Sjogren; Williams
1998-09-01
An improved gravity model from Doppler tracking of the Lunar Prospector (LP) spacecraft reveals three new large mass concentrations (mascons) on the nearside of the moon beneath the impact basins Mare Humboltianum, Mendel-Ryberg, and Schiller-Zucchius, where the latter basin has no visible mare fill. Although there is no direct measurement of the lunar farside gravity, LP partially resolves four mascons in the large farside basins of Hertzsprung, Coulomb-Sarton, Freundlich-Sharonov, and Mare Moscoviense. The center of each of these basins contains a gravity maximum relative to the surrounding basin. The improved normalized polar moment of inertia (0.3932 +/- 0.0002) is consistent with an iron core with a radius of 220 to 450 kilometers. PMID:9727968
An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.
2016-08-01
The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.
Bubble Formation and Detachment in Reduced Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Chang, Shinan
2002-01-01
The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Both uniform and nonuniform electric field configurations were considered. Bubble formation and detachment were recorded and visualized in reduced gravity (corresponding to gravity levels on Mars, on the Moon as well as microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.
Thierry-Mieg, J.
1985-05-14
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity.
On axionic field ranges, loopholes and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo
2016-04-01
In this short note we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. We address in particular certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work [1]. We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. These new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.
Quantum speed limit for a relativistic electron in a uniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villamizar, D. V.; Duzzioni, E. I.
2015-10-01
We analyze the influence of relativistic effects on the minimum evolution time between two orthogonal states of a quantum system. Defining the initial state as a homogeneous superposition between two Hamiltonian eigenstates of an electron in a uniform magnetic field, we obtain a relation between the minimum evolution time and the displacement of the mean radial position of the electron wave packet. The quantum speed limit time is calculated for an electron dynamics described by Dirac and Schrödinger-Pauli equations considering different parameters, such as the strength of magnetic field and the linear momentum of the electron in the axial direction. We highlight that when the electron undergoes a region with extremely strong magnetic field the relativistic and nonrelativistic dynamics differ substantially, so that the description given by the Schrödinger-Pauli equation enables the electron to travel faster than c , which is prohibited by Einstein's theory of relativity. This approach allows a connection between the abstract Hilbert space and the space-time coordinates, besides the identification of the most appropriate quantum dynamics used to describe the electron motion.
Cremaschini, Claudio Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Tessarotto, Massimo
2014-03-15
The kinetic description of relativistic plasmas in the presence of time-varying and spatially non-uniform electromagnetic (EM) fields is a fundamental theoretical issue both in astrophysics and plasma physics. This refers, in particular, to the treatment of collisionless and strongly-magnetized plasmas in the presence of intense radiation sources. In this paper, the problem is investigated in the framework of a covariant gyrokinetic treatment for Vlasov–Maxwell equilibria. The existence of a new class of kinetic equilibria is pointed out, which occur for spatially-symmetric systems. These equilibria are shown to exist in the presence of non-uniform background EM fields and curved space-time. In the non-relativistic limit, this feature permits the determination of kinetic equilibria even for plasmas in which particle energy is not conserved due to the occurrence of explicitly time-dependent EM fields. Finally, absolute stability criteria are established which apply in the case of infinitesimal symmetric perturbations that can be either externally or internally produced.
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Oka, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2009-01-01
Plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code, we have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. The simulation has been performed using a long simulation system in order to study the nonlinear stages of the Weibel instability, the particle acceleration mechanism, and the shock structure. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic (HD) like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of <_ 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. We discuss the possible implication of our simulation results within the AGN and GRB context. We have calculated the time evolution of the spectrum from two electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. The same technique will be used to calculate radiation from accelerated electrons (positrons) in turbulent magnetic fields generated by Weibel instability.
ESA's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.
2004-12-01
The Earth's gravity field is the fundamental physical force for every dynamic process on its surface. With the Gravity Field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission as its first Earth Explorer core mission, the European Space Agency (ESA) is playing an important role in this `geopotential decade' by preparing for acquisition of a high quality, high spatial resolution gravity field and geoid for future scientific applications. GOCE combines an innovative new three-axis gravity gradiometer (EGG) instrument (comprising three x, y, z pairs of accelerometers with a baseline separation of 0.5 m) with a drag-compensating ion-propulsion system to measure for the first time the full gravity gradient tensor along its orbit at 250 km altitude. GOCE will carry a GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking navigation system for 3-dimensional positioning, star trackers for precise pointing knowledge, and a laser retroreflector for ground laser tracking. GOCE is specifically designed to make accurate and precise measurements of the stationary gravity field and gravity anomalies (to 1 mGal) at high spatial resolution (100 km). The data will facilitate the computation of a high spatial resolution (100 km) global geoid model to 1-2 cm accuracy. Applications of these products will be illustrated using examples in oceanography, solid-earth physics and geodesy. After a successful completion of the design consolidation phase, the construction phase for the GOCE satellite is presently underway, with an anticipated a launch in late 2006.
The 4th Release of GOCE Gravity Field Models - Overview and Performance Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, Thomas; Rummel, Reiner
2013-04-01
New GOCE gravity field models based on about 2 years of completely reprocessed gradiometer data have been recently released to the user community. They were obtained based on different processing strategies and reflect the state-of-the-art of GOCE gravity field models. With the improved gravity gradients resulting from a number of updates implemented in the level 1B processor and with the additional data set the performance of the resulting GOCE based models could be significantly improved as compared to the previous solutions. The paper provides an overview of the available GOCE models and presents the results of their validation by different means.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.
2014-04-01
This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].
A Schrödinger approach to Newton-Cartan and Hořava-Lifshitz gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, Hamid R.; Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Mehra, Aditya; Parekh, Pulastya; Rollier, Blaise
2016-04-01
We define a `non-relativistic conformal method', based on a Schrödinger algebra with critical exponent z = 2, as the non-relativistic version of the relativistic conformal method. An important ingredient of this method is the occurrence of a complex compensating scalar field that transforms under both scale and central charge transformations. We apply this non-relativistic method to derive the curved space Newton-Cartan gravity equations of motion with twistless torsion. Moreover, we reproduce z = 2 Hořava-Lifshitz gravity by classifying all possible Schrödinger invariant scalar field theories of a complex scalar up to second order in time derivatives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Finocchiaro, S.; Racioppa, P.
2013-12-01
be estimated to about 0.2 mGal for Jupiter (at latitudes between 10N and 30N) and 0.05 mGal for Saturn (between 10S and 10N). As a consequence of the large eccentricity of the orbits, the estimates degrade rapidly at latitudes outside these intervals. Tighter regularization constraints on the tesseral harmonics improve the overall estimate, calling for better theoretical upper limits on the non-zonal field. Both Juno and Cassini will be sensitive also to the time variable gravity field, controlled mostly by the Love number k2. Its expected uncertainty is about 0.002 for Juno, and an order of magnitude worse for Cassini. In addition to classical gravity perturbations, Juno measurements will be sensitive also to the relativistic Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. This effect, due to the massive and rapidly rotating Jupiter, results in an out of plane acceleration of the spacecraft that is proportional to the angular momentum of the planet. Assuming that general relativity is correct, the LT acceleration can be used to determine the unknown specific angular momentum of Jupiter (J/M), with a relative accuracy of about 2%. This measurement is not accessible to Cassini, due to the lower mass of the Saturn, the nearly edge-on orientation of the spacecraft orbital plane and the lower range rate accuracies.
Status of GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian; Bock, Heike; Mervart, Leos; Meyer, Ulrich; Bertone, Stefano
To determine the gravity field of the Moon, the NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory) inherits its concept from the Earth orbiting GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. The use of ultra-precise inter-satellite Ka-band ranging observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field with unprecedented resolution on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach. Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degrees n≤ 200, also arc- and satellite-specific parameters, like initial state vectors and pseudo-stochastic pulses, are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational accelerations, e.g., caused by solar radiation pressure. In addition, especially for the data of the primary mission phase, it is essential to estimate time bias parameters for the KBRR observations. We compare our results from the nominal mission phase with the official Level 2 gravity field models first released in October 2013. Our results demonstrate that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL or pre-SELENE gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced and constrained pseudo-stochastic pulses. Yet, the usage of preprocessed position data as pseudo observations is not fully satisfying and is potentially
Triyanta; Zen, F. P.; Supardi; Wardaya, A. Y.
2010-12-23
Gauge theory, under the framework of quantum field theory, has successfully described three fundamental interactions: electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. Problems of describing the gravitational interaction in a similar manner has not been satisfied yet until now. Teleparallel gravity (TG) is one proposal describing gravitational field as a gauge field. This theory is quite new and it is equivalent to Einstein's general relativity. But as gravitational field in TG is expressed by torsion, rather than curvature, it gives an alternative framework for solving problems on gravity. This paper will present solution of the dynamical equation of abelian vector fields under the framework of TG in the Bianchi type I spacetime.
Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Under the Influence of a Non-Uniform Electric Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Shinan; Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle
2002-01-01
The objective of the study reported in this paper is to investigate the effects of variable, reduced gravity on the formation and detachment behavior of individual air bubbles under the influence of a non-uniform electric field. For this purpose, variable gravity experiments were carried out in parabolic nights. The non-uniform electric field was generated by a spherical electrode and a plate electrode. The effect of the magnitude of the non-uniform electric field and gravity level on bubble formation, development and detachment at an orifice was investigated. An image processing code was developed that allows the measurement of bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment. The results of this research can be used to explore the possibility of enhancing boiling heat transfer in the variable and low gravity environments by substituting the buoyancy force with a force induced by the electric field. The results of experiments and measurements indicate that the level of gravity significantly affects bubble shape, size and frequency. The electric field magnitude also influences bubble detachment, however, its impact is not as profound as that of variable gravity for the range of electric field magnitudes investigated in the present study.
Relativistic mean-field model with energy dependent self-energies
Antic, S.; Typel, S.
2015-02-24
Conventional relativistic mean-field theory is extended with the introduction of higher-order derivative couplings of nucleons with the meson fields. The Euler-Lagrange equations follow from the principle of stationary action. From invariance principles of the Lagrangian density the most general expressions for the conserved current and energy-momentum tensor are derived. The nucleon self-energies show the explicit dependence on the meson fields. They contain additional regulator functions which describe the energy dependence. The density dependence of meson-nucleon couplings causes the apperance of additional rearrangement contributions in the self-energies. The equation of state of infinite nuclear matter is obtained and the thermodynamical consistency of the model is demonstrated. This model is applied to the description of spherical, non-rotating stars in β-equilibrium. Stellar structure is calculated by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations. The results for neutron stars are shown in terms of mass-radius relations.
Transverse conductivity of a relativistic plasma in oblique electric and magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco
1991-01-01
Resistive tearing in a primary candidate for flares occurring in stressed magnetic fields. Its possible application to the strongly magnetized environments (Hz about 10 to the 12th G) near the surface of neutron stars, particularly as a mechanism for generating the plasma heating and particle acceleration leading to gamma-ray bursts, has motivated a quantum treatment of this process, which requires knowledge of the electrical conductivity sigma of a relativistic gas in a new domain (i.e., that of a low-density n/e/) plasma in oblique electric and magnetic fields. This paper discusses the mathematical formalism for calculating sigma and present numerical results for a wide range of parameter values. The results indicate that sigma depends very strongly on both the applied electric and magnetic fields.
Simulation of a low magnetic field relativistic backward wave oscillator with single mode structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaoze; Song, Wei; Tan, Weibing; Zhang, Ligang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Hu, Xianggang; Shen, Zhiyuan; Ning, Qi; Liang, Xu
2016-02-01
A low magnetic field relativistic backward wave oscillator with single mode structure is presented. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that 1.25 GW output power with 37% efficiency is generated under 0.88 T. The mode purity of the output signal is high because higher modes are cut off by the structure. According to the analytical results, the influence of bombardment of electrons on the surface of the slow wave structures is minor. A modulation cavity is adopted to enhance beam-wave interaction and realize mechanical frequency tunability. The power capacity is increased though redistribution of electric field. The computational results indicate that the device with a single mode structure is a competitive candidate for devices working at low magnetic field especially for devices focused with permanent magnet.
Spin dynamics in relativistic ionization with highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Müller, Carsten; Bauke, Heiko; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.
2014-03-01
Spin dynamics and induced spin effects in above-threshold ionization of hydrogenlike highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields are investigated. Spin-resolved ionization rates in the tunnelling regime are calculated by employing two versions of a relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation (SFA). An intuitive simpleman model is developed which explains the derived scaling laws for spin flip and spin asymmetry effects. The intuitive model as well as our ab initio numerical simulations support the analytical results for the spin effects obtained in the dressed SFA where the impact of the laser field on the electron spin evolution in the bound state is taken into account. In contrast, the standard SFA is shown to fail in reproducing spin effects in ionization even at a qualitative level. The anticipated spin-effects are expected to be measurable with modern laser techniques combined with an ion storage facility.
The geoid: Definition and determination. [gravity field of the earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, R. H.
1975-01-01
The principles and problems relative to the determination of the geoid are outlined. Factors discussed include: gravity data requirements for a precise geoid; mean sea level; and satellite altimetry. It is indicated that geoid undulations can be determined on a global basis to plus or minus 3 m. Application of geoid information to oceanography and the determination of sea surface topography considered.
Latest Moon gravity field solutions from GRAIL data using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, Stefano; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos; Meyer, Ulrich
2016-04-01
The NASA mission GRAIL inherits its concept from the GRACE mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is leading to huge improvements in our understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss the latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese GNSS Software. We recently presented our solutions up to d/o 200, where KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) were used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are now replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field. Based on Doppler data, we perform orbit determination by solving six initial orbital elements, dynamical parameters, and stochastic parameters in daily arcs using least-squares adjustment. The pseudo-stochastic parameters are estimated to absorb deficiencies in our dynamical modeling (e.g. due to non-gravitational forces). Doppler and KBRR data are then used together with an appropriate weighting for a combined orbit determination process. We present our latest results in the orbit determination of GRAIL over the primary mission phase (PM, March-May 2012) and our first lunar gravity fields based on Doppler and KBRR observations. We compare all of our results from the PM with the most recent lunar gravity field models released by other groups, as well as their consistency with topography-induced gravity.
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach - status report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Bertone, Stefano; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos
2015-04-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory) inherits its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data aquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese Software. Currently, KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree n = 200, also arc-specific parameters like initial state vectors and appropriately spaced empirical parameters (pseudo-stochastic pulses and empirical accelerations) are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational forces. In this respect, we present our advances towards a more realistic model of solar radiation pressure using empirical accelerations in appropriate directions. We compare our results from the nominal and from the extended mission phase with the most recent lunar gravity field models released by other groups, as well as their consistency with topography-induced gravity. We show that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL or pre-SELENE gravity field models as a priori fields. As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar
The JPL Mars gravity field, Mars50c, based upon Viking and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes the current JPL efforts of generating a Mars gravity field from Viking 1 and 2 and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data. The Mars 50c solution is a complete gravity field to degree and order 50 with solutions as well for the gravitational mass of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. The constants and models used to obtain the solution are given and the method for determining the gravity field is presented. The gravity field is compared to the best current gravity GMM1 of Goddard Space Flight Center.
ARISTOTELES: A European approach for an Earth gravity field recovery mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benz, R.; Faulks, H.; Langemann, M.
1989-01-01
Under contract of the European Space Agency a system study for a spaceborne gravity field recovery mission was performed, covering as a secondary mission objective geodetic point positioning in the cm range as well. It was demonstrated that under the given programmatic constraints including dual launch and a very tight development schedule, a six months gravity field mission in a 200 km near polar, dawn-dusk orbit is adequate to determine gravity anomalies to better than 5 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 km half wavelength. This will enable scientists to determine improved spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth gravity field equation to the order and degree of 180 or better.
Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Koji; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Iwata, Takahiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho
Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.
Relativistic weak lensing from a fully non-linear cosmological density field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D. B.; Bruni, M.; Wands, D.
2015-09-01
In this paper we examine cosmological weak lensing on non-linear scales and show that there are Newtonian and relativistic contributions and that the latter can also be extracted from standard Newtonian simulations. We use the post-Friedmann formalism, a post-Newtonian type framework for cosmology, to derive the full weak-lensing deflection angle valid on non-linear scales for any metric theory of gravity. We show that the only contributing term that is quadratic in the first order deflection is the expected Born correction and lens-lens coupling term. We use this deflection angle to analyse the vector and tensor contributions to the E- and B- mode cosmic shear power spectra. In our approach, once the gravitational theory has been specified, the metric components are related to the matter content in a well-defined manner. Specifying General Relativity, we write down a complete set of equations for a GR+ΛCDM universe for computing all of the possible lensing terms from Newtonian N-body simulations. We illustrate this with the vector potential and show that, in a GR+ΛCDM universe, its contribution to the E-mode is negligible with respect to that of the conventional Newtonian scalar potential, even on non-linear scales. Thus, under the standard assumption that Newtonian N-body simulations give a good approximation of the matter dynamics, we show that the standard ray tracing approach gives a good description for a ΛCDM cosmology.
An Experimental Study of Boiling in Reduced and Zero Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usiskin, C. M.; Siegel, R.
1961-01-01
A pool boiling apparatus was mounted on a counterweighted platform which could be dropped a distance of nine feet. By varying the size of the counterweight, the effective gravity field on the equipment was adjusted between zero and unity. A study of boiling burnout in water indicated that a variation in the critical heat flux according to the one quarter power of gravity was reasonable. A consideration of the transient burnout process was necessary in order to properly interpret the data. A photographic study of nucleate boiling showed how the velocity of freely rising vapor bubbles decreased as gravity was reduced. The bubble diameters at the time of breakoff from the heated surface were found to vary inversely as gravity to the 1/3.5 power. Motion pictures were taken to illustrate both nucleate and film boiling in the low gravity range.
Relativistic ponderomotive Hamiltonian of a Dirac particle in a vacuum laser field
Ruiz, D. E.; Ellison, C. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2015-12-01
We report a point-particle ponderomotive model of a Dirac electron oscillating in a high-frequency field. Starting from the Dirac Lagrangian density, we derive a reduced phase-space Lagrangian that describes the relativistic time-averaged dynamics of such a particle in a geometrical-optics laser pulse propagating in vacuum. The pulse is allowed to have an arbitrarily large amplitude provided that radiation damping and pair production are negligible. The model captures the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) spin dynamics, the Stern-Gerlach spin-orbital coupling, the conventional ponderomotive forces, and the interaction with large-scale background fields (if any). Agreement with the BMT spin precession equation is shown numerically. The commonly known theory in which ponderomotive effects are incorporated in the particle effective mass is reproduced as a special case when the spin-orbital coupling is negligible. This model could be useful for studying laser-plasma interactions in relativistic spin-1/2 plasmas.
Relativistic ponderomotive Hamiltonian of a Dirac particle in a vacuum laser field
Ruiz, D. E.; Ellison, C. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2015-12-16
Here, we report a point-particle ponderomotive model of a Dirac electron oscillating in a high-frequency field. Starting from the Dirac Lagrangian density, we derive a reduced phase-space Lagrangian that describes the relativistic time-averaged dynamics of such a particle in a geometrical-optics laser pulse propagating in vacuum. The pulse is allowed to have an arbitrarily large amplitude provided that radiation damping and pair production are negligible. The model captures the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) spin dynamics, the Stern-Gerlach spin-orbital coupling, the conventional ponderomotive forces, and the interaction with large-scale background fields (if any). Agreement with the BMT spin precession equation is shown numerically.more » The commonly known theory in which ponderomotive effects are incorporated in the particle effective mass is reproduced as a special case when the spin-orbital coupling is negligible. This model could be useful for studying laser-plasma interactions in relativistic spin-1/2 plasmas.« less
Relativistic ponderomotive Hamiltonian of a Dirac particle in a vacuum laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, D. E.; Ellison, C. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2015-12-01
We report a point-particle ponderomotive model of a Dirac electron oscillating in a high-frequency field. Starting from the Dirac Lagrangian density, we derive a reduced phase-space Lagrangian that describes the relativistic time-averaged dynamics of such a particle in a geometrical-optics laser pulse propagating in vacuum. The pulse is allowed to have an arbitrarily large amplitude provided that radiation damping and pair production are negligible. The model captures the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) spin dynamics, the Stern-Gerlach spin-orbital coupling, the conventional ponderomotive forces, and the interaction with large-scale background fields (if any). Agreement with the BMT spin precession equation is shown numerically. The commonly known theory in which ponderomotive effects are incorporated in the particle effective mass is reproduced as a special case when the spin-orbital coupling is negligible. This model could be useful for studying laser-plasma interactions in relativistic spin-1 /2 plasmas.
Relativistic ponderomotive Hamiltonian of a Dirac particle in a vacuum laser field
Ruiz, D. E.; Ellison, C. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2015-12-16
Here, we report a point-particle ponderomotive model of a Dirac electron oscillating in a high-frequency field. Starting from the Dirac Lagrangian density, we derive a reduced phase-space Lagrangian that describes the relativistic time-averaged dynamics of such a particle in a geometrical-optics laser pulse propagating in vacuum. The pulse is allowed to have an arbitrarily large amplitude provided that radiation damping and pair production are negligible. The model captures the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) spin dynamics, the Stern-Gerlach spin-orbital coupling, the conventional ponderomotive forces, and the interaction with large-scale background fields (if any). Agreement with the BMT spin precession equation is shown numerically. The commonly known theory in which ponderomotive effects are incorporated in the particle effective mass is reproduced as a special case when the spin-orbital coupling is negligible. This model could be useful for studying laser-plasma interactions in relativistic spin-1/2 plasmas.
Comparative study of nuclear masses in the relativistic mean-field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, XueMin; Heng, TaiHua; Niu, ZhongMing; Sun, BaoHua; Guo, JianYou
2012-12-01
With experimental masses updated from AME11, the predictive power of relativistic mean-field (RMF) mass model is carefully examined and compared with HFB-17, FRDM, WS*, and DZ28 mass models. In the relativistic mean-field model, the calculation with the PC-PK1 has improved significantly in describing masses compared to the TMA, especially for the neutron-deficient nuclei. The corresponding rms deviation with respect to the known masses falls to 1.4 MeV. Furthermore, it is found that the RMF mass model better describes the nuclei with large deformations. The rms deviation for nuclei with the absolute value of quadrupole deformation parameter greater than 0.25 falls to 0.93, crossing the 1 MeV accuracy threshold for the PC-PK1, which may indicate the new model is more suitable for those largely-deformed nuclei. In addition, the necessity of new high-precision experimental data to evaluate and develop the nuclear mass models is emphasized as well.
A high-resolution spherical harmonic degree 1500 lunar gravity field from the GRAIL mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Yuan, D. N.; Asmar, S.; Watkins, M. M.; Williams, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The highest resolution lunar gravity field to date has been generated by analyzing Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) data from the Primary and Extended Missions. The Extended Mission Ka-band inter-spacecraft range-rate data have a precision near 0.05 micron/second with spacecraft altitudes as low as a few kilometers above the lunar surface. This new spherical harmonic degree 1500 field involves solving for nearly 2.3 million parameters in a least-square estimation procedure with 5 million observations. This results in an upper triangular 20 TB covariance matrix, computed using the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer. The first figure compares RMS unconstrained gravity field coefficients with uncertainties. The constrained global gravity spectrum (magenta) is determined to about n=900, whereas the Bouguer spectrum is accurate to about n=600. The correlation with gravity derived from constant density topography in the second figure shows that the high-order coefficients (n>700) are improved significantly over the previous degree 1200 field. Moreover, the Ka-band residual RMS is significantly improved for the low-altitude orbit solutions of the last month of the extended mission. The maximum local resolution of this new gravity field corresponds to a surface resolution of 3.6 km.
Near real-time GRACE gravity field solutions for hydrological monitoring applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvas, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Güntner, Andreas
2016-04-01
Within the EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project, a demonstrator for a near real-time (NRT) gravity field service which provides daily GRACE gravity field solutions will be established. Compared to the official GRACE gravity products, these NRT solutions will increase the temporal resolution from one month to one day and reduce the latency from currently two months to five days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations and of hydrological extreme events as they occur, in contrast to a 'confirmation after occurrence' as is the situation today. The service will be jointly run by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) and Graz University of Technology, with each analysis center providing an independent solution. A Kalman filter framework, in which GRACE data is combined with prior information, serves as basis for the gravity field recovery in order to increase the redundancy of the gravity field estimates. The on-line nature of the NRT service necessitates a tailored smoothing algorithm as opposed to post-processing applications, where forward-backward smoothing can be applied. This contribution gives an overview on the near real-time processing chain and highlights differences between the computed NRT solutions and the standard GRACE products. We discuss the special characteristics of the Kalman filtered gravity field models as well as derived products and give an estimate of the expected error levels. Additionally, we show the added value of the NRT solutions through comparison of the first results of the pre-operational phase with in-situ data and monthly GRACE gravity field models.
GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach - Status Report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Mervart, L.
2014-12-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory) inherits its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data aquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese Software. Currently KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree n = 200, also arc-specific parameters like initial state vectors and empirical parameters (pseudo-stochastic pulses or piecewise constant accelerations) are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational accelerations, e.g., caused by solar radiation pressure. We compare our results from the nominal and from the extended mission phase with the official level 4 gravity field models released in April 2014. As a further extension of our processing the GNI1B positions are replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field using the Celestial Mechanics Approach and we present the currently achieved status of the DSN data modeling in the Bernese Software.
Disk relations for tree amplitudes in minimal coupling theory of gauge field and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Xin; Du, Yi-Jian; Ma, Qian
2010-07-01
KLT relations on S factorize closed string amplitudes into product of open string tree amplitudes. The field theory limits of KLT factorization relations hold in minimal coupling theory of gauge field and gravity. In this paper, we consider the field theory limits of relations on D. Though the relations on D and KLT factorization relations hold on worldsheets with different topologies, we find the field theory limits of D relations also hold in minimal coupling theory of gauge field and gravity. We use the D relations to give three- and four-point tree amplitudes where gluons are minimally coupled to gravitons. We also give a further discussion on general tree amplitudes in minimal coupling theory of gauge field and gravity. In general, any tree amplitude with M gravitons in addition to N gluons can be given by pure-gluon tree amplitudes with N+2M legs.
Temporal gravity field modeling based on least square collocation with short-arc approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ran, jiangjun; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze; Liu, Chengshu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet
2014-05-01
After the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002, several research centers have attempted to produce the finest gravity model based on different approaches. In this study, we present an alternative approach to derive the Earth's gravity field, and two main objectives are discussed. Firstly, we seek the optimal method to estimate the accelerometer parameters, and secondly, we intend to recover the monthly gravity model based on least square collocation method. The method has been paid less attention compared to the least square adjustment method because of the massive computational resource's requirement. The positions of twin satellites are treated as pseudo-observations and unknown parameters at the same time. The variance covariance matrices of the pseudo-observations and the unknown parameters are valuable information to improve the accuracy of the estimated gravity solutions. Our analyses showed that introducing a drift parameter as an additional accelerometer parameter, compared to using only a bias parameter, leads to a significant improvement of our estimated monthly gravity field. The gravity errors outside the continents are significantly reduced based on the selected set of the accelerometer parameters. We introduced the improved gravity model namely the second version of Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGG-CAS 02). The accuracy of IGG-CAS 02 model is comparable to the gravity solutions computed from the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In term of the equivalent water height, the correlation coefficients over the study regions (the Yangtze River valley, the Sahara desert, and the Amazon) among four gravity models are greater than 0.80.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braitenberg, C. F.; Pivetta, T.; Mariani, P.
2011-12-01
The gravity satellite missions GRACE and GOCE have boosted the resolution of the global Earth gravity models (EGM), opening new possibilities of investigation. The EGMs must be distinguished in models based on pure satellite or mixed satellite-terrestrial observations. Satellite-only models are truly global, whereas satellite-terrestrial models have inhomogeneous quality, depending on availability and accuracy of the terrestrial data set. The advantage of the mixed models (e.g. EGM2008 by Pavlis et al. 2008) is their greater spatial resolution, reaching nominally 9 km, against the 80 km of the pure satellite models of satellite GOCE. The disadvantage is the geographically varying reliability due to problems in the terrestrial data, compiled from different measuring campaigns, using various acquisition methods, and different national geodetic reference systems. We present a method for quality assessment of the higher-resolution fields through the lower-resolution GOCE-field and apply it to northern Africa. We find that the errors locally are as great as 40 mGal, but can be flagged as "bad areas" by our method, leaving the "good areas" for reliable geophysical modeling and investigation. We analyze gravity and gravity gradients and their invariants over North-Central Africa derived from the EGM2008 and GOCE (e.g. Migliaccio et al., 2010) and quantify the resolution in terms of density variations associated to crustal thickness variations, rifts and magmatic underplating. We focus on the Benue rift and the Chad lineament, a 1300 km arcuate feature which links the Benue to the Tibesti Volcanic province. The existing seismological investigations are integrated to constrain the lithosphere structure in terms of seismic velocities, crustal thickness and top asthenosphere boundary, together with physical constraints based on thermal and isostatic considerations (McKenzie stretching model). Our modeling shows that the gravity signal can only be explained if the Benue rift
Relativistic electron loss process by pitch angle scattering due to field curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. J.; Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Min, K.; Kim, H.; Park, J.; Hwang, J.
2006-12-01
Relativistic electron dropout (RED) events are characterized by fast electron flux decrease at the geostationary orbit. It is known that the main loss process is non adiabatic and more effective for the high energy particles. RED events generally start to occur at midnight sector and propagate to noon sector and are correlated with magnetic field stretching. We discuss this kind of event can be caused from pitch angle diffusion induced when the gyro radius of the electrons is comparable to the radius of curvature of the magnetic field and the magnetic moment is not conserved any more. While this process has been studied theoretically, the question is whether electron precipitation could be explained with this process for the real field configuration. This paper will show that this process can successfully explain the precipitation that occurred on June 14, 2004 observed by the low-altitude (680 km) polar orbiting Korean satellite, STSAT-1. In this precipitation event, the energy dispersion showed higher energy electron precipitation occurred at lower L values. This feature is a good indicator that precipitation was caused by the magnetic moment scattering in the geomagnetic tail. This interpretation is supported by the geosynchronous satellite GOES observations that showed significant magnetic field distortion occurred on the night side accompanying the electron flux depletion. Tsyganenko-01 model also shows the magnetic moment scattering could occur under the geomagnetic conditions existing at that time. We suggest the pitch angle scattering by field curvature violating the first adiabatic invariant as a possible candidate for loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in radiation belt.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G. K.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier, A. B.
2005-05-01
The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS South electric field instrumentation. We have good DC and VLF electric field data from all payloads, and the payload rotation mechanism worked in all four as well. The campaign began with two large solar flares. In the post-flare environment, some very magnetospherically active periods are included in our data, with strong and
Instantaneous spatially local projective measurements are consistent in a relativistic quantum field
Lin, Shih-Yuin
2012-12-15
Suppose the postulate of measurement in quantum mechanics can be extended to quantum field theory; then a local projective measurement at some moment on an object locally coupled with a relativistic quantum field will result in a projection or collapse of the wavefunctional of the combined system defined on the whole time-slice associated with the very moment of the measurement, if the relevant degrees of freedom have nonzero correlations. This implies that the wavefunctionals in the same Hamiltonian system but defined in different reference frames would collapse on different time-slices passing through the same local event where the measurement was done. Are these post-measurement states consistent with each other? We illustrate that the quantum states of the Raine-Sciama-Grove detector-field system started with the same initial Gaussian state defined on the same initial time-slice, then collapsed by the measurements on the pointlike detectors on different time-slices in different frames, will evolve to the same state of the combined system up to a coordinate transformation when compared on the same final time-slice. Such consistency is guaranteed by the spatial locality of interactions and the general covariance in a relativistic system, together with the spatial locality of measurements and the linearity of quantum dynamics in its quantum theory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatially local quantum measurements in detector-field models are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local quantum measurement collapses the wavefunctional on the whole time-slice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In different frames wavefunctionals of a field would collapse on different time-slices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer States collapsed by the same measurement will be consistent on the same final slice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erkan, K.; Jekeli, C.
2009-12-01
Today gravity and magnetic field measurements are acquired in grids with high resolution and accuracy. Magnetic field measurements have already been proven for superior accuracy and practicality. Modern gravity gradiometry instruments have boosted the practicality of gravity field measurements for many subsurface problems. As a result of this, advanced algorithms are needed for quantitative integration of the two fields for a specific subsurface problem. These fields are correlated by Poisson relation as a first order approximation. However, subsurface sources generally show large deviations from the ideal conditions; in this case a generalized Poisson relation may be proposed as a perturbation of the ideal conditions. In this study, we take advantage of the abstraction of the deformation theory between two metric fields, and implement it between the two geophysical fields. In this generalized approach, the different geophysical fields are loosely correlated by Poisson relation; so the calculated deformation reflects the deviations from ideal density/susceptibility relationships for the subsurface structure. The resulting deformation field can then be used for detection of a known target with an expected deformation field. The present method introduces a novel algorithm for integration of the gravity gradiometry and magnetic field data. In this method, the results can be directly interpreted without making individual density and magnetic susceptibility assumptions. The method also intrinsically overcomes the scale problem between the two potential fields.
Time-variable and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2016-04-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have significantly contributed to the determination of global high-resolution global gravity fields of Mars for the last 16 years. All three spacecraft were located in sun-synchronous, near-circular polar mapping orbits for their primary mission phases at different altitudes and Local Solar Time (LST). X-Band tracking data have been acquired from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) providing information on the time-variable and static gravity field of Mars. MGS operated between 1999 and 2006 at 390 km altitude. ODY and MRO are still orbiting Mars with periapsis altitudes of 400 km and 255 km, respectively. Before entering these mapping phases, all three spacecraft collected radio tracking data at lower altitudes (˜170-200 km) that help improve the resolution of the gravity field of Mars in specific regions. We analyzed the entire MGS radio tracking data set, and ODY and MRO radio data until 2015. These observations were processed using a batch least-squares filter through the NASA GSFC GEODYN II software. We combined all 2- and 3-way range rate data to estimate the global gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, the seasonal variations of gravity harmonic coefficients C20, C30, C40 and C50 and the Love number k2. The gravity contribution of Mars atmospheric pressures on the surface of the planet has been discerned from the time-varying and static gravity harmonic coefficients. Surface pressure grids computed using the Mars-GRAM 2010 atmospheric model, with 2.5° x2.5° spatial and 2-h resolution, are converted into gravity spherical harmonic coefficients. Consequently, the estimated gravity and tides provide direct information on the solid planet. We will present the new Goddard Mars Model (GMM-3) of Mars gravity field in spherical harmonics to degree and order 120. The solution includes the Love number k2 and the 3-frequencies (annual, semi-annual, and tri
Relativistic dynamics of two spin-half particles in a homogeneous magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Sambhu N.; Misra, Anirban
2001-01-01
Relativistic dynamics of two spin-1/2 particles in an external, homogeneous magnetic field is investigated here. The problem is important for a preliminary understanding of the effect of magnetic field on atoms and molecules at the relativistic level. The relativistic Hamiltonian is formulated in three distinct forms which involve the Bethe-Salpeter interaction, generalized Breit interaction and projected Breit interaction. The total pseudomomentum of the two-particle system is conserved in each case, and its components are distinct in the zero-charge sector. This permits the separation of the center of mass motion from the Hamiltonian of the neutral two-particle system. The resulting Hamiltonian operator describes the movement of the two particles in relative coordinates. It is further simplified by using suitable unitary transformations so as to reduce the one-particle operator for the first particle into a diagonal form. The effective equation of motion for the movement of the second particle in relative coordinates is then identified. A second set of transformations convert the two-particle relative Hamiltonian into a form where the one-particle operator for each spin-1/2 particle is completely diagonalized and separable into positive and negative energy states. The correspondingly transformed interaction operators can be written in an order by order expansion from which the odd terms are removable by using suitable Foldy-Wouthuysen type transformations in a systematic way. The resulting Hamiltonian operator reduces to previously known expressions when the magnetic field is switched off. Thus the two sets of transformations which convert the one particle parts completely into separable as well as diagonal forms also transform the interaction operator to generate terms consistently through order v2/c2. The field dependence lies entirely in the diagonalized one-particle parts, which is a consequence of the initial choice of interaction operators. Our results also
Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny
1989-01-01
Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.
Hramov, A. E.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Filatova, A. E.
2012-11-15
The report is devoted to the results of the numerical study of the virtual cathode (VC) formation conditions in the relativistic electron beam (REB) under the influence of the self-magnetic and external axial magnetic fields. The azimuthal instability of the relativistic electron beam leading to the formation of the vortex electron structure in the system was found out. This instability is determined by the influence of the self-magnetic fields of the relativistic electron beam, and it leads to the decrease of the critical value of the electron beam current (current when the non-stationary virtual cathode is formed in the drift space). The typical dependencies of the critical current on the external uniform magnetic field value were discovered. The effect of the beam thickness on the virtual cathode formation conditions was also analyzed.
Gravity field processing with enhanced numerical precision for LL-SST missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael; Yi, Weiyong
2015-02-01
On their way to meet the augmenting demands of the Earth system user community concerning accuracies of temporal gravity field models, future gravity missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type are expected to fly at optimized formations and make use of the latest technological achievements regarding the on-board sensor accuracies. Concerning the main measuring unit of an LL-SST type gravity mission, the inter-satellite measuring instrument, a much more precise interferometric laser ranging system is planned to succeed the K-band ranging system used by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. This study focuses on investigations concerning the potential performance of new generation sensors such as the laser interferometer within the gravity field processing chain. The sufficiency of current gravity field processing accuracies is tested against the new sensor requirements, via full-scale closed-loop numerical simulations of a GRACE Follow-On configuration scenario. Each part of the processing is validated separately with special emphasis on numerical errors and their impact on gravity field solutions. It is demonstrated that gravity field processing with double precision may be a limiting factor for taking full advantage of the laser interferometer's accuracy. Instead, a hybrid processing scheme of enhanced precision is introduced, which uses double and quadruple precision in different parts of the processing chain, leading to system accuracies of only 17 nm in terms of geoid height reconstruction errors. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of enhanced precision processing to minimize the processing errors and thus exploit the full precision of a laser interferometer, when at the same time the computational times are kept within reasonable levels.
On the regularization of regional gravity field solutions in spherical radial base functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naeimi, Majid; Flury, Jakob; Brieden, Phillip
2015-08-01
Regional refinement of the gravity field models from satellite data using spherical radial base functions (SRBF) is an ill-posed problem. This is mainly due to the regional confinement of the data and the base functions, which leads to severe instabilities in the solutions. Here, this ill-posedness as well as the related regularization process are investigated. We compare three methods for the choice of the regularization parameter, which have been frequently used in gravity modelling. These methods are (1) the variance component estimation (VCE), (2) the generalized cross validation (GCV) and (3) the L-curve criterion. A particular emphasis is put on the impact of the SRBF type on the regularization parameter. To do this, we include two types of SRBF which are often used for regional gravity field modelling. These are the Shannon SRBF or the reproducing kernel and the Spline SRBF. The investigations are performed on two months of the real GOCE ultrasensitive gravity gradients over Central Africa and Amazon. The solutions are validated against a state-of-the-art global gravity solution. We conclude that if a proper regularization method is applied, both SRBF deliver more or less the same accuracy. We show that when the Shannon wavelet is used, the L-curve method gives the best results, while with the Spline kernel, the GCV outperforms the other two methods. Moreover, we observe that the estimated coefficients for the Spline kernel cannot be spatially interpreted. In contrast, the coefficients obtained for the Shannon wavelet reflect the energy of the recovered gravity field with a correlation factor of above 95 per cent. Therefore, when combined with the L-curve method, the Shannon SRBF is advantageous for regional gravity field estimation, since it is one of the simplest band-limited SRBF. In addition, it delivers promising solutions and the estimated coefficients represent the characteristics of the gravity field within the target region.
Patra, S. K.; Panda, R. N.; Arumugam, P.; Gupta, Raj K.
2009-12-15
We have calculated the total nuclear reaction cross sections of exotic nuclei in the framework of the Glauber model, using as inputs the standard relativistic mean field (RMF) densities and the densities obtained from the more recently developed effective-field-theory-motivated RMF (the E-RMF). Both light and heavy nuclei are taken as the representative targets, and the light neutron-rich nuclei as projectiles. We found the total nuclear reaction cross section to increase as a function of the mass number, for both the target and projectile nuclei. The differential nuclear elastic scattering cross sections are evaluated for some selected systems at various incident energies. We found a large dependence of the differential elastic scattering cross section on incident energy. Finally, we have applied the same formalism to calculate both the total nuclear reaction cross section and the differential nuclear elastic scattering cross section for the recently discussed superheavy nucleus with atomic number Z=122.
Toward relativistic mean-field description of Nbar-nucleus reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitanos, T.; Kaskulov, M.
2015-08-01
In this work we study the antinucleon-nucleus optical potential in the framework of the non-linear derivative (NLD) model with momentum dependent mean-fields. We apply the NLD model to interaction of antinucleons (Nbar) in nuclear matter and, in particular, to antiproton scattering on nuclei. In nuclear matter a strong suppression of the Nbar-optical potential at rest and at high kinetic energies is found and caused by the momentum dependence of relativistic mean-fields. The NLD results are consistent with known empirical Nbar-nucleus observations and agree well with antiproton-nucleus scattering data. This makes the NLD approach compatible with both, nucleon and antinucleon Dirac phenomenologies. Furthermore, in nuclear matter an effective mass splitting between nucleons and antinucleons is predicted.
Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can; Keleş, Vildan; Ryu, C.Y.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: cemsinan@msgsu.edu.tr E-mail: kelesvi@itu.edu.tr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp
2013-10-01
In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equations derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.
Latest developments in lunar gravity field recovery within the project GRAZIL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald; Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Baur, Oliver
2016-04-01
The project GRAZIL addresses the highly accurate recovery of the lunar gravity field using intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) measurements collected by the Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) of the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Dynamic precise orbit determination is an indispensable task in order to recover the lunar gravity field based on LGRS measurements. The concept of variational equations is adopted to determine the orbit of the two GRAIL satellites based on radio science data. In this contribution we focus on the S-band two-way Doppler data collected by the Deep Space Network. As far as lunar gravity field recovery is concerned, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs in the order of one hour. In this contribution special attention is given to the refinement of our processing strategy in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. Based on these considerations we present the latest version of a lunar gravity field model developed in Graz which is based on KBR observations during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). Our results are validated against GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.
On the theory of magnetic field generation by relativistically strong laser radiation
Berezhiani, V.I.; Shatashvili, N.L.; Mahajan, S.M. |
1996-07-01
The authors consider the interaction of subpicosecond relativistically strong short laser pulses with an underdense cold unmagnetized electron plasma. It is shown that the strong plasma inhomogeneity caused by laser pulses results in the generation of a low frequency (quasistatic) magnetic field. Since the electron density distribution is determined completely by the pump wave intensity, the generated magnetic field is negligibly small for nonrelativistic laser pulses but increases rapidly in the ultrarelativistic case. Due to the possibility of electron cavitation (complete expulsion of electrons from the central region) for narrow and intense beams, the increase in the generated magnetic field slows down as the beam intensity is increased. The structure of the magnetic field closely resembles that of the field produced by a solenoid; the field is maximum and uniform in the cavitation region, then it falls, changes polarity and vanishes. In extremely dense plasmas, highly intense laser pulses in the self-channeling regime can generate magnetic fields {approximately} 100 Mg and greater.
Bose-Einstein condensation of bound pairs of relativistic fermions in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Hou, De-fu; Ren, Hai-cang; Wu, Ping-ping
2016-04-01
The Bose-Einstein condensation of bound pairs made of equally and oppositely charged fermions in a magnetic field is investigated using a relativistic model. The Gaussian fluctuations have been taken into account in order to study the spectrum of bound pairs in the strong coupling region. We found, in the weak coupling region, that the condensation temperature increases with an increasing magnetic field displaying the magnetic catalysis effect. In the strong coupling region, the inverse magnetic catalysis appears when the magnetic field is low and is replaced by the usual magnetic catalysis effect when magnetic field is sufficiently high, in contrast to the nonrelativistic case where the inverse magnetic catalysis prevails in the strong coupling region regardless of the strength of the magnetic field. The resulting response to the magnetic field is the consequence of the competition between the dimensional reduction by Landau orbitals in pairing dynamics and the anisotropy of the kinetic spectrum of the bound pairs. We thus conclude that dimensional reduction dominates in the weak domain and strong coupling one except in the small magnetic field region, where the enhanced fluctuations dominate.
Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks. II. Magnetic field amplification
Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.
2014-10-10
We use large hybrid simulations to study ion acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence due to the streaming of particles that are self-consistently accelerated at non-relativistic shocks. When acceleration is efficient, we find that the upstream magnetic field is significantly amplified. The total amplification factor is larger than 10 for shocks with Alfvénic Mach number M = 100, and scales with the square root of M. The spectral energy density of excited magnetic turbulence is determined by the energy distribution of accelerated particles, and for moderately strong shocks (M ≲ 30) agrees well with the prediction of resonant streaming instability, in the framework of quasilinear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. For M ≳ 30, instead, Bell's non-resonant hybrid (NRH) instability is predicted and found to grow faster than resonant instability. NRH modes are excited far upstream by escaping particles, and initially grow without disrupting the current, their typical wavelengths being much shorter than the current ions' gyroradii. Then, in the nonlinear stage, most unstable modes migrate to larger and larger wavelengths, eventually becoming resonant in wavelength with the driving ions, which start diffuse. Ahead of strong shocks we distinguish two regions, separated by the free-escape boundary: the far upstream, where field amplification is provided by the current of escaping ions via NRH instability, and the shock precursor, where energetic particles are effectively magnetized, and field amplification is provided by the current in diffusing ions. The presented scalings of magnetic field amplification enable the inclusion of self-consistent microphysics into phenomenological models of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordes, J. M.; Kramer, M.; Backer, D. C.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Science Working Groupthe Square Kilometer Array Team
2005-12-01
A Galactic census of pulsars with the SKA will discover most of the active pulsars in the Galaxy beamed toward us. The sheer number of pulsars discovered, along with the exceptional timing precision the SKA can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics and will enable significant tests of theories of gravity. Census discoveries will almost certainly include pulsar-black hole binaries as well as pulsars orbiting the super-massive black hole in the Galactic center. These systems provide unique opportunties for probing the ultra-strong field limit of relativistic gravity and will complement future gravitational wave detections using LISA-like instruments. SKA measurements can be used to test the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture and the No-Hair theorem. The large number of millisecond pulsars discovered with the SKA will also provide a dense array of precision clocks on the sky that can be used as multiple arms of a cosmic gravitational wave detector, which can be used to detect and measure the stochastic cosmological gravitational wave background that is expected from a number of sources. In addition to gravitational tests, the large number of lines of sight will provide a detailed map of the Galaxy's electron density and magnetic fields and important information on the dynamics and evolutionary histories of neutron stars. The census will provide examples of nearly every possible outcome of the evolution of massive stars, including (as above) pulsar black-hole systems and sub-millisecond pulsars, if they exist. These objects will yield constraints on the equation of state of matter at super-nuclear densities. Masses of pulsars and their binary companions planets, white dwarfs, other neutron stars, and black holes will be determined to ˜ 1% for hundreds of objects. The SKA will also provide partial censuses of nearby galaxies through periodicity and giant-pulse detections, yielding important information on the intergalactic medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin
2016-08-01
It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)
Experimental concept for examination of biological effects of magnetic field concealed by gravity.
Yamashita, M; Tomita-Yokotani, K; Hashimoto, H; Takai, M; Tsushima, M; Nakamura, T
2004-01-01
Space is not only a place to study biological effects of gravity, but also provides unique opportunities to examine other environmental factors, where the biological actions are masked by gravity on the ground. Even the earth's magnetic field is steadily acting on living systems, and is known to influence many biological processes. A systematic survey and assessment of its action are difficult to conduct in the presence of dominant factors, such as gravity. Investigation of responses of biological systems against the combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field might establish the baseline for the analysis of biological effects of magnetic factors. We propose, in this paper, an experimental concept in this context, together with a practical approach of the experiments, both in orbit and on the ground, with a thin magnetic shielding film. Plant epicotyl growth was taken as an exemplar index to evaluate technical and scientific feasibility of the proposed system concept. PMID:15880894
The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, Martin; Schollmeyer, Gregor M.
2016-04-01
Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.
New Method For Static and Temporal Gravity Field Recovery Using Grace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, S.-C.; Jekeli, C.; Shum, C. K.
The gravity field dedicated satellite missions like CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE are supposed to map the Earth's global gravity field with the unprecedented accuracy and resolution. New models of Earth's static and time-variable gravity field will be avail- able every month as one of the science products from GRACE. Here we present an alternative method [Jekeli, 1999] to estimate the gravity field efficiently using the in situ satellite-to-satellite observations at satellite altitude. Considering the energy re- lation between the kinetic energy of the satellite and the gravitational potential, the disturbing potential observations can be computed from the specific force observa- tions and the state vector in the inertial frame, using the high-low GPS-LEO GPS tracking data, the low-low satellite-to-satellite GRACE measurement, and data from 3-axis accelerometers. The disturbing potential observations is the sum of a linear combination of other potentials due to tides, atmosphere, other modeled signals (e.g., N-body) and signals (hydrological and oceanic mass variations). The advantage of the method is its potential ability to efficiently replace corrections (e.g., atmosphere and tides) from different models. The inverse solution method is based on conjugate gra- dient [Han et al., 2001] and has been demonstrated to be able to efficiently recover gravity field solutions up to degree and order 120. The appropriate pre-conditioner like the block-diagonal part of the full normal matrix is used to accelerate the conver- gence rate. The method is applicable to CHAMP and GOCE. The CHAMP RSO orbit products and STAR accelerometer data are used to compute the in situ potentials and the corresponding gravity field is recovered. The synthetic potential difference obser- vations are computed with the expected error of GRACE range-rage measurements and the monthly gravity field is recovered in the presence of systematic errors such as atmosphere and tides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piñeiro Orioli, Asier; Boguslavski, Kirill; Berges, Jürgen
2015-07-01
We investigate universal behavior of isolated many-body systems far from equilibrium, which is relevant for a wide range of applications from ultracold quantum gases to high-energy particle physics. The universality is based on the existence of nonthermal fixed points, which represent nonequilibrium attractor solutions with self-similar scaling behavior. The corresponding dynamic universality classes turn out to be remarkably large, encompassing both relativistic as well as nonrelativistic quantum and classical systems. For the examples of nonrelativistic (Gross-Pitaevskii) and relativistic scalar field theory with quartic self-interactions, we demonstrate that infrared scaling exponents as well as scaling functions agree. We perform two independent nonperturbative calculations, first by using classical-statistical lattice simulation techniques and second by applying a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The latter extends kinetic descriptions to the nonperturbative regime of overoccupied modes. Our results open new perspectives to learn from experiments with cold atoms aspects about the dynamics during the early stages of our universe.
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken
2013-08-01
We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken
2013-08-01
We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 × 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 × 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.
Strong-field tests of f(R)-gravity in binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadina, Polina I.; Alexeyev, Stanislav O.; Capozziello, Salvatore; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Rannu, Kristina A.
2016-03-01
We develop the parameterized post-Keplerian approach for class of analytic f(R)-gravity models. Using the double binary pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 data we obtain restrictions on the parameters of this class of f(R)-models and show that f(R)-gravity is not ruled out by the observations in strong field regime. The additional and more strong corresponding restriction is extracted from solar system data.
GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach - First Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeggi, A.; Arnold, D.; Beutler, G.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Mervart, L.
2013-12-01
We present first GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach. Inter-satellite K-band range-rate observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degrees n ≤ 200, arc-specific parameters, like initial state vectors and pseudo-stochastic pulses, are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter parameters shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational accelerations, e.g., caused by solar radiation pressure. We compare our results from the nominal and from the extended mission phase with the official Level 2 gravity field models to be released in October 2013 and demonstrate that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a good quality by adopting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL or pre-SELENE gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced pseudo-stochastic pulses.
Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2016-07-01
We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.
Friedmann inflation in Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied; El Dahab, Eiman Abou
2016-03-01
We study Friedmann inflation in general Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity with detailed and nondetailed and also without the projectability conditions. Accordingly, we derive the modifications in the Friedmann equations due to single scalar field potentials describing power-law and minimal-supersymmetrically extended inflation. By implementing four types of the equations-of-state characterizing the cosmic background geometry, the dependence of the tensorial and spectral density fluctuations and their ratio on the inflation field is determined. The latter characterizes the time evolution of the inflation field relative to the Hubble parameter. Furthermore, the ratio of tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations is calculated in dependence on the spectral index. The resulting slow-roll parameters apparently differ from the ones deduced from the standard General Relativity (Friedmann gravity). We also observe that the tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations continuously decrease when moving from nondetailed HL gravity, to Friedmann gravity, to HL gravity without the projectability, and to detailed HL gravity. This regular pattern is valid for three types of cosmic equations-of-state and different inflation potential models. The results fit well with the recent Planck observations.
Advances in GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Mervart, L.
2015-12-01
The NASA mission GRAIL inherits its concept from the GRACE mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is leading to huge improvements in our understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss the latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese GNSS Software. We present our recent solutions up to d/o 200, where KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) were used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. We detail our parametrization in terms of pseudo-stochastic pulses and empirical accelerations, which allows for high quality results even while using a simple model of non-gravitational forces and pre-GRAIL a priori fields. Moreover, we present our latest advances towards the computation of a lunar gravity field with improved spatial resolution.As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field. Based on Doppler data, we perform orbit determination by solving six initial orbital elements, dynamical parameters, and stochastic parameters in daily arcs using least squares-adjustment. The pseudo-stochastic parameters are estimated to absorb deficiencies in our dynamical modeling (e.g. due to non-gravitational forces). DSN Doppler and KBRR data are then used together with an appropriate weighting for a combined orbit determination process. We present our latest results in the orbit determination of GRAIL over the primary mission phase (PM, March-May 2012) and eventually present
Goce and Its Role in Combined Global High Resolution Gravity Field Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, T.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.
2013-12-01
Combined high-resolution gravity field models serve as a mandatory basis to describe static and dynamic processes in system Earth. Ocean dynamics can be modeled referring to a high-accurate geoid as reference surface, solid earth processes are initiated by the gravity field. Also geodetic disciplines such as height system determination depend on high-precise gravity field information. To fulfill the various requirements concerning resolution and accuracy, any kind of gravity field information, that means satellite as well as terrestrial and altimetric gravity field observations have to be included in one combination process. A key role is here reserved for GOCE observations, which contribute with its optimal signal content in the long to medium wavelength part and enable a more accurate gravity field determination than ever before especially in areas, where no high-accurate terrestrial gravity field observations are available, such as South America, Asia or Africa. For our contribution we prepare a combined high-resolution gravity field model up to d/o 720 based on full normal equation including recent GOCE, GRACE and terrestrial / altimetric data. For all data sets, normal equations are set up separately, relative weighted to each other in the combination step and solved. This procedure is computationally challenging and can only be performed using super computers. We put special emphasis on the combination process, for which we modified especially our procedure to include GOCE data optimally in the combination. Furthermore we modified our terrestrial/altimetric data sets, what should result in an improved outcome. With our model, in which we included the newest GOCE TIM4 gradiometry results, we can show how GOCE contributes to a combined gravity field solution especially in areas of poor terrestrial data coverage. The model is validated by independent GPS leveling data in selected regions as well as computation of the mean dynamic topography over the oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roura, P. G.; Melo, J. I.; Ruiz de Azúa, M. C.; Giribet, C. G.
2006-08-01
The linear response within the elimination of the small component formalism is aimed at obtaining the leading order relativistic corrections to magnetic molecular properties in the context of the elimination of the small component approximation. In the present work we extend the method in order to include two-body effects in the form of a mean field one-body operator. To this end we consider the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock operator as the starting point in the evaluation of the second order relativistic expression of magnetic properties. The approach thus obtained is the fully consistent leading order approximation of the random phase approximation four-component formalism. The mean field effect on the relativistic corrections to both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic terms of magnetic properties taking into account both the Coulomb and Breit two-body interactions is considered.
Gravity field of Jupiter’s moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, Gudrun
2006-01-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements of a three-axial ellipsoid in elliptic coordinates. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. The harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field have been derived up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO was calculated and compared to existing Doppler data. Furthermore, predictions for future spacecraft flybys were derived. No two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise. Nevertheless, the generated gravity field models reflect the most likely interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system.
Extending the GRACE Data Record with Gravity Field Solutions Based on a Single GRACE Satellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCullough, C.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Cheng, M.; Ries, J. C.
2015-12-01
Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has enabled unprecedented scientific discovery in a variety of physical Earth sciences. However, with the launch of GRACE Follow-On not taking place until 2017 and the declining health of the current GRACE satellites, it is necessary to cultivate the ability to estimate the Earth's gravity field without the full suite of GRACE measurements. Using a single GRACE satellite, equipped with an accelerometer and a GPS receiver, as well as a compliment of SLR satellites, large-scale features of the Earth's gravity field can be determined. While the accuracy of such solutions are noticeably degraded relative to the nominal GRACE product and smaller-scale features of the Earth's gravity field are impossible to discern without the use of GRACE's satellite-to-satellite (SST) tracking measurements, single satellite solutions do capture continental scale variations in the Earth's gravitational field. These large-scale variations can be used to track global trends such as polar ice loss and water storage, in the event of a gap between GRACE and GRACE Follow-On. In addition, the lessons learned from gravity field solutions computed using only GRACE GPS data provide valuable insight into the optimal combination of GPS data with SST for GRACE Follow-On and other future missions.
Swarm kinematic orbits and gravity fields from 18 months of GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggi, A.; Dahle, C.; Arnold, D.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Beutler, G.; van den IJssel, J.
2016-01-01
The Swarm mission consists of three satellites orbiting the Earth at low orbital altitudes. The onboard GPS receivers, star cameras, and laser retro-reflectors make the Swarm mission an interesting candidate to explore the contribution of Swarm GPS data to the recovery of both the static and time-variable gravity fields. We use 1.5 years of Swarm GPS and attitude data to generate kinematic positions of high quality to perform gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach. The generated gravity fields reveal severe systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator. Their size is correlated with the ionospheric density and thus strongly varying over the analyzed time period. Similar to the findings of the GOCE mission, the systematic errors are related to the Swarm GPS carrier phase data and may be reduced by rejecting GPS data affected by large ionospheric changes. Such a measure yields a strong reduction of the systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator in the gravity field recovery. Long wavelength signatures of the gravity field may then be recovered with a similar quality as achieved with GRACE GPS data, which makes the Swarm mission well suited to bridge a potential gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission.
On the Inversion for Mass (Re)Distribution from Global (Time-Variable) Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Benjamin F.
2004-01-01
The well-known non-uniqueness of the gravitational inverse problem states the following: The external gravity field, even if completely and exactly known, cannot Uniquely determine the density distribution of the body that produces the gravity field. This is an intrinsic property of a field that obeys the Laplace equation, as already treated in mathematical as well as geophysical literature. In this paper we provide conceptual insight by examining the problem in terms of spherical harmonic expansion of the global gravity field. By comparing the multipoles and the moments of the density function, we show that in 3-S the degree of knowledge deficiency in trying to inversely recover the density distribution from external gravity field is (n+l)(n+2)/2 - (2n+l) = n(n-1)/2 for each harmonic degree n. On the other hand, on a 2-D spherical shell we show via a simple relationship that the inverse solution of the surface density distribution is unique. The latter applies quite readily in the inversion of time-variable gravity signals (such as those observed by the GRACE space mission) where the sources over a wide range of the scales largely come from the Earth's Surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, Willy I.; Wu, J. T.; Wu, Sien C.
1992-01-01
The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite data can be used to improve the knowledge of the earth's gravitational field. The GPS data are especially useful for improving the gravity field over the world's oceans, where the current tracking data are sparse. Using realistic scenario for processing 10 days of GPS data, a covariance analysis is performed to obtain the expected improvement to the GEM-T2 gravity field. The large amount of GPS data and the large number of parameters (1979 parameters for the gravity field, plus carrier-phase biases, etc.) required special filtering techniques for efficient solution. The gravity-bin technique is used to compute the covariance matrix associated with the spherical harmonic gravity field. The covariance analysis shows that the GPS data from one 10-day arc of TOPEX/Poseidon with no a priori constraints can resolve medium degree and order (3-26) parameters with sigmas (standard deviations) that are an order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding sigmas of GEM-T2. When the information from GEM-T2 is combined with the TOPEX/Poseidon GPS measurements, an order-of-magnitude improvement is observed in low- and medium-degree terms with significant improvements spread over a wide range of degree and order.
Clear and measurable signature of modified gravity in the galaxy velocity field.
Hellwing, Wojciech A; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun
2014-06-01
The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v_{12} are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ_{12}(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity. PMID:24949751
Effect of gravity field on the nonequilibrium/nonlinear chemical oscillation reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujieda, S.; Mori, Y.; Nakazawa, A.; Mogami, Y.
2001-01-01
Biological systems have evolved for a long time under the normal gravity. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is a nonlinear chemical system far from the equilibrium that may be considered as a simplified chemical model of the biological systems so as to study the effect of gravity. The reaction solution is comprised of bromate in sulfuric acid as an oxidizing agent, 1,4-cyclohexanedione as an organic substrate, and ferroin as a metal catalyst. Chemical waves in the BZ reaction-diffusion system are visualized as blue and red patterns of ferriin and ferroin, respectively. After an improvement to the tubular reaction vessels in the experimental setup, the traveling velocity of chemical waves in aqueous solutions was measured in time series under normal gravity, microgravity, hyper-gravity, and normal gravity using the free-fall facility of JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center), Hokkaido, Japan. Chemical patterns were collected as image data via CCD camera and analyzed by the software of NIH image after digitization. The estimated traveling velocity increased with increasing gravity as expected. It was clear experimentally that the traveling velocity of target patterns in reaction diffusion system was influenced by the effect of convection and correlated closely with the gravity field.
Nonlinear ponderomotive scattering of relativistic electrons by an intense laser field at focus
Hartemann, F.V.; Fochs, S.N.; Le Sage, G.P.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Woodworth, J.G.; Perry, M.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Kerman, A.K.
1995-05-01
The relativistic dynamics of electrons subjected to the electromagnetic field of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse in vacuum is studied theoretically. The effects of both finite pulse duration and beam focusing are taken into account. It is found that when the quiver amplitude of the electrons driven by the laser field exceeds the focal spot radius of a Gaussian beam, the restoring force acting on the charge decays exponentially, and the electrons are scattered away from the focus. This physical process, known as ponderomotive scattering, effectively terminates the interaction within a laser wavelength, and the electrons can escape with very high energy, as the normalized laser field is of the order of or greater than unity. The relation between the scattering angle and the escape energy is derived analytically from the conservation of canonical momentum and energy in the photon field. For a linearly polarized laser field, the interaction produces two jets of high energy electrons. The theory is supplemented by detailed two-dimensional computer simulations.
Self-sustaining relativistic ionization wave launched by a sheath field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefiev, Alexey; McCormick, Matt; Quevedo, Hernan; Bengtson, Roger; Ditmire, Todd
2013-10-01
We present experimental evidence supported by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a self-sustaining relativistic ionization wave launched into a surrounding gas by the sheath field of a high energy density plasma. We create a plasma filament with hot electrons by irradiating a supersonic clustering gas jet with a short pulse laser (115 fs) at an intensity of 5 ×1017 W/cm2. In contrast with a single atom, a cluster of atoms produces super-ponderomotive electrons in the field of the laser. These electrons generate a sheath field at the edge of the plasma filament strong enough to ionize the gas atoms in the sheath. We observe that a collisionless ionization wave is launched in this regime, propagating radially through the gas at up to 0.5 c after the laser has passed. The expansion of the resulting plasma filament due to the ionization wave occurs in about 2 ps, more than doubling the initial radius of the filament. The remarkable longevity of the wave without continuous energy deposition into the electron population is explained by a moving field structure that traps the hot electrons near the boundary. 2D PIC simulations confirm that the trapped hot electrons maintain a sheath field required for the ionization despite the significant expansion of the filament.
Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah
Campbell, David L.; Steven, Thomas A.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Rowley, Peter D.
1999-01-01
Gravity and aeromagnetic features in the Marysvale volcanic field result from the composite effects of many factors, including rock composition, style of magmatic emplacement, type and intensity of rock alteration, and effects of structural evolution. Densities and magnetic properties measured on a suite of rock samples from the Marysvale volcanic field differ in systematic ways. Generally, the measured densities, magnetic susceptibilities, and natural remanent magnetizations all increase with mafic index, but decrease with degree of alteration, and for tuffs, with degree of welding. Koenigsberger Q indices show no such systematic trends. The study area is divided into three geophysical domains. The northern domain is dominated by aeromagnetic lows that probably reflect reversed-polarity volcanic flows. There are no intermediate-sized magnetic highs in the northern domain that might reflect plutons. The northern domain has a decreasing-to-the-south gravity gradient that reflects the Pavant Range homocline. The central domain has gravity lows that reflect altered rocks in calderas and low-density plutons of the Marysvale volcanic field. Its aeromagnetic signatures consist of rounded highs that reflect plutons and birdseye patterns that reflect volcanic flows. In many places the birdseyes are attenuated, indicating that the flows there have been hydrothermally altered. We interpret the central domain to reflect an east-trending locus of plutons in the Marysvale volcanic field. The southern domain has intermediate gravity fields, indicating somewhat denser rocks there than in the central domain, and high-amplitude aeromagnetic birdseyes that reflect unaltered volcanic units. The southern domain contains no magnetic signatures that we interpret to reflect plutons. Basin-and-range tectonism has overprinted additional gravity features on the three domains. A deep gravity low follows the Sevier and Marysvale Valleys, reflecting grabens there. The gravity gradient in the
Guiding of Relativistic Electron Beams in Solid Targets by Resistively Controlled Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, S.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Carroll, D. C.; Lundh, O.; Markey, K.; McKenna, P.; Norreys, P.; Zepf, M.
2009-02-01
Guided transport of a relativistic electron beam in solid is achieved experimentally by exploiting the strong magnetic fields created at the interface of two metals of different electrical resistivities. This is of substantial relevance to the Fast Ignitor approach to fusion energy production [M. Tabak , Phys. PlasmasPHPAEN1070-664X 12, 057305 (2005)10.1063/1.1871246], since it allows the electron deposition to be spatially tailored—thus adding substantial design flexibility and preventing inefficiencies due to electron beam spreading. In the experiment, optical transition radiation and thermal emission from the target rear surface provide a clear signature of the electron confinement within a high resistivity tin layer sandwiched transversely between two low resistivity aluminum slabs. The experimental data are found to agree well with numerical simulations.
Bose-Einstein condensation in relativistic field theories far from equilibrium.
Berges, Jürgen; Sexty, Dénes
2012-04-20
The formation of Bose condensates far from equilibrium can play an important role in our understanding of collision experiments of heavy nuclei or for the evolution of the early Universe. In the relativistic quantum world particle number changing processes can counteract Bose condensation, and there is a considerable debate about the relevance of this phenomenon in this context. We show that the involved question of Bose condensation from initial overpopulation can be answered for the example of scalar field theories. Condensate formation occurs as a consequence of an inverse particle cascade with a universal power-law spectrum. This particle transport towards low momenta is part of a dual cascade, in which energy is also transferred by weak wave turbulence towards higher momenta. To highlight the importance of number changing processes for the subsequent decay of the condensate, we also compare to nonrelativistic theories with exact number conservation. We discuss the relevance of these results for non-Abelian gauge theories. PMID:22680706
Strange hadronic stars in relativistic mean-field theory with the FSUGold parameter set
Wu Chen; Ren Zhongzhou
2011-02-15
Relativistic mean-field theory with parameter set FSUGold that includes the isoscalar-isovector cross interaction term is extended to study the properties of neutron star matter in {beta} equilibrium by including hyperons. The influence of the attractive and repulsive {Sigma} potential on the properties of neutron star matter and the maximum mass of neutron stars is examined. We also investigate the equations of state for pure neutron matter and for nonstrange hadronic matter for comparison. For a pure neutron star, the maximum mass is about 1.8M{sub sun}, while for a strange (nonstrange) hadronic star in {beta} equilibrium, the maximum mass is around 1.35M{sub sun} (1.7M{sub sun}).
Green's function method for single-particle resonant states in relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, T. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, J. N.; Meng, J.
2014-11-01
Relativistic mean field theory is formulated with the Green's function method in coordinate space to investigate the single-particle bound states and resonant states on the same footing. Taking the density of states for free particles as a reference, the energies and widths of single-particle resonant states are extracted from the density of states without any ambiguity. As an example, the energies and widths for single-neutron resonant states in 120Sn are compared with those obtained by the scattering phase-shift method, the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach, the real stabilization method, and the complex scaling method. Excellent agreements with these methods are found for the energies and widths of single-neutron resonant states.
High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.
High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D. S.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-01-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.
Arctic Ocean gravity field derived from ICESat and ERS-2 altimetry: Tectonic implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAdoo, David C.; Farrell, Sinead Louise; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy L.
2008-05-01
A new, detailed marine gravity field for the persistently ice-covered Arctic Ocean, derived entirely from satellite data, reveals important new tectonic features in both the Amerasian and Eurasian basins. Reprocessed Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data collected by NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) between 2003 and 2005 have been combined with 8 years worth of retracked radar altimeter data from ESA's ERS-2 satellite to produce the highest available resolution gravity mapping of the entire Arctic Ocean complete to 86°N. This ARCtic Satellite-only (ARCS) marine gravity field uniformly and confidently resolves marine gravity to wavelengths as short as 35 km. ARCS relies on a Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-only satellite gravity model at long (>580 km) wavelengths and plainly shows tectonic fabric and numerous details imprinted in the Arctic seafloor, in particular, in the enigmatic Amerasian Basin (AB). For example, in the Makarov Basin portion of the AB, two north-south trending lineations are likely clues to the highly uncertain seafloor spreading history which formed the AB.
Satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment for global gravity field mapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Jekeli, Christopher
1989-01-01
The satellite-to-satellite (STS) tracking concept for estimating gravitational parameters offers an attractive means to improve on regional and global gravity models in areas where data availability is limited. The extent to which the STS tracking measurements can be effectively utilized in global field models depends primarily on the satellite's altitude, number of satellites, and their orbit constellation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity field recovery also depends on the measurement accuracy of the sensors employed in the STS tracking concept. A comparison of the obtainable accuracies in the gravity field recovery using various STS tracking concepts was presented by Jekeli. The results of a feasibility study for a specific realization of the STS high-low tracking concept are summarized. In this realization, the high altitude satellites are the GPS satellites, and the low orbit satellite is the space shuttle. The GPS satellite constellation consists of 18 satellites in 6 orbital planes inclined at 55 deg. The shuttle orbit is at approximately 300 km, with an inclination of 30 deg. This specific configuration of high-low satellites for measuring perturbation in the gravity field is named the Air Foce STAGE (Shuttle GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) mission. The STAGE mission objective is to estimate the perturbations in gravity vector at the shuttle altitude to an accuracy of 1 mgal or better. Recent simulation studies have confirmed that the 1 mgal accuracy objective is near optimum for the STAGE mission.
Dynamics of perturbations in Double Field Theory & non-relativistic string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Sung Moon; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-12-01
Double Field Theory provides a geometric framework capable of describing string theory backgrounds that cannot be understood purely in terms of Riemannian geometry — not only globally (`non-geometry'), but even locally (`non-Riemannian'). In this work, we show that the non-relativistic closed string theory of Gomis and Ooguri [1] arises precisely as such a non-Riemannian string background, and that the Gomis-Ooguri sigma model is equivalent to the Double Field Theory sigma model of [2] on this background. We further show that the target-space formulation of Double Field Theory on this non-Riemannian background correctly reproduces the appropriate sector of the Gomis-Ooguri string spectrum. To do this, we develop a general semi-covariant formalism describing perturbations in Double Field Theory. We derive compact expressions for the linearized equations of motion around a generic on-shell background, and construct the corresponding fluctuation Lagrangian in terms of novel completely covariant second order differential operators. We also present a new non-Riemannian solution featuring Schrödinger conformal symmetry.
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Amplification at Non-relativistic Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprioli, Damiano; Spitkovsky, A.
2013-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of non-relativistic, collisionless shocks by using unprecedentedly large 2D and 3D hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations. We find that, at parallel shocks, ions are efficiently accelerated via first-order Fermi mechanism; the current driven by the energetic particles propagating into the upstream medium excites plasma instabilities that strongly perturb the initial electromagnetic configuration. In particular, the filamentation instability produces tubular, underdense, magnetic-field-depleted cavities, in which accelerated particles are channeled. These structures grow while being advected with the fluid, effectively corrugating the shock surface and triggering turbulent motions in the downstream. The net result is a marked increase of the magnetic field, both ahead and behind the shock, in agreement with the high levels of magnetization inferred at the blast waves of young supernova remnants. We also discuss the dependence of the ion acceleration efficiency on the orientation and on the strength of the upstream magnetic field, finding that ions are preferentially accelerated at parallel, fast shocks (i.e., shocks propagating along the initial magnetic field, with velocities much larger than the Alfvén speed).
Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing
2015-06-15
In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM{sub 01} mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.
Design of a high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator with low guiding magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaoze; Song, Wei; Tan, Weibing; Zhang, Ligang; Su, Jiancang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Hu, Xianggang; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liang, Xu; Ning, Qi
2016-07-01
A high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator working at a low guiding magnetic field is designed and simulated. A trapezoidal resonant reflector is used to reduce the modulation field in the resonant reflector to avoid overmodulation of the electron beam which will lead to a large momentum spread and then low conversion efficiency. The envelope of the inner radius of the slow wave structure (SWS) increases stepwise to keep conformal to the trajectory of the electron beam which will alleviate the bombardment of the electron on the surface of the SWS. The length of period of the SWS is reduced gradually to make a better match between phase velocity and electron beam, which decelerates continually and improves the RF current distribution. Meanwhile the modulation field is reduced by the introduction of nonuniform SWS also. The particle in cell simulation results reveal that a microwave with a power of 1.8 GW and a frequency of 14.7 GHz is generated with an efficiency of 47% when the diode voltage is 620 kV, the beam current 6.1 kA, and the guiding magnetic field 0.95 T.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi Mozaffar, M. R.; Mollabashi, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vahidinia, M. H.
2016-08-01
It is established that physical observables in local quantum field theories should be invariant under invertible field redefinitions. It is then expected that this statement should be true for the entanglement entropy and moreover that, via the gauge/gravity correspondence, the recipe for computing entanglement entropy holographically should also be invariant under local field redefinitions in the gravity side. We use this fact to fix the recipe for computing holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for f (R ,Rμ ν) theories that could be mapped to Einstein gravity. An outcome of our prescription is that the surfaces that minimize the corresponding HEE functional for f (R ,Rμ ν) theories always have a vanishing trace of extrinsic curvature and that the HEE may be evaluated using the Wald entropy functional. We show that similar results follow from the FPS and Dong HEE functionals, for Einstein manifold backgrounds in f (R ,Rμ ν) theories.
Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.
2015-12-01
Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Marco, P.; Raj, R.; Kim, J.
2011-12-01
Results from the variable gravity pool boiling experiments performed during the 52nd ESA parabolic flight campaign are reported in this paper. During a typical parabola, the gravity acceleration changes from 1.8gE (high gravity) to ~0gE (low gravity) and finally back to 1.8gE. The two high gravity periods and the microgravity period are each roughly maintained for 20 seconds while the transition from high gravity to low gravity and vice versa occurs over a period of 3-5 seconds. Use of the high feedback frequency microheater array allowed quasi-steady boiling data over the continuous range of gravity levels (0gE-1.8gE). The experimental apparatus consisted of a boiling chamber with a 7×7 mm2 microheater array in a 10×10 configuration. Each heater in the array was individually controlled to maintain a constant temperature. The array could be operated in a full configuration or a selectively powered reduced set of 3×3 heaters. Experiments were performed with FC-72 as the test fluid, the pressure was maintained at a constant value between 1 and 1.13 atm and the subcooling ranged from 27 to 11 K. An external electric field was imposed over the boiling surface by means of a grid consisting of 4 rods, laid parallel to the surface; voltages up to 10 kV were applied. The electric field was effective in reducing the size of the detaching bubbles, and increasing the heat transfer compared to the values in low-g, although its effectiveness decayed as the heat flux/superheat increased. The current results compared well with previous results obtained in the ARIEL apparatus that was operated in orbital flight.
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-03-26
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less
Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.
2010-05-21
We study the nuclear matter properties in the regime of high temperatures using a relativistic mean-field theory. Contrasting with the usual linear Walecka model, we include the sigma-omega meson coupling in order to investigate the role of this interaction in the nucleon effective mass behavior. Some numerical results are presented and discussed.
Taking advantage of the MEMO orbiter to improve the determination of Mars' gravity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblatt, P.; Le Maitre, S.; Marty, J. C.; Duron, J.; Dehant, V.
2007-08-01
In the context of future ESA's mission to Mars, it is proposed an orbiter named MEMO (Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter) to especially improve the measurement of the atmospheric escape and the magnetic field of the planet. Its orbit is planned to have an inclination of 77 degrees and periapsis and apoapsis altitude of 130 km and 1000 km, respectively. In addition, such an orbit is scheduled to be maintained during one Martian year. This differs from the usual near-polar, near-circular orbit with a periapsis altitude of at least 200 km, such as for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Even if the MEMO orbiter is not dedicated to Mars' gravity field investigation, we propose to take this opportunity to improve our knowledge of Mars' gravity field. Indeed, the sensitivity of an orbiter to the gravity field strongly depends on the semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity of its orbit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the improvement on the determination of local gravity anomalies, of seasonal variations of the first zonal harmonics and of the k2 Love number of Mars. We base our work on both analytical and numerical approaches in order to simulate the Mars' gravity field determination from spacecraft tracking data from the Earth.We also add in our simulations the possibility to have an accelerometer onboard the MEMO spacecraft. Indeed, if it is placed at the center of mass of the spacecraft, it could provide measurements of the non-gravitational forces acting on it, especially the atmospheric drag. A good determination of the contribution of this force to the spacecraft motion would bring information about the atmospheric density at altitude between 100 and 200 km, and would improve the gravity field determination from tracking data of the spacecraft.
Gravity field of Jupiter's moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). Within this routine the shape information of Amalthea can be included as well. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO, compared it to existing Doppler data and made predictions for future spacecraft flybys. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the gravity field models of Amalthea show the possible interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system. In order to get valuable information about the gravity field of this tiny rocky moon, a much closer flyby than that of GALILEO should be anticipated. The above stated model approach can be used for any planetary body.
Gauge gravitation theory: Gravity as a Higgs field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanashvily, Gennadi
2016-05-01
Gravitation theory is formulated as gauge theory on natural bundles with spontaneous symmetry breaking, where gauge symmetries are general covariant transformations, gauge fields are general linear connections, and Higgs fields are pseudo-Riemannian metrics.
Milant'ev, V. P. Castillo, A. J.
2013-04-15
Averaged relativistic equations of motion of a charged particle in the field of intense electromagnetic radiation have been obtained in the geometrical optics approximation using the Bogoliubov method. Constraints are determined under which these equations are valid. Oscillating additions to the smoothed dynamical variables of the particle have been found; they are reduced to known expressions in the case of the circularly and linearly polarized plane waves. It has been shown that the expressions for the averaged relativistic force in both cases contain new additional small terms weakening its action. The known difference between the expressions for the ponderomotive force in the cases of circularly and linearly polarized waves has been confirmed.
The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity
Donoghue, John F.
2012-09-24
This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.
Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment - Gravity field and pole direction of Mars.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorell, J.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Laing, P. A.; Martin, W. L.; Sjogren, W. L.; Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Slater, G. L.
1972-01-01
Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of the Mars rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 deg. Contours of equivalent surface heights deduced from a sixth-degree solution for the Martian gravity field are presented. These contours represent the deviations from sphericity of a uniformly dense body with an external potential which is given by the first sixth-degree solution. In addition to Doppler observations, ranging or group-delay measurements have been made regularly since orbit insertion.
Improvements of the gravity field from satellite techniques as proposed to the European Space Agency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reigber, C.
1978-01-01
A summary of the European Earth Sciences Space Programme and the requirements for each gravity field mapping resulting from this programme are given. Three satellite experiments for gravity field improvement proposed to the European Space Agency in the last years are shortly characterized. One of these experiments, the low-low-SST-SLALOM experiment, based on laser interferometry for a "two target-one Spacelab telescope" configuration, is discussed in more detail. Reasons for the low-low concept selection are given and some mission aspects and a possible system concept for a compact ranging, acquisition and tracking system are presented.
Inference of variations in the gravity field from satellite-to-satellite range rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaula, W. M.
1983-01-01
An analytic scheme for inferring variations of the gravity field from satellite-to-satellite range rate (low-low) is developed. As a test, it is applied to a pair of satellites in polar orbit, at altitude 160 km and spacing 100 km, with 72 data points per revolution. An assumed gravity field of tesseral spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree is completely recovered in three iterations over 64 revolutions. It is apparent that data points at regular intervals enable the use of data analysis techniques that avoid massive matrix inversions.
Too Fast to Measure: Network Adjustment of Rapidly Changing Gravity Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, J.; Ferre, T. P. A.
2014-12-01
Measurements of spatially-variable gravity at the field scale are difficult; measurements of the time-varying field even more so. Every previous gravity survey using relative gravimeters—still the workhorse of gravity studies, despite their nearly 80 year history—has assumed a static gravity field during the course of a survey, which may last days to weeks. With recently-improved instrumentation, however, measurements of fields changing on the order of tens of nm/sec2 per day are now possible. In particular, the A-10 portable absolute gravimeter provides not only absolute control, but also the change in that control during the course of a survey. Using digitally-recording spring-based relative gravimeters (namely, the ZLS Burris meter and the Scintrex CG-5), with their more efficient data collection and lower drift than previous generations, many more data are collected in a day. We demonstrate a method for incorporating in the least-squares network adjustment of relative gravity data a relation between the rate of change of gravity, dg, and distance from an infiltration source, x. This relation accounts for the fact that gravity at stations adjacent to the infiltration source changes more rapidly than stations further away; if all measurements collected over several days are to be included in a single network-adjustment, consideration of this change is required. Two methods are used to simulate the dg(x) relation: a simple model where dg is a linear function of x, and a coupled-hydrogeophysical method where a groundwater flow model predicts the nonlinear spatial variation of dg. Then, the change in gravity between different, independently adjusted surveys is used to parameterize the groundwater model. Data from two recent field examples, an artificial recharge facility near Tucson, Arizona, USA, and from the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment, clearly show the need to account for gravity change during a survey; maximum rates of change for the two
Effect of the plasma-generated magnetic field on relativistic electron transport.
Nicolaï, Ph; Feugeas, J-L; Regan, C; Olazabal-Loumé, M; Breil, J; Dubroca, B; Morreeuw, J-P; Tikhonchuk, V
2011-07-01
In the fast-ignition scheme, relativistic electrons transport energy from the laser deposition zone to the dense part of the target where the fusion reactions can be ignited. The magnetic fields and electron collisions play an important role in the collimation or defocusing of this electron beam. Detailed description of these effects requires large-scale kinetic calculations and is limited to short time intervals. In this paper, a reduced kinetic model of fast electron transport coupled to the radiation hydrodynamic code is presented. It opens the possibility to carry on hybrid simulations in a time scale of tens of picoseconds or more. It is shown with this code that plasma-generated magnetic fields induced by noncollinear temperature and density gradients may strongly modify electron transport in a time scale of a few picoseconds. These fields tend to defocus the electron beam, reducing the coupling efficiency to the target. This effect, that was not seen before in shorter time simulations, has to be accounted for in any ignition design using electrons as a driver. PMID:21867317
A NOVEL EMISSION SPECTRUM FROM A RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON MOVING IN A RANDOM MAGNETIC FIELD
Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio
2011-07-10
We numerically calculate the radiation spectrum from relativistic electrons moving in small-scale turbulent magnetic fields expected in high-energy astrophysical sources. Such a radiation spectrum is characterized by the strength parameter a = {lambda}{sub B} e|B|/mc {sup 2}, where {lambda}{sub B} is the length scale of the turbulent field. When a is much larger than the Lorentz factor of a radiating electron {gamma}, synchrotron radiation is realized, while a << 1 corresponds to the so-called jitter radiation regime. Because for 1 < a < {gamma} we cannot use either approximations, we should have recourse to the Lienard-Wiechert potential to evaluate the radiation spectrum, which is performed in this Letter. We generate random magnetic fields assuming Kolmogorov turbulence, inject monoenergetic electrons, solve the equation of motion, and calculate the radiation spectrum. We perform numerical calculations for several values of a with {gamma} = 10. We obtain various types of spectra ranging between jitter radiation and synchrotron radiation. For a {approx} 7, the spectrum takes a novel shape which had not been noticed up to now. It is like a synchrotron spectrum in the middle energy region, but in the low frequency region it is a broken power law and in the high frequency region an extra power-law component appears beyond the synchrotron cutoff. We give a physical explanation of these features.
GOCE Precise Science Orbits for the Entire Mission and their Use for Gravity Field Recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggi, Adrian; Bock, Heike; Meyer, Ulrich; Weigelt, Matthias
The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), ESA's first Earth Explorer Core Mission, was launched on March 17, 2009 into a sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit and re-entered into the Earth's atmosphere on November 11, 2013. It was equipped with a three-axis gravity gradiometer for high-resolution recovery of the Earth's gravity field, as well as with a 12-channel, dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for precise orbit determination (POD), instrument time-tagging, and the determination of the long wavelength part of the Earth’s gravity field. A precise science orbit (PSO) product was provided during the entire mission by the GOCE High-level Processing Facility (HPF) from the GPS high-low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (hl-SST) data. We present the reduced-dynamic and kinematic PSO results for the entire mission period. Orbit comparisons and validations with independent Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements demonstrate the high quality of both orbit products being close to 2 cm 1-D RMS, but also reveal a correlation between solar activity, GPS data availability, and the quality of the orbits. We use the 1-sec kinematic positions of the GOCE PSO product for gravity field determination and present GPS-only solutions covering the entire mission period. The generated gravity field solutions reveal severe systematic errors centered along the geomagnetic equator, which may be traced back to the GPS carrier phase observations used for the kinematic orbit determination. The nature of the systematic errors is further investigated and reprocessed orbits free of systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator are derived. Eventually, the potential of recovering time variable signals from GOCE kinematic positions is assessed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smarr, L. L.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Decher, R.; Piran, T.
1983-01-01
A two-step satellite mission for improving the accuracy of gravitational wave detection and for observing actual gravity waveforms is proposed. The spacecraft would carry both a highly stable hydrogen maser, which would control a transmitter sending signals to earth, and a Doppler transponder operating in the two-way mode. The use of simultaneous one- and two-way Doppler transmissions offers four time records of frequency pulsations, which can reveal gravitational radiation at 1-10 MHz with an amplitude accuracy of a factor of six. The first mission phase would consist of a Shuttle launch into a highly eccentric orbit to obtain measurements of the gravitational redshift using gravitational potentials of different earth regions to establish that gravity is describable by a metric theory. Then, after a boost into a heliocentric orbit at 6 AU, the earth-satellite system could detect gravitational waves in the solar system, as well as bursts emitted by the collisions of supermassive black holes.
Gravity field of Kuwait and its relevance to major geological structures
Warsi, W.E.K. )
1990-10-01
Regional gravity surveys were done in the state of Kuwait during 1986-1988. The new gravity maps show a good correlation with geomorphological features as well as with deeper geological structures. The free-air anomaly map clearly reflects the topography of the Jal Az Zor and Ahmadi ridges, and Wadi Al-Batin. The Bouguer anomaly map is dominated by two prominent gravity highs correlatable with subsurface structural arches. The north-trending gravity high in eastern Kuwait represents the effect of a major structure, the Kuwait arch, along which many important oil fields are located. A smaller northwest-trending high mapped in western Kuwait indicates the presence of a second subsurface arch, which in this paper is named the Dibdibba arch. The two gravity highs are separated by a wedge-shaped gravity low presumably caused by thicker sediments of the Dibdibba basin. Magnetic measurements along selected profiles show the two arches to be associated with 100-200-nT (nannotesla) anomalies apparently reflecting the positive subsurface relief of the crystalline basement. Along the length of the Kuwait arch, magnetic data also indicate lateral susceptibility variations possibly related to lithological variations within the basement.
The JPL lunar gravity field to spherical harmonic degree 660 from the GRAIL Primary Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Asmar, Sami W.; Watkins, Michael M.; Williams, James G.; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2013-07-01
The lunar gravity field and topography provide a way to probe the interior structure of the Moon. Prior to the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, knowledge of the lunar gravity was limited mostly to the nearside of the Moon, since the farside was not directly observable from missions such as Lunar Prospector. The farside gravity was directly observed for the first time with the SELENE mission, but was limited to spherical harmonic degree n ≤ 70. The GRAIL Primary Mission, for which results are presented here, dramatically improves the gravity spectrum by up to ~4 orders of magnitude for the entire Moon and for more than 5 orders-of-magnitude over some spectral ranges by using interspacecraft measurements with near 0.03 μm/s accuracy. The resulting GL0660B (n = 660) solution has 98% global coherence with topography to n = 330, and has variable regional surface resolution between n = 371 (14.6 km) and n = 583 (9.3 km) because the gravity data were collected at different spacecraft altitudes. The GRAIL data also improve low-degree harmonics, and the uncertainty in the lunar Love number has been reduced by ~5× to k2 = 0.02405 ± 0.00018. The reprocessing of the Lunar Prospector data indicates ~3× improved orbit uncertainty for the lower altitudes to ~10 m, whereas the GRAIL orbits are determined to an accuracy of 20 cm.
On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.
2016-07-01
A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.
Antarctic Tectonics: Constraints From an ERS-1 Satellite Marine Gravity Field
McAdoo; Laxon
1997-04-25
A high-resolution gravity field of poorly charted and ice-covered ocean near West Antarctica, from the Ross Sea east to the Weddell Sea, has been derived with the use of satellite altimetry, including ERS-1 geodetic phase, wave-form data. This gravity field reveals regional tectonic fabric, such as gravity lineations, which are the expression of fracture zones left by early (65 to 83 million years ago) Pacific-Antarctic sea-floor spreading that separated the Campbell Plateau and New Zealand continent from West Antarctica. These lineations constrain plate motion history and confirm the hypothesis that Antarctica behaved as two distinct plates, separated from each other by an extensional Bellingshausen plate boundary active in the Amundsen Sea before about 61 million years ago. PMID:9110969
Farside gravity field of the moon from four-way Doppler measurements of SELENE (Kaguya).
Namiki, Noriyuki; Iwata, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Koji; Hanada, Hideo; Noda, Hirotomo; Goossens, Sander; Ogawa, Mina; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Sei-Itsu; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho; Aoshima, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Sugita, Seiji; Takano, Tadashi
2009-02-13
The farside gravity field of the Moon is improved from the tracking data of the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) via a relay subsatellite. The new gravity field model reveals that the farside has negative anomaly rings unlike positive anomalies on the nearside. Several basins have large central gravity highs, likely due to super-isostatic, dynamic uplift of the mantle. Other basins with highs are associated with mare fill, implying basalt eruption facilitated by developed faults. Basin topography and mantle uplift on the farside are supported by a rigid lithosphere, whereas basins on the nearside deformed substantially with eruption. Variable styles of compensation on the near- and farsides suggest that reheating and weakening of the lithosphere on the nearside was more extensive than previously considered. PMID:19213911
Liquid Droplet Dynamics in Gravity Compensating High Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bojarevics, V.; Easter, S.; Pericleous, K.
2012-01-01
Numerical models are used to investigate behavior of liquid droplets suspended in high DC magnetic fields of various configurations providing microgravity-like conditions. Using a DC field it is possible to create conditions with laminar viscosity and heat transfer to measure viscosity, surface tension, electrical and thermal conductivities, and heat capacity of a liquid sample. The oscillations in a high DC magnetic field are quite different for an electrically conducting droplet, like liquid silicon or metal. The droplet behavior in a high magnetic field is the subject of investigation in this paper. At the high values of magnetic field some oscillation modes are damped quickly, while others are modified with a considerable shift of the oscillating droplet frequencies and the damping constants from the non-magnetic case.
A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration
Mark Zumberge
2011-09-30
Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.
Combination of various observation techniques for regional modeling of the gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Börger, Klaus
2016-05-01
Modeling a very broad spectrum of the Earth's gravity field needs observations from various measurement techniques with different spectral sensitivities. Typically, high-resolution regional gravity data are combined with low-resolution global observations. To exploit the gravitational information as optimally as possible, we set up a regional modeling approach using radial spherical basis functions, emphasizing the strengths of various data sets by the flexible combination of high- and middle-resolution terrestrial, airborne, shipborne, and altimetry measurements. The basis functions are defined and located in the region of interest in such a manner, which the highest measure of information of the input data is captured. Any functional of the Earth's gravity field can be derived, as, e.g., quasi-geoid heights or gravity anomalies. Here we present results of a study area in Northern Germany. A comprehensive cross validation to external observation data delivers standard deviations less than 5 cm. Differences to an existing regional quasi-geoid model count on average ±6 cm and proof the plausibility of our solution. The comparison with existing global models reaches higher standard deviations for the more sensitive gravity anomalies as for quasi-geoid heights, showing the additional value of our solution in the high frequency domain. Covering a broad frequency spectrum, our regional models can be used as basis for various applications, such as refinement of global models, national geoid determination, and detection of mass anomalies in the Earth's interior.
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.
2015-01-01
The relative gravimeter is the primary terrestrial instrument for measuring spatially and temporally varying gravitational fields. The background noise of the instrument—that is, non-linear drift and random tares—typically requires some form of least-squares network adjustment to integrate data collected during a campaign that may take several days to weeks. Here, we present an approach to remove the change in the observed relative-gravity differences caused by hydrologic or other transient processes during a single campaign, so that the adjusted gravity values can be referenced to a single epoch. The conceptual approach is an example of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion, by which a hydrologic model is used to inform and constrain the geophysical forward model. The hydrologic model simulates the spatial variation of the rate of change of gravity as either a linear function of distance from an infiltration source, or using a 3-D numerical groundwater model. The linear function can be included in and solved for as part of the network adjustment. Alternatively, the groundwater model is used to predict the change of gravity at each station through time, from which the accumulated gravity change is calculated and removed from the data prior to the network adjustment. Data from a field experiment conducted at an artificial-recharge facility are used to verify our approach. Maximum gravity change due to hydrology (observed using a superconducting gravimeter) during the relative-gravity field campaigns was up to 2.6 μGal d−1, each campaign was between 4 and 6 d and one month elapsed between campaigns. The maximum absolute difference in the estimated gravity change between two campaigns, two months apart, using the standard network adjustment method and the new approach, was 5.5 μGal. The maximum gravity change between the same two campaigns was 148 μGal, and spatial variation in gravity change revealed zones of preferential infiltration and areas of relatively
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferré, Ty P. A.
2016-02-01
The relative gravimeter is the primary terrestrial instrument for measuring spatially and temporally varying gravitational fields. The background noise of the instrument-that is, non-linear drift and random tares-typically requires some form of least-squares network adjustment to integrate data collected during a campaign that may take several days to weeks. Here, we present an approach to remove the change in the observed relative-gravity differences caused by hydrologic or other transient processes during a single campaign, so that the adjusted gravity values can be referenced to a single epoch. The conceptual approach is an example of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion, by which a hydrologic model is used to inform and constrain the geophysical forward model. The hydrologic model simulates the spatial variation of the rate of change of gravity as either a linear function of distance from an infiltration source, or using a 3-D numerical groundwater model. The linear function can be included in and solved for as part of the network adjustment. Alternatively, the groundwater model is used to predict the change of gravity at each station through time, from which the accumulated gravity change is calculated and removed from the data prior to the network adjustment. Data from a field experiment conducted at an artificial-recharge facility are used to verify our approach. Maximum gravity change due to hydrology (observed using a superconducting gravimeter) during the relative-gravity field campaigns was up to 2.6 μGal d-1, each campaign was between 4 and 6 d and one month elapsed between campaigns. The maximum absolute difference in the estimated gravity change between two campaigns, two months apart, using the standard network adjustment method and the new approach, was 5.5 μGal. The maximum gravity change between the same two campaigns was 148 μGal, and spatial variation in gravity change revealed zones of preferential infiltration and areas of relatively high
Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanzi, A.
2015-07-01
Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints.
Shape, Mean Radius, Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Callisto
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, J.; Jacobson, R.; McElrath, T.; Schubert, G.; Moore, W.; Thomas, P.
2000-01-01
Radio Doppler data generated by the Deep Space Network (DSN) from five encounters of the Galileo spacecraft with Callisto, Jupiter's outermost Galilean satellite, have been used to determine the quadrupole moments of the satellite's external gravitational field.
Improved LRO orbit determination and LOLA science using the GRAIL gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft mission has enabled the recovery of the global lunar gravity field to better accuracy and better spatial resolution (degree and order 420) than previous missions (150, and with poorer farside coverage). A solution produced at GSFC with the GEODYN software was evaluated with the tracking data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the altimetric data from the onboard Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). We show that the overlaps between adjacent reconstructed trajectory arcs, indicative of the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction, are significantly improved, from the 10-20m level with the LLGM-1 field to the 5-10m level. This is especially notable because the GRAIL field is completely independent of LRO data. Radially, the overlap study indicates accuracies better than 50cm, compared to 1-1.5m previously using LRO-based gravity fields. The gravity field can also be tuned to LRO orbits by including the LRO tracking data in the gravity inversion. This will allow lower-degree fields to perform well, but it will not improve the absolute accuracy is not improved. With more than three years of continuous data collected by LOLA, there exist tens of millions of altimetric crossovers. While most of the crossovers occur near the poles, the expected tidal deformation is larger outside of the polar regions. In addition, we focus on crossovers occurring between two five-beam (dayside) tracks because they provide strong constraints on their relative positions, which combine remaining orbital errors and tidal signal. We discuss the implications of having very accurate trajectories thanks to GRAIL for the analysis of the LOLA topographic data.
Stabilization of Satellite derived Gravity Field Coefficients by Earth Rotation Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heiker, A.; Kutterer, H.; Müller, J.
2009-04-01
Recent gravity field missions (e.g. GRACE) provide monthly solutions for the time-variable Earth gravity field. However, the low-degree harmonic coefficients are poorly resolved, especially those of degree 2. The Earth rotation parameters (ERP), consisting of polar motion and lod, and the gravity field coefficients (GFC) of degree 2 are linked by the Euler-Liouville Equation. Thus the consideration of ERP time series helps to improve the estimates of GFC2. Due to the covariances between the GFC of degree 2 and further low-degree gravity field coefficients (up to degree 10) the residuals of the first group of coefficients has to be propagated to the second group in order to guarantee an overall consistency. Previous work has shown a significant influence of ERP on GFC up to degree 4 with the results depending on the covariances assumed a priori. This presentation shows the result of a consistent joint analysis of GRACE derived GFC and ERP in an extended Gauss-Helmert model which includes a sophisticated variance-covariance component estimation (VCCE). As the covariances of the GRACE derived GFC are largely not known, some different variance-covariance structures are assumed and estimated with the VCCE. The results are compared and discussed.
Kinematic space-baselines and their use for gravity field recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggi, Adrian; Bock, Heike; Meyer, Ulrich; Arnold, Daniel; Dahle, Christoph
Kinematic positions of individual low Earth orbiting satellites equipped with spaceborne GPS receivers have been widely used to determine the long wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. GPS-derived relative kinematic positions (space-baselines) of formation flying satellites may be used as additional pseudo-observations to support long wavelength gravity field recovery. In preparation for the Swarm data analysis we review the principles of gravity field determination from kinematic baseline data (Jäggi et al. 2009, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-85426-5_14) and extend them towards a more flexible combination with the contribution from the absolute kinematic positions. Kinematic baselines will be treated in close analogy to GRACE inter-satellite K-Band measurements, but instead of the inter-satellite biased range observations the (unbiased) components of the inter-satellite distance vector will be used as additional pseudo-observations. Covariance information from the kinematic baseline determination will be used to properly weight the baseline contribution in the combination with the normal equations stemming from the absolute kinematic positions. GPS data from the GRACE mission will be used to study different baseline processing options and to assess the benefit for long wavelength gravity field determination.
Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.
1994-01-01
Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.
Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.
Constraining the magnetic field in GRB relativistic collisionless shocks using radio data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barniol Duran, R.
2014-08-01
Using gamma-ray burst (GRB) radio afterglow observations, we calculate the fraction of shocked plasma energy in the magnetic field in relativistic collisionless shocks (ɛB). We obtained ɛB for 38 bursts by assuming that the radio afterglow light curve originates in the external forward shock, and that its peak at a few to tens of days is due to the passage of the minimum (injection) frequency through the radio band. This allows for the determination of the peak synchrotron flux of the external forward shock, fp, which is f_p ∝ ɛ _B^{1/2}. The obtained value of ɛB is conservatively a minimum if the time of the `jet break' is unknown, since after the `jet break' fp is expected to decay with time faster than before it. Claims of `jet breaks' have been made for a subsample of 23 bursts, for which we can estimate a measurement of ɛB. Our results depend on the blast wave total energy, E, and the density of the circumstellar medium (CSM), n, as ɛB ∝ E-2n-1. However, by assuming a CSM magnetic field (˜10 μG), we can express the lower limits/measurements on ɛB as a density-independent ratio, B/Bsc, of the magnetic field behind the shock to the CSM shock-compressed magnetic field. We find that the distribution on both the lower limit on and the measurement of B/Bsc spans ˜3.5 orders of magnitude and both have a median of B/Bsc ˜ 30. This suggests that some amplification, beyond simple shock compression, is necessary to explain these radio afterglow observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, J. E.
2005-02-01
Theoretical progress on the GEM (Gravity-Electro-Magnetism) unification theory is summarized as applied to human flight and dynamically modified gravity fields and waves, as well as progress towards a GEMS (GEMStrong) theory. The GEM theory in the static Newtonian limit is the portion of the Kaluza-Klein action that is quadratic in first derivatives of the metric and in Poynting Flux that appears in the form of a VBE ("Vacuum Bernoulli Equation"). This shows Gravitational energy density to be equated to an EM dynamic pressure that is quadratic in the local Poynting Flux: g2/(2π G) + S2/(c2 L)= Constant, where g and S are the local gravity and Poynting vector magnitudes, respectively, and where L is the Lagrangian density of the vacuum EM field. The VBE can be used to understand anomalous weight loss reported in gyroscope experiments and to understand possible gravity modification for human flight. The GEM gravity modification theory is extended to predict a VHE (Vacuum Hall Effect). Methods for creating dynamic gravity fields via VHE for production and detection of high frequency gravity fields involve electric quadrapole fields normal to static magnetic fields. In terms of fundamental GEM theory, the important value of the proton to electron mass ratio Rm =1836 in the theory is linked, via the MIT Bag Model, to the value of the reciprocal fine structure constant: Rm=αs/α where αs =13.34 is the asymptotic Strong Force coupling constant. An experiment was performed using this theory that validated the anomalous gyroscope effects predicted by Kosyrev and others, that rotating EM fields appear to create lifting forces. The theory appears to offer insights into enhanced forms of propellant-less propulsion.
On the source of cross-grain lineations in the central Pacific gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcadoo, David C.; Sandwell, David T.
1989-01-01
The source of cross-grain lineations in marine gravity field observed in central Pacific was investigated by comparing multiple collinear gravity profiles from Geosat data with coincident bathymetry profiles, in the Fourier transform domain. Bathymetric data were collected by multibeam sonar systems operating from two research vessels, one in June-August 1985, the other in February and March 1987. The results of this analysis indicate that the lineations are superficial features that appear to result from a combination of subsurface and surface loads supported by a thin (2 km to 5 km) lithosphere.
A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION
Mark Zumberge
2003-06-13
At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.
Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
Screening modifications of gravity through disformally coupled fields.
Koivisto, Tomi S; Mota, David F; Zumalacárregui, Miguel
2012-12-14
It is shown that extensions to general relativity, which introduce a strongly coupled scalar field, can be viable if the interaction has a nonconformal form. Such disformal coupling depends upon the gradients of the scalar field. Thus, if the field is locally static and smooth, the coupling becomes invisible in the Solar System: this is the disformal screening mechanism. A cosmological model is considered where the disformal coupling triggers the onset of accelerated expansion after a scaling matter era, giving a good fit to a wide range of background observational data. Moreover, the interaction leaves signatures in the formation of large-scale structure that can be used to probe such couplings. PMID:23368299
Complete gravity field of an ellipsoidal prism by Gauss-Legendre quadrature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roussel, C.; Verdun, J.; Cali, J.; Masson, F.
2015-12-01
The increasing availability of geophysical models of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle has generated renewed interest in computation of theoretical gravity effects at global and regional scales. At the same time, the increasing availability of gravity gradient anomalies derived from satellite measurements, such as those provided by GOCE satellite, requires mathematical methods that directly model the gravity gradient anomalies in the same reference frame as GOCE gravity gradients. Our main purpose is to interpret these anomalies in terms of source and density distribution. Numerical integration methods for calculating gravity gradient values are generally based on a mass discretization obtained by decomposing the Earth's layers into a finite number of elementary solid bodies. In order to take into account the curvature of the Earth, spherical prisms or `tesseroids' have been established unequivocally as accurate computation tools for determining the gravitational effects of large-scale structures. The question which then arises from, is whether gravity calculation methods using spherical prisms remain valid when factoring in the ellipticity of the Earth. In the paper, we outline a comprehensive method to numerically compute the complete gravity field with the help of the Gauss-Legendre quadrature involving ellipsoidal shaped prisms. The assessment of this new method is conducted by comparison between the gravity gradient values of simple sources obtained by means of numerical and analytical calculations, respectively. A comparison of the gravity gradients obtained from PREM and LITHO1.0 models using spherical- and ellipsoidal-prism-based methods is also presented. Numerical results indicate that the error on gravity gradients, caused by the use of the spherical prism instead of its ellipsoidal counterpart to describe an ellipsoidally shaped Earth, is useful for a joint analysis with those deduced from GOCE satellite measurements. Provided that a suitable scaling
Comparison of GOCE-GPS gravity fields derived by different approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baur, O.; Bock, H.; Höck, E.; Jäggi, A.; Krauss, S.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Reubelt, T.; Siemes, C.; Zehentner, N.
2014-10-01
Several techniques have been proposed to exploit GNSS-derived kinematic orbit information for the determination of long-wavelength gravity field features. These methods include the (i) celestial mechanics approach, (ii) short-arc approach, (iii) point-wise acceleration approach, (iv) averaged acceleration approach, and (v) energy balance approach. Although there is a general consensus that—except for energy balance—these methods theoretically provide equivalent results, real data gravity field solutions from kinematic orbit analysis have never been evaluated against each other within a consistent data processing environment. This contribution strives to close this gap. Target consistency criteria for our study are the input data sets, period of investigation, spherical harmonic resolution, a priori gravity field information, etc. We compare GOCE gravity field estimates based on the aforementioned approaches as computed at the Graz University of Technology, the University of Bern, the University of Stuttgart/Austrian Academy of Sciences, and by RHEA Systems for the European Space Agency. The involved research groups complied with most of the consistency criterions. Deviations only occur where technical unfeasibility exists. Performance measures include formal errors, differences with respect to a state-of-the-art GRACE gravity field, (cumulative) geoid height differences, and SLR residuals from precise orbit determination of geodetic satellites. We found that for the approaches (i) to (iv), the cumulative geoid height differences at spherical harmonic degree 100 differ by only ; in the absence of the polar data gap, SLR residuals agree by . From our investigations, we conclude that real data analysis results are in agreement with the theoretical considerations concerning the (relative) performance of the different approaches.
A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION
Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa
2004-05-19
Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/03 to 3/18/04. During this time, significant advancement in the 3-D gravity forward modeling code was made. Testing of the numerical accuracy of the code was undertaken using both a sheet of mass and a frustum of a cone for test cases. These were chosen because of our ability to do an analytic calculation of gravity for comparison. Tests were also done to determine the feasibility of using point mass approximations rather than cuboids for the forward modeling code. After determining that the point mass approximation is sufficient (and over six times faster computationally), several CO{sub 2} models were constructed and the time-lapse gravity signal was calculated from each. From these models, we expect to see a gravity change ranging from 3-16 {micro}Gal/year, depending on reservoir conditions and CO{sub 2} geometry. While more detailed modeling needs to be completed, these initial results show that we may be able to learn a great deal about the state of the CO{sub 2} from the time-lapse gravity results. Also, in December of 2003, we presented at the annual AGU meeting in San Francisco.
Wavelet modelling of the gravity field by domain decomposition methods: an example over Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panet, Isabelle; Kuroishi, Yuki; Holschneider, Matthias
2011-01-01
With the advent of satellite gravity, large gravity data sets of unprecedented quality at low and medium resolution become available. For local, high resolution field modelling, they need to be combined with the surface gravity data. Such models are then used for various applications, from the study of the Earth interior to the determination of oceanic currents. Here we show how to realize such a combination in a flexible way using spherical wavelets and applying a domain decomposition approach. This iterative method, based on the Schwarz algorithms, allows to split a large problem into smaller ones, and avoids the calculation of the entire normal system, which may be huge if high resolution is sought over wide areas. A subdomain is defined as the harmonic space spanned by a subset of the wavelet family. Based on the localization properties of the wavelets in space and frequency, we define hierarchical subdomains of wavelets at different scales. On each scale, blocks of subdomains are defined by using a tailored spatial splitting of the area. The data weighting and regularization are iteratively adjusted for the subdomains, which allows to handle heterogeneity in the data quality or the gravity variations. Different levels of approximations of the subdomains normals are also introduced, corresponding to building local averages of the data at different resolution levels. We first provide the theoretical background on domain decomposition methods. Then, we validate the method with synthetic data, considering two kinds of noise: white noise and coloured noise. We then apply the method to data over Japan, where we combine a satellite-based geopotential model, EIGEN-GL04S, and a local gravity model from a combination of land and marine gravity data and an altimetry-derived marine gravity model. A hybrid spherical harmonics/wavelet model of the geoid is obtained at about 15 km resolution and a corrector grid for the surface model is derived.
Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.
Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea
2008-07-01
The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%. PMID:18599782
Tunneling in quantum field theory and semiclassical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohns, Dan Funch
In this dissertation we discuss aspects of the transitions between metastable vacua in scalar field theories. These transitions are caused by nucleation of bubbles of one vacuum in a background of another vacuum, and may have relevance in cosmology. Such processes are typically exponentially suppressed in the height and width of the barriers between the vacua. We demonstrate several scenarios where this intuition fails. We use a functional Schrodinger approach to show that tunneling of a scalar field through two barriers can be exponentially faster than tunneling through a single barrier. We determine the conditions that the effective potential must satisfy for a large enhancement in the tunneling rate to be possible. Both the tunneling rate to nearby vacua and to distant vacua in field space can be enhanced by this process. It may be possible to test this phenomenon using superfluid Helium-3. Nucleation of the B phase in samples of the supercooled A phase of superfluid Helium-3 is observed in seconds or minutes, while the characteristic decay time is calculated to be longer than the age of the universe. We propose a resolution to this discrepancy using resonant tunneling. This explanation makes the distinctive prediction that there exist multiple peaks in the nucleation probability as a function of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Next we investigate in detail Coleman-de Luccia tunneling. We show that there are four types of tunneling, depending on the importance of thermal and horizon effects. We estimate corrections to the Hawking-Moss tunneling rate, which can be large. Finally, the tunneling rate for a scalar field described by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action is calculated in the Hawking-Moss limit using a stochastic approach.
The gravity field in the central Pacific from satellite-to-satellite tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Marsh, B. D.; Williamson, R. G.; Wells, W. T.
1981-01-01
Satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking between the ATS 6 and the GEOS 3 spacecraft was used to measure the high-degree and high-order gravity field over an 80-deg region in the central Pacific Ocean. Forty passes of GEOS 3/ATS 6 Doppler data have been analyzed. The precision of these range rate data is about 0.3 mm/s, and the line-of-sight gravity anomalies recovered from these data have a precision of about 0.2 mGal at the GEOS 3 altitude of about 840 km. In general, the agreement between the SST-derived map and the conventional GEM method and an altimeter-derived geoid is good. Eight significant positive gravity anomalies were exposed in the central Pacific. Generally speaking, the anomalies form a roughly east-west pattern of alternating sign in the central region, and near the East Pacific they strike about north and south.
Gravity as an internal Yang-Mills gauge field theory of the Poincaré group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, Jörg; Nitsch, Jürgen
1981-10-01
In the framework of affine bundles we present gravity as an “internal” gauge field theory of the Poincaré group. The resulting geometry is a Riemann-Cartan space-time carrying torsion and curvature. In order to admit a nontrivial action of the translation group we formally extend the matter Lagrangian to affine field variables. Finally, we establish the relation of our approach with the formalism of Hehl et al.
The effect of ULF compressional modes and field line resonances on relativistic electron dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degeling, A. W.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.; Marchand, R.; Mann, I. R.
2007-04-01
The adiabatic, drift-resonant interaction between relativistic, equatorially mirroring electrons and a ULF compressional wave that couples to a field line resonance (FLR) is modelled. Investigations are focussed on the effect of azimuthal localisation in wave amplitude on the electron dynamics. The ULF wave fields on the equatorial plane (r, φ) are modelled using a box model [Zhu, X., Kivelson, M.G., 1988. Analytic formulation and quantitative solutions of the coupled ULF wave problem. J. Geophys. Res. 93(A8), 8602-8612], and azimuthal variations are introduced by adding a discrete spectrum of azimuthal modes. Electron trajectories are calculated using drift equations assuming constant magnetic moment M, and the evolution of the distribution function f(r,φ,M,t) from an assumed initial condition is calculated by assuming f remains constant along electron trajectories. The azimuthal variation in ULF wave structure is shown to have a profound effect on the electron dynamics once a threshold in azimuthal variation is exceeded. Electron energy changes occur that are significantly larger than the trapping width corresponding to the maximum wave amplitude. We show how this can be explained in terms of the overlap of multiple resonance islands, produced by the introduction of azimuthal amplitude variation. This anomalous energisation is characterised by performing parameter scans in the modulation amplitude ɛ and the wave electric field. A simple parametric model for the threshold is shown to give reasonable agreement with the threshold observed in the electron dynamics model. Above the threshold, the radial transport averaged over φ is shown to become diffusive in nature over a timescale of about 25 wave periods. The anomalous energisation described in this paper occurs over the first 15 wave periods, indicating the importance of convective transport in this process.
Towards consolidated science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, R.; Braitenberg, C. F.; Eicker, A.; Floberghagen, R.; Forsberg, R.; Haagmans, R.; Horwath, M.; Kusche, J.; Labrecque, J. L.; Panet, I.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Schröter, J.; Wouters, B.
2013-12-01
As a joint initiative of the IAG (International Association of Geodesy) Sub-Commissions 2.3 and 2.6, the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) Working Group on Satellite Missions, and the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics), we target on the consolidation of science requirements for a next generation gravity field mission (beyond GRACE-FO). Several future gravity field studies have resulted in quite different performance numbers as a target for a future gravity mission (2025+), and a consolidation within the different user groups is required, under the boundary condition of the technical feasibility of the mission concepts and before the background of double- and multi-pair formations. Therefore, this initiative shall concentrate on the consolidation of the science requirements, and should result in a document that can be used as a solid basis for further programmatic and technological developments. Based on limited number of realistic mission scenarios, a consolidated view on the science requirements within the international user communities shall be derived, research fields that could not be tackled by current gravity missions shall be identified, and the added value (qualitatively and quantitatively) of these scenarios with respect to science return shall be evaluated. The final science requirements shall be agreed upon during a workshop which is planned for the second half of 2014. In this contribution, the mission scenarios will be discussed and first results of the consolidation process will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo
2016-06-01
In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Separating Behavior of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Molten Aluminum Under Super-Gravity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Gaoyang; Song, Bo; Yang, Yuhou; Yang, Zhanbing; Xin, Wenbin
2015-10-01
A new approach to separating nonmetallic inclusions from aluminum melt by super gravity was investigated. To figure out the separating characteristics of inclusions under super-gravity field, the aluminum melt containing MgAl2O4 spinel particles was treated with different separating times at 1023 K (750 °C). The significant region with inclusion accumulated appears in the bottom area of the sample obtained by centrifugal separation, and thickness of the region decreases with the increase of the separating time; especially, at the gravity coefficient G = 20, time t = 5 minutes, all inclusions nearly migrate to the bottom of the sample. In addition, the volume fraction, number density, and average size of inclusions gradually increase in the samples along the direction of super gravity, and the distributed gradients of inclusions become sharper with the increase of the separating time. Moreover, the moving velocities of inclusions were theoretical studied for the first time. The moving velocities obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical ones calculated by Stokes' law at G ≤ 20, t ≤ 2 minutes. However, there are obvious differences between the experimental and theoretical moving velocities under the conditions of G ≥ 100, t = 2 minutes. It is indicated that Stokes' law is applicable to the melt with low gravity coefficient in this system.
Gravity waves observation of wind field in stratosphere based on a Rayleigh Doppler lidar.
Zhao, Ruocan; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Xue, Xianghui; Zheng, Jun; Han, Yuli; Chen, Tingdi; Wang, Guocheng; Zhou, Yingjie
2016-03-21
Simultaneous wind and temperature measurements in stratosphere with high time-spatial resolution for gravity waves study are scarce. In this paper we perform wind field gravity waves cases in the stratosphere observed by a mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar. This lidar system with both wind and temperature measurements were implemented for atmosphere gravity waves research in the altitude region 15-60 km. Observations were carried out for two periods of time: 3 months started from November 4, 2014 in Xinzhou, China (38.425°N,112.729°E) and 2 months started from October 7, 2015 in Jiuquan, China (39.741°N, 98.495°E) . The mesoscale fluctuations of the horizontal wind velocity and the two dimensional spectra analysis of these fluctuations show the presence of dominant oscillatory modes with wavelength of 4-14 km and period of around 10 hours in several cases. The simultaneous temperature observations make it possible to identify gravity wave cases from the relationships between different variables: temperature and horizontal wind. The observed cases demonstrate the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar's capacity to study gravity waves. PMID:27136878
A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration
Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner
2005-12-13
Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727
Fully Relativistic Simulations of Black Holes and Neutron Stars with Global Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motl, Patrick
We propose to conduct fully relativistic simulations of the merger of compact objects to investigate their connection to the population of short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma ray bursts. In particular, we will explore possible observational signatures that may lead to the simultaneous study of such mergers through both their gravitational radiation and through an electromagnetic counterpart. The combination of so-called multi-messenger observations can yield significantly more astrophysical content than either gravitational radiation or electromagnetic radiation alone. Through the work described herein to extend our previous efforts we will arrive at a numerical tool set that allows us to simulate the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or with a black hole that include (i) full general relativity, (ii) a hydrodynamic treatment of the neutron star material, (iii) electromagnetic fields in both the stellar material and globally and (iv) a treatment of energy transport and losses via neutrinos. These physics modules run within the publicly available, distributed adaptive mesh refinement framework (named HAD) developed by our collaboration. The numerical tools that we develop and release will likely be of use in other areas of computational astrophysics. Furthermore, predications and the interpretation of the signatures from compact object mergers may make a timely contribution to current efforts to study these systems observationally as well as efforts underway to detect these mergers through their gravitational radiation for the first time.
Kaon Condensation and Lambda-Nucleon Loop in the Relativistic Mean-Field Approach
Tomoyuki Maruyama; Takumi Muto; Toshitaka Tatsumi; Kazuo Tsushima; Anthony W. Thomas
2005-02-24
The possibility of kaon condensation in high-density symmetric nuclear matter is investigated including both s- and p-wave kaon-baryon interactions within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory. Above a certain density, we have a collective K{sub s} state carrying the same quantum numbers as the antikaon. The appearance of the K{sub s} state is caused by the time component of the axial-vector interaction between kaons and baryons. It is shown that the system becomes unstable with respect to condensation of K-Kbar{sub s} pairs. We consider how the effective baryon masses affect the kaon self-energy coming from the time component of the axial-vector interaction. Also, the role of the spatial component of the axial-vector interaction on the possible existence of the collective kaonic states is discussed in connection with Lambda-mixing effects in the ground state of high-density matter. Implications of K-Kbar{sub s} condensation for high-energy heavy-ion collisions are briefly mentioned.
Relativistic self-consistent mean-field description of Sm isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, Afaque; Ahmad, Shakeb
2015-12-01
The evolution of the shape from the spherical to the axially deformed shapes of the neutron-rich, even-even Sm-164144 transitional nuclei is investigated. The investigations are performed with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon and point-coupling models within the framework of the covariant density functional theory. A nonlinear meson-nucleon coupling model represented by the NL3* parametrization of the relativistic mean-field Lagrangian has also been used. The bulk and the microscopic properties of these nuclei have been investigated to analyze the phase-transition region and the critical-point behavior. The microscopic and self-consistent quadrupole deformation-constrained calculations show a clear shape change for even-even Sm isotopes with N =82 -102 . The potential energy surfaces for 148Sm,150Sm , and 152Sm obtained using different interactions are found to be relatively flat, which may be the possible critical-point nuclei. By examining the single-particle spectra, it is found that these nuclei distribute more uniformly as compared to other isotopes. Investigations also support the proposed shell-closure properties of 162Sm. Overall good agreement is found within the different models used and between the calculated and experimental results wherever available.
General relativistic considerations of the field shedding model of fast radio bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punsly, Brian; Bini, Donato
2016-06-01
Popular models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) involve the gravitational collapse of neutron star progenitors to black holes. It has been proposed that the shedding of the strong neutron star magnetic field (B) during the collapse is the power source for the radio emission. Previously, these models have utilized the simplicity of the Schwarzschild metric which has the restriction that the magnetic flux is magnetic `hair' that must be shed before final collapse. But neutron stars have angular momentum and charge and a fully relativistic Kerr-Newman solution exists in which B has its source inside of the event horizon. In this Letter, we consider the magnetic flux to be shed as a consequence of the electric discharge of a metastable collapsed state of a Kerr-Newman black hole. It has also been argued that the shedding model will not operate due to pair creation. By considering the pulsar death line, we find that for a neutron star with B = 1011-1013 G and a long rotation period, >1s this is not a concern. We also discuss the observational evidence supporting the plausibility of magnetic flux shedding models of FRBs that are spawned from rapidly rotating progenitors.
AIUB-RL02: an improved time-series of monthly gravity fields from GRACE data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, U.; Jäggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Beutler, G.
2016-05-01
The new release AIUB-RL02 of monthly gravity models from GRACE GPS and K-Band range-rate data is based on reprocessed satellite orbits referring to the reference frame IGb08. The release is consistent with the IERS2010 conventions. Improvements with respect to its predecessor AIUB-RL01 include the use of reprocessed (RL02) GRACE observations, new atmosphere and ocean dealiasing products (RL05), an upgraded ocean tide model (EOT11A), and the interpolation of shallow ocean tides (admittances). The stochastic parametrization of AIUB-RL02 was adapted to include daily accelerometer scale factors, which drastically reduces spurious signal at the 161 d period in C20 and at other low degree and order gravity field coefficients. Moreover, the correlation between the noise in the monthly gravity models and solar activity is considerably reduced in the new release. The signal and the noise content of the new AIUB-RL02 monthly gravity fields are studied and calibrated errors are derived from their non-secular and non-seasonal variability. The short-period time-variable signal over the oceans, mostly representing noise, is reduced by 50 per cent with respect to AIUB-RL01. Compared to the official GFZ-RL05a and CSR-RL05 monthly models, the AIUB-RL02 stands out by its low noise at high degrees, a fact emerging from the estimation of seasonal variations for selected river basins and of mass trends in polar regions. Two versions of the monthly AIUB-RL02 gravity models, with spherical harmonics resolution of degree and order 60 and 90, respectively, are available for the time period from March 2003 to March 2014 at the International Center for Global Earth Models or from ftp://ftp.unibe.ch/aiub/GRAVITY/GRACE (last accessed 22 March 2016).
AIUB-RL02: an improved time series of monthly gravity fields from GRACE data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, U.; Jäggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Beutler, G.
2016-03-01
The new release AIUB-RL02 of monthly gravity models from GRACE GPS and K-Band range-rate data is based on reprocessed satellite orbits referring to the reference frame IGb08. The release is consistent with the IERS2010 conventions. Improvements with respect to its predecessor AIUB-RL01 include the use of reprocessed (RL02) GRACE observations, new atmosphere and ocean dealiasing products (RL05), an upgraded ocean tide model (EOT11A), and the interpolation of shallow ocean tides (admittances). The stochastic parametrization of AIUB-RL02 was adapted to include daily accelerometer scale factors, which drastically reduces spurious signal at the 161 day period in C20 and at other low degree and order gravity field coefficients. Moreover, the correlation between the noise in the monthly gravity models and solar activity is considerably reduced in the new release. The signal and the noise content of the new AIUB-RL02 monthly gravity fields are studied and calibrated errors are derived from their non-secular and non-seasonal variability. The short-period time-variable signal over the oceans, mostly representing noise, is reduced by 50% with respect to AIUB-RL01. Compared to the official GFZ-RL05a and CSR-RL05 monthly models, the AIUB-RL02 stands out by its low noise at high degrees, a fact emerging from the estimation of seasonal variations for selected river basins and of mass trends in polar regions. Two versions of the monthly AIUB-RL02 gravity models, with spherical harmonics resolution of degree and order 60 and 90, respectively, are available for the time period from March 2003 to March 2014 at the International Center for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) or from ftp://ftp.unibe.ch/aiub/GRAVITY/GRACE
Gravity and duality between coordinates and matter fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vancea, I. V.
2000-05-01
We use the duality between the local Cartezian coordinates and the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation to parametrize locally the spacetime in terms of wave functions and prepotentials. The components of metric, metric connection, curvature as well as the Einstein equation are given in this parametrization. We also discuss the local duality between coordinates and quantum fields and the metric in this later reparametrization.
Perturbations of the Richardson number field by gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.
1985-01-01
An analytic solution is presented for a stratified fluid of arbitrary constant Richardson number. By computer aided analysis the perturbation fields, including that of the Richardson number can be calculated. The results of the linear analytic model were compared with nonlinear simulations, leading to the following conclusions: (1) the perturbations in the Richardson number field, when small, are produced primarily by the perturbations of the shear; (2) perturbations of in the Richardson number field, even when small, are not symmetric, the increase being significantly larger than the decrease (the linear analytic solution and the nonlinear simulations both confirm this result); (3) as the perturbations grow, this asymmetry increases, but more so in the nonlinear simulations than in the linear analysis; (4) for large perturbations of the shear flow, the static stability, as represented by N2, is the dominating mechanism, becoming zero or negative, and producing convective overturning; and (5) the convectional measure of linearity in lee wave theory, NH/U, is no longer the critical parameter (it is suggested that (H/u sub 0) (du sub 0/dz) takes on this role in a shearing flow).
Mandea, Mioara; Panet, Isabelle; Lesur, Vincent; de Viron, Olivier; Diament, Michel; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis
2012-11-20
To understand the dynamics of the Earth's fluid, iron-rich outer core, only indirect observations are available. The Earth's magnetic field, originating mainly within the core, and its temporal variations can be used to infer the fluid motion at the top of the core, on a decadal and subdecadal time-scale. Gravity variations resulting from changes in the mass distribution within the Earth may also occur on the same time-scales. Such variations include the signature of the flow inside the core, though they are largely dominated by the water cycle contributions. Our study is based on 8 y of high-resolution, high-accuracy magnetic and gravity satellite data, provided by the CHAMP and GRACE missions. From the newly derived geomagnetic models we have computed the core magnetic field, its temporal variations, and the core flow evolution. From the GRACE CNES/GRGS series of time variable geoid models, we have obtained interannual gravity models by using specifically designed postprocessing techniques. A correlation analysis between the magnetic and gravity series has demonstrated that the interannual changes in the second time derivative of the core magnetic field under a region from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean coincide in phase with changes in the gravity field. The order of magnitude of these changes and proposed correlation are plausible, compatible with a core origin; however, a complete theoretical model remains to be built. Our new results and their broad geophysical significance could be considered when planning new Earth observation space missions and devising more sophisticated Earth's interior models. PMID:23064635
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santiago, L.; Guzman, A.
2007-05-01
We present a summary and comments on the laboratory and field course in potential field methods in Geophysical Engineering at UNAM. The one-semester course and laboratory and field exercises are an integral part of the curricula, and we comment on the education-learning processes from the viewpoint of the students. The field exercises are designed to assist students to gain empirical knowledge about field methodologies. The experience also allows conduct work as a team, permitting a greater understanding of the professional activities in exploration of natural resources. Access to other educational experiences and resources in universities and industry, including international opportunities are thought highly beneficial. The field training area is located in central Mexico in the Altiplano. The study area is characterized by Upper Cretaceous sedimentary formations, mainly limestones and lutites within the unconformity of El Doctor and Soyatal Formations. Area is located north of Cadereyta, State of Queretaro For data acquisition, profiles oriented E-W and N-S were used. In the neighborhood of Agua Salada bridge, Bouguer gravity values increase showing local maxima. Magnetics were used to locate discordant lithological contact. Gravity and magnetic measurements were taken throughout presumed contact so that through data processing a 3-D model could be obtained. Main purpose of exercise is practical, students compare gravity and magnetic responses with geologic situation characterizing this area. On the basis of field-collected data and mapping, processing was made in the laboratory, including interpretation, through standard algorithms of 2-D modeling. Our interpretations correlate well with surface geology, photographs of outcrops, and stratigraphy. Gravity and magnetics give us a 3-D image of the subsurface and stratigraphy of study area, including structural conditions. We could observe the presence of associated magnetic dipoles at unconformity plane
Representation of the Gravity Field of Irregularly Shaped Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimond, Stefan; Baur, Oliver
2015-04-01
Exploratory space missions to small bodies in our solar system have gained importance over the last few decades. The well-renowned mission Rosetta set a milestone in space science history when it successfully lowered its mini-lab Philae onto the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014. Knowledge of the gravitational field of a small body, e.g. a comet or asteroid, is crucial in order to study a spacecraft's motion in its environment and to infer geophysical properties. Traditionally, the gravitational field of a body is modeled by means of spherical harmonics. For bodies of near-spherical shape (such as the Earth), this is an adequate method, because the reference figure, i.e. a sphere, snugly fits the body. For irregularly shaped bodies, however, the adoption of spherical harmonics might be a sub-optimal choice. As an alternative, oblate or prolate spheroidal harmonics (OH or PH, reference figure is an ellipsoid of revolution) or ellipsoidal harmonics (EH, reference figure is a tri-axial ellipsoid) should be considered. The latter will in general be the best choice in terms of aptness of the reference figure. The downside of EH, however, lies in the considerably increased (numerical) complexity of the computation of the base functions, i.e., the Lamé functions of the first and second kind. OH or PH represent a promising path down the middle. Elongated bodies (such as Asteroid 433 Eros) are often similarly well approximated by a prolate spheroid as by the corresponding tri-axial ellipsoid. Contracted bodies, on the other hand, can be described accordingly well by means of an oblate spheroid. We compare the SH, OH, PH and EH gravitational field parameterizations for different celestial bodies, including Rosetta's target comet 67P. The tasks are as follows: Based on the polyhedral representation of a body's shape model, the gravitational potential and acceleration vector is computed for evenly or irregularly distributed points inside or outside
Micro-gravity: current distributions creating a uniform force field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent-Viry, O.; Mailfert, A.; Colteu, A.; Dael, A.; Gourdin, C.; Quettier, L.
2001-02-01
This paper presents two structures of superconducting coils able to give satisfactory solutions to the problem of generation of uniform field of high magnetic forces. The first structure is modeled by the use of purely surface current densities, whereas the second one can be described with volume current densities. Both of these structures proceed from the study of a particular expression of the complex magnetic potential introduced for structures with two-dimensional geometry. This work is carried out in a research collaboration between the GREEN and the DSM-DAPNIA department of the CEA Saclay.
Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.
2014-03-15
We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle.
Self-dual Maxwell field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
We study the system of a self-dual Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, with the Maxwell field modified by a topological mass term. General structure of the field equations reveals a new, dynamical role of the classical central charges, and gives a simple correspondence between self-dual solutions with torsion and their Riemannian counterparts. We construct two exact self-dual solutions, corresponding to the sectors with a massless and massive Maxwell field, and calculate their conserved charges.