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1

Role of relaxation time scale in noisy signal transduction

Intracellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and quantify Fano factor and mutual information. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input populatio...

Maity, Alok Kumar; Banik, Suman K

2014-01-01

2

By now it is well established that the structural ?-relaxation time, ?(?), of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, ?(?) is a function ? of the product variable, ?(?)/T, where ? is the density and T the temperature. The constant ? as well as the function, ?(?) = ?(?(?)/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of ?(?) on ?(?)/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation time, ?(?), or the primitive relaxation time, ?(0), of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between ?(?) and ?(?) or ?(0) to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO(3))(2)·3KNO(3) (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ?(?)/T with the same ?. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, ?(N), is another function of ?(?)/T with the same ? as segmental relaxation time ?(?). (6) While the data of ?(?) from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances. PMID:22830715

Ngai, K L; Habasaki, J; Prevosto, D; Capaccioli, S; Paluch, Marian

2012-07-21

3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By now it is well established that the structural ?-relaxation time, ??, of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, ?? is a function ? of the product variable, ??/T, where ? is the density and T the temperature. The constant ? as well as the function, ?? = ?(??/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of ?? on ??/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation time, ??, or the primitive relaxation time, ?0, of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between ?? and ?? or ?0 to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ??/T with the same ?. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, ?N, is another function of ??/T with the same ? as segmental relaxation time ??. (6) While the data of ?? from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.

Ngai, K. L.; Habasaki, J.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.; Paluch, Marian

2012-07-01

4

L-251 Time scale considerations on the relaxation of electronic and vibrational energy plus signibcatifs. Les rÃ©sultats du calcul montrent que les collisions Ã©lectroniques sur l of the electron energy distribution function (edf) in vibrationally excited N2 post discharges has been analysed

Boyer, Edmond

5

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

2014-01-01

6

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-01-21

7

Relaxation dynamics and evidence of scaling behaviours in aqueous polymer solutions

Some Brillouin scattering experiments on aqueous solution of Polyethylene glycol and Polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether are presented. In all the systems non-Debye relaxation processes have been detected, occurring on the picosecond time scale. The average values of the relaxation time distributions fail to follow simple Arrhenius behaviours. The temperature evolution of the relaxation time is adequately fitted after the adoption

F. Aliotta; R. C. Ponterio; F. Saija; J. Gapi?ski; M. Pochylski

2011-01-01

8

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of searches for the neutron electric dipole moment using ultra cold neutrons will use polarized ^3He as a co-magnetometer. The first such experiment has been proposed, with a goal of improving the current limit on the neutron EDM by two orders of magnitude. This experiment requires a systematic study of the properties of polarized ^3He at cryogenic temperatures under actual experimental conditions. These experimental conditions include polarized ^3He mixed in a bath of superfluid ^4He in low magnetic field and held in an acrylic cell which is coated with deuterated TetraphenylButadiene . Parts of these systematic studies will be done at Duke University using a newly built, novel refillable double cell ^3 He polarizer based on spin exchange optical pumping with Rubidium vapor. The polarimetry for this apparatus is done with a NMR polarimeter using the adiabatic fast passage method. An alternate polarimeter using free induction decay method is also being built. This apparatus is being used to study the relaxation time and other critical properties of polarized ^3He at temperatures ranging from 2.3 - 4.2 K, under simulated experimental conditions. We will present details about this novel polarizer and show preliminary results of our measurements.

Gao, Hayian

2004-10-01

9

Structural relaxation is a scale-free process.

We show that in deeply supercooled liquids, structural relaxation proceeds via the accumulation of Eshelby events, i.e. local rearrangements that create long-ranged and anisotropic stresses in the surrounding medium. Such events must be characterized using tensorial observables and we construct an analytical framework to probe their correlations using local stress data. By analyzing numerical simulations, we then demonstrate that events are power-law correlated in space, with a time-dependent amplitude which peaks at the alpha relaxation time ?(?). This effect, which becomes stronger near the glass transition, results from the increasingly important role of local stress fluctuations in facilitating relaxation events. Our finding precludes the existence of any length scale beyond which the relaxation process decorrelates. PMID:25541780

Lemaître, Anaël

2014-12-12

10

Structural Relaxation is a Scale-Free Process

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in deeply supercooled liquids, structural relaxation proceeds via the accumulation of Eshelby events, i.e. local rearrangements that create long-ranged and anisotropic stresses in the surrounding medium. Such events must be characterized using tensorial observables and we construct an analytical framework to probe their correlations using local stress data. By analyzing numerical simulations, we then demonstrate that events are power-law correlated in space, with a time-dependent amplitude which peaks at the alpha relaxation time ??. This effect, which becomes stronger near the glass transition, results from the increasingly important role of local stress fluctuations in facilitating relaxation events. Our finding precludes the existence of any length scale beyond which the relaxation process decorrelates.

Lemaître, Anaël

2014-12-01

11

Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100?ns. PMID:23612294

Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph

2013-01-01

12

Relaxation time of non-conformal plasma

We study effective relaxation time of viscous hydrodynamics of strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma using gauge theory/string theory correspondence. We compute leading corrections to the conformal plasma relaxation time from the relevant deformations due to dim-2 and dim-3 operators. We discuss in details the relaxation time tau_eff of N=2^* plasma. For a certain choice of masses this theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). Although the bulk viscosity remains finite all the way to the critical temperature, we find that tau_eff diverges near the critical point as tau_eff ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2).

Alex Buchel

2009-11-27

13

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the mechanisms of nuclear magnetic relaxation, and applications of relaxation times. The measurement of spin-lattice relaxations is reviewed. It is stressed that sophisticated techniques such as these are becoming more important to the working chemist. (CW)

Wink, Donald J.

1989-01-01

14

Serpentine channels: micro -- rheometers for fluid relaxation times

We propose a novel device capable of measuring the relaxation time of viscoelastic fluids as small as 1\\,ms. In contrast to most rheometers, which by their very nature are concerned with producing viscometric or nearly-viscometric flows, here we make use of an elastic instability which occurs in the flow of viscoelastic fluids with curved streamlines. To calibrate the rheometer we combine simple scaling arguments with relaxation times obtained from first normal-stress difference data measured in a classical shear rheometer. As an additional check we also compare these relaxation times to those obtained from Zimm theory and good agreement is observed. Once calibrated, we show how the serpentine rheometer can be used to access smaller polymer concentrations and lower solvent viscosities where classical measurements become difficult or impossible to use due to inertial and/or resolution limitations. In the absence of calibration the serpentine channel can still be a very useful comparative or index device.

Zilz, Josephine; Wagner, Christian; Poole, Robert J; Alves, Manuel A; Lindner, Anke

2013-01-01

15

Serpentine channels: micro -- rheometers for fluid relaxation times

We propose a novel device capable of measuring the relaxation time of viscoelastic fluids as small as 1\\,ms. In contrast to most rheometers, which by their very nature are concerned with producing viscometric or nearly-viscometric flows, here we make use of an elastic instability which occurs in the flow of viscoelastic fluids with curved streamlines. To calibrate the rheometer we combine simple scaling arguments with relaxation times obtained from first normal-stress difference data measured in a classical shear rheometer. As an additional check we also compare these relaxation times to those obtained from Zimm theory and good agreement is observed. Once calibrated, we show how the serpentine rheometer can be used to access smaller polymer concentrations and lower solvent viscosities where classical measurements become difficult or impossible to use due to inertial and/or resolution limitations. In the absence of calibration the serpentine channel can still be a very useful comparative or index device.

Josephine Zilz; Christof Schäfer; Christian Wagner; Robert J. Poole; Manuel A. Alves; Anke Lindner

2013-10-06

16

In entangled polymer systems, there are several characteristic time scales, such as the entanglement time and the disengagement time. In molecular simulations, the longest relaxation time (the disengagement time) can be determined by the mean square displacement (MSD) of a segment or by the shear relaxation modulus. Here, we propose the relative fluctuation analysis method, which is originally developed for characterizing large fluctuations, to determine the longest relaxation time from the center of mass trajectories of polymer chains (the time-averaged MSDs). Applying the method to simulation data of entangled polymers (by the slip-spring model and the simple reptation model), we provide a clear evidence that the longest relaxation time is estimated as the crossover time in the relative fluctuations. PMID:22998286

Uneyama, Takashi; Akimoto, Takuma; Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

2012-09-21

17

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In entangled polymer systems, there are several characteristic time scales, such as the entanglement time and the disengagement time. In molecular simulations, the longest relaxation time (the disengagement time) can be determined by the mean square displacement (MSD) of a segment or by the shear relaxation modulus. Here, we propose the relative fluctuation analysis method, which is originally developed for characterizing large fluctuations, to determine the longest relaxation time from the center of mass trajectories of polymer chains (the time-averaged MSDs). Applying the method to simulation data of entangled polymers (by the slip-spring model and the simple reptation model), we provide a clear evidence that the longest relaxation time is estimated as the crossover time in the relative fluctuations.

Uneyama, Takashi; Akimoto, Takuma; Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

2012-09-01

18

Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond with Long Spin Relaxation Times

The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance (MR), such as 13C-labeled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarizaton technique is the inherently short spin relaxation times, typically < 60 seconds for 13C liquid-state compounds, which limit the time that the signal remains boosted. Here, we demonstrate that 1.1% natural abundance 13C spins in synthetic nanodiamond (ND) can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of toxic free- radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 hour. Combined with the already established applications of NDs in the life-sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized MR.

Ewa Rej; Torsten Gaebel; Thomas Boele; David E. J. Waddington; David J. Reilly

2015-02-22

19

Scaling behaviour of relaxation dependencies in metaloxide superconductors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Superconducting glass state has been investigated in different types of metaloxide ceramics, Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Ba-Pb-Bi-O, using the highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer. The analysis of long-time relaxation processes of thermoremanent magnetization m(sup trm) (+) = M(sub o) - Slnt displayed scaling dependence of the decay rate S = -dM/dlnt on quantity of trapped magnetic flux M(sub o): 1gs = 31g M(sub o) - observed universal dependence S is approximately M(sup 3) (sub o) seems to one of the features of superconducting glass state in metaloxide ceramics.

Sidorenko, A. S.; Panaitov, G. I.; Gabovich, A. M.; Moiseev, D. P.; Postnikov, V. M.

1990-01-01

20

Universal Bound on Dynamical Relaxation Time from Condition for Relaxing Quantity to be Classical

It is shown that the Hod's universal bound on the relaxation time of a perturbed system \\cite{hod} can be derived from a well-known condition for a relaxing quantity to be classical in the fluctuation theory.

K. Ropotenko

2007-06-07

21

MR relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid.

A review of 15 recent publications purporting to provide the relaxation times of CSF reveals a considerable disparity in the quoted results, by a factor of five in terms of T1 (range 1,000 to 5,500 ms) and by a factor of 16 for T2 (range 166 to 2,640 ms). In this article measurements are performed independently on both a spectrometer and an imager. The results indicate that for CSF T1 is greater than 3,000 ms and T2 is approximately 2,000 ms at 6 MHz. The vast differences in relaxation behaviour between CSF and other body tissues have considerable clinical implications and present profound diagnostic opportunities. The application of this knowledge to ventriculography, myelography, and image contrast methodology is discussed. PMID:3819116

Condon, B; Patterson, J; Jenkins, A; Wyper, D; Hadley, D; Grant, R; Rowan, J; Teasdale, G

1987-01-01

22

A Scale Measuring the Ability To Relax Others.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research developed and validated a self-reported instrument called the "Relaxing Others Scale" (ROS), which is designed to identify individuals who possess the ability to relax others. A second part of the study involved assessing the construct validity of the ROS. Participants in the study were male and female dormitory residents,…

Oliver, Peter V.; Boudreau, Louis A.

23

Estimation of spin-echo relaxation time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spin-echo-based EPR oximetry, traditional methods to estimate the T2 relaxation time, which encodes the oxygen concentration of the sample, include fitting an exponential to the peaks or the integrated areas of multiple noisy echoes. These methods are suboptimal and result in a loss of estimation precision for a given acquisition time. Here, we present the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of T2 from spin-echo data. The MLE provides, for the data considered, approximately 3-fold time savings over echo-integration and more than 40-fold time savings over peak-picking. A one-dimensional line search results in simple computation of the MLE. It is observed that, perhaps counter-intuitively, prior knowledge of the lineshape does not yield additional reduction of estimation error variance at practical noise levels. The result also illuminates the near optimal performance of T2 estimation via principal components calculated by a singular value decomposition. The proposed method is illustrated by application to simulated and experimental EPR data.

Golub, F.; Potter, L. C.; Ash, J. N.; Blank, A.; Ahmad, R.

2013-12-01

24

Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times.

As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model. PMID:22400705

Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

2012-01-01

25

Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

M. Pelc; J. Marciak-Kozlowska; M. Kozlowski

2007-11-11

26

Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation time T 1 plays an important role in magnetic resonance because it provides significant information about the coupling of a paramagnetic ion with its environment via its dependence on such factors as temperature, frequency (Scott & Jefferies, 1962; Kurtz & Stapleton, 1980), spin concentration (Gill, 1962), and magnetic field (Albart & Pescia, 1980; Nogatchewsky et al., 1977). But the measurement of electronic spin-lattice relaxation times is problematic because the times span the range from the very short (10-15 s) to the very long (1 s; cf. Pescia, 1966). The one microsecond spin-lattice relaxation time demarcates "short" from "long" relaxation times, which traditionally have each required their own methods of measurement. For example, long relaxation times are measured by using cw-EPR spectrometers to record spectra at multiple power levels near and under the condition of saturation; the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times are then calculated from lineshape parameters. But the so-called short relaxation times are not measurable on the time scale of common cw-EPR instrumental detection methods. Short spin-lattice relaxation times are therefore measured by resorting to different (i.e., transient) magnetic resonance techniques such as pulsed saturation, spin echo (cf. Poole & Farach, 1971), and amplitude modulation (Hervé & Pescia, 1960a,b).

Lopez, Robert

27

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

28

Analysis of anelastic relaxations controlled by a spectrum of relaxation times

Anelastic studies, although they have provided an important method for investigating the mobility of point defects in solids, have often been difficult to analyze when a continuous spectra of relaxation times controls the anelastic response. This paper describes a new method for obtaining accurate estimates of relaxation time spectra by direct analysis (without prior assumptions) of the data using a nonlinear regression method. Applications to internal friction and anelastic creep results are described with emphasis upon the internal friction technique. 5 references.

Cost, J.R.

1983-01-01

29

Theory of the short time mechanical relaxation in articular cartilage.

Articular cartilage is comprised of macromolecules, proteoglycans, with (charged) chondroitin sulfate side-chains attached to them. The proteoglycans are attached to longer hyaluronic acid chains, trapped within a network of type II collagen fibrils. As a consequence of their relatively long persistence lengths, the number of persistence lengths along the chondroitin sulfate and proteoglycan chains is relatively small, and consequently, the retraction times for these side chains are also quite short. We argue that, as a consequence of this, they will not significantly inhibit the reptation of the hyaluronic acid chains. Scaling arguments applied to this model allow us to show that the shortest of the mechanical relaxation times of cartilage, that have been determined by Fyhrie and Barone to be due to reptation of the hyaluronic acid polymers, should have a dependence on the load, i.e., force per unit interface area P, carried by the cartilage, proportional to P(3/2). PMID:22070338

Ruberti, J W; Sokoloff, J B

2011-10-01

30

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann models in three dimensions.

This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of 15-velocity and 19-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re = 500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation. PMID:16214687

D'Humières, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi

2002-03-15

31

Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

32

Nonequilibrium relaxation and aging scaling of the Coulomb and Bose glass

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the nonequilibrium relaxation properties of the two- and three-dimensional Coulomb glass with different long-range repulsive interactions. Specifically, we explore the aging scaling laws in the two-time density autocorrelation function. We find that, in the time window and parameter range accessible to us, the scaling exponents are not universal, depending on the filling fraction and temperature: As either the temperature decreases or the filling fraction deviates more from half filling, the exponents reflect markedly slower relaxation kinetics. In comparison with a repulsive Coulomb potential, appropriate for impurity states in strongly disordered semiconductors, we observe that, for logarithmic interactions, the soft pseudogap in the density of states is considerably broader, and the dependence of the scaling exponents on external parameters is much weaker. The latter situation is relevant for flux creep in the disorder-dominated Bose glass phase of type-II superconductors subject to columnar pinning centers.

Shimer, Matthew T.; Täuber, Uwe C.; Pleimling, Michel

2014-09-01

33

Measurement of longitudinal relaxation times for spin-decoupled protons.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of an experimental method for the determination of the longitudinal relaxation time for spin-decoupled protons by a modified version of the saturation recovery technique reported by Van Geet and Hume (1965). The described method should facilitate relaxation studies of chemically shifted protons (or fluorines) and can be applied to more complicated spin systems with the aid of triple resonance and noise-decoupling techniques.

Gerace, M. J.; Kuhlmann, K. F.

1972-01-01

34

Subsecond pore-scale displacement processes and relaxation dynamics in multiphase flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent advances at X-ray microcomputed tomography (?CT) synchrotron beam lines, it is now possible to study pore-scale flow in porous rock under dynamic flow conditions. The collection of four-dimensional data allows for the direct 3-D visualization of fluid-fluid displacement in porous rock as a function of time. However, even state-of-the-art fast-?CT scans require between one and a few seconds to complete and the much faster fluid movement occurring during that time interval is manifested as imaging artifacts in the reconstructed 3-D volume. We present an approach to analyze the 2-D radiograph data collected during fast-?CT to study the pore-scale displacement dynamics on the time scale of 40 ms which is near the intrinsic time scale of individual Haines jumps. We present a methodology to identify the time intervals at which pore-scale displacement events in the observed field of view occur and hence, how reconstruction intervals can be chosen to avoid fluid-movement-induced reconstruction artifacts. We further quantify the size, order, frequency, and location of fluid-fluid displacement at the millisecond time scale. We observe that after a displacement event, the pore-scale fluid distribution relaxes to (quasi-) equilibrium in cascades of pore-scale fluid rearrangements with an average relaxation time for the whole cascade between 0.5 and 2.0 s. These findings help to identify the flow regimes and intrinsic time and length scales relevant to fractional flow. While the focus of the work is in the context of multiphase flow, the approach could be applied to many different ?CT applications where morphological changes occur at a time scale less than that required for collecting a ?CT scan.

Armstrong, Ryan T.; Ott, Holger; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Rücker, Maja; Schwing, Alex; Berg, Steffen

2014-12-01

35

Subsecond pore-scale displacement processes and relaxation dynamics in multiphase flow

With recent advances at X-ray microcomputed tomography (?CT) synchrotron beam lines, it is now possible to study pore-scale flow in porous rock under dynamic flow conditions. The collection of four-dimensional data allows for the direct 3-D visualization of fluid-fluid displacement in porous rock as a function of time. However, even state-of-the-art fast-?CT scans require between one and a few seconds to complete and the much faster fluid movement occurring during that time interval is manifested as imaging artifacts in the reconstructed 3-D volume. We present an approach to analyze the 2-D radiograph data collected during fast-?CT to study the pore-scale displacement dynamics on the time scale of 40 ms which is near the intrinsic time scale of individual Haines jumps. We present a methodology to identify the time intervals at which pore-scale displacement events in the observed field of view occur and hence, how reconstruction intervals can be chosen to avoid fluid-movement-induced reconstruction artifacts. We further quantify the size, order, frequency, and location of fluid-fluid displacement at the millisecond time scale. We observe that after a displacement event, the pore-scale fluid distribution relaxes to (quasi-) equilibrium in cascades of pore-scale fluid rearrangements with an average relaxation time for the whole cascade between 0.5 and 2.0 s. These findings help to identify the flow regimes and intrinsic time and length scales relevant to fractional flow. While the focus of the work is in the context of multiphase flow, the approach could be applied to many different ?CT applications where morphological changes occur at a time scale less than that required for collecting a ?CT scan.

Armstrong, Ryan T; Ott, Holger; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Rücker, Maja; Schwing, Alex; Berg, Steffen

2014-01-01

36

Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times

Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.

Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. (Baba Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

1990-01-01

37

Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity.

Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks. The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased. Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing. PMID:25460243

Droit-Volet, S; Fanget, M; Dambrun, M

2015-01-01

38

Current fluctuations for totally asymmetric exclusion on the relaxation scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluctuations of the current for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process with L sites are studied in the relaxation regime of times T˜ {{L}3/2}. Using Bethe ansatz for the periodic system with an evolution conditioned on special initial and final states, the Fourier transform of the probability distribution of the fluctuations is calculated exactly in the thermodynamic limit L\\to ? with finite density of particles. It is found to be equal to a sum over discrete realizations of a scalar field in a linear potential with coupling constant equal to the rescaled time T/{{L}3/2}.

Prolhac, Sylvain

2015-02-01

39

Time scales for sonoluminescence

The establishment of stable sonoluminescence from a single trapped bubble of air in water requires more than 5 s. During this time the bubble goes through a transition period (about 1 s long) that is characterized by an emitted intensity which is over ten times smaller than the steady state. Pure noble gas bubbles turn on to their steady state values on a much shorter time scale (say less than 0.2 s). During the transient period light from an air bubble is weaker than light from an Argon bubble but in the steady state the air bubble is brighter. In view of the long time scale required for the establishment of sonoluminescence from a single bubble of air it is concluded that this is a fundamentally different phenomenon from the transient multibubble sonoluminescence that has been studied since its discovery in 1934. [Work supported by the U.S. DOE Division of Advanced Energy Projects.

Weninger, K.; Hiller, R.; Putterman, S.; Barber, B.P. (Phys. Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States))

1994-11-01

40

Analysis of White Noise Limits for Stochastic Systems with Two Fast Relaxation Times

In this paper we present a rigorous asymptotic analysis for stochastic systems with two fast relaxation times. The mathematical model analyzed in this paper consists of a Langevin equation for the particle motion with time-dependent force constructed through an infinite dimensional Gaussian noise process. We study the limit as the particle relaxation time as well as the correlation time of the noise tend to zero and we obtain the limiting equations under appropriate assumptions on the Gaussian noise. We show that the limiting equation depends on the relative magnitude of the two fast time scales of the system. In particular, we prove that in the case where the two relaxation times converge to zero at the same rate there is a drift correction, in addition to the limiting It\\^{o} integral, which is not of Stratonovich type. If, on the other hand, the colored noise is smooth on the scale of particle relaxation then the drift correction is the standard Stratonovich correction. If the noise is rough on this scale then there is no drift correction. Strong (i.e. pathwise) techniques are used for the proof of the convergence theorems.

G. A. Pavliotis; A. M. Stuart

2005-04-16

41

Vibrational relaxation in jet-cooled alkyl benzenes. III. Nanosecond time evolution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrally resolved fluorescence time decay measurements have been completed with nanosecond resolution on a series of n-alkylbenzenes laser excited into well-localized ring distortion vibrations in the S1 electronic state. Results indicate that those early members of the series which continue to exhibit some sharp, vibrationally unrelaxed emissions do so because they are intermediate case examples with inadequate density of states to permit dynamical relaxation on a nanosecond time scale. The longer chain, statistical limit molecules show a relaxed fluorescence pattern which displays no residual nanosecond time evolution. Intramolecular vibrational relaxation thus appears to proceed to an essentially complete randomization within a time period shorter than the excitation laser pulse.

Hopkins, J. B.; Powers, D. E.; Smalley, R. E.

1980-07-01

42

Similarity and scaling in creep and load relaxation of single-crystal halite (NaCl)

This work explores the physical basis for Hart's mechanical equation of state in high-temperature plasticity. The experiments seek to identify a possible microstructural basis for the “hardness” parameters associated with load relaxation curves. The experiments also seek to examine the microstructural basis for scaling in load relaxation data and to explore the relationship between creep and load relaxation. Constant stress

Donald S. Stone; Thawatchai Plookphol; Reid F. Cooper

2004-01-01

43

Similarity and scaling in creep and load relaxation of single-crystal halite (NaCl)

This work explores the physical basis for Hart's mechanical equation of state in high-temperature plasticity. The experiments seek to identify a possible microstructural basis for the ``hardness'' parameters associated with load relaxation curves. The experiments also seek to examine the microstructural basis for scaling in load relaxation data and to explore the relationship between creep and load relaxation. Constant stress

Donald S. Stone; Thawatchai Plookphol; Reid F. Cooper

2004-01-01

44

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

45

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

46

Characteristic relaxation times and their invariance to thermodynamic conditions

-Debye behavior; (ii) the dynamic crossover at which derivatives of the relaxation time and strength exhibit the nature of the intermolecular potential, thus providing fundamental insights into chemical structure evident when crystallization is avoided (for example, by quenching); temperature changes near the glass

Weeks, Eric R.

47

Modeling the relaxation time of DNA confined in a nanochannel

Using a mapping between a Rouse dumbbell model and fine-grained Monte Carlo simulations, we have computed the relaxation time of ?-DNA in a high ionic strength buffer confined in a nanochannel. The relaxation time thus obtained agrees quantitatively with experimental data [Reisner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 196101 (2005)] using only a single O(1) fitting parameter to account for the uncertainty in model parameters. In addition to validating our mapping, this agreement supports our previous estimates of the friction coefficient of DNA confined in a nanochannel [Tree et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 228105 (2012)], which have been difficult to validate due to the lack of direct experimental data. Furthermore, the model calculation shows that as the channel size passes below approximately 100?nm (or roughly the Kuhn length of DNA) there is a dramatic drop in the relaxation time. Inasmuch as the chain friction rises with decreasing channel size, the reduction in the relaxation time can be solely attributed to the sharp decline in the fluctuations of the chain extension. Practically, the low variance in the observed DNA extension in such small channels has important implications for genome mapping. PMID:24309551

Tree, Douglas R.; Wang, Yanwei; Dorfman, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

48

Phenomenological Theory of the Translational Relaxation Times in Gases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exact solution to the classical equations governing the translational dispersion and absorption of sound in a gas obscures its relaxational character because of its mathematical complexity. The approach taken here is to solve the secular equation by the method of Pade approximants, which even to the relatively low order R(sub 11) yields a remarkably close approximation to the exact solution over a wide range of frequency/pressure (f/P) ratios. As a result, translational relaxation can be formulated in terms of a conventional relaxation process with well-defined relaxation times, relaxation strength, collision numbers, additivity relations, etc. To extend the theory to high values of f/P ratio, a model is proposed to account for the noncontinuum behavior of the transport coefficients (viscosity and thermal conductivity) as the molecular mean free path approaches the acoustical enclosure dimensions. The theoretical dispersion and absorption show good agreement with measurements in argon over the classical and transition regions of f/P, but a discrepancy appears at higher values of f/P, where collective propagating modes, assumed in the theory, give way to single-particle modes, prevailing in the experiments.

Zuckerwar, Allan J.

1999-01-01

49

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pore length scales and pore surface relaxivities of rock cores with different lithologies were studied on a 2 MHz Rock Core Analyzer. To determine the pore length scales of the rock cores, the high eigenmodes of spin bearing molecules satisfying the diffusion equation were detected with optimized encoding periods in the presence of internal magnetic fields Bin. The results were confirmed using a 64 MHz NMR system, which supports the feasibility of high eigenmode detection at fields as low as 2 MHz. Furthermore, this methodology was combined with relaxometry measurements to a two-dimensional experiment, which provides correlation between pore length and relaxation time. This techniques also yields information on the surface relaxivity of the rock cores. The estimated surface relaxivities were then compared to the results using an independent NMR method.

Liu, Huabing; Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Obruchkov, Sergei; Galvosas, Petrik

2014-09-01

50

Shear viscosity, relaxation and collision times in spherically symmetric spacetimes

We interpret as shear viscosity the anisotropic pressure that emerges in inhomogeneous spherically symmetric spacetimes described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric in a comoving frame. By assuming that local isotropic pressure and energy density satisfy a generic ideal gas equation of state, we reduce the field equations to a set of evolution equations based on auxiliary quasi-local variables. We examine the transport equation of shear viscosity from Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and use a numerical solution of the evolution equations to obtain the relaxation times for the full and "truncated" versions. Considering a gas of cold dark matter WIMPS after its decoupling from the cosmic fluid, we show that the relaxation times for the general equation are qualitatively analogous to collision times, while the truncated version is inadequate to describe transient phenomena of transition to equilibrium.

Roberto A Sussman

2008-12-23

51

Temperature of the Magnetic Nanoparticle Microenvironment: Estimation from Relaxation Times

Accurate temperature measurements are essential to safe and effective thermal therapies for cancer and other diseases. However, conventional thermometry is challenging so using the heating agents themselves as probes allows for ideal local measurements. Here, we present a new noninvasive method for measuring the temperature of the microenvironment surrounding magnetic nanoparticles from the Brownian relaxation time of nanoparticles. Experimentally, the relaxation time can be determined from the nanoparticle magnetization induced by an alternating magnetic field at various applied frequencies. A previously described method for nanoparticle temperature estimation used a low frequency Langevin function description of magnetic dipoles and varied the excitation field amplitude to estimate the energy state distribution and the corresponding temperature. We show that the new method is more accurate than the previous method at higher applied field frequencies that push the system farther from equilibrium. PMID:24556943

Perreard, IM; Reeves, DB; Zhang, X; Kuehlert, E; Forauer, ER; Weaver, JB

2014-01-01

52

Temperature of the magnetic nanoparticle microenvironment: estimation from relaxation times.

Accurate temperature measurements are essential to safe and effective thermal therapies for cancer and other diseases. However, conventional thermometry is challenging so using the heating agents themselves as probes allows for ideal local measurements. Here, we present a new noninvasive method for measuring the temperature of the microenvironment surrounding magnetic nanoparticles from the Brownian relaxation time of nanoparticles. Experimentally, the relaxation time can be determined from the nanoparticle magnetization induced by an alternating magnetic field at various applied frequencies. A previously described method for nanoparticle temperature estimation used a low frequency Langevin function description of magnetic dipoles and varied the excitation field amplitude to estimate the energy state distribution and the corresponding temperature. We show that the new method is more accurate than the previous method at higher applied field frequencies that push the system farther from equilibrium. PMID:24556943

Perreard, I M; Reeves, D B; Zhang, X; Kuehlert, E; Forauer, E R; Weaver, J B

2014-03-01

53

Intermittent compression stress relaxation (CSR) testing was used to examine the degradation of a large scale chloroprene\\u000a rubber (CR) O-ring, rather than a reduced scale copy, as well as predict its life-time. An intermittent CSR jig was designed\\u000a by considering the O-ring’s environment during use. The testing allowed the observation of the effects of friction, heat loss\\u000a and stress relaxation

Jin Hyok Lee; Jong Woo Bae; Jung Su Kim; Tae Jun Hwang; Sung Doo Park; Sung Han Park; Tae Min Yeo; Wonho Kim; Nam-Ju Jo

2011-01-01

54

Relaxation Time and Conductivity at a Rural Station: Raicbur

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An examination of decay and growth rates of electric field near the ground during total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980 was made to study the electrical relaxation time and conductivity at Raichur. The Values obtained i.e., 1320 seconds and 67.1163 x 10-16 mhos m-1 of the two parameters were in fair agreement with the reported ones at the rural locations.

Manohar, G. K.; Kandalgaonkar, S. S.; Sholapurkar, S. M.

1991-08-01

55

Damping effects in doped graphene: The relaxation-time approximation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical conductivity of interacting multiband electronic systems derived by Kup?i? et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 90, 145602 (2013), 10.1088/0953-8984/25/14/145602] is shown to be consistent with the general form of the Ward identity. Using the semiphenomenological form of this conductivity formula, we have demonstrated that the relaxation-time approximation can be used to describe the damping effects in weakly interacting multiband systems only if local charge conservation in the system and gauge invariance of the response theory are properly treated. Such a gauge-invariant response theory is illustrated on the common tight-binding model for conduction electrons in doped graphene. The model predicts two distinctly resolved maxima in the energy-loss-function spectra. The first one corresponds to the intraband plasmons (usually called the Dirac plasmons). On the other hand, the second maximum (? plasmon structure) is simply a consequence of the Van Hove singularity in the single-electron density of states. The dc resistivity and the real part of the dynamical conductivity are found to be well described by the relaxation-time approximation, but only in the parametric space in which the damping is dominated by the direct scattering processes. The ballistic transport and the damping of Dirac plasmons are thus the problems that require abandoning the relaxation-time approximation.

Kup?i?, I.

2014-11-01

56

Direct evidence for mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation from quantum time 2008; accepted 3 December 2008; published online 13 January 2009 The time scales and mechanisms of mode-Markovian time-dependent perturbation theory and density functional theory calculation. Seven normal modes

Straub, John E.

57

Objective The objective of this study is to examine the local relationship between T1? relaxation times and the mechanical behavior of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and local in situ microindentation. Methods Seven human tibial plateaus were obtained from patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty due to severe OA. Three to six sites were selected from each sample for visual classification using the ICRS Outerbridge scale (total thirty-six sites). Samples were imaged by MR, and the local distribution of T1? relaxation times were obtained at these selected sites. The elastic and the viscoelastic characteristics of the tissue were quantified non-destructively using dynamic microindentation to measure peak dynamic modulus, energy dissipation, and phase angle. Results Measured Outerbridge scores, MR T1? relaxation times and mechanical properties were highly heterogeneous across each cartilage surface. Site-specific measures of T1? relaxation times correlated significantly with the phase angle (p < 0.001; R = 0.908), a viscoelastic mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Conclusions The novel combination of high resolution MR imaging and microindentation allows the investigation of the local relationship between quantitative MRI and biomechanical properties in highly heterogeneous OA cartilage. These findings suggest that MRI T1? can provide a functional assessment of articular cartilage. PMID:21445940

Tang, SY; Souza, RB; Ries, M; Hansma, PK; Alliston, T; Li, X

2014-01-01

58

Spin-rotation contribution to the relaxation time of the fluorine nuclei in benzotrifluoride

SPIN-ROTATION CONTRIBUTION TO THE RELAXATION TIME OF THE FLUORINE NUCLEI IN BENZOTRIFLUORIDE A Thesis By ROBERT HARDY FAULK Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Relaxation Times vs. Temperature 2 Viscosity vs. Temperature 3 Reciprocal Relaxation Times vs, Temperature 19 21 34 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Relaxation Times (Data) 20 2 Viscosity Data 22 3 Densities 23 4 Coupling Constant and Chemical Shift 5...

Faulk, Robert Hardy

1965-01-01

59

On the use of relaxation times for comparing ultraviscous liquid dynamics

In studies of ultraviscous liquids and glasses, (i) the relaxation time and its temperature dependence are generally compared without regard to its asymmetric distribution and (ii) the calorimetric relaxation time at Tg,DSC, the onset temperature of the specific heat rise in a heating scan at 20 K?min, is arbitrarily chosen as 100 s and compared against the relaxation time determined

G. P. Johari; D. P. B. Aji

2008-01-01

60

On the use of relaxation times for comparing ultraviscous liquid dynamics

In studies of ultraviscous liquids and glasses, (i) the relaxation time and its temperature dependence are generally compared without regard to its asymmetric distribution and (ii) the calorimetric relaxation time at Tg,DSC, the onset temperature of the specific heat rise in a heating scan at 20 K\\/min, is arbitrarily chosen as 100 s and compared against the relaxation time determined

G. P. Johari; D. P. B. Aji

2008-01-01

61

Unified Theory of Activated Relaxation in Liquids over 14 Decades in Time

We formulate a predictive theory at the level of forces of activated relaxation in hard-sphere fluids and thermal liquids that covers in a unified manner the apparent Arrhenius, crossover, and deeply supercooled regimes. The alpha relaxation event involves coupled cage-scale hopping and a long-range collective elastic distortion of the surrounding liquid, which results in two inter-related, but distinct, barriers. The strongly temperature and density dependent collective barrier is associated with a growing length scale, the shear modulus, and density fluctuations. Thermal liquids are mapped to an effective hard-sphere fluid based on matching long wavelength density fluctuation amplitudes, resulting in a zeroth-order quasi-universal description. The theory is devoid of fit parameters, has no divergences at finite temperature nor below jamming, and captures the key features of the alpha time of molecular liquids from picoseconds to hundreds of seconds.

Mirigian, Stephen [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Schweizer, Kenneth [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois

2013-01-01

62

Electron number dependence of spin triplet-singlet relaxation time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a GaAs single quantum dot, the relaxation time T1 between spin triplet and singlet states has been measured for the last few even electron numbers. The singlet-triplet energy separation EST is tuned as a control parameter for the comparison of T1 between different electron numbers. T1 steadily decreases with increasing electron numbers from 2-electrons to 6-electrons. This implies an enhancement of the spin-orbit coupling strength due to multi-electron interaction in a quantum dot.

Li, H. O.; Xiao, M.; Cao, G.; You, J.; Guo, G. P.

2014-02-01

63

Rapid MRI method for mapping the longitudinal relaxation time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for mapping the longitudinal relaxation time in a clinically acceptable time is developed based on a recent proposal [J.-J. Hsu, I.J. Lowe, Spin-lattice relaxation and a fast T1-map acquisition method in MRI with transient-state magnetization, J. Magn. Reson. 169 (2004) 270-278] and the speed of the spiral pulse sequence. The method acquires multiple curve-fitting samples with one RF pulse train. It does not require RF pulses of specific flip angles (e.g., 90° or 180°), nor are the long recovery waiting time and the measurement of the magnetization at thermal equilibrium needed. Given the value of the flip angle, the curve fitting is semi-logarithmic and not computationally intensive. On a heterogeneous phantom, the average percentage difference between measurements of the present method and those of an inversion-recovery method is below 2.7%. In mapping the human brain, the present method, for example, can obtain four curve-fitting samples for five 128 × 128 slices in less than 3.2 s and the results are in agreement with other studies in the literature.

Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Glover, Gary H.

2006-07-01

64

Relaxation time prediction for a light switchable peptide by molecular dynamics.

We study a monocyclic peptide called cAPB, whose conformations are light switchable due to the covalent integration of an azobenzene dye. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the CHARMM22 force field and its CMAP extension serve us to sample the two distinct conformational ensembles of cAPB, which belong to the cis and trans isomers of the dye, at room temperature. For gaining sufficient statistics we apply a novel replica exchange technique. We find that the well-known NMR distance restraints are much better described by CMAP than by CHARMM22. In cAPB, the ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization of the dye elicits a relaxation dynamics of the peptide backbone. Experimentally, we probe this relaxation at picosecond time resolution by IR spectroscopy in the amide I range up to 3 ns after the UV/vis pump flash. We interpret the spectroscopically identified decay kinetics using ensembles of non-equilibrium MD simulations, which provide kinetic data on conformational transitions well matching the observed kinetics. Whereas spectroscopy solely indicates that the relaxation toward the equilibrium trans ensemble is by no means complete after 3 ns, the 20 ns MD simulations of the process predict, independently of the applied force field, that the final relaxation into the trans-ensemble proceeds on a time scale of 23 ns. Overall our explicit solvent simulations cover more than 6 micros. PMID:20390205

Denschlag, Robert; Schreier, Wolfgang J; Rieff, Benjamin; Schrader, Tobias E; Koller, Florian O; Moroder, Luis; Zinth, Wolfgang; Tavan, Paul

2010-06-21

65

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) has been widely recognized as a promising method for solving real production planning and scheduling problems. Based on the proposal of a real-time job shop scheduling mechanism under an APS environment, which adopts the Lagrangean relaxation method as the optimization logic, the present paper describes a feasibility study of this mechanism by evaluating its calculation speed and re-scheduling quality. Numerical experiments have been carried out for various models having different scales, as well as different densities and strengths of random events, such as the arrival of new jobs or changes to the due dates for existing jobs. The results of experiments show that the proposed scheduling mechanism has the potential to satisfy the real-time scheduling requirements, not only in terms of calculation speed and solution quality, but also with respect to predictability of the calculation load. Finally, an improvement to the Lagrangean relaxation method is proposed to improve re-scheduling quality.

Shin, Kaikou; Kuroda, Mitsuru; Natsuyama, Kouichi

66

The LISA mission is a space interferometer aiming at the detection of gravitational waves in the [$10^{-4}$,$10^{-1}$] Hz frequency band. In order to reach the gravitational wave detection level, a Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) method must be applied to get rid of (most of) the laser frequency noise and optical bench noise. This TDI analysis is carried out in terms of the coordinate time corresponding to the Barycentric Coordinate Reference System (BCRS), TCB, whereas the data at each of the three LISA stations is recorded in terms of each station proper time. We provide here the required proper time versus BCRS time transformation. We show that the difference in rate of station proper time versus TCB is of the order of $5 10^{-8}$. The difference between station proper times and TCB exhibits an oscillatory trend with a maximum amplitude of about $10^{-3}$ s.

S. Pireaux

2007-03-23

67

The time correlation function perspective of NMR relaxation in proteins.

We applied over a decade ago the two-body coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach to NMR relaxation in proteins. One rotator is the globally moving protein and the other rotator is the locally moving probe (spin-bearing moiety, typically the (15)N-(1)H bond). So far we applied SRLS to (15)N-H relaxation from seven different proteins within the scope of the commonly used data-fitting paradigm. Here, we solve the SRLS Smoluchowski equation using typical best-fit parameters as input, to obtain the corresponding generic time correlation functions (TCFs). The following new information is obtained. For actual rhombic local ordering and main ordering axis pointing along C(i-1)(?)-C(i)(?), the measurable TCF is dominated by the (K,K') = (-2,2), (2,2), and (0,2) components (K is the order of the rank 2 local ordering tensor), determined largely by the local motion. Global diffusion axiality affects the analysis significantly when the ratio between the parallel and perpendicular components exceeds approximately 1.5. Local diffusion axiality has a large and intricate effect on the analysis. Mode-coupling becomes important when the ratio between the global and local motional rates falls below 0.01. The traditional method of analysis--model-free (MF)--represents a simple limit of SRLS. The conditions under which the MF and SRLS TCFs are the same are specified. The validity ranges of wobble-in-a-cone and rotation on the surface of a cone as local motions are determined. The evolution of the intricate Smoluchowski operator from the simple diffusion operator for a sphere reorienting in isotropic medium is delineated. This highlights the fact that SRLS is an extension of the established stochastic theories for treating restricted motions. This study lays the groundwork for TCF-based comparison between mesoscopic SRLS and atomistic molecular dynamics. PMID:24006974

Shapiro, Yury E; Meirovitch, Eva

2013-08-28

68

Calculation of vibrational relaxation times in multi-component excitable gases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the research field of acoustic propagation in excitable gases, one of the most critical parameters is the vibrational relaxation time, which determines the frequency of the acoustic dispersion step or the absorption maximum. In this paper, the vibrational relaxation equations given by Tanczos [J. Chem. Phys. 25, 439 (1956)] have been applied to calculate the vibrational multi-relaxation times in multi-component gases. The eigenvalues of the energy-transition-rate matrix are proven to be the reciprocals of the multi-relaxation times. Comparisons demonstrate that our relaxation frequencies calculated for various gas compositions, including carbon dioxide, methane, chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen, agree with the experimental data.

Zhang, Ke-Sheng; Ou, Weihua; Jiang, Xueqin; Long, Fei; Hu, Mingzhe

2014-10-01

69

In vivo T(2) relaxation time measurement with echo-time averaging.

The accuracy of metabolite concentrations measured using in vivo proton ((1) H) MRS is enhanced following correction for spin-spin (T2 ) relaxation effects. In addition, metabolite proton T2 relaxation times provide unique information regarding cellular environment and molecular mobility. Echo-time (TE) averaging (1) H MRS involves the collection and averaging of multiple TE steps, which greatly simplifies resulting spectra due to the attenuation of spin-coupled and macromolecule resonances. Given the simplified spectral appearance and inherent metabolite T2 relaxation information, the aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to develop a novel data processing scheme to estimate metabolite T2 relaxation times from TE-averaged (1) H MRS data. Spectral simulations are used to validate the proposed TE-averaging methods for estimating methyl proton T2 relaxation times for N-acetyl aspartate, total creatine, and choline-containing compounds. The utility of the technique and its reproducibility are demonstrated using data obtained in vivo from the posterior-occipital cortex of 10 healthy control subjects. Compared with standard methods, distinct advantages of this approach include built-in macromolecule resonance attenuation, in vivo T2 estimates closer to reported values when maximum TE???T2 , and the potential for T2 calculation of metabolite resonances otherwise inseparable in standard (1) H MRS spectra recorded in vivo. PMID:24865447

Prescot, Andrew P; Shi, Xianfeng; Choi, Changho; Renshaw, Perry F

2014-08-01

70

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for homogeneous mixture flows with external force

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lattice Boltzmann scheme is developed for homogeneous mixture modeling, based on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) formulation, which fully recovers the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model in the continuum limit with (a) external force and (b) tunable Schmidt number. The theoretical basis of the proposed MRT formulation is a recently proposed Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-type kinetic model for gas mixtures [Andries , J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)] and it substantially extends the applicability of a scheme already proposed by the same author, which used only one relaxation parameter. The recovered equations at the macroscopic level are derived by an innovative expansion technique, based on the Grad moment system. Some numerical simulations are reported for the solvent test case with external force, aiming to find the numerical ranges for the transport coefficients that ensure acceptable accuracies. The numerical results reduce the theoretical expectations, which are based on a strong separation among the characteristic scales.

Asinari, Pietro

2008-05-01

71

Growth strains and stress relaxation in alumina scales during high temperature oxidation

A novel X-ray technique was used, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, to investigate the growth stresses in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In-situ measurements of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the scale were recorded during oxidation and cooling, and the elliptical distortion of the diffraction rings was analyzed to yield the in-plane strain. Fe-28Al, Fe-40Al, Fe-40Al-0.2Hf, Fe-20Cr-10Al and Ni-50Al (at. %) were studied. Data were acquired in air at temperatures between 950-1100 C and during cool down. In all cases, the steady stage growth strain was relatively low (<0.1%) and was either tensile or compressive depending on the alloy. A higher tensile strain often existed during the initial oxidation period when transition alumina was present. Thermal stresses imposed on NiAl by reducing the sample temperature to 950 C for a period of time showed noticeable stress relaxation by creep. Different degrees of relaxation were also found during cooling depending on alloy composition and scale microstructure. On all Fe-based alloys, the first formed {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was highly textured with the degree of texture decreasing with further oxidation. The relationships between stress development, scale wrinkling, oxide phase changes, and the effect of reactive element addition on growth stresses are discussed. Results are compared with other reports of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales.

Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

2004-03-23

72

Similarity and scaling in creep and load relaxation of single-crystal halite (NaCl)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores the physical basis for Hart's mechanical equation of state in high-temperature plasticity. The experiments seek to identify a possible microstructural basis for the "hardness" parameters associated with load relaxation curves. The experiments also seek to examine the microstructural basis for scaling in load relaxation data and to explore the relationship between creep and load relaxation. Constant stress creep and load relaxation tests were conducted on [100] oriented single crystals of halite at 700°C and stresses between 0.6 and 3 MPa. Load relaxation tests were performed at 400°C up to a stress level of 13 MPa. After testing, specimens were sectioned, and dislocation densities and subgrain size distributions were measured. Results at 700°C reveal that distributions of subgrain size in crystals crept at different stress levels are similar to each other; that is, they have the same shape but different average subgrain sizes depending on stress level. Hardness curves obtained from load relaxation experiments at different levels of work hardening were found to correspond to different average subgrain size. Load relaxation data from 700°C and 400°C belong to a single-parameter family of curves, with hardness curves translating onto each other with a scaling slope m = 0.33 ± 0.05. Subgrain size distributions generated in creep are statistically identical to those from load relaxation. The hardness parameter, ?*, specified as the (apparent) high-strain rate limit of stress in the load relaxation data, is approximately 50Gb/DI, where G is the shear modulus, b is the Burgers vector, and DI is the mean intercept subgrain diameter. During creep under constant stress the subgrain size evolves until a steady value is approached. The experimental data lend credence to Hart's interpretation that load relaxation data represent (nearly) constant "structure" with subgrain size playing the role of the structural variable.

Stone, Donald S.; Plookphol, Thawatchai; Cooper, Reid F.

2004-12-01

73

Time dependence of the segmental relaxation time of poly(vinyl acetate)-silica nanocomposites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aging-time dependence of the segmental relaxation time of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) in the glassy state is investigated in the bulk polymer and its nanocomposites with silica (SiO2). These systems present identical segmental dynamics, when this is probed in the equilibrium supercooled liquid by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. An acceleration of the physical aging process of PVAc with SiO2 was detected by monitoring the enthalpy recovery through differential scanning calorimetry. The segmental relaxation time during physical aging, followed by means of BDS, has been shown to increase more rapidly the higher the SiO2 concentration in PVAc is. Thermally stimulated depolarization current experiments show that this is the case over the whole probed glassy state. This means that nanocomposites displaying a relatively slow segmental mobility evolve toward equilibrium more rapidly than the bulk. Furthermore, despite the faster increase in the relaxation time with aging time, so-called self-retardation, the nanocomposites and their bulk counterpart reach the same values of equilibrium relaxation time. These findings not only confirm the assumption of identical equilibrium dynamics even in the aging regime for all nanocomposites and bulk polymers, proposed in previous works, but also highlight the fact that the physical aging rate is not determined solely by the polymer segmental dynamics, the amount of interface being an additional relevant parameter.

Boucher, Virginie M.; Cangialosi, Daniele; Alegría, Angel; Colmenero, Juan

2012-10-01

74

The effect of molecular relaxation processes in air on the rise time of sonic booms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed to explain the effect of molecular relaxation processes on the rise time of sonic booms. To determine the rise time of sonic booms, both O2 and N2 relaxation processes must be included. The N2 relaxation process delays the shock pressure reaching the maximum pressure, and the O2 relaxation process causes a shock profile to have a gentle slope. The N2 relaxation controls the lower part of overpressure; the O2 relaxation controls the higher part. The constant rise time curves show that the rise times increase as the overpressures and humidity decrease. The present approach gives longer rise times than those acquired by Bass et al. for given shock overpressures.

Kang, Jongmin; Pierce, Allan D.

1990-01-01

75

Approximate square-root-time relaxation in glass-forming liquids

We present data for the dielectric relaxation of 43 glass-forming organic liquids, showing that the primary (alpha) relaxation is often close to square-root-time relaxation. The better an inverse power-law description of the high-frequency loss applies, the more accurately is square-root-time relaxation obeyed. These findings suggest that square-root-time relaxation is generic to the alpha process, once a common view, but since long believed to be incorrect. Only liquids with very large dielectric losses deviate from this picture by having consistently narrower loss peaks. As a further challenge to the prevailing opinion, we find that liquids with accurate square-root-time relaxation cover a wide range of fragilities.

Albena I. Nielsen; Tage Christensen; Bo Jakobsen; Kristine Niss; Niels Boye Olsen; Ranko Richert; Jeppe C. Dyre

2007-12-17

76

An axisymmetric multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme developed for axisymmetric flows recovers the complete continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. This scheme follows the strategy of the standard D2Q9 model by using a single particle distribution function and a simple 'collision-streaming' updating rule. The extra terms related to axisymmetry in the macroscopic equations are recovered by adding source terms into the LB equation, which are simple and involve no gradients. The compressible effect retained in the Navier-Stokes equations is recovered by introducing a term related to the reversed transformation matrix for MRT collision operator, so as to produce a correct bulk viscosity, making it suitable for compressible flows with high frequency and low Mach number. The validity of the scheme is demonstrated by testing the Hagen-Poiseuille flow and 3D Womersley flow, as well as the standing acoustic waves in a closed cylindrical chamber. The numerical experiments show desirable stability at low viscosities, enabling to simulate a standing ultrasound field in centimeters space.

Xie, Wenjun

2015-01-01

77

Deep Time: The Geologic Time Scale

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page examines the issues involved in teaching students about the geologic time scale. There are suggestions for tackling troublesome issues in class as well as activities that can be used to clarify how geoscientists look at deep time. Five main concepts with which students struggle when thinking about Deep Time are addressed here: imagining or comprehending big numbers; the difference between relative and numerical age; the concept of "timescales"; the ways we know about the age of the Earth and other materials; and resolving perceived issues with religious beliefs.

2011-04-25

78

The high temperature X-ray diffraction system developed for this program is being used to measure the strains which develop during oxidation. This is being applied to Ni/NiO and Cr/Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Our work suggests tat the oxide and metal crystalline texture, anisotropic elastic modulus and anisotropic thermal expansion can have a pronounced effect on strain state of these systems. Acoustic emission is being used to study oxide scale failure (fracture) during oxidation. AE data from 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a statistical model of fracture process. Strength of metal/scale interface is an important property that has been difficult to quantify. Using Nano-indentation and scratch techniques developed for characterizing thin film interfaces, an effort has begun to measure the fracture toughness of the metal/scale interface. Mathematical modelling of origin and time evolution of growth stresses is an extension and improvement of previous models. The current effort employs a more sophisticated stress analysis and expands the scope to include other stress relaxation process. The interaction between the modeling studies and the X-ray diffraction measurements provides a natural credibility check to both efforts.

Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.

1992-06-01

79

Viscosity and longest relaxation time of semi-dilute polymer solutions. I. Good solvent

1185 Viscosity and longest relaxation time of semi-dilute polymer solutions. I. Good solvent M expliquÃ©s par un modÃ¨le de reptation classique. Abstract. 2014 The zero shear viscosity and longest concentration (4 c/c* 70), we find that : 2014 both the relative viscosity ~r and the longest relaxation time TR

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

80

Measuring renal tissue relaxation times at 7 T.

As developments in RF coils and RF management strategies make performing ultra-high-field renal imaging feasible, understanding the relaxation times of the tissue becomes increasingly important for tissue characterization, sequence optimization and quantitative functional renal imaging, such as renal perfusion imaging using arterial spin labeling. By using a magnetization-prepared single-breath-hold fast spin echo imaging method, human renal T1 and T2 imaging studies were successfully performed at 7 T with 11 healthy volunteers (eight males, 45?±?17 years, and three females, 29?±?7 years, mean?±?standard deviation, S.D.) while addressing challenges of B1 (+) inhomogeneity and short-term specific absorption rate limits. At 7 T, measured renal T1 values for the renal cortex and medulla (mean?±?S.D.) from five healthy volunteers who participated in both 3 T and two-session 7 T studies were 1661?±?68 ms and 2094?±?67 ms, and T2 values were 108?±?7 ms and 126?±?6 ms. For comparison, similar measurements were made at 3 T, where renal cortex and medulla T1 values of 1261?±?86 ms and 1676?±?94 ms and T2 values of 121?±?5 ms and 138?±?7 ms were obtained. Measurements at 3 T and 7 T were significantly different for both T1 and T2 values in both renal tissues. Reproducibility studies at 7 T demonstrated that T1 and T2 estimations were robust, with group mean percentage differences of less than 4%. PMID:25346367

Li, Xiufeng; Bolan, Patrick J; Ugurbil, Kamil; Metzger, Gregory J

2015-01-01

81

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion

To probe both the Hydrodynamic Non-Equilibrium (HNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion process, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Beside describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some non-conserved quantities. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various non-equilibrium behaviours, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed. It is found that the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) decreases the local TNE, but increase the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity (or heat conductivity) takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses.

Aiguo Xu; Chuandong Lin; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

2015-03-13

82

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion

To probe both the Mechanical Non-Equilibrium (MNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion procedure, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of the Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. The LB model is required to recover the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reaction in the hydrodynamic limit. To that aim, we construct a discrete velocity model with $24$ velocities divided into $3$ groups. In each group a flexible parameter is used to control the size of discrete velocities and a second parameter is used to describe the contribution of the extra degrees of freedom. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. Via the MRT model, it is more convenient to track the effects of TNE and how the TNE influence the MNE behaviors. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. It is found that around the detonation wave there are competition between the viscous effect, thermal diffusion effect and the gradient effects of physical quantities. Consequently, with decreasing the collision parameters, (i) the nonequilibrium region becomes wider and the gradients of physical quantities decrease; (ii) the position where the internal energy in the shocking degree of freedom equals the one averaged over all degrees of freedom moves away from the position for the von Neumann peak.

Aiguo Xu; Chuandong Lin; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

2014-11-25

83

One in four ischaemic stroke patients are ineligible for thrombolytic treatment due to unknown onset time. Quantification of absolute MR relaxation times and signal intensities are potential methods for estimating stroke duration. We compared the accuracy of these approaches and determined whether changes in relaxation times and signal intensities identify the same ischaemic tissue as diffusion MRI. Seven Wistar rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion to induce focal ischaemia and were scanned at six time points. The trace of the diffusion tensor (DAV), T1? and T2 were acquired at 4.7 T. Results show relaxation times, and signal intensities of the MR relaxation parameters increase linearly with ischaemia duration (P<0.001). Using T1? and T2 relaxation times, an estimate of 4.5 h after occlusion has an uncertainty of ± 12 and ± 35 min, respectively, compared with over 50 min for signal intensities. In addition, we present a pixel-by-pixel method that simultaneously estimates stroke onset time and identifies potentially irreversible ischaemic tissue using absolute relaxation times. This method demonstrates signal intensity changes during ischaemia display an ambiguous pattern and highlights the possibility that diffusion MRI overestimates the true extent of irreversible ischaemia. In conclusion, quantification of absolute relaxation times at a single time point enables a more accurate estimation of stroke duration than signal intensities and provides more information about tissue status in ischaemia. PMID:25116145

Rogers, Harriet J; McGarry, Bryony L; Knight, Michael J; Jokivarsi, Kimmo T; Gröhn, Olli H J; Kauppinen, Risto A

2014-10-22

84

Atomic time scales and pulsars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the atomic time scales generated by the BIPM, International Atomic Time TAI and the realization of Terrestrial Time TT(BIPM). TT(BIPM) is shown to be now accurate to within a few 10..16 in relative frequency and the performances of TAI and TT(BIPM) are compared. Millisecond pulsars have a very regular period of rotation and data from several pulsars may be used to realize an ensemble pulsar timescale. It is shown that a pulsar timescale may detect past instabilities in TAI. However TT(BIPM) is much more stable than TAI and should be used as a reference in pulsar analysis. Since the beginning of regular millisecond pulsar observations in the 1980s, primary standards and atomic time have gained one order of magnitude in accuracy every ~ 12 years, and this trend should continue for some time.

Petit, G.

2014-12-01

85

Spin relaxation time dependence on optical pumping intensity in GaAs:Mn

We analyze the dependence of electron spin relaxation time on optical pumping intensity in a partially compensated acceptor semiconductor GaAs:Mn using analytic solutions for the kinetic equations of the charge carrier concentrations. Our results are applied to previous experimental data of spin-relaxation time vs. excitation power for magnetic concentrations of approximately 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}. The agreement of our analytic solutions with the experimental data supports the mechanism of the earlier-reported atypically long electron-spin relaxation time in the magnetic semiconductor.

Burobina, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States); Binek, Ch. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, Theodore Jorgensen Hall, 855 North 16th Street, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880299, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States)

2014-04-28

86

The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids. PMID:24908028

Limmer, David T

2014-06-01

87

The complex permittivity of glycine and valine in water mixture for various temperatures and concentrations have been measured as a function of frequency between 10 MHz and 10 GHz using (TDR) time domain reflectometry technique. Dielectric parameters ie. static dielectric constant and relaxation time were obtained from the complex permittivity spectra using nonlinear least square fit method. From the values of relaxation time, thermodynamic parameters were determined. PMID:9491649

Lokhande, M P; Mazumdar, S; Mehrotra, S C

1997-08-01

88

Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

Papo, David

2013-01-01

89

Variable thermal properties and thermal relaxation time in hyperbolic heat conduction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical solutions were obtained for a finite slab with an applied surface heat flux at one boundary using both the hyperbolic (MacCormack's method) and parabolic (Crank-Nicolson method) heat conduction equations. The effects on the temperature distributions of varying density, specific heat, and thermal relaxation time were calculated. Each of these properties had an effect on the thermal front velocity (in the hyperbolic solution) as well as the temperatures in the medium. In the hyperbolic solutions, as the density or specific heat decreased with temperature, both the temperatures within the medium and the thermal front velocity increased. The value taken for the thermal relaxation time was found to determine the 'hyperbolicity' of the heat conduction model. The use of a time dependent relaxation time allowed for solutions where the thermal energy propagated as a high temperature wave initially, but approached a diffusion process more rapidly than was possible with a constant large relaxation time.

Glass, David E.; Mcrae, D. Scott

1989-01-01

90

Temperature variation of the relaxation time of ?-dispersion for gamma-irradiated collagen

The effect of gamma irradiation, with doses from 102 to 103 kGy, on the dielectric relaxation time of solid-state collagen was studied. Temperature measurements of the relaxation time were made over a range of frequency of the electric field from 101 to 105 Hz and at temperatures from 298 to 480 K. The samples contained 0.06 g H2O\\/g dry collagen.

Ewa Marzec

1995-01-01

91

within one problem. One famous example is the space shuttle reentry problem in which the space shuttle relaxation parameter . Here the relaxation rate depends on the space variable x in the following way: (x challenges in PDEs and mathematical physics, a thorough mathematical analysis on the problem under study

Jin, Shi

92

In this paper, a double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is developed for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. The model uses two different multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equations, one for the flow field and the other for the temperature field with nonlinear latent heat source term. The model is based on the generalized non-Darcy formulation, and the solid-liquid phase change interface is traced through the liquid fraction which is determined by the enthalpy method. The model is validated by numerical simulations of conduction melting in a semi-infinite space, solidification in a semi-infinite corner, and convection melting in a square cavity filled with porous media. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present model for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media.

Liu, Qing

2015-01-01

93

Time-dependent Jahn-Teller problem: Phonon-induced relaxation through conical intersection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of time-dependent dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in an impurity center in a solid is presented. We are considering the relaxation of excited states in the E?e-problem through the conical intersection of the potential energy. A strict quantum-mechanical treatment of vibronic interactions with both the main Jahn-Teller active vibration and the nontotally symmetric phonons causing the energy loss is given. The applied method enables us to calculate the time-dependence of the distribution function of the basic configurational coordinate. We have performed a series of numerical calculations allowing us, among other relaxation features, to visualise the details of the relaxation through the conical intersection. In particular, we elucidate how the Slonczewski quantization of the states in the conical intersection affects the relaxation.

Pae, Kaja; Hizhnyakov, Vladimir

2014-12-01

94

Possible sharp quantum relaxation times in "classical" fluids: theory and experiment

Quantum effects in material systems are often pronounced at low energies and become insignificant at high temperatures. We find that, perhaps counterintuitively, certain quantum effects may follow the opposite route and become sharp when extrapolated to high temperature within a "classical" liquid phase. In the current work, we suggest basic quantum bounds on relaxation (and thermalization) times, examine kinetic theory by taking into account such possible fundamental quantum time scales, find new general equalities connecting semi-classical dynamics and thermodynamics to Planck's constant, and compute current correlation functions. Our analysis suggests that, on average, the extrapolated high temperature dynamical viscosity of general liquids may tend to a value set by the product of the particle number density ${\\sf n}$ and Planck's constant $h$. We compare this theoretical result with experimental measurements of an ensemble of 23 metallic fluids where this seems to indeed be the case. The extrapolated high temperature viscosity of each of these liquids $\\eta$ divided (for each respective fluid by its value of ${\\sf n} h$) veers towards a Gaussian with an ensemble average value that is close to unity up to an error of size $0.6 \\%$. We invoke similar ideas to discuss other transport properties and demonstrate how simple behaviors including resistivity saturation and linear $T$ resistivity may appear very naturally. Our approach suggests that minimal time lags may be present in fluid dynamics (which in the continuum follow the Navier-Stokes equation).

Z. Nussinov; F. Nogueira; M. Blodgett; K. F. Kelton

2015-04-02

95

Relation between the two-body entropy and the relaxation time in supercooled water.

The two-body excess entropy of supercooled water is calculated from the radial distribution functions obtained from computer simulation of the TIP4P model for different densities upon supercooling. This quantity is considered in connection with the relaxation time of the self intermediate scattering function. The relaxation time shows a mode coupling theory (MCT) behavior in the region of mild supercooling and a strong behavior in the deep supercooled region. We find here that the two-body entropy is connected to the relaxation time and shows a logarithmic behavior with an apparent asymptotic divergence at the mode coupling crossover temperature. There is also evidence of a change in behavior of the two-body entropy upon crossing from the fragile (hopping-free) state to the strong (hopping-dominated) state of supercooled water, and the relation that connects the two-body entropy and the relxation time in the MCT region no longer holds. PMID:25679570

Gallo, P; Rovere, M

2015-01-01

96

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

2014-02-01

97

The time correlation functions of the thermal undulations of a lipid membrane have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bilayer model. We observe a double-exponential decay, with relaxation rates in good agreement with the theory by Seifert and Langer, [Europhys. Lett. 23, 71 (1993)]. Intermonolayer friction resulting from local velocity differences between the two monolayers is shown to be the dominant dissipative mechanism for fluctuations with wave lengths below approximately -0.1 microm. PMID:16712341

Shkulipa, S A; den Otter, W K; Briels, W J

2006-05-01

98

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ant_e^k (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.

Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.

2014-12-01

99

The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ante(k) (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries. PMID:25494741

Mitchell, J; Chandrasekera, T C

2014-12-14

100

Time-dependent isothermal dielectric measurements were carried out deeply in the glassy state on two very important saccharides: sucrose and trehalose. In both compounds two prominent secondary relaxation processes were identified. The faster one is an inherent feature of the whole family of carbohydrates. The slower one can also be detected in oligo- and polysaccharides. It was shown earlier that the {beta} process is the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation coupled to motions of the glycosidic linkage, while the {gamma} relaxation originates from motions of the exocyclic hydroxymethyl unit. Recently, it was shown that the JG relaxation process can be used to determine structural relaxation times in the glassy state [R. Casalini and C. M. Roland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 035701 (2009)]. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of the data obtained during aging using two independent approaches. The first was proposed by Casalini and Roland, and the second one is based on the variation of the dielectric strength of the secondary relaxation process during aging [J. K. Vij and G. Power, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 783 (2011)]. Surprisingly, we found that the estimated structural relaxation times in the glassy state of both saccharides are almost the same, independent of the type of secondary mode. This finding calls into question the common view that secondary modes of intramolecular origin do not provide information about the dynamics of the glassy state.

Kaminski, K.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kaminska, E. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 4, PL-41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

2011-06-15

101

a Comparison of Single-Time Relaxation Lattice Boltzmann Schemes with Enhanced Stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years the entropic version of the lattice Boltzmann method (ELB) has made proof of significantly enhanced numerical stability as compared to the standard single-time relaxation form of the lattice Boltzmann equation. In this paper, we compare ELB with a more empirical procedure, based on the idea of modifying the value of the relaxation time in such a way as to enforce the positivity of the kinetic distribution function (fix-up method). The stability enhancement due to ELB and fix-up are compared for the case a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow. It is shown that ELBM offers higher stability at a moderate price in terms of computational overhead. On the other hand, even the simple fix-up procedure can provide significant savings over the standard single-time relaxation method, virtually cost-free in terms of computational requirements.

Tosi, Francesca; Ubertini, Stefano; Succi, Sauro; Chen, Hudong; Karlin, Ilya V.

102

The time-dependence of exchange-induced relaxation during modulated radio frequency pulses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the relaxation of identical spins 1/2 induced by chemical exchange between spins with different chemical shifts in the presence of time-dependent RF irradiation (in the first rotating frame) is considered for the fast exchange regime. The solution for the time evolution under the chemical exchange Hamiltonian in the tilted doubly rotating frame (TDRF) is presented. Detailed derivation is specified to the case of a two-site chemical exchange system with complete randomization between jumps of the exchanging spins. The derived theory can be applied to describe the modulation of the chemical exchange relaxation rate constants when using a train of adiabatic pulses, such as the hyperbolic secant pulse. Theory presented is valid for quantification of the exchange-induced time-dependent rotating frame longitudinal T1 ?,ex and transverse T2 ?,ex relaxations in the fast chemical exchange regime.

Sorce, Dennis J.; Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael

2006-03-01

103

The time-dependence of exchange-induced relaxation during modulated radio frequency pulses.

The problem of the relaxation of identical spins 1/2 induced by chemical exchange between spins with different chemical shifts in the presence of time-dependent RF irradiation (in the first rotating frame) is considered for the fast exchange regime. The solution for the time evolution under the chemical exchange Hamiltonian in the tilted doubly rotating frame (TDRF) is presented. Detailed derivation is specified to the case of a two-site chemical exchange system with complete randomization between jumps of the exchanging spins. The derived theory can be applied to describe the modulation of the chemical exchange relaxation rate constants when using a train of adiabatic pulses, such as the hyperbolic secant pulse. Theory presented is valid for quantification of the exchange-induced time-dependent rotating frame longitudinal T1rho,ex and transverse T2rho,ex relaxations in the fast chemical exchange regime. PMID:16298149

Sorce, Dennis J; Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael

2006-03-01

104

Conductivity and relaxation time of porous silicon using the Kramers-Kronig relation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To review the dielectric characteristics of porous silicon samples with various porosities, an equivalent circuit including a capacitor and parallel resistance was used. By applying AC voltage with a constant amplitude of 200 mV to the circuit and using impedance measurements of the samples between 10-100 KHz, the variations in the capacitance, dielectric function, refractive index, and resistance for the samples at room temperature and up to 350 °C were studied. The dielectric characteristics of the samples decreased with increasing frequency. In addition, with increasing temperature, the pore diameters increased, and the dielectric characteristics varied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the relaxation time and DC conductivity could be obtained using the Kramers-Kronig function and Hilbert transformation. Our results indicate that the relaxation time and DC conductivity increase with increasing porosity, and with increasing temperature, the relaxation time decreases and the DC conductivity increases.

Dariani, R. S.; Tavakoli, F.

2015-01-01

105

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice-Boltzmann model for multiphase flow.

The lattice-Boltzmann method has shown promise in simulating multiphase flows. However, when using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator and polynomial equilibria, numerical stability problems have been shown to occur as the relaxation time is decreased. Some authors have suggested the use of multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) models in lieu of the BGK collision operator, which employs a single relaxation time, to enhance numerical stability. In this paper, a MRT lattice-Boltzmann model for multiphase flow is developed and evaluated for accuracy in several test problems including oscillating liquid cylinders and capillary waves. It is shown that the MRT model is able to achieve numerically stable results at lower viscosities relative to the corresponding BGK model. PMID:15903627

McCracken, Michael E; Abraham, John

2005-03-01

106

A modified multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified lattice Boltzmann model with multiple relaxation times (MRT) for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) is proposed. By modifying the relaxation matrix, as well as choosing the corresponding equilibrium distribution function properly, the present model can recover the CDE with anisotropic diffusion coefficient with no deviation term even when the velocity vector varies generally with space or time through the Chapman-Enskog analysis. This model is firstly validated by simulating the diffusion of a Gaussian hill, which demonstrates it can handle the anisotropic diffusion problem correctly. Then it is adopted to calculate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of the Taylo-Aris dispersion. Numerical results show that the present model can further reduce the numerical error under the condition of non-zero velocity vector, especially when the dimensionless relaxation time is relatively large.

Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying

2014-10-01

107

Thermal Relaxation Time in Chemically Non-equilibrated Quark- Gluon Plasma

The definition of thermal relaxation time is extended to chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma and the chemical non-equilibrated thermal relaxation times for partons are calculated using the non-equilibrium Debye mass as the infrared regulator. The dependence of the thermal relaxation time on the fugacity is given and the influence of the chemical non-equilibration is discussed. We find that there are threshold fugacities $\\lambda_g^*$ and $\\lambda_q^*$ for gluons and quarks. For \\lambda_g \\lambda_g^* (\\lambda_q>\\lambda_q^*$), the ratios are almost 1. It is shown that there is also the two-stage equilibration in a chemically non-equilibrated plasma. We also discussed the effect of using the non-equilibrium Deby mass as the infrared cutoff.

Xiao-Fei Zhang; Wei-Qin Chao

1997-07-09

108

The rapid expansion of sequence data and the development of statistical approaches that embrace varying evolutionary rates among lineages have encouraged many more investigators to use DNA and protein data to time species divergences. Here, we report results from a systematic evaluation, by means of computer simulation, of the performance of two frequently used relaxed-clock methods for estimating these times

Fabia U. Battistuzzi; Alan Filipski; S. Blair Hedges; Sudhir Kumar

2010-01-01

109

Static Electric Susceptibility and Dielectric Relaxation Time near the Transition Points in NaNO2

The precise temperature dependence of the ralaxation time of the polarization in NaNO2 has been given through a new approach, in which the relaxation time is derived from the imaginary part of the complex dielectric constant in the low frequency region. On the way of this experimental procedure, it was found that the measurement of the static electric susceptibility should

Ichiro Hatta

1970-01-01

110

Can inertial electrostatic confinement work beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale?

Inertial electrostatic confinement systems are predicated on a non-equilibrium ion distribution function. Coulomb collisions between ions cause this distribution to relax to a Maxwellian on the ion-ion collisional time-scale. The power required to prevent this relaxation and maintain the IEC configuration for times beyond the ion-ion collisional time scale is shown to be at least an order of magnitude greater than the fusion power produced. It is concluded that IEC systems show little promise as a basis for the development of commercial electric power plants.

Nevins, W.M.

1995-01-01

111

Can inertial electrostatic confinement work beyond the ion--ion collisional time scale?

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are predicated on a nonequilibrium ion distribution function. Coulomb collisions between ions cause this distribution to relax to a Maxwellian on the ion--ion collisional time scale. The power required to prevent this relaxation and maintain the IEC configuration for times beyond the ion--ion collisional time scale is shown to be greater than the fusion power produced. It is concluded that IEC systems show little promise as a basis for the development of commercial electric power plants. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Nevins, W.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1995-10-01

112

Retrieval of transverse relaxation time distribution from spin-echo data by recurrent neural network

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion of transverse relaxation time decay curve from spin-echo experiments was carried out using Hopfield neural network, to obtain the transverse relaxation time distribution. The performance of this approach was tested against simulated and experimental data. The initial guess, necessary for the integration procedure, was established as the analytical Laplace inversion. Together with errors in the simulated data, inversion was also carried out with errors in this initial guess. The probability density function, calculated by the neural network, is used in multiple sclerosis diagnostics.

Sebastião, R. C. O.; Braga, J. P.

2005-11-01

113

Measurement of a Long Electronic Spin Relaxation Time of Cesium Atoms in Superfluid Helium

The longitudinal electronic spin relaxation time of Cs atoms optically polarized in superfluid helium (He II, 1.5 K) has been measured with special care to cope with a serious decrease in the number of Cs atoms in the observation region. This decrease, mainly caused by helium convection in introducing the atoms into He II by laser sputtering, was significantly reduced using a new atom implantation method. Combined with a careful correction for the number of atoms, we have determined the relaxation time to be 2.24(19) s or longer, roughly twice as long as that in solid He.

Furukawa, T.; Izumi, H.; Shimoda, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, Y.; Kobayashi, T. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

2006-03-10

114

Relaxation time mapping of short T*2 nuclei with single-point imaging (SPI) methods.

New techniques for quantitative mapping of T1, T2, and T*2 are proposed, based on the single-point imaging (SPI) method, for materials with short nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times which cannot be imaged with traditional methods. Relaxation times extracted from two-dimensional images of uniform doped agarose phantoms (T*2 approximately 60-210 microseconds) as well as hardened mortar (T*2 approximately 220 microseconds) and polymers (T*2 approximately 20-100 microseconds), using these techniques, agreed with bulk measurements. The method was then applied to a partially dried cylindrical concrete sample (T*2 approximately 115 microseconds). PMID:9799689

Beyea, S D; Balcom, B J; Prado, P J; Cross, A R; Kennedy, C B; Armstrong, R L; Bremner, T W

1998-11-01

115

Relaxation Time Mapping of Short T*2Nuclei with Single-Point Imaging (SPI) Methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New techniques for quantitative mapping ofT1,T2, andT*2are proposed, based on thesingle-pointimaging (SPI) method, for materials with short nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times which cannot be imaged with traditional methods. Relaxation times extracted from two-dimensional images of uniform doped agarose phantoms (T*2? 60-210 ?s) as well as hardened mortar (T*2? 220 ?s) and polymers (T*2? 20-100 ?s), using these techniques, agreed with bulk measurements. The method was then applied to a partially dried cylindrical concrete sample (T*2? 115 ?s).

Beyea, Steven D.; Balcom, Bruce J.; Prado, Pablo J.; Cross, Albert R.; Kennedy, Christopher B.; Armstrong, Robin L.; Bremner, Theodore W.

1998-11-01

116

The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.

Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.

1986-01-01

117

Calibrated tree priors for relaxed phylogenetics and divergence time estimation.

The use of fossil evidence to calibrate divergence time estimation has a long history. More recently, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo has become the dominant method of divergence time estimation, and fossil evidence has been reinterpreted as the specification of prior distributions on the divergence times of calibration nodes. These so-called "soft calibrations" have become widely used but the statistical properties of calibrated tree priors in a Bayesian setting hashave not been carefully investigated. Here, we clarify that calibration densities, such as those defined in BEAST 1.5, do not represent the marginal prior distribution of the calibration node. We illustrate this with a number of analytical results on small trees. We also describe an alternative construction for a calibrated Yule prior on trees that allows direct specification of the marginal prior distribution of the calibrated divergence time, with or without the restriction of monophyly. This method requires the computation of the Yule prior conditional on the height of the divergence being calibrated. Unfortunately, a practical solution for multiple calibrations remains elusive. Our results suggest that direct estimation of the prior induced by specifying multiple calibration densities should be a prerequisite of any divergence time dating analysis. PMID:21856631

Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J

2012-01-01

118

Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by transforming the original system into a new one in which the linearized part is diagonal. This allows us to reduce the dynamical system by identifying the associated time scales and subsequent adiabatic elimination of the fast modes. It has been shown that the reduced system sustains the robust qualitative signatures of the original system and at times the generic form of the return map for the chaotic system from which complex dynamics stems out in the original system can be identified. We illustrate the scheme for a three-variable cubic autocatalytic reaction and four-variable peroxidase-oxidase reaction.

Das, D.; Ray, D. S.

2013-07-01

119

A Fragile-Strong Fluid Crossover and Universal Relaxation Times in a Confined Hard Disc Fluid

We show that a system of hard discs confined to a narrow channel exhibits a fragile-strong fluid crossover located at the maximum of the isobaric heat capacity and that the relaxation times for different channel widths fall onto a single master curve when rescaled by the relaxation times and temperatures of the crossover. Calculations of the configurational entropy and the inherent structure equation of state find that the crossover is related to properties of the jamming landscape for the model but that the Adams-Gibbs relation does not predict the relaxation behavior. We also show that a facilitated dynamics description of the system, where kinetically excited regions are identified with local packing arrangements of the discs, successfully describes the fragile-strong crossover.

Mahdi Zaeifi Yamchi; S. S. Ashwin; Richard K. Bowles

2012-10-22

120

A unified model of hysteresis and long-time relaxation in heterogeneous materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physical model of stress-strain dynamics and long-time relaxation (slow time) in structured media is proposed. The model is based on the analysis of inter-grain contacts and the resulting surface force potential with a barrier. The result is a unified description of the classical acoustic nonlinearity, stress-strain hysteresis, and logarithmic relaxation law for sound velocity (and, hence, for the frequency of nonlinear resonance in samples of structured materials). Estimates of a characteristic volume of interacting contacts give close values for the variety of consolidated materials. For weak (linear) testing waves, the logarithmic relaxation occurs if a classical quadratic nonlinearity is added to the stress-strain relation.

Lebedev, A. V.; Ostrovsky, L. A.

2014-09-01

121

Scaling and alpha-helix regulation of protein relaxation in a lipid bilayer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein conformation and orientation in the lipid membrane plays a key role in many cellular processes. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the relaxation and C-terminus diffusion of a model helical peptide: beta-amyloid (A?) in a lipid membrane. We observed that after the helical peptide was initially half-embedded in the extracelluar leaflet of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or PC/cholesterol (PC/CHOL) membrane, the C-terminus diffused across the membrane and anchored to PC headgroups of the cytofacial lipid leaflet. In some cases, the membrane insertion domain of the A? was observed to partially unfold. Applying a sigmoidal fit to the process, we found that the characteristic velocity of the C-terminus, as it moved to its anchor site, scaled with ?u-4/3, where ?u is the fraction of the original helix that was lost during a helix to coil transition. Comparing this scaling with that of bead-spring models of polymer relaxation suggests that the C-terminus velocity is highly regulated by the peptide helical content, but that it is independent of the amino acid type. The A? was stabilized by the attachment of the positive Lys28 side chain to the negative phosphate of PC or 3? oxygen of CHOL in the extracellular lipid leaflet and of the C-terminus to its anchor site in the cytofacial lipid leaflet.

Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Cheng, Kwan Hon; Vaughn, Mark W.

2014-12-01

122

Multi-scale freeform surface texture filtering using a mesh relaxation scheme

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface filtering algorithms using Fourier, Gaussian, wavelets, etc, are well-established for simple Euclidean geometries. However, these filtration techniques cannot be applied to today's complex freeform surfaces, which have non-Euclidean geometries, without distortion of the results. This paper proposes a new multi-scale filtering algorithm for freeform surfaces that are represented by triangular meshes based on a mesh relaxation scheme. The proposed algorithm is capable of decomposing a freeform surface into different scales and separating surface roughness, waviness and form from each other, as will be demonstrated throughout the paper. Results of applying the proposed algorithm to computer-generated as well as real surfaces are represented and compared with a lifting wavelet filtering algorithm.

(Jane Jiang, Xiangqian; Abdul-Rahman, Hussein S.; Scott, Paul J.

2013-11-01

123

At sufficiently high temperatures, the center-of-mass microscopic diffusion dynamics of liquids is characterized by a single component, often with weak temperature dependence. In this regime, the effective cage made by the neighbor particles cannot be sustained and readily breaks down, enabling long-range diffusion. As the temperature is decreased, the cage relaxation becomes impeded, leading to a higher viscosity with more pronounced temperature dependence. On the microscopic scale, the sustained caging effect leads to a separation between a faster in-cage relaxation component and a slower cage-breaking relaxation component. The evidence for the separate dynamic components, as opposed to a single stretched component, is provided by quasielastic neutron scattering experiments. We use a simple method to evaluate the extent of the dynamic components separation as a function of temperature in a group of related aromatic molecular liquids. We find that, regardless of the glass-forming capabilities or lack thereof, progressively more pronounced separation between the in-cage and cage-breaking dynamic components develops on cooling down as the ratio of T(b)/T, where T(b) is the boiling temperature, increases. This reflects the microscopic mechanism behind the empirical rule for the glass forming capability based on the ratio of boiling and melting temperatures, T(b)/T(m). When a liquid's T(b)/T(m) happens to be high, the liquid can readily be supercooled below its T(m) because the liquid's microscopic relaxation dynamics is already impeded at T(m), as evidenced by a sustained caging effect manifested through the separation of the in-cage and cage-breaking dynamic components. Our findings suggest certain universality in the temperature dependence of the microscopic diffusion dynamics in molecular liquids, regardless of their glass-forming capabilities. Unless the insufficiently low (with respect to T(b)) melting temperature, T(m), intervenes and makes crystallization thermodynamically favorable when cage-breaking is still unimpeded and the structural relaxation is fast, the liquid is likely to become supercooled. The propensity to supercooling and eventually forming a glass is thus determined by a purely thermodynamic factor, T(b)/T(m). PMID:23869489

Mamontov, Eugene

2013-08-15

124

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the relaxation dynamics of finite-size topological qubits in contact with a thermal bath. Using a continuous-time Monte Carlo method, we explicitly compute the low-temperature nonequilibrium dynamics of the toric code on finite lattices. In contrast to the size-independent bound predicted for the toric code in the thermodynamic limit, we identify a low-temperature regime on finite lattices below a size-dependent crossover temperature with nontrivial finite-size and temperature scaling of the relaxation time. We demonstrate how this nontrivial finite-size scaling is governed by the scaling of topologically nontrivial two-dimensional classical random walks. The transition out of this low-temperature regime defines a dynamical finite-size crossover temperature that scales inversely with the log of the system size, in agreement with a crossover temperature defined from equilibrium properties. We find that both the finite-size and finite-temperature scaling are stronger in the low-temperature regime than above the crossover temperature. Since this finite-temperature scaling competes with the scaling of the robustness to unitary perturbations, this analysis may elucidate the scaling of memory lifetimes of possible physical realizations of topological qubits.

Freeman, C. Daniel; Herdman, C. M.; Gorman, D. J.; Whaley, K. B.

2014-10-01

125

We present an analysis of the relaxation dynamics of finite-size topological qubits in contact with a thermal bath. Using a continuous-time Monte Carlo method, we explicitly compute the low-temperature nonequilibrium dynamics of the toric code on finite lattices. In contrast to the size-independent bound predicted for the toric code in the thermodynamic limit, we identify a low-temperature regime on finite lattices below a size-dependent crossover temperature with nontrivial finite-size and temperature scaling of the relaxation time. We demonstrate how this nontrivial finite-size scaling is governed by the scaling of topologically nontrivial two-dimensional classical random walks. The transition out of this low-temperature regime defines a dynamical finite-size crossover temperature that scales inversely with the log of the system size, in agreement with a crossover temperature defined from equilibrium properties. We find that both the finite-size and finite-temperature scaling are stronger in the low-temperature regime than above the crossover temperature. Since this finite-temperature scaling competes with the scaling of the robustness to unitary perturbations, this analysis may elucidate the scaling of memory lifetimes of possible physical realizations of topological qubits.

C. Daniel Freeman; C. M. Herdman; Dylan J Gorman; K. B. Whaley

2014-12-04

126

results from a systematic evaluation, by means of computer simulation, of the performance of twoIs). These relaxed-clock methods allow rates to vary in a phylogeny randomly over lineages (e.g., BEAST software CrIs produced from MultiDivTime and BEAST analysis. These composite CrIs are found to contain

Hedges, Blair

127

Very long nuclear relaxation times of spin polarized helium 3 in metal coated cells

We obtained very long relaxation times T1 of up to 120 h for the nuclear polarization of an optically pumped helium 3 gas. The glass containers were internally coated with metallic films such as bismuth or cesium. These findings will have applications in the field of helium magnetometers and polarized targets.

Werner Heil; Hubert Humblot; Ernst Otten; Matthias Schafer; Reinhard Sarkau; Michèle Leduc

1995-01-01

128

MRI Under Hyperbaric Air and Oxygen: Effects on Local Magnetic Field and Relaxation Times

in the rat brain were evaluated under nor- mobaric air, hyperbaric air, and hyperbaric oxygen at 7T. ResultsNOTE MRI Under Hyperbaric Air and Oxygen: Effects on Local Magnetic Field and Relaxation Times Eric of this study was to develop a rodent hyperbaric chamber for MRI studies and to investigate the effects

Duong, Timothy Q.

129

MRI Under Hyperbaric Air and Oxygen: Effects on Local Magnetic Field and Relaxation Times

in the rat brain were evaluated under normobaric air, hyperbaric air, and hyperbaric oxygen at 7T. ResultsMRI Under Hyperbaric Air and Oxygen: Effects on Local Magnetic Field and Relaxation Times Eric R of this study was to develop a rodent hyperbaric chamber for MRI studies and to investigate the effects

Duong, Timothy Q.

130

Monitoring of the creep and the relaxation behaviour of concrete since setting time,

1 Monitoring of the creep and the relaxation behaviour of concrete since setting time, part 1 of concrete are involved in cracking which can lead to service life reduction. In particular, the development of the concrete autogenous shrinkage under restrained conditions can lead to durability problems in concrete

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

131

Isospin relaxation time in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

Using an isospin-dependent transport model, we have studied the isospin and momentum relaxation times in the heavy residues formed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. It is found that only at incident energies below the Fermi energy...

Li, Ba; Ko, Che Ming.

1998-01-01

132

ANALYSIS OF WHITE NOISE LIMITS FOR STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS WITH TWO FAST RELAXATION TIMES

ANALYSIS OF WHITE NOISE LIMITS FOR STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS WITH TWO FAST RELAXATION TIMES G. A. Key words. white noise limits, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Kraichnan model, WongÂZakai theorem AMS it is not realistic to model it is as a white noise process. The term colored noise is used for such a noise process

Pavliotis, Grigorios

133

Relaxation Times of Nano-Colloid Flocculation Induced by Adsorbing and Non-adsorbing Polymers

Relaxation Times of Nano-Colloid Flocculation Induced by Adsorbing and Non-adsorbing Polymers nano-colloids mediated by adsorbing and non-adsorbing polymers. By making use of this theory, we have calculated the colloid immersion energy and the potential of the polymer-mediated forces for the above cases

Ahlers, Guenter

134

Micelle formation, relaxation time, and three-phase coexistence in a microemulsion model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Larson-type microemulsion model for surfactant chains in oil-water solvents leads to long relaxation times as well as, for essential modifications, to a stable peak in the chain-cluster size distribution. Transfer energies for surfactant chains moving to the oil-water interface, and characteristic micelle concentrations (CMC) as a function of chain length are compared with experiment.

Stauffer, Dietrich; Jan, Naeem; He, Yan; Pandey, Ras B.; Marangoni, D. Gerrard; Smith-Palmer, Truis

1994-05-01

135

Collective friction coefficients in the relaxation time approximation F. A. Ivanyuk

Collective friction coefficients in the relaxation time approximation F. A. Ivanyuk Institute components of the friction coefficient for various single-particle potentials and have found that the nondiagonal component of the friction coefficient depends generally on the diffuseness of the potential

Pomorski, Krzysztof

136

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of a three-dimensional (3-D) wavelength/time/space (W-T-S) asynchronous optical CDMA code family is presented considering MAI only under relaxed cross-correlation (?c ? 1). Based on the code performance, it is shown that for code-limited systems (when W and/or T are non-prime), the number of generated codes and hence the supported users can be significantly increased by relaxing the cross-correlation constraint if a slight degradation in code performance can be tolerated.

Singh, Jaswinder

2013-12-01

137

The rapid expansion of sequence data and the development of statistical approaches that embrace varying evolutionary rates among lineages have encouraged many more investigators to use DNA and protein data to time species divergences. Here, we report results from a systematic evaluation, by means of computer simulation, of the performance of two frequently used relaxed-clock methods for estimating these times and their credibility intervals (CrIs). These relaxed-clock methods allow rates to vary in a phylogeny randomly over lineages (e.g., BEAST software) and in autocorrelated fashion (e.g., MultiDivTime software). We applied these methods for analyzing sequence data sets simulated using naturally derived parameters (evolutionary rates, sequence lengths, and base substitution patterns) and assuming that clock calibrations are known without error. We find that the estimated times are, on average, close to the true times as long as the assumed model of lineage rate changes matches the actual model. The 95% CrIs also contain the true time for >or=95% of the simulated data sets. However, the use of incorrect lineage rate model reduces this frequency to 83%, indicating that the relaxed-clock methods are not robust to the violation of underlying lineage rate model. Because these rate models are rarely known a priori and are difficult to detect empirically, we suggest building composite CrIs using CrIs produced from MultiDivTime and BEAST analysis. These composite CrIs are found to contain the true time for >or=97% data sets. Our analyses also verify the usefulness of the common practice of interpreting the congruence of times inferred from different methods as a reflection of the accuracy of time estimates. Overall, our results show that simple strategies can be used to enhance our ability to estimate times and their CrIs when using the relaxed-clock methods. PMID:20093431

Battistuzzi, Fabia U; Filipski, Alan; Hedges, S Blair; Kumar, Sudhir

2010-06-01

138

The rapid expansion of sequence data and the development of statistical approaches that embrace varying evolutionary rates among lineages have encouraged many more investigators to use DNA and protein data to time species divergences. Here, we report results from a systematic evaluation, by means of computer simulation, of the performance of two frequently used relaxed-clock methods for estimating these times and their credibility intervals (CrIs). These relaxed-clock methods allow rates to vary in a phylogeny randomly over lineages (e.g., BEAST software) and in autocorrelated fashion (e.g., MultiDivTime software). We applied these methods for analyzing sequence data sets simulated using naturally derived parameters (evolutionary rates, sequence lengths, and base substitution patterns) and assuming that clock calibrations are known without error. We find that the estimated times are, on average, close to the true times as long as the assumed model of lineage rate changes matches the actual model. The 95% CrIs also contain the true time for ?95% of the simulated data sets. However, the use of incorrect lineage rate model reduces this frequency to 83%, indicating that the relaxed-clock methods are not robust to the violation of underlying lineage rate model. Because these rate models are rarely known a priori and are difficult to detect empirically, we suggest building composite CrIs using CrIs produced from MultiDivTime and BEAST analysis. These composite CrIs are found to contain the true time for ?97% data sets. Our analyses also verify the usefulness of the common practice of interpreting the congruence of times inferred from different methods as a reflection of the accuracy of time estimates. Overall, our results show that simple strategies can be used to enhance our ability to estimate times and their CrIs when using the relaxed-clock methods. PMID:20093431

Battistuzzi, Fabia U.; Filipski, Alan; Hedges, S. Blair; Kumar, Sudhir

2010-01-01

139

On-chip Brownian relaxation measurements of magnetic nanobeads in the time domain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and demonstrate a new method for on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on magnetic nanobeads in the time domain using magnetoresistive sensors. The beads are being magnetized by the sensor self-field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors and thus no external magnetic fields are needed. First, the method is demonstrated on Brownian relaxation measurements of beads with nominal sizes of 40, 80, 130, and 250 nm. The results are found to compare well to those obtained by an already established measurement technique in the frequency domain. Next, we demonstrate the time and frequency domain methods on Brownian relaxation detection of clustering of streptavidin coated magnetic beads in the presence of different concentrations of biotin-conjugated bovine serum albumin and obtain comparable results. In the time domain, a measurement is carried out in less than 30 s, which is about six times faster than in the frequency domain. This substantial reduction of the measurement time allows for continuous monitoring of the bead dynamics vs. time and opens for time-resolved studies, e.g., of binding kinetics.

Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

2013-06-01

140

Time-domain modeling of finite-amplitude sound in relaxing fluids

A time-domain computer algorithm that solves an augmented Burgers equation is described. The algorithm is a modification of the time-domain code developed by Lee and Hamilton@J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 906-917 ~1995!# for pulsed finite-amplitude sound beams in homogeneous, thermoviscous fluids. In the present paper, effects of nonlinearity, absorption and dispersion ~both thermoviscous and relaxational!, geometrical spreading, and inhomogeneity of

Robin O. Cleveland; Mark F. Hamilton; David T. Blackstock

1995-01-01

141

Acceleration of carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times in amino acids by electrolytes.

Measurements of the enhancement, by various electrolytes, of the spin-lattice relaxation time of carbon-13 at different locations in a number of amino acids are reported. Spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of all the carbons in amino acids generally tend to decrease with increase in the concentration of electrolytes, the largest effects often being observed for the charged carboxylate groups of the amino acids. Carboxylic carbons in amino acids are the sensitive 'acceptor' of the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating effects offered by electrolytes, and the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating ability of electrolytes decreases in the order Mg(ClO4)2 > MgCl2 > CaCl2 > NaCl > KCl > LiClO4 > NaOH. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed in terms of intermolecular interaction, paramagnetic impurities in electrolytes and other mechanisms; large contributions of intermolecular interactions with electrolytes are present on complex formation between amino acids and metal ions and the incoming 'unsaturation' of the primary solvation shell of cations with the increase in electrolyte concentration. PMID:15181635

Tian, Jinping; Yin, Yingwu

2004-07-01

142

Review of time scales. [Universal Time-Ephemeris Time-International Atomic Time

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic time scales are presented: International Atomic Time, Universal Time, and Universal Time (Coordinated). These scales must be maintained in order to satisfy specific requirements. It is shown how they are obtained and made available at a very high level of precision.

Guinot, B.

1974-01-01

143

Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B/sup 2//2..mu../sub 0/, which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed.

Jardin, S.C.

1984-01-01

144

Kalman plus weights: a time scale algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KPW is a time scale algorithm that combines Kalman filtering with the basic time scale equation (BTSE). A single Kalman filter that estimates all clocks simultaneously is used to generate the BTSE frequency estimates, while the BTSE weights are inversely proportional to the white FM variances of the clocks. Results from simulated clock ensembles are compared to previous simulation results from other algorithms.

Greenhall, C. A.

2001-01-01

145

The high temperature X-ray diffraction system developed for this program is being used to measure the strains which develop during oxidation. This is being applied to Ni/NiO and Cr/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Our work suggests tat the oxide and metal crystalline texture, anisotropic elastic modulus and anisotropic thermal expansion can have a pronounced effect on strain state of these systems. Acoustic emission is being used to study oxide scale failure (fracture) during oxidation. AE data from 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a statistical model of fracture process. Strength of metal/scale interface is an important property that has been difficult to quantify. Using Nano-indentation and scratch techniques developed for characterizing thin film interfaces, an effort has begun to measure the fracture toughness of the metal/scale interface. Mathematical modelling of origin and time evolution of growth stresses is an extension and improvement of previous models. The current effort employs a more sophisticated stress analysis and expands the scope to include other stress relaxation process. The interaction between the modeling studies and the X-ray diffraction measurements provides a natural credibility check to both efforts.

Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.

1992-06-01

146

This report summarizes a three-year study of stresses arising in the oxide scale and underlying metal during high temperature oxidation and of scale cracking. In-situ XRD was developed to measure strains during oxidation over 1000{degrees}C on pure metals. Acoustic emission was used to observe scale fracture during isothermal oxidation and cooling, and statistical analysis was used to infer mechanical aspects of cracking. A microscratch technique was used to measure the fracture toughness of scale/metal interface. A theoretical model was evaluated for the development and relaxation of stresses in scale and metal substrate during oxidation.

Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.

1993-06-01

147

Paramagnetic enhancement of NMR relaxation (NMR-PRE) depends on thermal relaxation of the electron spin system. Most previous analyses of experimental NMR-PRE data have relied on Bloembergen--Morgan (B--M) theory to describe the magnetic field dependence of electron spin relaxation in liquid samples. However, B--M theory assumes a Zeeman-limit situation and is not physically appropriate to the common case of S > or = 1 transition metal ions which possess a permanent zero-field splitting (zfs) that is comparable to or larger than the Zeeman splitting. Theory has been needed which (1) includes the effects of the zfs interaction, thus providing a realistic description of the magnetic field dependence of the NMR-PRE outside the Zeeman limit, and (2) describes electron spin relaxation phenomena at a comparable level of complexity to that of B--M theory, i.e., with two magnetic field-dependent electron spin relaxation times, tau(S1) and tau(S2), defined in the laboratory coordinate frame. Theory of this kind is developed. Expressions derived in a previous study (R. R. Sharp and L. L. Lohr, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 5005 (2001).) for level-specific relaxation rates have been averaged over spin eigenstates to give level-averaged quantities, tau(S1,2). This kind of averaging leads to a great simplification in the mathematical form of the results. Simple zfs-limit molecular-frame and laboratory-frame expressions are given for electron spin S=1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2. General expressions, valid for S > or = 1 and for arbitrary magnitudes of the Zeeman and zfs energies, are derived for level-averaged electron spin relaxation times defined in both the laboratory- and the molecule-fixed coordinate frames. The new theory coincides with B--M theory in the Zeeman limit. PMID:11846584

Sharp, Robert

2002-02-01

148

Long term stability of atomic time scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the stability and accuracy achieved by the reference atomic time scales TAI and TT(BIPM). We show that they presently are in the low 10-16 in relative value, based on the performance of primary standards, of the ensemble time scale and of the time transfer techniques. We consider how the 1 × 10-16 value could be reached or superseded and which are the present limitations to attain this goal.

Petit, G.; Arias, F.

2015-03-01

149

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann finite-difference method to simulate axisymmetric multiphase flows. The hydrodynamics is simulated by the lattice-Boltzmann equations with the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision model and suitable forcing terms that account for the interfacial tension and axisymmetric effects. The interface dynamics is captured by the finite-difference solution of the convective Cahn-Hilliard equation. This method is applied to simulate a quiescent drop, an oscillating drop, a drop spreading on a dry surface and a drop accelerated by a constant body force. It is validated through comparisons of the computed results for these problems with analytical solutions or numerical solutions by other different methods. It is shown that the MRT-based method is able to handle more challenging cases than that with the single-relaxation-time collision model for axisymmetric multiphase flows due to its improved stability.

Huang, Jun-Jie; Huang, Haibo; Shu, Chang; Tian Chew, Yong; Wang, Shi-Long

2013-02-01

150

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum stochastic methods based on effective wave functions form a framework for investigating the generally non-Markovian dynamics of a quantum-mechanical system coupled to a bath. They promise to be computationally superior to the master-equation approach, which is numerically expensive for large dimensions of the Hilbert space. Here, we numerically investigate the suitability of a known stochastic Schrödinger equation that is local in time to give a description of thermal relaxation and energy transport. This stochastic Schrödinger equation can be solved with a moderate numerical cost, indeed comparable to that of a Markovian system, and reproduces the dynamics of a system evolving according to a general non-Markovian master equation. After verifying that it describes thermal relaxation correctly, we apply it for the first time to the energy transport in a spin chain. We also discuss a portable algorithm for the generation of the coloured noise associated with the numerical solution of the non-Markovian dynamics.

Biele, R.; Timm, C.; D'Agosta, R.

2014-10-01

151

Lattice Boltzmann equation with multiple effective relaxation times for gaseous microscale flow.

The standard lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is inadequate for simulating gas flows with a large Knudsen number. In this paper we propose a generalized lattice Boltzmann equation with effective relaxation times based on a recently developed generalized Navier-Stokes constitution [Guo, Europhys Lett. 80, 24001 (2007)] for nonequilibrium flows. A kinetic boundary condition corresponding to a generalized second-order slip scheme is also designed for the model. The LBE model and the boundary condition are analyzed for a unidirectional flow, and it is found that in order to obtain the generalized Navier-Stokes equations, the relaxation times must be properly chosen and are related to the boundary condition. Numerical results show that the proposed method is able to capture the Knudsen layer phenomenon and can yield improved predictions in comparison with the standard lattice Boltzmann equation. PMID:18517557

Guo, Zhaoli; Zheng, Chuguang; Shi, Baochang

2008-03-01

152

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times of Single Donors and Donor Clusters in Silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomistic method of calculating the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) is presented for donors in silicon nanostructures comprising of millions of atoms. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian, and hence, the deformation potential, is directly evaluated from the strain-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian. The technique is applied to single donors and donor clusters in silicon, and explains the variation of T1 with the number of donors and electrons, as well as donor locations. Without any adjustable parameters, the relaxation rates in a magnetic field for both systems are found to vary as B5 , in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show that by engineering electronic wave functions in nanostructures, T1 times can be varied by orders of magnitude.

Hsueh, Yu-Ling; Büch, Holger; Tan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Rahman, Rajib

2014-12-01

153

Spin-lattice relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon.

An atomistic method of calculating the spin-lattice relaxation times (T?) is presented for donors in silicon nanostructures comprising of millions of atoms. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian, and hence, the deformation potential, is directly evaluated from the strain-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian. The technique is applied to single donors and donor clusters in silicon, and explains the variation of T? with the number of donors and electrons, as well as donor locations. Without any adjustable parameters, the relaxation rates in a magnetic field for both systems are found to vary as B?, in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show that by engineering electronic wave functions in nanostructures, T? times can be varied by orders of magnitude. PMID:25541787

Hsueh, Yu-Ling; Büch, Holger; Tan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y; Rahman, Rajib

2014-12-12

154

Shear viscosity to relaxation time ratio in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

We evaluate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the relaxation time of the shear flux above but near the critical temperature $T_c$ in SU(3) gauge theory on the lattice. The ratio is related to Kubo's canonical correlation of the energy-momentum tensor in Euclidean space with the relaxation time approximation and an appropriate regularization. Using this relation, the ratio is evaluated by direct measurements of the Euclidean observables on the lattice. We obtained the ratio with reasonable statistics for the range of temperature $1.3T_c \\lesssim T \\lesssim 4T_c$. We also found that the characteristic speed of the transverse plane wave in gluon media is almost constant, $v \\simeq 0.5$, for $T \\gtrsim 1.5T_c$, which is compatible with the causality in the second order dissipative hydrodynamics.

Yasuhiro Kohno; Masayuki Asakawa; Masakiyo Kitazawa

2013-03-25

155

Specific viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach

The specific viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter is studied from the relaxation time approach using an isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction and the nucleon-nucleon cross sections taken as those from the experimental data modified by the in-medium effective masses as used in the IBUU transport model calculations. The relaxation time of neutrons is larger while that of protons is smaller in neutron-rich nuclear matter compared with that in symmetric nuclear matter, and this leads to a larger specific viscosity in neutron-rich nuclear matter. In addition, the specific viscosity decreases with increasing temperature because of more frequent collisions and weaker Pauli blocking effect at higher temperatures. At lower temperatures the specific viscosity increases with increasing density due to the Pauli blocking effect, while at higher temperatures it slightly decreases with increasing density as a result of smaller in-medium effective masses at higher densities.

Jun Xu

2011-12-05

156

The Study of Water's Interaction With PEG-DM hydrogels through T1 relaxation times

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol(PEG), a hydrophilic polymer, is different then poly-propelene glycol(PPG) and polymethylene glycol(PMG) which are hydrophobic. Study of this difference was carried out by empirically determining how water interacts with PEG using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer to measure T1 relaxation times of water with PEG-dimethacrylate(PEG-DM) hydrogels. The PEG-DM hydrogels were synthesized in a two part reaction involving attaching methacrylic acid to the two ends of the polymer, then cross-linking vinyl groups of the methacylic acid to form a linked matrix of all the PEG-DM molecules. The presentation will cover how the measurements were taken, what can be learned from the T1 relaxation times, and what future studies will entail.

Meier, Joseph; Maneval, James; Jeblonski, Erin

2007-10-01

157

This paper presents an effectiveness of combined parallel relative particle swarm optimization (PRPSO) and Lagrangian relaxation (LR) for a large-scale constrained unit commitment (UC) problem in electric power system. The proposed algorithm incorporates PRPSO with a new relative velocity updating (RVU) approach to tradeoff the solution of each slave processing unit. The parallel algorithm based on the synchronous parallel implementation

Songsak Chusanapiputt; Dulyatat Nualhong; Sujate Jantarang; Sukumvit Phoomvuthisarn

2005-01-01

158

Waiting time after non-depolarizing relaxants alter muscle fasciculation response to succinylcholine

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants and waiting time on muscle fasciculations\\u000a after succinylcholine in anaesthetized patients. Adult men and women, 60–80 kg, received pretreatment doses of atracurium\\u000a 5 mg (n = 160), pancuronium 1 mg (n = 123), d-tubocurarine 3 mg (n = 97), or vecuronium 1 mg (n = 62).

Alfred C. Pinchak; Charles E. Smith; Lee S. Shepard; Louise Patterson

1994-01-01

159

Dielectric Relaxation Study of Amide-Alcohol Mixtures by Using Time Domain Reflectometry

Using time domain reflectometry (TDR), dielectric relaxation studies were carried out on binary mixtures of amides (N-methylformamide (NMF) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) with alcohols (1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, and 1-decanol) for various concentrations over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 10 GHz at 303 K. The Kirkwood correlation factor and excess dielectric constant properties were determined and discussed to

K. Ramachandran; P. Sivagurunathan; K. Dharmalingam; S. C. Mehrotra

2007-01-01

160

ZeroRelaxationTime Limits in the Hydrodynamic Equations for Plasmas Revisited

ÂPoisson system: @ t n ff + @ x j ff = 0 (1) m ff @ t j ff +m ff @ x (j 2 ff =n ff ) + @ x p ff (n ff ) = \\Gammaq ff n ff @ x OE \\Gamma m ff j ff Ã¸ ff ; (2) \\Gammaâ?? 2 @ xx OE = n i \\Gamma n e ; (3) where ff = e; i relaxation time constants for electrons and ions, respectively. The pressure functions p ff are usually

JÃ¼ngel, Ansgar

161

Superconvergence of finite element discretization of time relaxation models of advection

The nodal accuracy of finite element discretizations of advection equations including a time relaxation term is studied. Worst\\u000a case error estimates have been proven for this combination (for the Navier–Stokes equations) by energy methods. By considering\\u000a the Cauchy problem with uniform meshes, precise Fourier analysis of the error is possible. This analysis shows (1) the worst\\u000a case upper bounds are

William Layton

2007-01-01

162

Implicit-correction-based immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with two relaxation times.

In the present paper, we verify the effectiveness of the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operator in reducing boundary slip computed by the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). In the linear collision operator of the TRT, we decompose the distribution function into symmetric and antisymmetric components and define the relaxation parameters for each part. The Chapman-Enskog expansion indicates that one relaxation time for the symmetric component is related to the kinematic viscosity. Rigorous analysis of the symmetric shear flows reveals that the relaxation time for the antisymmetric part controls the velocity gradient, the boundary velocity, and the boundary slip velocity computed by the IB-LBM. Simulation of the symmetric shear flows, the symmetric Poiseuille flows, and the cylindrical Couette flows indicates that the profiles of the numerical velocity calculated by the TRT collision operator under the IB-LBM framework exactly agree with those of the multirelaxation time (MRT). The TRT is as effective in removing the boundary slip as the MRT. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the error of the boundary velocity is caused by the smoothing technique using the ? function used in the interpolation method. In the simulation of the flow past a circular cylinder, the IB-LBM based on the implicit correction method with the TRT succeeds in preventing the flow penetration through the solid surface as well as unphysical velocity distortion. The drag coefficient, the wake length, and the separation points calculated by the present IB-LBM agree well with previous studies at Re = 10, 20, and 40. PMID:25353605

Seta, Takeshi; Rojas, Roberto; Hayashi, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Akio

2014-02-01

163

Extending the EGP constitutive model for polymer glasses to multiple relaxation times

The one-mode EGP (Eindhoven glassy polymer) model captures the plastic flow at yield and post-yield quantitatively, but behaves poor in the non-linear viscoelastic pre-yield region. Since a proper description here is important in cases of complex loading and unloading situations, such as e.g. in indentation and scratching, an extension to non-linear modeling is required using a spectrum of relaxation times.

L. C. A. van Breemen; E. T. J. Klompen; L. E. Govaert; H. E. H. Meijer

2011-01-01

164

Bone marrow relaxation times in Gaucher disease before and after enzyme replacement therapy

. The aim of this work was to monitor the effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy on the basis of the changes in T1 relaxation\\u000a times in Gaucher patients. A total of 26 patients underwent MR before enzyme replacement therapy; of them, 18 have been followed-up.\\u000a A total of 22 age-matched controls underwent the same MR study. Scans were focused on

S. Magnaldi; R. Longo; M. Ukmar; M. Zanatta; M. Bottega; G. L. Sottocasa

1997-01-01

165

Measurements of nuclear thermal relaxation times under conditions of high resolution

It satisfies the relation, ^ 2 M o - M g , 0 dt = T? (8 T2, the transverse relaxation time, is related to the change of the x and y components of M in the following way, an angle rr/2 out of phase with an initial magnetization. This precession may................................... 1 II. THEORY...................................... 3 Phenomenological Description of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance . ........ . . . . . . . 3 Microscopic Theory of T ^ .................... 10 III. EQUIPMENT.................................. 28...

Hildebrandt, Alvin Frank

1956-01-01

166

Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Relaxation Techniques for Stress

... pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption and levels of stress hormones. In theory, voluntarily creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation techniques are generally safe, but there is ...

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the free energy landscape theory, we develop a framework to calculate the structural relaxation time in supercooled liquids and glasses. By the framework, the relaxation time is obtained by an escaping time from a basin in a given free energy surface. In order to demonstrate its usefulness, we apply the framework to monodisperse hard-sphere glass systems. Then we show that the relaxation time increases drastically with the density. Additionally, we discuss an explicit picture of the cooperatively rearranging region by analyzing the spatial distribution of an activation free energy of one particle.

Ekimoto, Toru; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi; Yoshidome, Takashi

2013-07-01

168

Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ?42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L., E-mail: greenfield@egr.uri.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

2014-01-21

169

We present a new fitting procedure and computer code for numerical evaluation of dielectric relaxation time distribution functions. The technique is based on linear least squares minimization and aims primarily at the analysis of compound experimental spectra of complex dielectric permittivity. It is fast, robust, and easy to use. No prior knowledge about the number of relaxation modes, their characteristic times, relaxation strengths, or the functional form of the underlying relaxation time distribution function is required, the procedure determines these parameters instead. The method is tested by both synthetic spectra with well-defined parameters of dielectric relaxation and experimental wide-band dielectric spectra of different types. We believe that this new fitting instrument, which allows an unbiased approach to the formal description of dielectric spectra, may be of interest in many areas of dielectric spectroscopy. PMID:21406849

Zasetsky, A Y; Buchner, R

2011-01-19

170

Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better understanding of neuroautonomic regulation mechanisms. PMID:25275515

Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

2014-01-01

171

Metabolic Imaging in Multiple Time Scales

We report here a novel combination of time-resolved imaging methods for probing mitochondrial metabolism multiple time scales at the level of single cells. By exploiting a mitochondrial membrane potential reporter fluorescence we demonstrate the single cell metabolic dynamics in time scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds to minutes in response to glucose metabolism and mitochondrial perturbations in real time. Our results show that in comparison with normal human mammary epithelial cells, the breast cancer cells display significant alterations in metabolic responses at all measured time scales by single cell kinetics, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and by scaling analysis of time-series data obtained from mitochondrial fluorescence fluctuations. Furthermore scaling analysis of time-series data in living cells with distinct mitochondrial dysfunction also revealed significant metabolic differences thereby suggesting the broader applicability (e.g. in mitochondrial myopathies and other metabolic disorders) of the proposed strategies beyond the scope of cancer metabolism. We discuss the scope of these findings in the context of developing portable, real-time metabolic measurement systems that can find applications in preclinical and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24013043

Ramanujan, V Krishnan

2013-01-01

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using parallel processors to reduce the execution times of classical circuit simulation programs like SPICE and ASTAP has been the focus of much current research. In these efforts, good parallel speed increases were achieved for linearized system construction, but it has been difficult to get good parallel speed increases for sparse matrix solution. In this paper we examine two approaches for reducing parallel sparse matrix solution time; the first based on pivot ordering algorithms for Gaussian elimination, and the second based on relaxation algorithms. In the section on Gaussian elimination sparse matrix solution, we present a pivot ordering algorithm which increases the parallelism of Gaussian elimination compared to the commonly used Markowitz method. The performance of the new algorithm is compared to other suggested ordering algorithms for a collection of circuit examples. The minimum number of parallel steps for the solution of a tridiagonal matrix is derived, and it is shown that this optimum is nearly achieved by the ordering heuristics which attempt to maximize parallelism. In the section on relaxation, we present an optimality result about Gauss-Jacobi over Gauss-Seidel relaxation on parallel processors.

Smart, David; White, Jacob

1988-03-01

173

Relaxation and merging flux ropes and 3D effects in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment at LANL

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic structures are embedded in astrophysical, space, solar and laboratory plasmas. The dynamics and relaxation of these plasmas can involve flows, changes in topology, magnetic reconnection, plasma heating, and dissipation of magnetic energy. This complex behavior is intrinsically three-dimensional (3D). Current-carrying magnetic flux ropes are the fundamental building blocks for many of these cases. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have an experimental realization of this model. The Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) is a unique facility that can create multiple current-carrying flux ropes in an MHD experiment. Plasma guns are used to inject magnetic helicity into plasma columns. We show 3D structure with camera views, along with magnetic, electric, and particle probe data. Experiments in the presence of a strong guide magnetic field (Bz/Brcxn>10) show the formation of a current sheet and electron heating during the coalescence of two flux ropes. Computed simulations of the interactions of two current ropes are shown of that predict many of the experimental characteristics. A density wave structure that propagates opposite to the current is measured in the current sheet with wavelength and speed that are consistent with a kinetic Alfven wave. The current channels acquire angular momentum and rotate about each other developing helical structures, both individually and jointly. Parallel pressure gradients (a 3D effect) appear to be an important term in the Ohm's Law.

Intrator, T.; Furno, I.; Light, A.; Madziwa-Nussinov, T.; Lapenta, G.; Ricci, P.; Hemsing, E.

2005-12-01

174

Time scale synchronization of chaotic oscillators

This paper presents the result of the investigation of chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach for detecting of synchronized behaviour of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. This approach has been applied for the coupled Rossler and Lorenz systems.

Alexander Hramov; Alexey Koronovskii

2006-02-25

175

Electron spin relaxation time in (110) InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells

Electron spin relaxation time ?{sub s} in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells (QWs) grown on (110) and (100) InP substrates was investigated by pump-probe transmission measurements. Similar ?{sub s} of 0.83–1.0?ns were measured at room temperature for all the measured (110) and (100) QWs, indicating suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism in (110) QWs is not effective in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs as opposed to GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. Contribution of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism dominant in (110) GaAs/AlGaAs QWs was found to be small in both the (110) and (100) InGaAs/InAlAs QWs from the weak dependences of ?{sub s} on pump intensity at room temperature. These results suggest that the spin relaxation mechanism dominant in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs at a temperature higher than 200?K is the Elliott-Yafet mechanism independent of the crystal orientation among the above three major mechanisms.

Yokota, Nobuhide; Yasuda, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi, E-mail: khitoshi@ms.naist.jp [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

2014-07-14

176

Electron spin relaxation time in (110) InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron spin relaxation time ?s in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells (QWs) grown on (110) and (100) InP substrates was investigated by pump-probe transmission measurements. Similar ?s of 0.83-1.0 ns were measured at room temperature for all the measured (110) and (100) QWs, indicating suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism in (110) QWs is not effective in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs as opposed to GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. Contribution of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism dominant in (110) GaAs/AlGaAs QWs was found to be small in both the (110) and (100) InGaAs/InAlAs QWs from the weak dependences of ?s on pump intensity at room temperature. These results suggest that the spin relaxation mechanism dominant in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs at a temperature higher than 200 K is the Elliott-Yafet mechanism independent of the crystal orientation among the above three major mechanisms.

Yokota, Nobuhide; Yasuda, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

2014-07-01

177

A postulate that ergodicity and entropy continuously decrease to zero on cooling a liquid to a glassy state was used to support the view that glass has no residual entropy, and the features of mechanical relaxation spectra were cited as proof for the decrease. We investigate whether such spectra and the relaxation isochrones can serve as the proof. We find that an increase in the real component of elastic moduli with an increase in spectral frequency does not indicate continuous loss of ergodicity and entropy, and the spectra do not confirm isothermal glass transition or loss of entropy. Variation in ergodicity and entropy with the spectral frequency has untenable consequences for both thermodynamics and molecular dynamics and implies that, despite a broad distribution of its relaxation times, an equilibrium liquid can be considered as always ergodic. Perturbation from equilibrium used to obtain a spectrum does not have the effect of dynamic freezing and unfreezing, and Maxwell-Voigt models for the mechanical response function have neither the characteristic irreversibility of liquid-glass transition nor are commutable to ergodicity or entropy. PMID:21928991

Johari, G P

2011-08-01

178

[1] For characterizing water flow in the vadose zone, the water retention curve (WRC) of the soil must be known. Because conventional WRC measurements demand much time and effort in the laboratory, alternative methods with shortened measurement duration are desired. The WRC can be estimated, for instance, from the cumulative pore size distribution (PSD) of the investigated material. Geophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry have successfully been applied to recover PSDs of sandstones and limestones. It is therefore expected that the multiexponential analysis of the NMR signal from water-saturated loose sediments leads to a reliable estimation of the WRC. We propose an approach to estimate the WRC using the cumulative NMR relaxation time distribution and approximate it with the well-known van-Genuchten (VG) model. Thereby, the VG parameter n, which controls the curvature of the WRC, is of particular interest, because it is the essential parameter to predict the relative hydraulic conductivity. The NMR curves are calibrated with only two conventional WRC measurements, first, to determine the residual water content and, second, to define a fixed point that relates the relaxation time to a corresponding capillary pressure. We test our approach with natural and artificial soil samples and compare the NMR-based results to WRC measurements using a pressure plate apparatus and to WRC predictions from the software ROSETTA. We found that for sandy soils n can reliably be estimated with NMR, whereas for samples with clay and silt contents higher than 10% the estimation fails. This is the case when the hydraulic properties of the soil are mainly controlled by the pore constrictions. For such samples, the sensitivity of the NMR method for the pore bodies hampers a plausible WRC estimation. Citation: Costabel, S., and U. Yaramanci (2013), Estimation of water retention parameters from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time distributions, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2068-2079, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20207. PMID:23935225

Costabel, Stephan; Yaramanci, Ugur

2013-01-01

179

The Geologic Time Scale in Historical Perspective

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief discussion of the development of the Geologic Time Scale begins with Nicolas Steno in 1669 whose ideas have become known as the principles of original horizontal deposition and superposition. Next are James Hutton in 1795 and Charles Lyell in the early 1800s who supported the principle of uniformitarianism. The work of William Smith and the principle of faunal succession is also noted. The site goes on to explain how and why the scale is divided as it is.

180

Background The magnetic resonance longitudinal relaxation time (T1) changes with thrombus age in humans. In this study, we investigate the possible mechanisms that give rise to the T1 signal in venous thrombi and whether changes in T1 relaxation time are informative of the susceptibility to lysis. Methods and Results Venous thrombosis was induced in the vena cava of BALB/C mice, and temporal changes in T1 relaxation time correlated with thrombus composition. The mean T1 relaxation time of thrombus was shortest at 7days following thrombus induction and returned to that of blood as the thrombus resolved. T1 relaxation time was related to thrombus methemoglobin formation and further processing. Studies in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS?/?)–deficient mice revealed that inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates oxidation of erythrocyte lysis–derived iron to paramagnetic Fe3+, which causes thrombus T1 relaxation time shortening. Studies using chemokine receptor-2–deficient mice (Ccr2?/?) revealed that the return of the T1 signal to that of blood is regulated by removal of Fe3+ by macrophages that accumulate in the thrombus during its resolution. Quantification of T1 relaxation time was a good predictor of successful thrombolysis with a cutoff point of <747 ms having a sensitivity and specificity to predict successful lysis of 83% and 94%, respectively. Conclusions The source of the T1 signal in the thrombus results from the oxidation of iron (released from the lysis of trapped erythrocytes in the thrombus) to its paramagnetic Fe3+ form. Quantification of T1 relaxation time appears to be a good predictor of the success of thrombolysis. PMID:23820077

Modarai, Bijan; Blume, Ulrike; Humphries, Julia; Patel, Ashish S.; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Evans, Colin E.; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P.; Ahmad, Anwar; Lyons, Oliver T.; Attia, Rizwan Q.; Renné, Thomas; Premaratne, Sobath; Wiethoff, Andrea J.; Botnar, René M.; Schaeffter, Tobias; Waltham, Matthew; Smith, Alberto

2014-01-01

181

Shear and bulk viscosities of the hadron gas within relaxation time approximation and its test

We concentrate on calculation of the shear and bulk viscosities of the hadron gas. They define its dissipative dynamics and influence its experimentally measurable elliptic flow. Due to difficulty of this calculation the relaxation time approximation (RTA) was used in previous works. As those results have approached the realistic ones, there is a need to find out how accurate the RTA is. For this sake we calculate the viscosities in the RTA using cross sections extracted from the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model and compare them with the same ones calculated without the RTA. This allows us to find the estimates of errors due to the application of RTA in the calculations of the viscosities, which are valid also for other similar models. For instance, in the temperature region $100~MeV \\lesssim T \\lesssim 160~MeV$ at zero chemical potentials the shear viscosity becomes smaller up to $1.57$ times, or up to $1.45$ times if the averaged relaxation time is used. This has important conseque...

Moroz, O

2013-01-01

182

Shear and bulk viscosities of the hadron gas within relaxation time approximation and its test

We concentrate on calculation of the shear and bulk viscosities of the hadron gas. They define its dissipative dynamics and influence its experimentally measurable elliptic flow. Due to difficulty of this calculation the relaxation time approximation (RTA) was used in previous works. As those results have approached the realistic ones, there is a need to find out how accurate the RTA is. For this sake we calculate the viscosities in the RTA using cross sections extracted from the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model and compare them with the same ones calculated without the RTA. This allows us to find the estimates of errors due to the application of RTA in the calculations of the viscosities, which are valid also for other similar models. For instance, in the temperature region $100~MeV \\lesssim T \\lesssim 160~MeV$ at zero chemical potentials the shear viscosity becomes smaller up to $1.57$ times, or up to $1.45$ times if the averaged relaxation time is used. This has important consequences for interpretation of the previously made calculations of the viscosities and some other related calculations. Within the RTA, we also find estimation of the enhancement of the bulk viscosity of the hadron gas because of nonconservation of particle numbers.

O. Moroz

2013-12-30

183

Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XVIII. Does entropy control structural relaxation times?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dielectric dynamics of viscous glycerol in the presence of a large bias field. Apart from dielectric saturation and polarization anisotropy, we observe that the steady state structural relaxation time is longer by 2.7% in the presence of a 225 kV/cm dc-field relative to the linear response counterpart, equivalent to a field induced glass transition (Tg) shift of +84 mK. This result compares favorably with the 3.0% time constant increase predicted on the basis of a recent report [G. P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 154503 (2013)], where the field induced reduction of the configurational entropy translates into slower dynamics by virtue of the Adam-Gibbs relation. Other models of field dependent glass transition temperatures are also discussed. Similar to observations related to the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise time of the field induced effect is much longer than its collapse when the field is removed again. The orientational relaxation time of the plastic crystal cyclo-octanol is more sensitive to a bias field, showing a 13.5% increase at a field of 150 kV/cm, equivalent to an increase of Tg by 0.58 K.

Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

2015-01-01

184

Energy and temperature dependence of relaxation time and Wiedemann-Franz law on PbTe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent revival of interest in high-temperature (T) thermoelectrics has made it necessary to understand in detail the T dependence of different transport coefficients, and different processes contributing to this temperature dependence. Since PbTe is a well-studied prototypical high-temperature thermoelectric, we have carried out theoretical studies to analyze how different physical sources contribute to electronic transport coefficients in this system over a wide T and concentration (n) range; 300K

Ahmad, Salameh; Mahanti, S. D.

2010-04-01

185

SUMMARY Objective The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time. Methods Electronic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant studies about T2 relaxation time measurements as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and cartilage repair procedures. Results Initial osteoarthritic changes include proteoglycan loss, deterioration of the collagen network, and increased water content within the articular cartilage and menisci. T2 relaxation time measurements are affected by these pathophysiological processes. It was demonstrated that cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time values were significantly increased in subjects with compared to those without radiographic OA and focal knee lesions, respectively. Subjects with OA risk factors such as overweight/obesity showed significantly greater cartilage T2 values than normal controls. Elevated cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation times were found in subjects with vs without knee pain. Increased cartilage T2 at baseline predicted morphologic degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years. Furthermore, cartilage repair tissue could be non-invasively assessed by using T2 mapping. Reproducibility errors for T2 measurements were reported to be smaller than the T2 differences in healthy and diseased cartilage indicating that T2 relaxation time may be a reliable discriminatory biomarker. Conclusions Cartilage and meniscal T2 mapping may be suitable as non-invasive biomarker to diagnose early stages of knee OA and to monitor therapy of OA. PMID:23896316

Baum, T.; Joseph, G.B.; Karampinos, D.C.; Jungmann, P.M.; Link, T.M.; Bauer, J.S.

2014-01-01

186

The electron-phonon relaxation time in thin superconducting titanium nitride films

We report on the direct measurement of the electron-phonon relaxation time, ?{sub eph}, in disordered TiN films. Measured values of ?{sub eph} are from 5.5?ns to 88?ns in the 4.2 to 1.7?K temperature range and consistent with a T{sup ?3} temperature dependence. The electronic density of states at the Fermi level N{sub 0} is estimated from measured material parameters. The presented results confirm that thin TiN films are promising candidate-materials for ultrasensitive superconducting detectors.

Kardakova, A., E-mail: kardakova@rplab.ru [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Finkel, M.; Kovalyuk, V.; An, P. [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Morozov, D.; Dunscombe, C.; Mauskopf, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Tarkhov, M. [National Research Centre, “Kurchatov Institute,” Moscow 123128 (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre, “Kurchatov Institute,” Moscow 123128 (Russian Federation); Klapwijk, T. M. [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Goltsman, G. [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) [Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

2013-12-16

187

The electron-phonon relaxation time in thin superconducting titanium nitride films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the direct measurement of the electron-phonon relaxation time, ?eph, in disordered TiN films. Measured values of ?eph are from 5.5 ns to 88 ns in the 4.2 to 1.7 K temperature range and consistent with a T-3 temperature dependence. The electronic density of states at the Fermi level N0 is estimated from measured material parameters. The presented results confirm that thin TiN films are promising candidate-materials for ultrasensitive superconducting detectors.

Kardakova, A.; Finkel, M.; Morozov, D.; Kovalyuk, V.; An, P.; Dunscombe, C.; Tarkhov, M.; Mauskopf, P.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Goltsman, G.

2013-12-01

188

Time-resolved chloroquine-induced relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA.

Herein, we report on the in vitro change of DNA conformation of plasmids bound to a 3-aminopropyl-modified mica surface and monitoring the events by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging under near physiological conditions. In our study, we used an intercalating drug, chloroquine, which is known to decrease the twist of the double helix and thus altered the conformation of the whole DNA. During our experiments, a chloroquine solution was added while imaging a few highly condensed plasmid nanoparticles in solution. AFM images recorded after the drug addition clearly show a time-resolved relaxation of these bionanoparticles into a mixture of loose DNA strands. PMID:21766217

Mahut, Marek; Leitner, Michael; Ebner, Andreas; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Lindner, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

189

Extending the EGP constitutive model for polymer glasses to multiple relaxation times

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-mode EGP (Eindhoven glassy polymer) model captures the plastic flow at yield and post-yield quantitatively, but behaves poor in the non-linear viscoelastic pre-yield region. Since a proper description here is important in cases of complex loading and unloading situations, such as e.g. in indentation and scratching, an extension to non-linear modeling is required using a spectrum of relaxation times. It is shown that such a reference spectrum can be obtained from simple tensile tests. It shifts to shorter times under the influence of stress and is independent of the two important time-dependent processes in polymers: the strain rate applied during testing and the aging time during storage and use. The multi-mode model is critically tested and proves quantitative in describing the intrinsic polymer response and, based thereupon, in predicting the correct response in tensile testing, including necking, in flat tip indentation and in notched loading.

van Breemen, L. C. A.; Klompen, E. T. J.; Govaert, L. E.; Meijer, H. E. H.

2011-10-01

190

The time scale of evolutionary innovation.

A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different question, which is concerned with the much longer time scale of evolutionary trajectories: how long does it take for a population exploring a fitness landscape to find target sequences that encode new biological functions? Our key variable is the length, L, of the genetic sequence that undergoes adaptation. In computer science there is a crucial distinction between problems that require algorithms which take polynomial or exponential time. The latter are considered to be intractable. Here we develop a theoretical approach that allows us to estimate the time of evolution as function of L. We show that adaptation on many fitness landscapes takes time that is exponential in L, even if there are broad selection gradients and many targets uniformly distributed in sequence space. These negative results lead us to search for specific mechanisms that allow evolution to work on polynomial time scales. We study a regeneration process and show that it enables evolution to work in polynomial time. PMID:25211329

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A

2014-09-01

191

The Time Scale of Evolutionary Innovation

A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different question, which is concerned with the much longer time scale of evolutionary trajectories: how long does it take for a population exploring a fitness landscape to find target sequences that encode new biological functions? Our key variable is the length, of the genetic sequence that undergoes adaptation. In computer science there is a crucial distinction between problems that require algorithms which take polynomial or exponential time. The latter are considered to be intractable. Here we develop a theoretical approach that allows us to estimate the time of evolution as function of We show that adaptation on many fitness landscapes takes time that is exponential in even if there are broad selection gradients and many targets uniformly distributed in sequence space. These negative results lead us to search for specific mechanisms that allow evolution to work on polynomial time scales. We study a regeneration process and show that it enables evolution to work in polynomial time. PMID:25211329

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A.

2014-01-01

192

By slowing down electron-phonon relaxation in nanoscale materials, one can increase efficiencies of solar energy conversion via hot electron extraction, multiple exciton generation, and elimination of exciton trapping. The elusive phonon bottleneck is hard to achieve, in particular, due to Auger-type energy exchange between electrons and holes. The Auger channel can be suppressed by hole trapping. Using time-domain ab initio simulation, we show that deep hole traps cannot fully eliminate the Auger channel. The simulations show that the hole-mediated electron relaxation is slowed down only by about 30%, which is in agreement with the recent experiments. The Auger energy exchange and hole relaxation to the trap state occur on similar time scales. Hole trapping is slow, because holes themselves experience a weak bottleneck effect. The study establishes the fundamental mechanisms of the electron and hole relaxation processes with and without hole traps. It shows that more sophisticated hole trapping strategies, for example, involving shell layers, are required in order to achieve the phonon bottleneck and to reduce electronic energy losses. PMID:25639836

Trivedi, Dhara J; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V

2015-03-11

193

The hippocampus, time, and memory across scales.

A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of "time cells" that encode moments in time, much as the well-known "place cells" map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the "mental time travel" hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a "jump back in time" in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced--this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

Howard, Marc W; Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-11-01

194

Universal time scaling for Hamiltonian parameter estimation

Time is a valuable resource and it seems intuitive that longer time should lead to better precision in Hamiltonian parameter estimation. However recent studies have put this intuition into question, showing longer time may even lead to worse estimation in certain cases. Here we show that the intuition can be restored if coherent feedback controls are included. By deriving asymptotically optimal feedback controls we present a quantification of the maximal improvement feedback controls can provide in Hamiltonian parameter estimation and show a universal time scaling for the precision limit of Hamiltonian parameter estimation under the optimal feedback scheme.

Haidong Yuan; Chi-Hang Fred Fung

2015-03-24

195

The present study examined relationship between listening to music and relaxation by changing tempo and melody. Four musical tasks were varied in tempo (fast or slow) and melody (complex and simple). Participants listened to one version of musical tasks and completed measures of mood scale, relaxation state and musical preference. Results of the experiment indicated that listening to music decreased

NAITO Masatomo

196

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a phase-field-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible multiphase flow systems. In this model, one distribution function is used to solve the Chan-Hilliard equation and the other is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike previous phase-field-based LB models, a proper source term is incorporated in the interfacial evolution equation such that the Chan-Hilliard equation can be derived exactly and also a pressure distribution is designed to recover the correct hydrodynamic equations. Furthermore, the pressure and velocity fields can be calculated explicitly. A series of numerical tests, including Zalesak's disk rotation, a single vortex, a deformation field, and a static droplet, have been performed to test the accuracy and stability of the present model. The results show that, compared with the previous models, the present model is more stable and achieves an overall improvement in the accuracy of the capturing interface. In addition, compared to the single-relaxation-time LB model, the present model can effectively reduce the spurious velocity and fluctuation of the kinetic energy. Finally, as an application, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at high Reynolds numbers is investigated.

Liang, H.; Shi, B. C.; Guo, Z. L.; Chai, Z. H.

2014-05-01

197

NMR studies of muscle have typically used muscles of mixed fiber composition and have not taken into account the metabolic state of the host. Samples of psoas (type IIB fibers) and soleus (type I fibers) muscles were obtained from 3 groups of rabbits: group C, fed regular chow; group DK fed a potassium deficient diet; and group HC fed a high cholesterol diet. The T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ relaxation times of psoas and soleus muscles were not significantly different for group C. Following dietary manipulation, (groups KD and HC), however, the relaxation times of the psoas and soleus muscles were significantly different. There was also a significant difference in water content of psoas muscles in groups KD and HC vs. group C but the observed differences in NMR results could be only partially accounted for by the shift in water content. The authors results suggest that (1) changes in ion or cholesterol concentration are capable of inducing changes in water bonding and structuring in muscle tissues; (2) diet must be added to the growing list of environmental factors that can cause NMR contrast changes; (3) selective use of muscles rich in one fiber type or another for NMR measurements could provide either control or diagnostic information, related to changes in body composition.

Mardini, I.A.; McCarter, R.J.; Fullerton, G.D.

1986-03-01

198

On the nonlinear variation of dc conductivity with dielectric relaxation time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-known observations that dc conductivity ?dc of an ultraviscous liquid varies nonlinearly with the dielectric relaxation time ?, and the slope of the log?dc against log? plot deviates from -1 are currently seen as two of the violations of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation. Here we provide a formalism using a zeroth order Bjerrum description for ion association to show that in addition to its variation with temperature T and pressure P, impurity ion population varies with a liquid's equilibrium dielectric permittivity. Inclusion of this electrostatic effect modifies the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation to log(?dc? )=constant+log?, where ? is the T and P-dependent degree of ionic dissociation of an electrolytic impurity. Variation of a liquid's shear modulus with T and P would add to the nonlinearity of ?dc-? relation, as would a nonequivalence of the shear and dielectric relaxation times, proton transfer along the hydrogen bonds, or occurrence of another chemical process. This is illustrated by using the data for ultraviscous acetaminophen-aspirin liquid.

Johari, G. P.; Andersson, Ove

2006-09-01

199

In this paper, a phase-field-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible multiphase flow systems. In this model, one distribution function is used to solve the Chan-Hilliard equation and the other is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike previous phase-field-based LB models, a proper source term is incorporated in the interfacial evolution equation such that the Chan-Hilliard equation can be derived exactly and also a pressure distribution is designed to recover the correct hydrodynamic equations. Furthermore, the pressure and velocity fields can be calculated explicitly. A series of numerical tests, including Zalesak's disk rotation, a single vortex, a deformation field, and a static droplet, have been performed to test the accuracy and stability of the present model. The results show that, compared with the previous models, the present model is more stable and achieves an overall improvement in the accuracy of the capturing interface. In addition, compared to the single-relaxation-time LB model, the present model can effectively reduce the spurious velocity and fluctuation of the kinetic energy. Finally, as an application, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at high Reynolds numbers is investigated. PMID:25353927

Liang, H; Shi, B C; Guo, Z L; Chai, Z H

2014-05-01

200

Relaxation time of a Brownian rotator in a potential with nonparabolic barriers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of the Kramers theory of the escape rate of a Brownian particle from a potential well to the entire range of damping proposed by Mel’nikov and Meshkov [V.I. Mel’nikov, S.V. Meshkov, J. Chem. Phys. 85 (1986) 1018] is applied to the inertial rotational Brownian motion of a fixed axis rotator in a potential V(?)=-K1cos2?-K2cos4?, where ? is the angle specifying the orientation of the rotator and K1 and K2 are constants. It is shown that in the neighbourhood of K1?4K2 (flat barrier), the Mel’nikov-Meshkov method must suitably be adapted so that the effect of a nonparabolic barrier top can be correctly accounted for in the calculation of the relaxation time. The results obtained are compared with numerical calculations of the longest relaxation time (inverse smallest nonvanishing eigenvalue) using a matrix continued fraction algorithm and reasonable agreement is obtained for K1?4K2 and all values of the dissipation parameter.

Bastardis, Roland; Déjardin, Pierre-Michel; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

2008-06-01

201

Rapidly driven nanoparticles: Mean first-passage times and relaxation of the magnetic moment

We present an analytical method of calculating the mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for the magnetic moment of a uniaxial nanoparticle which is driven by a rapidly rotating, circularly polarized magnetic field and interacts with a heat bath. The method is based on the solution of the equation for the MFPT derived from the two-dimensional backward Fokker-Planck equation in the rotating frame. We solve these equations in the high-frequency limit and perform precise, numerical simulations which verify the analytical findings. The results are used for the description of the rates of escape from the metastable domains which in turn determine the magnetic relaxation dynamics. A main finding is that the presence of a rotating field can cause a drastic decrease of the relaxation time and a strong magnetization of the nanoparticle system. The resulting stationary magnetization along the direction of the easy axis is compared with the mean magnetization following from the stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.

S. I. Denisov; K. Sakmann; P. Talkner; P. Hänggi

2007-05-24

202

The Effect of Timed Relaxation on Keyboarding Achievement. Research Bulletin No. 46-B.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that relaxation exercises produce physical changes in students. After relaxation exercises, students appear calmer, have reduced levels of anxiety, and are more responsive to instruction. In order to determine if relaxation exercises would improve the rate at which students learn keyboarding, a study was conducted in a South…

Matthews, Doris B.

203

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides a potential tool for non-invasive evaluation of the trabecular bone structure. The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the NMR relaxation parameters (T2, Carr-Purcel-T2, T1?) for fat and water and relate those to the structural parameters obtained by micro-computed tomography (?CT). Especially, we aimed to evaluate the effect of freezing on the relaxation parameters. For storing bone samples, freezing is the standard procedure during which the biochemical and cellular organization of the bone marrow may be affected. Bovine trabecular bone samples were stored at -20 °C for 7 days and measured by NMR spectroscopy before and after freezing. The reproducibility of NMR relaxation parameters, as expressed by the coefficient of variation, ranged from 3.1% to 27.9%. In fresh samples, some correlations between NMR and structural parameters (Tb.N, Tb.Sp) were significant (e.g. the relaxation rate for T2 of fat versus Tb.Sp: r = -0.716, p < 0.01). Freezing did not significantly change the NMR relaxation times but the correlations between relaxation parameters and the ?CT structural parameters were not statistically significant after freezing, suggesting some nonsystematic alterations of the marrow structure. Therefore, the use of frozen bone samples for NMR relaxation studies may provide inferior information about the trabecular bone structure.

Prantner, Viktória; Isaksson, Hanna; Närväinen, Johanna; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nissi, Mikko J.; Avela, Janne; Gröhn, Olli H. J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.

2010-12-01

204

Transport coefficients for bulk viscous evolution in the relaxation time approximation

We derive the form of the viscous corrections to the phase-space distribution function due to the bulk viscous pressure and shear stress tensor using the iterative Chapman-Enskog method. We then calculate the transport coefficients necessary for the second-order hydrodynamic evolution of the bulk viscous pressure and the shear stress tensor. We demonstrate that the transport coefficients obtained using the Chapman-Enskog method are different than those obtained previously using the 14-moment approximation for a finite particle mass. Specializing to the case of boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous longitudinal expansion, we show that the transport coefficients obtained using the Chapman-Enskog method result in better agreement with the exact solution of the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation-time approximation compared to results obtained in the 14-moment approximation. Finally, we explicitly confirm that the time evolution of the bulk viscous pressure is significantly affected by its coupling to the shear stress tensor.

Amaresh Jaiswal; Radoslaw Ryblewski; Michael Strickland

2014-10-31

205

Dynamical theory of spin noise and relaxation: Prospects for real-time NMR measurements.

Recent developments in theoretical aspects of spin noise and relaxation and their interrelationship reveal a modified spin density, distinct from the density matrix, as the necessary object to describe fluctuations in spin systems. These fluctuations are to be viewed as an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of such systems immersed in random magnetic environments and are observed as "spin noise" in the absence of any radio frequency excitation. With the prospect of ultrafast digitization, the role of spin noise in real-time parameter extraction for (NMR) spin systems, and the advantage over standard techniques, is of essential importance, especially for systems containing a small number of spins. In this article we outline prospects for harnessing the recent dynamical theory in terms of spin-noise measurement, with attention to real-time properties. PMID:25493776

Field, Timothy R

2014-11-01

206

Dynamical theory of spin noise and relaxation: Prospects for real-time NMR measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in theoretical aspects of spin noise and relaxation and their interrelationship reveal a modified spin density, distinct from the density matrix, as the necessary object to describe fluctuations in spin systems. These fluctuations are to be viewed as an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of such systems immersed in random magnetic environments and are observed as "spin noise" in the absence of any radio frequency excitation. With the prospect of ultrafast digitization, the role of spin noise in real-time parameter extraction for (NMR) spin systems, and the advantage over standard techniques, is of essential importance, especially for systems containing a small number of spins. In this article we outline prospects for harnessing the recent dynamical theory in terms of spin-noise measurement, with attention to real-time properties.

Field, Timothy R.

2014-11-01

207

A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales

Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.

Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, S.G.

2002-01-01

208

Modified scaling principle for rotational relaxation in a model for suspensions of rigid rods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed simulations of the model of infinitely thin rigid rods undergoing rotational and translational diffusion, subject to the restriction that no two rods can cross one another, for various concentrations well into the semidilute regime. We used a modification of the algorithm of Doi et al. [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3000 (1984)], 10.1143/JPSJ.53.3000 that simulates diffusive dynamics using a Monte Carlo method and a nonzero time step. In the limit of zero time step, this algorithm is an exact description of diffusive dynamics subject to the noncrossing restriction. For a wide range of concentrations in the semidilute regime, we report values of the long time rotational diffusion constant of the rods, extrapolated to the limit of zero time step, for various sets of values of the infinite dilution (bare) diffusion constants. These results are compared with the results of a previous simulation of the model by Doi et al. and of previous simulations of rods with finite aspect ratio by Fixman and by Cobb and Butler that had been extrapolated to the limit of infinitely thin rods. The predictions of the Doi-Edwards (DE) scaling law do not hold for this model for the concentrations studied. The simulation data for the model display two deviations from the predictions of the DE theory that have been observed in experimental systems in the semidilute regime, namely, the very slow approach toward DE scaling behavior as the concentration is increased and the large value of the prefactor in the DE scaling law. We present a modified scaling principle for this model that is consistent with the simulation results for a broad range of concentrations in the semidilute regime. The modified scaling principle takes into account two physical effects, which we call "leakage" and "drift," that were found to be important for the transport properties of a simpler model of nonrotating rods on a lattice [Y.-L. S. Tse and H. C. Andersen, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024904 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3673791.

Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Andersen, Hans C.

2013-07-01

209

7Li relaxation time measurements at very low magnetic field by 1H dynamic nuclear polarization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of water protons was used to measure the relaxation time of lithium at very low magnetic field as a demonstration of the use of DNP for nuclei less abundant than water protons. Lithium (Li+) was chosen because it is an efficient treatment for manic-depressive illness, with an unknown action mechanism. After having recalled the theoretical basis of a three-spin system comprising two nuclei - the water proton of the solvent, the dissolved Li+ ion and the free electron of a free radical - we have developed a transient solution in order to optimize potential biological applications of Li DNP. The three-spin model has allowed computation of all the parameters of the system - the longitudinal relaxation rate per unit of free radical concentration, the dipolar and scalar part of the coupling between the nuclei and the electron, and the maximum signal enhancement achievable for both proton and lithium spins. All these measurements have been obtained solely through the detection of the proton resonance.

Zeghib, Nadir; Grucker, Daniel

2001-09-01

210

Understanding long-time vacancy aggregation in iron: A kinetic activation-relaxation technique study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacancy diffusion and clustering processes in body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe are studied using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities. For monovacancies and divacancies, k-ART recovers previously published results while clustering in a 50-vacancy simulation box agrees with experimental estimates. Applying k-ART to the study of clustering pathways for systems containing from one to six vacancies, we find a rich set of diffusion mechanisms. In particular, we show that the path followed to reach a hexavacancy cluster influences greatly the associated mean-square displacement. Aggregation in a 50-vacancy box also shows a notable dispersion in relaxation time associated with effective barriers varying from 0.84 to 1.1 eV depending on the exact pathway selected. We isolate the effects of long-range elastic interactions between defects by comparing to simulations where those effects are deliberately suppressed. This allows us to demonstrate that in bcc Fe, suppressing long-range interactions mainly influences kinetics in the first 0.3 ms, slowing down quick energy release cascades seen more frequently in full simulations, whereas long-term behavior and final state are not significantly affected.

Brommer, Peter; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

2014-10-01

211

Hydration structure and dynamics in pullulan aqueous solution based on 1H NMR relaxation time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic properties of water and polymer chain proton in pullulan/H 2O systems in aqueous solutions and in frozen states were analyzed based on T2 relaxation times in 1H-NMR and DSC. Two relaxing species with different T2 detected in the CPMG pulse sequence were assigned to inert polymer protons with the shorter T2 and to water protons with the longer T2 by using deuterated pullulan solutions in D 2O. It has been proved that hydration water and free water undergoes rapid exchange in pullulan aqueous solutions. In the frozen state at -11°C, protons in ice crystals (T 2˜17 ?s), protons in mobile water ( T2>ms) and inert and labile protons in polymer chains (T 2˜0.1 ms) were distinguished in FID curves measured by using the solid echo pulse sequence. With increase in temperature, the inert protons and the labile protons show different mobility, and the inert protons are separately observable from the labile protons in the Carr-Percell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method at temperatures higher than 0°C and the labile protons become mixed with water protons by rapid chemical exchange. These findings indicate the extremely high flexibility of the pullulan chain in aqueous solution.

Okada, Ryo; Matsukawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Tokuko

2002-01-01

212

Genetic sequence data provide information about the distances between species or branch lengths in a phylogeny, but not about the absolute divergence times or the evolutionary rates directly. Bayesian methods for dating species divergences estimate times and rates by assigning priors on them. In particular, the prior on times (node ages on the phylogeny) incorporates information in the fossil record to calibrate the molecular tree. Because times and rates are confounded, our posterior time estimates will not approach point values even if an infinite amount of sequence data are used in the analysis. In a previous study we developed a finite-sites theory to characterize the uncertainty in Bayesian divergence time estimation in analysis of large but finite sequence data sets under a strict molecular clock. As most modern clock dating analyses use more than one locus and are conducted under relaxed clock models, here we extend the theory to the case of relaxed clock analysis of data from multiple loci (site partitions). Uncertainty in posterior time estimates is partitioned into three sources: Sampling errors in the estimates of branch lengths in the tree for each locus due to limited sequence length, variation of substitution rates among lineages and among loci, and uncertainty in fossil calibrations. Using a simple but analogous estimation problem involving the multivariate normal distribution, we predict that as the number of loci (L) goes to infinity, the variance in posterior time estimates decreases and approaches the infinite-data limit at the rate of 1/L, and the limit is independent of the number of sites in the sequence alignment. We then confirmed the predictions by using computer simulation on phylogenies of two or three species, and by analyzing a real genomic data set for six primate species. Our results suggest that with the fossil calibrations fixed, analyzing multiple loci or site partitions is the most effective way for improving the precision of posterior time estimation. However, even if a huge amount of sequence data is analyzed, considerable uncertainty will persist in time estimates. PMID:25503979

Zhu, Tianqi; Dos Reis, Mario; Yang, Ziheng

2015-01-01

213

Genetic sequence data provide information about the distances between species or branch lengths in a phylogeny, but not about the absolute divergence times or the evolutionary rates directly. Bayesian methods for dating species divergences estimate times and rates by assigning priors on them. In particular, the prior on times (node ages on the phylogeny) incorporates information in the fossil record to calibrate the molecular tree. Because times and rates are confounded, our posterior time estimates will not approach point values even if an infinite amount of sequence data are used in the analysis. In a previous study we developed a finite-sites theory to characterize the uncertainty in Bayesian divergence time estimation in analysis of large but finite sequence data sets under a strict molecular clock. As most modern clock dating analyses use more than one locus and are conducted under relaxed clock models, here we extend the theory to the case of relaxed clock analysis of data from multiple loci (site partitions). Uncertainty in posterior time estimates is partitioned into three sources: Sampling errors in the estimates of branch lengths in the tree for each locus due to limited sequence length, variation of substitution rates among lineages and among loci, and uncertainty in fossil calibrations. Using a simple but analogous estimation problem involving the multivariate normal distribution, we predict that as the number of loci ([Formula: see text]) goes to infinity, the variance in posterior time estimates decreases and approaches the infinite-data limit at the rate of 1/[Formula: see text], and the limit is independent of the number of sites in the sequence alignment. We then confirmed the predictions by using computer simulation on phylogenies of two or three species, and by analyzing a real genomic data set for six primate species. Our results suggest that with the fossil calibrations fixed, analyzing multiple loci or site partitions is the most effective way for improving the precision of posterior time estimation. However, even if a huge amount of sequence data is analyzed, considerable uncertainty will persist in time estimates. PMID:25503979

Zhu, Tianqi; Dos Reis, Mario; Yang, Ziheng

2015-03-01

214

Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

2009-01-01

215

Relative Geologic Time and the Geologic Time Scale

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given a short introduction to fossils, strata, Steno's law of superposition, and the development of the geologic time scale from initial description of systems, through the realization that fossils could be used to correlate between systems, to the assembly of the modern geologic time scale. Then, each student in the course is given a sheet of paper with a simple stratigraphic column and associated fossils representing a geologic system on one side and a short description of the location and history of discovery of the system on the other. On a large wall, students then assemble four geologic columns from their systems representing mainland Europe, Great Britain, the Eastern U.S. and the Western U.S. using the fossils illustrated on their sheets to correlate systems. The instructor guides this process by placing the first system on the wall and by providing some narration as the columns take shape. Europe and Great Britain are assembled first, one sheet at a time, providing when completed the framework of the modern geologic time scale. Once this is up on the wall, the remaining students can assemble the other two columns in minutes using fossils to correlate between American and European systems. A temporal gap in the Grand Canyon sequence provides an opportunity to discuss the incompleteness of the rock record in any one place and a system composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with no fossils is used to point out the difference between radiometric (absolute) and biostratigraphic (relative) dating.

Bret Bennington

216

Predicting how nanoconfinement changes the relaxation time of a supercooled liquid.

The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times-spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement-collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse when plotted versus excess isochoric heat capacity, a behavior consistent with the existence of isomorphs in the bulk and confined states. PMID:24476293

Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M; Dyre, Jeppe C

2013-12-01

217

Anisotropy of the Adiabatic Relaxation Time of Adsorbed 3He Monolayer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the anisotropy of the adiabatic relaxation time ( T 2( ?), ???, where ? is the Larmor frequency) of adsorbed monolayer solid 3He. We calculate based on the phenomenological Heisenberg Hamiltonian with the nearest-neighbor and the next nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. Furthermore, the four particle exchange in the triangular plane is also incorporated. To calculate , it is necessary to compute the second and the fourth moments of the resonance line and . To obtain them, we can use the formulas published in previous studies. From the results, we can observe no significant difference between the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg model and the four particle spin interaction models. A comparison of the present results and the experimental data is briefly discussed.

Matsumoto, K.

2014-04-01

218

Modulated tone-burst light was employed to measure non-radiative relaxation time of fluorophores with biomedical importance through photoacoustic effect. Non-radiative relaxation time was estimated through the frequency dependence of photoacoustic signal amplitude. Experiments were performed on solutions of new indocyanine green (IR-820), which is a near infrared dye and has biomedical applications, in two different solvents (water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). A 1.5 times slower non-radiative relaxation for the solution of dye in DMSO was observed comparing with the aqueous solution. This result agrees well with general finding that non-radiative relaxation of molecules in triplet state depends on viscosity of solvents in which they are dissolved. Measurements of the non-radiative relaxation time can be used as a new source of contrast mechanism in photoacoustic imaging technique. The proposed method has potential applications such as imaging tissue oxygenation and mapping of other chemophysical differences in microenvironment of exogenous biomarkers. PMID:22025981

Soroushian, Behrouz; Yang, Xinmai

2011-01-01

219

Time ephemeris and general relativistic scale factor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG (Fukushima 1995). It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitably needed in conducting precise four dimensional coordinate transformations among various spacetime coordinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS (Soffel et al. 2003). Also, by means of the time average operation, they are used in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially the difference of the general relativistic scale factor from unity such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995). It gave an estimate of LC as 1.4808268457(10) × 10-8, which was incorrect by around 2 × 10-16. This was caused by taking the wrong sign of the post-Newtonian contribution in the final summation. Four years later, we updated TE245 to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999). This time the renewed vale of LC is 1.48082686741(200) × 10-8 Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time average, we improved the estimate of Newtonian part of LC for TE405 as 1.4808268559(6) × 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). This leads to the value of LC as LC = 1.48082686732(110) × 10-8. If we combine this with the constant defining the mean rate of TCG-TT, LG = 6.969290134 × 10-10 (IAU 2001), we estimate the numerical value of another general relativistic scale factor LB = 1.55051976763(110) × 10-8, which has the meaning of the mean rate of TCB-TT. The main reasons of the uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. The former is a natural limitation caused by the finite length of numerical planetary ephemerides and the latter is due to the uncertainty of masses of some heavy asteroids. As a compact realization of the time ephemeris, we prepared HF2002, a Fortran routine to compute approximate harmonic series of TE405 with the RMS error of 0.446 ns for the period 1600 to 2200 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). It is included in the IERS Convention 2003 (McCarthy and Petit 2003) and available from the IERS web site; http://tai.bipm.org/iers/conv2003/conv2003_c10.html.

Fukushima, Toshio

2010-01-01

220

Time Ephemeris and General Relativistic Scale Factor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG (Fukushima 2009). It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitably needed in conducting precise four dimensional coordinate transformations among various spacetime coordinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS (Soffel et al. 2003). Also, by means of the time average operation, they are used in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially the difference of the general relativistic scale factor from unity such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995). It gave an estimate of LC as 1.4808268457(10) × 10-8, which was incorrect by around 2 × 10-16. This was caused by taking the wrong sign of the post-Newtonian contribution in the final summation. Four years later, we updated TE245 to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999). This time the renewed vale of LC is 1.48082686741(200) × 10-8 Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time average, we improved the estimate of Newtonian part of LC for TE405 as 1.4808268559(6) × 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). This leads to the value of LC as LC = 1.48082686732(110) × 10-8. If we combine this with the constant defining the mean rate of TCG-TT, LG = 6.969290134 × 10-10 (IAU 2001), we estimate the numerical value of another general relativistic scale factor LB = 1.55051976763(110) × 10-8, which has the meaning of the mean rate of TCB-TT. The main reasons of the uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. As a compact realization of the time ephemeris, we prepared HF2002, a Fortran routine to compute approximate harmonic series of TE405 with the RMS error of 0.446 ns for the period 1600 to 2200 (Harada and Fukushima 2003). It is included in the IERS Convention 2003 (McCarthy and Petit 2003) and available from the IERS web site; http://tai.bipm.org/iers/conv2003/conv2003_c10.html.

Fukushima, Toshio

2010-11-01

221

Time Ephemeris and Relativistic Scaling of Ephemerides

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time ephemeris is the location-independent part of the transformation formula relating two time coordinates such as TCB and TCG. It is computed from the corresponding (space) ephemerides providing the relative motion of two spatial coordinate origins associated such as the motion of geocenter relative to the solar system barycenter. The time ephemerides are inevitablly needed in conducting a precise four-dimensional coordinate transformation among various spacetime coodrinate systems such as the GCRS and BCRS. Also, by means of the time average operation, it is useful in determining the information on scale conversion between the pair of coordinate systems, especially scale conversion factors such as LC. In 1995, we presented the first numerically-integrated time ephemeris, TE245, from JPL's planetary ephemeris DE245 (Fukushima 1995, A&Ap, 294, 895-906). Four years later, we updated it to TE405 associated with DE405 (Irwin and Fukushima 1999, A&Ap, 348, 642-652). The former gave an estimate of LC, the scale conversion factor between TCB and TCG, as 1.4808268457(10) x 10-8. Meanwhile the latter renewed it as 1.48082686741(200) x 10-8. Another four years later, by using a precise technique of time avarage, we improved the estimate as 1.4808268559(6) x 10-8 (Harada and Fukushima 2003, AJ, 126, 2557-2561). The main reasons of these uncertainties are the truncation effect in time average and the uncertainty of asteroids' perturbation. The former is a natural limitation caused by the finite length of numerical planetary ephemerides and the latter is due to the uncertainty of masses of some heavy asteroids. In the talk, we review the post-Newtonian formulas to integrate time ephemerides as well as some practical details on their numerical integration. Also, we explain two kinds of techniques of time average. One is a semi-numerical approach as explained in 1991 A&Ap article and the other is purely numerical as given in 2003 AJ paper.

Fukushima, Toshio

2009-05-01

222

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-exponential inversion of a NMR relaxation signal plays a key role in core analysis and logging interpretation in the formation of porous media. To find an efficient metod of inverting high-resolution relaxation time spectra rapidly, this paper studies the effect of inversion which is based on the discretization of the original echo in a time domain by using a simulation model. This paper analyzes the ill-condition of discrete equations on the basis of the NMR inversion model and method, determines the appropriate number of discrete echoes and acquires the optimal distribution of discrete echo points by the Lloyd–Max optimal quantization method, in considering the inverse precision and computational complexity comprehensively. The result shows that this method can effectively improve the efficiency of the relaxation time spectra inversion while guaranteeing inversed accuracy.

Li, Xuewei; Kong, Li; Cheng, Jingjing; Wu, Lei

2015-02-01

223

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstruct the initial two-body relaxation time at the half mass radius for a sample of young ? 300 Myr star clusters in the Large Magellanic cloud. We achieve this by simulating star clusters with 12288 to 131072 stars using direct N-body integration. The equations of motion of all stars are calculated with high precision direct N-body simulations which include the effects of the evolution of single stars and binaries. We find that the initial relaxation times of the sample of observed clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud ranges from about 200 Myr to about 2 Gyr. The reconstructed initial half-mass relaxation times for these clusters have a much narrower distribution than the currently observed distribution, which ranges over more than two orders of magnitude.

Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Chen, H.-C.

2008-06-01

224

Nanosecond Time Scale Motions in Proteins Revealed by High-Resolution NMR Relaxometry

Understanding the molecular determinants underlying protein function requires the characterization of both structure and dynamics at atomic resolution. Nuclear relaxation rates allow a precise characterization of protein dynamics at the Larmor frequencies of spins. This usually limits the sampling of motions to a narrow range of frequencies corresponding to high magnetic fields. At lower fields one cannot achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution in NMR. Here, we use a fast shuttle device where the polarization builds up and the signals are detected at high field, while longitudinal relaxation takes place at low fields 0.5 < B0 < 14.1 T. The sample is propelled over a distance up to 50 cm by a blowgun-like system in about 50 ms. The analysis of nitrogen-15 relaxation in the protein ubiquitin over such a wide range of magnetic fields offers unprecedented insights into molecular dynamics. Some key regions of the protein feature structural fluctuations on nanosecond time scales, which have so far been overlooked in high-field relaxation studies. Nanosecond motions in proteins may have been underestimated by traditional high-field approaches, and slower supra-?c motions that have no effect on relaxation may have been overestimated. High-resolution relaxometry thus opens the way to a quantitative characterization of nanosecond motions in proteins. PMID:24228712

2013-01-01

225

Time-dependent pseudo Jahn-Teller effect: Phonon-mediated long-time nonadiabatic relaxation

Our system under theoretical consideration is an impurity center in a solid. We are considering the time evolution of the center in a quasi-degenerate electronic state. Strict quantum mechanical treatment of non-adiabadicity of the state is used. The phonon continuum is taken into account in addition to the vibration responsible for the main vibronic interaction. To describe the dynamics of the excited state a master equation has been used. The theoretical considerations are illustrated by the calculations of the long-time evolution of vibrations of the center, influenced by the emission of phonons to the bulk.

Vaikjärv, Taavi, E-mail: taavi.vaikjarv@ut.ee; Hizhnyakov, Vladimir [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)] [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

2014-02-14

226

A perspective on time: Loss frequencies, time scales, and lifetimes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to describe the Earth system and its components with a quantity that has units of time is ubiquitous since the 1970s work of Bolin, Rodhe and Junge. These quantities are often used as metrics of the system to describe the duration or cumulative impact of an action, such as in global-warming and ozone-depletion potentials, as in the SPARC lifetime re-assessment. The quantity designated "lifetime" is often calculated inconsistently and/or misused when applied to the subsequent evaluations of impacts. A careful set of definitions and derivations is needed to ensure that we are reporting, publishing, and comparing the same quantities. There are many different ways to derive metrics of time, and they describe different properties of the system. Here we carefully define several of those metrics - denoted here as loss frequency, time scale, and lifetime - and demonstrate which properties of the system they describe. Three generalizable examples demonstrate (i) how the non-linear chemistry of tropospheric ozone makes simple approaches for tracking pollution in error; (ii) why the lifetime of a gas depends on the history of emissions, and (iii) when multiple reservoirs generate time scales quite separate from the traditionally defined lifetime. Proper use of the many "time" parameters in a system, however, gives a very powerful understanding of the response to anthropogenic perturbations.

Prather, Michael; Holmes, Christopher

2013-04-01

227

In order to examine the origin of the abrupt change in the temperature dependence of NMR longitudinal relaxation times observed earlier for methyl groups of L69 in the hydrophobic core of villin headpiece protein at around 90 K (Vugmeyster et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 4038), we extended the measurements to several other methyl groups in the hydrophobic core. We show that for all methyl groups, relaxation times experience a dramatic jump several orders of magnitude around this temperature. Theoretical modeling supports the conclusion that the origin of the apparent transition in the relaxation times is due to the existence of the distribution of conformers distinguished by their activation energy for methyl three-site hops. It is also crucial to take into account the differential contribution of individual conformers into overall signal intensity. When a particular conformer approaches the regime at which its three-site hops rate constant is on the order of the quadrupolar coupling interaction constant, the intensity of the signal due to this conformer experiences a sharp drop, thus changing the balance of the contributions of different conformers into the overall signal. As a result, the observed apparent transition in the relaxation rates can be explained without the assumption of an underlying transition in the rate constants. This work in combination with earlier results also shows that the model based on the distribution of conformers explains the relaxation behavior in the entire temperature range between 300-70 K.

Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Lipton, Andrew S.

2013-05-23

228

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 < T 1 < 10-6 s) is of great importance today for the study of relaxation processes. Recent case studies include, for example, glasses doped with paramagnetic ions (Vergnoux et al., 1996; Zinsou et al., 1996), amorphous Si (dangling bonds) and copper-chromium-tin spinel (Cr3+) (Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

Misra, Sushil K.

229

The assessment of proarrhythmic risks of drugs remains challenging. To evaluate the suitability of rat engineered heart tissue (EHT) for detecting proarrhythmic effects. We monitored drug effects on spontaneous contractile activity and, in selected cases, on action potentials (sharp microelectrode) and Ca2+ transients (Fura-2) and contraction under electrical pacing. The Ito-blocker inhibitor 4-aminopyridine increased action potential duration and T2 and caused aftercontractions, which were abolished by inhibitors of ryanodine receptors (RyR2; JTV-519) or sodium calcium exchanger (NCX; SEA0400). 77 Drugs were then tested at 1-10-100× free therapeutic plasma concentrations (FTPC): Inhibitors of IKr, IKs, Ito, antiarrhythmics (8), drugs withdrawn from market for torsades des pointes arrhythmias (TdP, 5), drugs with measurable (7) or isolated TdP incidence (13), drugs considered safe (14), 28 new chemical entities (NCE). Inhibitors of IKr or IKs had no effect alone, but substantially prolonged relaxation time (T2) when combined at high concentration. 15/33 drugs associated with TdP and 6/14 drugs considered non-torsadogenic (cibenzoline, diltiazem, ebastine, ketoconazole, moxifloxacin, and phenytoin) induced concentration-dependent T2 prolongations (10-100× FTPC). Bepridil, desipramine, imipramine, thioridazine, and erythromycin induced irregular beating. Three NCE prolonged T2, one reduced force. Drugs inhibiting repolarization prolong relaxation in rat EHTs and cause aftercontractions involving RyR2 and NCX. Insensitivity to IKr inhibitors makes rat EHTs unsuitable as general proarrhythmia screen, but favors detection of effects on Ito, IKs + Ito or IKs + IKr. Screening a large panel of drugs suggests that effects on these currents, in addition to IKr, are more common than anticipated. PMID:25209140

Eder, Alexandra; Hansen, Arne; Uebeler, June; Schulze, Thomas; Neuber, Christiane; Schaaf, Sebastian; Yuan, Lei; Christ, Torsten; Vos, Marc A; Eschenhagen, Thomas

2014-11-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for estimating the linear relaxation modulus of polymer melts by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is presented on the basis of relaxation mode analysis (RMA). Conventional calculations of the relaxation modulus based on the Green-Kubo formula are computationally very expensive owing to long relaxation times and poor convergence of stress autocorrelation functions: In practice, reliable calculations usually require a time average over {O}(10? 1-100? 1), where ?1 is the longest relaxation time of a chain in the melt. RMA is a method that systematically extracts relaxation modes and rates of a polymer chain from the time correlation functions of coordinates of polymer segments. In the present method, the relaxation modulus is evaluated by fitting the data of the stress autocorrelation functions to the generalized Maxwell model whose relaxation times are determined from the relaxation rate spectrum obtained by RMA. It is demonstrated that the stress relaxation modulus of a polymer melt is well estimated by the present method over a wide range of time scales from MD simulations of length {O}(1? 1-10? 1).

Iwaoka, Nobuyuki; Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi

2015-04-01

231

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional near-incompressible steady lid-driven cavity flows (Re = 100-7,500) are simulated using multi-relaxation-time (MRT) model in the parallel lattice Boltzmann BGK Bhatnager-Gross-Krook method (LBGK). Results are compared with those using single-relaxation-time (SRT) model in the LBGK method and previous simulation data using Navier-Stokes equations for the same flow conditions. Effects of variation of relaxation parameters in the MRT model, effects of number of the lattice points, improved computational convergence and reduced spatial oscillations of solution near geometrically singular points in the flow field using LBGK method due to MRT model are highlighted in the study. In summary, lattice Boltzmann method using MRT model introduces much less spatial oscillations near geometrical singular points, which is important for the successful simulation of higher Reynolds number flows.

Wu, J.-S.; Shao, Y.-L.

2004-11-01

232

Time Out from Tension: Teaching Young Children How To Relax. Teaching Strategies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how using relaxation and stress reduction activities with individual preschool and elementary school-age children during difficult periods can help them regain control, and how integrating relaxation techniques into everyday activities helps to establish positive behavior patterns to support healthy living. Presents breathing activities…

Scully, Patricia

2003-01-01

233

Phylogenetic analyses are using increasingly larger data sets for estimating divergence times. With this increase in data sizes, the computation time required is becoming a bottleneck in evolutionary investigations. Our recent study of two relaxed-clock programs (BEAST and MultiDivTime [MDT]) showed their usefulness in time estimation; however, they place a significant computational time burden on biologists even for moderately small data sets. Here, we report speed and accuracy of another relaxed-clock program (MCMCTree, MC2T). We find it to be much faster than both MDT and BEAST while producing comparable time estimates. These results will encourage the analysis of larger data sets as well as the evaluation of the robustness of estimated times to changes in the model of evolutionary rates and clock calibrations. PMID:21498604

Battistuzzi, Fabia U; Billing-Ross, Paul; Paliwal, Aditya; Kumar, Sudhir

2011-09-01

234

A numerical study of vector resonant relaxation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars bound to a supermassive black hole interact gravitationally. Persistent torques acting between stellar orbits lead to a rapid resonant relaxation of the orbital orientation vectors (`vector' resonant relaxation) and slower relaxation of the eccentricities (`scalar' resonant relaxation), both at rates much faster than two-body or non-resonant relaxation. We describe a new parallel symplectic integrator, N-RING, which follows the dynamical evolution of a cluster of N stars through vector resonant relaxation, by averaging the pairwise interactions over the orbital period and periapsis precession time-scale. We use N-RING to follow the evolution of clusters containing over 104 stars for tens of relaxation times. Among other results, we find that the evolution is dominated by torques among stars with radially overlapping orbits, and that resonant relaxation can be modelled as a random walk of the orbit normals on the sphere, with angular step size ranging from ˜0.5-1 rad. The relaxation rate in a cluster with a fixed number of stars is proportional to the root mean square (rms) mass of the stars. The rms torque generated by the cluster stars is reduced below the torque between Kepler orbits due to apsidal precession and declines weakly with the eccentricity of the perturbed orbit. However, since the angular momentum of an orbit also decreases with eccentricity, the relaxation rate is approximately eccentricity-independent for e ? 0.7 and grows rapidly with eccentricity for e ? 0.8. We quantify the relaxation using the autocorrelation function of the spherical multipole moments; this decays exponentially and the e-folding time may be identified with the vector resonant relaxation time-scale.

Kocsis, Bence; Tremaine, Scott

2015-04-01

235

Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative self-energy which contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative life times of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

WD Heiss; RG Nazmitdinov; FD Smit

2009-12-18

236

Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales

The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.

Baldis, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rozmus, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Tikhonchuk, V.T. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-03-01

237

Electron Spin Relaxation and Coherence Times in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single electron spin states in Si/SiGe quantum dots have shown promise as qubits for quantum information processing. Recently, electron spins in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots have displayed relaxation (T1) and coherence (T2) times of 250 ?s at 350mK. The experiments used conventional X-band (10 GHz) pulsed Electron Spin Resonance (pESR) on a large area (3.5 x 20 mm^2), double gated, undoped Si/SiGe heterostructure, which was patterned with 2 x 10^8 quantum dots using e-beam lithography. Dots with 150 nm radii and 700 nm period are induced in a natural Si quantum well by the gates. Smaller dots are expected to reduce the effects of nearly degenerate valley states and spin-orbit coupling on the electron spin coherence. However, the small number of spins makes signal recovery extremely challenging. We have implemented a broadband cryogenic HEMT low-noise-amplifier and a high-speed single-pole double-throw switch operating at liquid helium temperatures. The switch and preamp have improved our signal to noise by an order of magnitude, allowing for smaller samples and shorter measurement times. We will describe these improvements and the data they have enabled.

Jock, R. M.; He, Jianhua; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.

2013-03-01

238

Picosecond-time-resolved studies of nonradiative relaxation in ruby and alexandrite

Dynamics of the nonradiative transitions between the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ pump band and the /sup 2/E storage level of the Cr/sup 3 +/ ion in ruby and alexandrite crystals is studied using the picosecond excite-and-probe absorption technique. A 527-nm picosecond pulse excites the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ state of the Cr/sup 3 +/ ion, and an infrared picosecond probe pulse monitors the subsequent growth and decay of population in the excited states as a function of pump-probe delay. An upper limit of 7 ps is determined for the nonradiative lifetime of the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ state in ruby. A vibrational relaxation time of 25 ps for the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ band in alexandrite is estimated. The time to attain thermal equilibrium population between the /sup 2/E and /sup 4/T/sub 2/ levels of alexandrite following excitation of /sup 4/T/sub 2/ band is estimated to be approx. 100 ps.

Gayen, S.K.; Wang, W.B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R.R.

1985-01-01

239

1 Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation graphene samples performed in a wide spectral range, namely from the near-infrared (photon energy 1.5 eV) to the terahertz (photon energy 8 meV) spectral range

Boyer, Edmond

240

The purpose of this research was to study the effects of muscle relaxation and imagery training upon the response time in Elite Thai Taekwondo athletes. The subjects consisted of 24 Elite Thai Taekwondo athletes. They were assigned into three groups of 8 people each: the control, and the experimental group 1 and 2. The control group received Taekwondo program training

Siam Thongbai; Udorn Ratanapakdi

241

Master equation for the Unruh-DeWitt detector and the universal relaxation time in de Sitter space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the master equation that completely determines the time evolution of the density matrix of the Unruh-DeWitt detector in an arbitrary background geometry. We apply the equation to reveal a nonequilibrium thermodynamic character of de Sitter space. This generalizes an earlier study on the thermodynamic property of the Bunch-Davies vacuum that an Unruh-DeWitt detector staying in the Poincaré patch and interacting with a scalar field in the Bunch-Davies vacuum behaves as if it is in a thermal bath of finite temperature. In this paper, instead of the Bunch-Davies vacuum, we consider a class of initial states of scalar field, for which the detector behaves as if it is in a medium that is not in thermodynamic equilibrium and that undergoes a relaxation to the equilibrium corresponding to the Bunch-Davies vacuum. We give a prescription for calculating the relaxation times of the nonequilibrium processes. We particularly show that, when the initial state of the scalar field is the instantaneous ground state at a finite past, the relaxation time is always given by a universal value of half the curvature radius of de Sitter space. We expect that the relaxation time gives a nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantity intrinsic to de Sitter space.

Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Sakatani, Yuho

2014-03-01

242

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

2004-01-01

243

EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than one single atomic clock. An international symposium dedicated to these topics was initiated in 1972 as the first International Symposium on Atomic Time Scale Algorithms and it was the beginning of a series: 1st Symposium: organized at the NIST (NBS at that epoch) in 1972, 2nd Symposium: again at the NIST in 1982, 3rd Symposium: in Italy at the INRIM (IEN at that epoch) in 1988, 4th Symposium: in Paris at the BIPM in 2002 (see Metrologia 40 (3), 2003) 5th Symposium: in San Fernando, Spain at the ROA in 2008. The early symposia were concerned with establishing the basics of how to estimate and characterize the behavior of an atomic frequency standard in an unambiguous and clearly identifiable way, and how to combine the reading of different clocks to form an optimal time scale within a laboratory. Later, as atomic frequency standards began to be used as components in larger systems, interest grew in understanding the impact of a clock in a more complex environment. For example, use of clocks in telecommunication networks in a Synchronous Digital Hierarchy created a need to measure the maximum time error spanned by a clock in a certain interval. Timekeeping metrologists became interested in estimating time deviations and time stability, so they had to find ways to convert their common frequency characteristics to time characteristics. Tests of fundamental physics provided a motivation for launching atomic frequency standards into space in long-lasting missions, whose high-precision measurements might be available for only a few hours a day, yielding a series of clock data with many gaps and outliers for which a suitable statistical analysis was necessary to extract as much information as possible from the data. In the 21st century, the field has been transformed by the advent of atomic-clock-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the steady increase in precision brought about by rapidly improving clocks and measurement systems, and the growing number of relatively inexpensive small clock ensembles. Although technological transformations have raised the

Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia

2008-12-01

244

Radial Transport of Large-scale Magnetic Fields in Accretion Disks. II. Relaxation to Steady States

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the time evolution of a large-scale magnetic flux threading an accretion disk. The induction equation of the mean poloidal field is solved under the standard viscous disk model. Magnetic flux evolution is controlled by two timescales: one is the timescale of the inward advection of the magnetic flux, ?adv. This is induced by the dragging of the flux by the accreting gas. The other is the outward diffusion timescale of the magnetic flux ?dif. We consider diffusion due to the Ohmic resistivity. These timescales can be significantly different from the disk viscous timescale ?disk. The behaviors of the magnetic flux evolution are quite different depending on the magnitude relationship of the timescales ?adv, ?dif, and ?disk. The most interesting phenomena occur when ?adv Lt ?dif, ?disk. In such a case, the magnetic flux distribution approaches a quasi-steady profile much faster than the viscous evolution of the gas disk, and the magnetic flux has also been tightly bundled to the inner part of the disk. In the inner part, although the poloidal magnetic field becomes much stronger than the interstellar magnetic field, the field strength is limited to the maximum value that is analytically given by our previous work. We also find a condition for the initial large magnetic flux, which is a fossil of the magnetic field dragging during the early phase of star formation that survives for a duration in which significant gas disk evolution proceeds.

Takeuchi, Taku; Okuzumi, Satoshi

2014-12-01

245

Effects of electric field on the entropy, viscosity, relaxation time, and glass-formation.

By using the known formalism for the effect of an externally applied electric field, E, on thermodynamics of a dielectric material, we calculated the field-induced configurational entropy factor, ?Sconf (E)/E(2), of 50 dipolar liquids, including those whose static permittivity, ?s, decreases on cooling. The field induced change, ?Sconf (E), is found to be experimentally detectable only when E is on the order of 10(5) V?cm, a value less than the dielectric breakdown field strength of some liquids but in the range of nonlinear dielectric response. We argue that the dielectric response is formally nonlinear already for E > 0, and then show that the difference between the Langevin-function and the extrapolated linear response is < 0.15% for E in the 10(5) V?cm range. Therefore, such high E values may be used to estimate ?Sconf (E). We conclude that (i) for E in the 10(5) V?cm range, ?Sconf (E) is high enough to produce a measurable change in the viscosity and relaxation time of some ultraviscous liquids with prominent dipolar interactions, thereby changing their glass formation temperature, and (ii) application of E would reversibly transform, isothermally, some liquids to glass, and transform some glasses to liquid. Finally, we suggest that the effect of E can be used to determine the merits of the models for non-Arrhenius kinetics. PMID:23614426

Johari, G P

2013-04-21

246

Phylogeography Takes a Relaxed Random Walk in Continuous Space and Time

Research aimed at understanding the geographic context of evolutionary histories is burgeoning across biological disciplines. Recent endeavors attempt to interpret contemporaneous genetic variation in the light of increasingly detailed geographical and environmental observations. Such interest has promoted the development of phylogeographic inference techniques that explicitly aim to integrate such heterogeneous data. One promising development involves reconstructing phylogeographic history on a continuous landscape. Here, we present a Bayesian statistical approach to infer continuous phylogeographic diffusion using random walk models while simultaneously reconstructing the evolutionary history in time from molecular sequence data. Moreover, by accommodating branch-specific variation in dispersal rates, we relax the most restrictive assumption of the standard Brownian diffusion process and demonstrate increased statistical efficiency in spatial reconstructions of overdispersed random walks by analyzing both simulated and real viral genetic data. We further illustrate how drawing inference about summary statistics from a fully specified stochastic process over both sequence evolution and spatial movement reveals important characteristics of a rabies epidemic. Together with recent advances in discrete phylogeographic inference, the continuous model developments furnish a flexible statistical framework for biogeographical reconstructions that is easily expanded upon to accommodate various landscape genetic features. PMID:20203288

Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Welch, John J.; Suchard, Marc A.

2010-01-01

247

Effects of electric field on the entropy, viscosity, relaxation time, and glass-formation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the known formalism for the effect of an externally applied electric field, E, on thermodynamics of a dielectric material, we calculated the field-induced configurational entropy factor, ? S_{conf}^E /E^2, of 50 dipolar liquids, including those whose static permittivity, ?s, decreases on cooling. The field induced change, ? S_{conf}^E, is found to be experimentally detectable only when E is on the order of 105 V/cm, a value less than the dielectric breakdown field strength of some liquids but in the range of nonlinear dielectric response. We argue that the dielectric response is formally nonlinear already for E > 0, and then show that the difference between the Langevin-function and the extrapolated linear response is < 0.15% for E in the 105 V/cm range. Therefore, such high E values may be used to estimate ? S_{conf}^E. We conclude that (i) for E in the 105 V/cm range, ? S_{conf}^E is high enough to produce a measurable change in the viscosity and relaxation time of some ultraviscous liquids with prominent dipolar interactions, thereby changing their glass formation temperature, and (ii) application of E would reversibly transform, isothermally, some liquids to glass, and transform some glasses to liquid. Finally, we suggest that the effect of E can be used to determine the merits of the models for non-Arrhenius kinetics.

Johari, G. P.

2013-04-01

248

Occupancy statistical models that account for imperfect detection have proved very useful in several areas of ecology, including species distribution and spatial dynamics, disease ecology, and ecological responses to climate change. These models are based on the collection of multiple samples at each of a number of sites within a given season, during which it is assumed the species is either absent or present and available for detection while each sample is taken. However, for some species, individuals are only present or available for detection seasonally. We present a statistical model that relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site. Based on simulation, our open model eliminates bias in occupancy estimators and in some cases increases precision. The power to detect the violation of closure is high if detection probability is reasonably high. In addition to providing more robust estimation of occupancy, this model permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities. In a comparison of four species of amphibians in Maryland we found that two toad species arrived at breeding sites later in the season than a salamander and frog species, and departed from sites earlier.

Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

2013-01-01

249

N processes, the relaxation-time approximation, and lattice thermal conductivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-fluid theory of phonon transport and thermal conductivity recently proposed by the author is refined, with the major source of error identified as the previous neglect of the subset of normal processes called NN processes. A correction is provided for these processes, which are mainly those of phonon splitting. This correction, based on the Callaway approximation, utilizes two shift parameters in the displaced Planck distribution, one for low-frequency modes and one for high-frequency modes. Comparison with experiment is performed on a group of LiF specimens of varying isotopic purity. The results demonstrate that the refined theory explains the behavior of the thermal conductivity across the region of peak value with high accuracy for the purer specimens. The role of the single-mode relaxation-time approximation is clarified as well as the significance of the linearly-frequency-dependent Landau-Rumer transition rate which tends to dominate the thermal-conductivity calculation. As in the earlier treatment, no explicit account of U processes is required. They are included implicitly in the Landau-Rumer rate along with NR processes, which are N processes ending in reservoir modes. The new formulation, dependent only on known transition-rate expressions, appears to provide a framework for systematic approximation to the Peierls-Boltzmann integral equation.

Armstrong, Baxter H.

1985-09-01

250

Structural relaxation time and cooling rate of a melt in the glass transition region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the parameter involved in the Bartenev equation q?g = C relating the cooling rate of a glass-forming melt to its structural relaxation time in the glass transition region is discussed on the basis of the Volkenshtein-Ptitsyn theory using a number of known relationships. It is established that parameter C for amorphous substances with the same fragility is linearly temperature dependent. This parameter is shown to equal the narrow temperature range ? T g characterizing the liquid-glass transition region (by Nemilov); i.e., C = ? T g. It is concluded that ? T g for most glassy systems is only ˜0.7% of the glass transition temperature T g. The narrowness of temperature range ? T g is explained by the small fluctuation volume fraction f g "frozen" at the glass transition temperature. The concept of a close relationship between constant C and the structural order at T g (i.e., the characteristic of the inner state of a nonequilibrium "frozen" amorphous system) is developed.

Sanditov, D. S.; Sydykov, B. S.

2015-03-01

251

The authors have measured the relaxation time of hot electrons in short pulse laser-solid interactions using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. Employing laser intensities of 10{sup 17}, 10{sup 18}, and 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, they find increased laser coupling to hot electrons as the laser intensity becomes relativistic and thermalization of hot electrons at timescales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. They propose a simple model based on collisional coupling and plasma expansion to describe the rapid relaxation of hot electrons. The agreement between the resulting K{sub {alpha}} time-history from this model with the experiments is best at highest laser intensity and less satisfactory at the two lower laser intensities.

Chen, H; Shepherd, R; Chung, H K; Dyer, G; Faenov, A; Fournier, K B; Hansen, S B; Hunter, J; Kemp, A; Pikuz, T; Ping, Y; Widmann, K; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P

2006-08-22

252

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microenvironment of the bile salt-lecithin mixed aggregates has been investigated using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The steady state spectra show that the polarity of the bile salt is higher compared to lecithin vesicles or the mixed aggregates. We have observed slow solvent relaxation in bile salt micelles and lecithin vesicles. The solvation time is gradually slowed down due to gradual addition of the bile salt in lecithin vesicles. Addition of bile salt leads to the tighter head group packing in lecithin. Thus, mobility of the water molecules becomes slower and consequently the solvation time is also retarded. We have observed bimodal slow rotational relaxation time in all these systems.

Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Hazra, Partha; Sarkar, Nilmoni

2005-09-01

253

MRI of bone marrow in the distal radius: in vivo precision of effective transverse relaxation times

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective transverse relaxation time T2* is influenced by the presence of trabecular bone, and can potentially provide a measure of bone density as well as bone structure. We determined the in vivo precision of T2* in repeated bone marrow measurements. The T2* measurements of the bone marrow of the distal radius were performed twice within 2 weeks in six healthy young volunteers using a modified water-presaturated 3D Gradient-Recalled Acquisition at Steady State (GRASS) sequence with TE 7, 10, 12, 20, and 30; TR 67; flip angle (FA) 90 degrees. An axial volume covering a length of 5.6 cm in the distal radius was measured. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined manually and consisted of the entire trabecular bone cross-section extending proximally from the radial subchondral endplate. Reproducibility of T2* and area measurements was expressed as the absolute precision error (standard deviation [SD] in ms or mm2) or as the relative precision error (SD/mean x 100, or coefficient of variation [CV] in %) between the two-point measurements. Short-term precision of T2* and area measurements varied depending on section thickness and location of the ROI in the distal radius. Absolute precision errors for T2* times were between 1.3 and 2.9 ms (relative precision errors 3.8-9.5 %) and for area measurements between 20 and 55 mm2 (relative precision errors 5.1-16.4%). This MR technique for quantitative assessment of trabecular bone density showed reasonable reproducibility in vivo and is a promising future tool for the assessment of osteoporosis.

Grampp, S.; Majumdar, S.; Jergas, M.; Lang, P.; Gies, A.; Genant, H. K.

1995-01-01

254

Direct evidence for mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation from quantum time-dependent perturbation theory. III. The 4 and 7 modes of nonplanar nickel porphyrin models Yong Zhang and John E. Straub://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Direct evidence for mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation from quantum time

Straub, John E.

255

Direct evidence for mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation from quantum time-dependent perturbation theory. II. The 4 and 7 modes of iron-protoporphyrin IX and iron porphine Yong Zhang and John E://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Direct evidence for mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation from quantum time

Straub, John E.

256

Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

2013-04-01

257

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relaxation dynamics of electronically excited [Au25(SR)18]q, where q = 0 or -1 and SR = S(CH2)2Ph, were studied using femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. Nanoclusters excited by 400 nm light were probed using temporally delayed broad-bandwidth continuum probe pulses. Continuum pulses were generated in both the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions, providing access to a wide range of transient spectral features. The use of NIR probe pulses allowed the relaxation dynamics of the excited states located near the HOMO-LUMO energy gap to be monitored in the probe step via the sp <-- LUMO and sp <-- LUMO+1 transitions. These NIR measurements yielded excited state absorption (ESA) data that were much less congested than the typical visible transient spectrum. For the neutral nanocluster, the time-domain data were composed of three components: (1) a few-picosecond decay, (2) a slower decay taking a few hundred picoseconds and (3) a non-decaying plateau function. Component 1 reflected energy relaxation to semi-ring ligand states; component 2 was attributed to relaxation via a manifold of states located near the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Component 3 arose from slow radiative recombination. The dynamics of the anion depended upon the identity of the excited state from which the particle was relaxing. The LUMO+1 state of the anion exhibited relaxation dynamics that were similar to those observed for the neutral nanocluster. By comparison, the time-domain data observed for the LUMO state contained only two components: (1) a 3.3 +/- 0.2 ps decay and (2) a 5 +/- 1 ns decay. The amplitude coefficients of each component were also analyzed. Taken together, the amplitude coefficients and lifetimes were indicative of an activation barrier located approximately 100 meV above the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, which mediated a previously unobserved excited state decay process for [Au25(SR)18]0. These data suggested that NIR ESA measurements will be instrumental in describing the relaxation processes of quantum-confined nanoclusters.

Green, Thomas D.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.

2012-06-01

258

Comparison of T1 and T2 metabolite relaxation times in glioma and normal brain at 3 T

Purpose To measure T1 and T2 relaxation times of metabolites in glioma patients at 3T and to investigate how these values influence the observed metabolite levels. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with gliomas and ten volunteers were studied with single voxel 2D J-resolved PRESS using a 3T MR scanner. Voxels were chosen in normal appearing white matter and in regions of tumor. The T1 and T2 of choline containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) were estimated. Results Metabolite T1 relaxation values in gliomas were not significantly different from values in normal white matter. The T2 of Cho and Cr were statistically significantly longer for Grade 4 gliomas than for normal white matter but the T2 of NAA was similar. These differences were large enough to impact the corrections of metabolite levels for relaxation times with tumor grade in terms of metabolite ratios (P<0.001). Conclusion The differential increase in T2 for Cho and Cr relative to NAA means that the ratios of Cho/NAA and Cr/NAA are higher in tumor at longer echo times relative to values in normal appearing brain. Having this information may be useful in defining the acquisition parameters for optimizing contrast between tumor and normal tissue in MRSI data, where limited time is available and only one echo time can be used. PMID:18666155

Li, Yan; Srinivasan, Radhika; Ratiney, Helene; Lu, Ying; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

259

Modeling cycle and time-dependent creep/relaxation effects on fatigue lives of notched members

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical cyclic variations in mean stress and strain amplitude is a well-known occurrence for metals even at room temperature. Many fatigue analysis procedures ignore these variations. Fatigue analysis which included both time and cycle dependent mechanical material behavior for metals at room temperature had not been previously studied except for the case of creep. An investigation studying transient mechanical effects on Ti-6Al-4V titanium and 7475-T651 Al alloys was done to determine how great an effect transients at room temperature would have on fatigue life under cyclic conditions. The mechanical material response was modeled using viscoplasticity constitutive laws and Neuber's rule eliminating the need for finite element modeling of uniaxially loaded notched members. However, the Neuber's modeling may be used with any material constitutive law. The procedures for fatigue damage used cycle counting to compute strain amplitude and mean stress. Since a large amount of fatigue data is reported as strain-life curves, the fatigue analysis was developed using this fatigue data although it did not include transients. If favorable results are obtained, development of modeling and testing to include transients in strain-life fatigue data could be avoided, and the existing fatigue data base utilized. Experimental work was undertaken and nonlinear optimization techniques used to compute model constants for the two alloys. However, small amounts of rate dependence were found for cyclic strain control testing. The viscoplasticity models became stiff when rate dependence was low causing numerical problems, and model constants for the viscoplastic constitutive law could not be determined since convergence was not achieved. Also, only small amounts of transient static stress relaxation was observed for extended hold periods.

Dunn, Derome Osmond

260

Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:20600981

Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

2010-11-01

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic time scales, of one form or another, are used in most undergraduate geosciences courses, even including introductory physical geology or equivalent. However, satisfactory discussions of how geologic time scales originated, and how they have evolved to modern versions, are far too often conveniently or inconveniently left out of classroom discussions. Yet it is these kinds of discussions that have the potential of solidifying student appreciation of deep time and rates of geologic processes. We use the history and development of the Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale, which reflects major developments in the fields of stratigraphy, geochronology, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, astrochronology, and chemostratigraphy, as a focus of how specific details of time scales can be used to teach about time. Advances in all of these fields have allowed many parts of the time scale to be calibrated to precisions approaching less than 0.05 %. Notable time intervals for which collaborative, multifaceted efforts have led to dramatic improvements in our understanding of the character and temporal resolution of key evolutionary events, in both marine and terrestrial environments, include the Triassic-Jurassic, Permo-Triassic, and Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries (or transitions). Many of the details, but certainly not all, can be incorporated in discussions of how we know about geologic time in the classroom. For example, we presently understand that both the end-Permian ecological crisis and the biostratigraphic Permian-Triassic boundary, as calibrated by conodonts, lie within a ca. 700 ka long normal polarity chron. The reverse to normal polarity transition at the beginning of this chron is ca. 100 ka earlier than the ecological crisis and thus slightly older than the current estimate, based on high precision U-Pb zircon age determinations, of ca. 252.4 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary. This polarity transition occurred during the early part of the major negative del 13C isotope excursion that is estimated to have lasted ca. 500 ka beginning in the very latest Permian. Current geologic time scales are vastly improved over the first geologic time scale published by Holmes, nearly a hundred years ago in 1913, that used a total of eight numerical ages to establish the Phanerozoic time scale.

Geissman, J. W.; Walker, J. D.

2012-12-01

262

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules on reactor walls is the most efficient N2(v) loss mechanism in laboratory plasmas at pressures up to few tens of mbars. In the present study a new method for determination of the de-excitation probability ?N2 of vibrationally excited N2 on different surfaces has been developed. A short dc discharge pulse was applied to a mixture containing 0.05-1% of CO2, N2O or CO in N2 at 1.3 mbar. Due to a very efficient vibrational coupling between N2(v) and CO2 (N2O, CO), the vibrational excitation of these titrating molecules is an image of the vibrational excitation of N2. In the afterglow, the vibrational relaxation was monitored in-situ using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy. The measurements were performed in a single discharge pulse without signal accumulation. Experimental results were interpreted in terms of a numerical model of non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics. The value of ?N2 was determined from the best agreement between the measured and calculated relaxation times. Using new technique the relaxation probability of N2(v) was measured for SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Pyrex and anodized aluminum.

Marinov, D.; Guaitella, O.; Rousseau, A.; Lopatik, D.; Hübner, M.; Röpcke, J.; Ionikh, Yu

2012-10-01

263

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-wk intervention that used guided relaxation and exercise imagery (GREI) to increase self-reported leisure-time exercise behavior among older adults. A total of 93 community-dwelling healthy older adults (age 70.38 ± 8.15 yr, 66 female) were randomly placed in either a placebo control group or an intervention group. The intervention group received instructions to listen to an audio compact disk (CD) containing a GREI program, and the placebo control group received an audio CD that contained 2 relaxation tracks and instructions to listen to music of their choice for 6 wk. Results revealed that listening to a GREI CD for 6 wk significantly increased self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors (p = .03). Further exploration of GREI and its effects on other psychological variables related to perceived exercise behaviors may substantiate its effectiveness. PMID:21558568

Kim, Bang Hyun; Newton, Roberta A; Sachs, Michael L; Giacobbi, Peter R; Glutting, Joseph J

2011-04-01

264

The high-rate sensitivity of nanostructured metallic materials demonstrated in the recent literature is related to the predominance of thermally activated deformation mechanisms favoured by a large density of internal interfaces. Here we report time-resolved high-resolution electron transmission microscopy creep tests on thin nanograined films using on-chip nanomechanical testing. Tests are performed on palladium, which exhibited unexpectedly large creep rates at room temperature. Despite the small 30-nm grain size, relaxation is found to be mediated by dislocation mechanisms. The dislocations interact with the growth nanotwins present in the grains, leading to a loss of coherency of twin boundaries. The density of stored dislocations first increases with applied deformation, and then decreases with time to drive additional deformation while no grain boundary mechanism is observed. This fast relaxation constitutes a key issue in the development of various micro- and nanotechnologies such as palladium membranes for hydrogen applications. PMID:25557273

Colla, M. -S.; Amin-Ahmadi, B.; Idrissi, H.; Malet, L.; Godet, S.; Raskin, J. -P.; Schryvers, D.; Pardoen, T.

2015-01-01

265

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-rate sensitivity of nanostructured metallic materials demonstrated in the recent literature is related to the predominance of thermally activated deformation mechanisms favoured by a large density of internal interfaces. Here we report time-resolved high-resolution electron transmission microscopy creep tests on thin nanograined films using on-chip nanomechanical testing. Tests are performed on palladium, which exhibited unexpectedly large creep rates at room temperature. Despite the small 30-nm grain size, relaxation is found to be mediated by dislocation mechanisms. The dislocations interact with the growth nanotwins present in the grains, leading to a loss of coherency of twin boundaries. The density of stored dislocations first increases with applied deformation, and then decreases with time to drive additional deformation while no grain boundary mechanism is observed. This fast relaxation constitutes a key issue in the development of various micro- and nanotechnologies such as palladium membranes for hydrogen applications.

Colla, M.-S.; Amin-Ahmadi, B.; Idrissi, H.; Malet, L.; Godet, S.; Raskin, J.-P.; Schryvers, D.; Pardoen, T.

2015-01-01

266

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the Lord-Shulman (L-S) theory with one relaxation time and coupled theory are applied to study the influence of reinforcement on the total deformation of a rotating thermoelastic half-space and the interaction with each other. The problem of a thermal shock has been solved numerically using normal mode analysis. Numerical results for the temperature, displacement, and thermal stress components are given and illustrated graphically for both L-S and coupled theories.

Othman, Mohamed I. A.; Said, Samia M.

2012-01-01

267

The relaxation parameter Ksthat is equal to the ratio of the viscosity ? to the Kohlrausch volume relaxation time tsis analyzed. It is shown that this parameter can be evaluated from the temperature T13(corresponding to a viscosity of 1013P) and the glass transition temperature T8+determined from the dilatometric heating curve. The maximum error of the estimate with due regard for

A. I. Priven

2001-01-01

268

A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents

1 A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents Darryl Veitch(1) and Patrice Abry if scaling exponents vary over time. It is applicable to diverse scaling phenomena including long range detail coefficients are analysed and found to be small. The tests inherit the significant robustness

Abry, Patrice

269

Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series

Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series Sari Palmroth,1 longterm annual evapotranspiration (ETQ) at the watershed scale by combining continuous daily streamflow (Q), Estimation of longterm basin scale evapotranspiration from streamflow time series, Water Resour. Res., 46, W

Jackson, Robert B.

270

Mechanism of Void Nucleation and Growth in bcc Fe: Atomistic Simulations at Experimental Time Scales

Evolution of small-vacancy clusters in bcc Fe is simulated using a multiscale approach coupling an atomistic activation-relaxation method for sampling transition-state pathways with environment-dependent reaction coordinate calculations and a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation to reach time scales on the order of {approx}10{sup 4} s. Under vacancy-supersaturated condition, di- and trivacancy clusters form and grow by coalescence (Ostwald ripening). For cluster size greater than four we find a transition temperature of 150 deg. C for accelerated cluster growth, as observed in positron annihilation spectroscopy experiments. Implications for the mechanism of stage-IV radiation-damage-recovery kinetics are discussed.

Fan Yue; Kushima, Akihiro; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139 (United States)

2011-03-25

271

A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought. Rather, during the Quaternary period, they occur nearly three times as often as full polarity reversals. I will address analytical issues, including the size and consistency of system blanks, that have led to the recognition of minor (1%) discrepencies between the 40Ar/39Ar age for a particular reversal or excursion and the best astrochronologic estimates from ODP sediment cores. For example, re-analysis of lava flows from Haleakala volcano, Maui that record in detail the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity reversal have been undertaken with blanks an order of magntitude smaller and more stable than was common a decade ago. Using the modern astrochronologic calibration of 28.201 Ma for the age of the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, results thus far yield an 40Ar/39Ar age of 772 × 11 ka for the reversal that is identical to the most precise and accurate astrochronologic age of 773 × 2 ka for this reversal from ODP cores. Similarly, new dating of sanidine in the Cerro Santa Rosa I rhyolite dome, New Mexico reveals an age of 932 × 5 ka for the excursion it records, in perfect agreement with astrochronologically dated ODP core records. Work underway aims at refining the 40Ar/39Ar ages that underpin the entire GITS by further eliminating the bias between the radioisotopic and astrochronologically determined ages for several reversals and excursions.

Singer, B. S.

2013-12-01

272

Carboxy-substituted trityl (triarylmethyl) radicals are valuable in vivo probes because of their stability, narrow lines, and sensitivity of their spectroscopic properties to oxygen. Amino-substituted trityl radicals have the potential to monitor pH in vivo, and the suitability for this application depends on spectral properties. Electron spin relaxation times T1 and T2 were measured at X-band for the protonated and deprotonated forms of two amino-substituted triarylmethyl radicals. Comparison with relaxation times for carboxy-substituted triarylmethyl radicals shows that T1 exhibits little dependence on protonation or the nature of the substituent, which makes it useful for measuring O2 concentration, independent of pH. Insensitivity of T1 to changes in substituents is consistent with the assignment of the dominant contribution to spin lattice relaxation as a local mode that involves primarily atoms in the carbon and sulfur core. Values of T2 vary substantially with pH and the nature of the aryl group substituent, reflecting a range of dynamic processes. The narrow spectral widths for the amino-substituted triarylmethyl radicals facilitate spectral-spatial rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, which was demonstrated with a phantom. The dependence of hyperfine splittings patterns on pH is revealed in spectral slices through the image. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25504559

Elajaili, Hanan B; Biller, Joshua R; Tseitlin, Mark; Dhimitruka, Ilirian; Khramtsov, Valery V; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

2015-04-01

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-dependent changes of molecular and sub-molecular motions are studied in amorphous substances. The solid and liquid phases of amorphous bodies are characterized at the micro-level by two types of oscillators, linear and non-linear. It is accepted that an amorphous liquid is formed by domains that group the linear oscillators into the form of icebergs. The serial connection of the viscoelastic elements are arranged inside of these icebergs. The size of the linear connection within the domains is characterized by the number "n", which increases during the cooling process. The linear viscoelastic behavior of the individual serial connections is connected to the individual relaxation processes ?, ?, and ?. Only the "alpha" process exhibits growth of "n" to infinity on cooling. Therefore, the corresponding relaxation time, ??, for the infinite chain of "n" elements (Voigt or Maxwell elements) can also reach infinity as the material transforms to a glassy state. In contrast to the "alpha" process, the ? and ? processes are limited in growth for serial connections in a chain structure. Therefore, the relaxation times for the ? and ? processes, ?? and ??, will only follow the temperature dependence of the sample viscosity on cooling, which is, of course, Arrhenian. We discuss the role of non-linear oscillators in the solid-liquid transition in relation to Brownian motion.

Hlavá?ek, Bo?ivoj; Drašar, ?estmír; Kalendová, Andréa; Menc, Pavel; Veselý, David

274

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there have been renewed efforts to solve the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from Brown's model [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] of single domain ferromagnetic particle relaxation for the case of uniaxial anisotropy and zero external field. In particular, the usefulness of a simple analytic formula for the relaxation time based on the reciprocal of the lowest non-zero eigenvalue resulting from this model has been stressed. Here we suggest an improved analytic formula which we extend to the case of applied collinear field and compare it with the exact numerical solution and previous analytic expressions. The results are presented in terms of the pre-factor dependence which is commonly taken as constant. The formula exhibits good agreement with the exact results throughout the full range of anisotropy and reduced external field values.

Cregg, P. J.; Crothers, D. S. F.; Wickstead, A. W.

1994-10-01

275

An Improved Lagrangian Relaxation Method for VLSI Combinational Circuit Optimization

Gate sizing and threshold voltage (Vt) assignment are very popular and useful techniques in current very large scale integration (VLSI) design flow for timing and power optimization. Lagrangian relaxation (LR) is a common method for handling multi...

Huang, Yi-Le

2012-02-14

276

On time scales and time synchronization using LORAN-C as a time reference signal

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long term performance of the eight LORAN-C chains is presented in terms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO); and the use of the LORAN-C navigation system for maintaining the user's clock to a UTC scale is described. The atomic time scale and the UTC of several national laboratories and observatories relative to the international atomic time are reported. Typical performance of several NASA tracking station clocks, relative to the USNO master clock, is also presented.

Chi, A. R.

1974-01-01

277

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The S 0-S 1 absorption band substructure of pinacyanol dissolved in ethanol has been investigated with nonlinear polarisation spectroscopy in the frequency domain (NLPF). The evaluation of the experimental results has been done in the frame of global analysis for a set of four NLPF spectra at two test wavelengths. Four bands with maxima located at 520, 556, 565 and 607 nm have been identified. The energy relaxation after excitation in the 565 nm band is slower ( T1 = 13 ps) than in the red-most band ( T1 = 7 ps). This behaviour, inverse to usual excess-energy relaxation of organic molecules, suggests that these subbands belong to different isomers of pinacyanol.

Voigt, G.; Nowak, F.; Ehlert, J.; Beenken, W. J. D.; Leupold, D.; Sandner, W.

1997-10-01

278

Evidence of Evolution Geologic time scale

-like scales present, lateral-line present loss of anal and dorsal fins enlarged and flattened head, mobile, but the hip vertebrae are fused to the hip bones still had teeth, unfused pelvis, shorter fingers, fully tail into pygostyle, but still has long dinosaurian fingers Oviraptor #12;5 Walking whales #12

Dever, Jennifer A.

279

Phospholipid head group dynamics have been studied by pulsed phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) of unoriented and macroscopically aligned dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine model membranes in the temperature range, 203-343 K. Lineshapes and echo intensities have been recorded as a function of interpulse delay times, temperature and macroscopic orientation of the bilayer normal with respect to the magnetic field. The dipolar proton-phosphorus (1H-31P) contribution to the transverse relaxation time, T2E, and to lineshapes was eliminated by means of a proton spin-lock sequence. In case of longitudinal spin relaxation, T1Z, the amount of dipolar coupling was evaluated by measuring the maximum nuclear Overhauser enhancement. Hence, the results could be analyzed by considering chemical shift anisotropy as the only relaxation mechanism. The presence of various minima both in T1Z and T2E temperature plots as well as the angular dependence of these relaxation times allowed description of the dynamics of the phosphate head group in the 31P-NMR time window, by three different motional classes, i.e., intramolecular, intermolecular and collective motions. The intramolecular motions consist of two hindered rotations and one free rotation around the bonds linking the phosphate head group to the glycerol backbone. These motions are the fastest in the hierarchy of time with correlation times varying from less than 10(-12) to 10(-6) s in the temperature range investigated. The intermolecular motions are assigned to phospholipid long axis rotation and fluctuation. They have correlation times ranging from 10(-11) s at high temperatures to 10(-3) s at low temperatures. The slowest motion affecting the 31P-NMR observables is assigned to viscoelastic modes, i.e., so called order director fluctuations and is only detected at high temperatures, above the main transition in pulse frequency dependent T2ECP experiments. Comprehensive analysis of the phosphate head group dynamics is achieved by a dynamic NMR model based on the stochastic Liouville equation. In addition to correlation times, this analysis provides activation energies and order parameters for the various motions, and a value for the bilayer elastic constant. PMID:1540698

Dufourc, E J; Mayer, C; Stohrer, J; Althoff, G; Kothe, G

1992-01-01

280

Roughness Scaling for Edwards-Wilkinson Relaxation in Small-World Networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by a fundamental synchronization problem in scalable parallel computing and by a recent criterion for “mean-field” synchronizability in interacting systems, we study the Edwards-Wilkinson model on two variations of a small-world network. In the first version each site has exactly one random link of strength p, while in the second one each site on average has p links of unit strength. We construct a perturbative description for the width of the stationary-state surface (a measure of synchronization), in the weak- and sparse-coupling limits, respectively, and verify the results by performing exact numerical diagonalization. The width remains finite in the limit of infinite system size for both cases, but exhibits anomalous scaling with p in the latter for d?2.

Kozma, B.; Hastings, M. B.; Korniss, G.

2004-03-01

281

Optical properties and relaxation processes at femtosecond scale of bimetallic clusters.

The optical properties of Au-Ag and Ni-Ag clusters are measured by linear optical absorption spectroscopy and the time-resolved pump-probe femtosecond technique allowing a study of the influence of alloy or core-shell structure. PMID:18447013

Broyer, M; Cottancin, E; Lermé, J; Pellarin, M; Del Fatti, N; Vallée, F; Burgin, J; Guillon, C; Langot, P

2008-01-01

282

Relaxation rates provide important information about tissue microstructure. Multi-parameter mapping (MPM) estimates multiple relaxation parameters from multi-echo FLASH acquisitions with different basic contrasts, i.e., proton density (PD), T1 or magnetization transfer (MT) weighting. Motion can particularly affect maps of the apparent transverse relaxation rate R2*, which are derived from the signal of PD-weighted images acquired at different echo times. To address the motion artifacts, we introduce ESTATICS, which robustly estimates R2* from images even when acquired with different basic contrasts. ESTATICS extends the fitted signal model to account for inherent contrast differences in the PDw, T1w and MTw images. The fit was implemented as a conventional ordinary least squares optimization and as a robust fit with a small or large confidence interval. These three different implementations of ESTATICS were tested on data affected by severe motion artifacts and data with no prominent motion artifacts as determined by visual assessment or fast optical motion tracking. ESTATICS improved the quality of the R2* maps and reduced the coefficient of variation for both types of data—with average reductions of 30% when severe motion artifacts were present. ESTATICS can be applied to any protocol comprised of multiple 2D/3D multi-echo FLASH acquisitions as used in the general research and clinical setting. PMID:25309307

Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Callaghan, Martina F.; Josephs, Oliver; Lutti, Antoine; Mohammadi, Siawoosh

2014-01-01

283

Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism

Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behavior would be bounded by no more than a few nanometers. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nano-scale transient fluctuations.

David T. Limmer; David Chandler

2015-03-07

284

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the suite of simulations presented by Poole et al. to examine global X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observables for systems of merging relaxed X-ray clusters. The time evolution of our merging systems' X-ray luminosities, temperatures, total mass measures, SZ central Compton parameters and integrated SZ fluxes are presented and the resulting impact on their scaling relations examined. In all cases, and for all parameters, we observe a common time evolution: two rapid transient increases during first and second pericentric passage, with interceding values near or below their initial levels. This is in good qualitative agreement with previous idealized merger simulations, although we find several important differences related to the inclusion of radiative cooling in our simulations. These trends translate into a generic evolution in the scaling-relation planes as well: a rapid transient roughly along the mass scaling relations, a subsequent slow drift across the scatter until virialization, followed by a slow evolution along and up the mass scaling relations as cooling recovers in the cluster cores. However, this drift is not sufficient to account for the observed scatter in the scaling relations. We also study the effects of mergers on several theoretical temperature measures of the intracluster medium: emission-weighted measures (Tew), the spectroscopic-like measure (Tsl) proposed by Mazzotta et al. and plasma model fits to the integrated spectrum of the system (Tspec). We find that Tsl tracks Tspec for the entire duration of our mergers, illustrating that it remains a good tool for observational comparison even for highly disturbed systems. Furthermore, the transient temperature increases produced during first and second pericentric passage are 15-40 per cent larger for Tew than for Tsl or Tspec. This suggests that the effects of transient temperature increases on ?8 and ?M derived by Randall et al. are over estimated. Lastly, we examine the X-ray SZ proxy proposed by Kravtsov, Vikhlinin & Nagai (2006) and find that the tight mass scaling relation they predict remains secure through the entire duration of a merger event, independent of projection effects.

Poole, Gregory B.; Babul, Arif; McCarthy, Ian G.; Fardal, Mark A.; Bildfell, C. J.; Quinn, Thomas; Mahdavi, Andisheh

2007-09-01

285

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an anomalous scaling of the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation with the momentum relaxation in semiconductor quantum wells under a strong magnetic field in the Voigt configuration. We focus on the case in which the external magnetic field is perpendicular to the spin-orbit-coupling-induced effective magnetic field and its magnitude is much larger than the latter one. It is found that the longitudinal spin relaxation time is proportional to the momentum relaxation time even in the strong-scattering limit, indicating that the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation demonstrates Elliott-Yafet-like behavior. Moreover, the transverse spin relaxation time is proportional (inversely proportional) to the momentum relaxation time in the strong- (weak-) scattering limit, both in the opposite trends against the well-established conventional D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation behaviors. We further demonstrate that all the above anomalous scaling relations come from the unique form of the effective inhomogeneous broadening.

Zhou, Y.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

2013-06-01

286

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent advances in 3-D imaging of porous structures have generated a tremendous interest in the simulation of complex single and two-phase flows. Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) schemes present a powerful tool to solve the flow field directly from the binarized 3-D images. However, as viscosity often plays an important role, the LB scheme should correctly treat viscosity effects. This is the case using a LB scheme with two relaxation times (TRT) unlike the broadly used, the single-relaxation rate, BGK, where the velocity of the modeled fluid does not vary as the inverse of the viscosity applying the bounce-back (no-slip) boundary rule. The aim of this work is to apply the LB-TRT approach to different types of porous media (straight channels, 2-D model porous media, sandstone) to solve for the flow field and to evaluate the approach in terms of parameter dependence, error and convergence time on the basis of permeability. We show that the variation of permeability with the free relaxation parameter ? of the TRT scheme depends on the heterogeneity of the sample and on the numerical resolution. The convergence time depends on the applied viscosity and the parameter standing for the speed of sound, thus the computation time can be reduced by choosing appropriate values of those parameters. Two approaches to calculate permeability (Darcy's law and viscous energy dissipation) are proposed and investigated. We recommend to use Darcy's law, as dependence on ? is less important. Periodic (in the presence of a driving body force) and pressure boundary conditions are evaluated in terms of the results.

Talon, L.; Bauer, D.; Gland, N.; Youssef, S.; Auradou, H.; Ginzburg, I.

2012-04-01

287

Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications

Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications Laurent Nottale CNRS, LUTH, Paris In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its concern of the theory of scale relativity is about the foundation of quantum mechanics. As it is now well

Nottale, Laurent

288

A Statistical Test for the Time Constancy of Scaling Exponents

A statistical test is described for determining if scaling exponents vary over time. It is applicable to diverse scaling phenomena including long range dependence and ex- actly self-similar processes in a uniform framework, without the need for prior knowledge of the type in question. It is based on the special properties of wavelet-based estimates of the scaling exponent, strongly motivating

Darryl Veitch; Patrice Abry

1999-01-01

289

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the tracking of the spin dynamics of ensemble and individual magnetic ferritin proteins from cryogenic up to room temperature using the nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond as a magnetic sensor. We employ different detection protocols to probe the influence of the ferritin nanomagnets on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation of the nitrogen-vacancy center, which enables magnetic sensing over a wide frequency range from Hz to GHz. The temperature dependence of the observed spectral features can be well understood by the thermally induced magnetization reversals of the ferritin and enables the determination of the anisotropy barrier of single ferritin molecules.

Schäfer-Nolte, Eike; Schlipf, Lukas; Ternes, Markus; Reinhard, Friedemann; Kern, Klaus; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2014-11-01

290

Nanosecond relaxation in polymer electrolyte nanocomposites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent results on the dynamics and relaxation of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. We have measured the relaxation on the 10-100 nsec time scale in PEO-LiClO_4-based nanocomposites using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Complementary information on the conductivity have been derived on the same samples. Our results show that, on the time scale of the QENS measurements -- 0.01 to 0.1 ns --- the addition of ceramic nanoparticles has no significant effect on the dynamics of the polymer electrolyte while the confinement in porous materials such as Vycor and synthetic hectorite clays induces a spectacular slowing down of the dynamics.

Marie-Louise, Saboungi; Price, David L.; Smith, Luis J.; Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Armand, Michel

2004-03-01

291

Local-time effect on small space-time scale

The paper presents an investigation of local-time effect - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named effect for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.

V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll

2006-10-18

292

Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas for estimating ventilation time scales from overturning stream functions is proposed. The stream function may describing an ide- alized semi-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill

DÃ¶Ã¶s, Kristofer

293

Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1

Ion-Beam Sculpting Time Scales Derek Stein,1 Jiali Li,2 and Jene A. Golovchenko1,2 1 Division) A study of ion sculpting dynamics in SiO2 and SiN using periodically pulsed ion beams reveals material nanoscale matter transport can occur over second long time scales after the ion beam has been extinguished

Li, Jiali

294

A large time scale wind velocity simulation method

The wind speed has strong stochastic characteristics, and can be divided into long-term component and turbulence component. In short time scale simulation, the long-term component can be considered as constant. But in long time scale simulation, the slow fluctuating characteristics simulated by using Van der Hoven spectrum model presented in this paper must be included. The turbulence component is obtained

Liu Yanjie; Wang Jun

2010-01-01

295

A remark on Liouville's formula on small time scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new proof of the Liouville formula for a d-dimensional linear dynamic system x[Delta]=A(t)x on a time scale , where is in a sense small. Our proof demonstrates that Liouville's formula on small time scales is a direct consequence of its well-known counterpart for ordinary differential equations.

Adamec, Ladislav

2005-04-01

296

LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES ILYA G. USOSKIN and GENNADY A is related to a link between the cosmic ray flux and cloudiness. Here we review evidences relating terrestrial climate variability to changes of cosmic ray flux in the Earth's vicinity on different time scales

Usoskin, Ilya G.

297

A method is presented to calculate the spin relaxation times T{sub 1}, T{sub 2} due to a nonuniform magnetic field, and the linear-in-electric-field precession frequency shift {delta}{omega}{sub E} when an electric field is present, in the diffusion approximation for spins confined to a rectangular cell. It is found that the rectangular cell geometry admits of a general result for T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, and {delta}{omega}{sub E} in terms of the spatial cosine-transform components of the magnetic field.

Clayton, Steven Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-03

298

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a new class of schemes, called Time Relaxed Monte Carlo (TRMC) has been introduced for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation of gas dynamics. The motivation is to propose a systematic framework to derive Monte Carlo methods effective near the fluid dynamic regime. Before the methods can be accepted as alternative tools to other methods, they have to show that they are able to reproduce results obtainable by well established reliable methods. In this paper a detailed comparison is performed between TRMC methods and the Majorant Frequency Scheme in the case of the space-homogeneous Boltzmann equation. In particular, the effect of finite number of particles is considered.

Russo, G.; Pareschi, L.; Trazzi, S.; Shevyrin, A.; Bondar, Ye.; Ivanov, M.

2005-05-01

299

A new multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for compressible flows with arbitrary specific heat ratio and Prandtl number is presented. In the new scheme, which is based on a two-dimensional 16-discrete-velocity model, the moment space and the corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the seven-moment relations associated with the local equilibrium distribution function. In the continuum limit, the model recovers the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with flexible specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number. Numerical experiments show that compressible flows with strong shocks can be simulated by the present model up to Mach numbers $Ma \\sim 5$.

Chen, Feng; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro

2010-01-01

300

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for compressible flows with arbitrary specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number is presented. In the new scheme, which is based on a two-dimensional 16-discrete-velocity model, the kinetic moment space and the corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the seven-moment relations associated with the local-equilibrium distribution function. In the continuum limit, the model recovers the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with flexible specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number. Numerical experiments show that compressible flows with strong shocks can be simulated by the present model up to Mach numbers Ma~5.

Chen, Feng; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro

2010-06-01

301

A new multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for compressible flows with arbitrary specific heat ratio and Prandtl number is presented. In the new scheme, which is based on a two-dimensional 16-discrete-velocity model, the moment space and the corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the seven-moment relations associated with the local equilibrium distribution function. In the continuum limit, the model recovers the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with flexible specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number. Numerical experiments show that compressible flows with strong shocks can be simulated by the present model up to Mach numbers $Ma \\sim 5$.

Feng Chen; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li; Sauro Succi

2010-06-01

302

Scaling the Martian Walls of Time

On Earth, when scientists want to investigate planetary history they take a core sample, with deeper fragments corresponding to older materials. In essence, descending through sedimentary layers is like going back in time. But creating a robot capable of taking samples more than a few meters below the planetary surface is still beyond the current available technology. The cliffhanger idea

Nikki Thornton; Joseph Yagloski; Joe Fledderman; Gregg OMarr; Ben Weber; Chris Carlins; Shubh Krishna; Kevin Sloan; Taite Merriman; David Borowski

2000-01-01

303

Resonant relaxation in electroweak baryogenesis

We compute the leading, chiral charge-changing relaxation term in the quantum transport equations that govern electroweak baryogenesis using the closed time path formulation of nonequilibrium quantum field theory. We show that the relaxation transport coefficients may be resonantly enhanced under appropriate conditions on electroweak model parameters and that such enhancements can mitigate the impact of similar enhancements in the CP-violating source terms. We also develop a power counting in the time and energy scales entering electroweak baryogenesis and include effects through second order in ratios {epsilon} of the small and large scales. We illustrate the implications of the resonantly enhanced O({epsilon}{sup 2}) terms using the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, focusing on the interplay between the requirements of baryogenesis and constraints obtained from collider studies, precision electroweak data, and electric dipole moment searches.

Lee, Christopher; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2005-04-01

304

Resonant Relaxation in Electroweak Baryogenesis

We compute the leading, chiral charge-changing relaxation term in the quantum transport equations that govern electroweak baryogenesis using the closed time path formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory. We show that the relaxation transport coefficients may be resonantly enhanced under appropriate conditions on electroweak model parameters and that such enhancements can mitigate the impact of similar enhancements in the CP-violating source terms. We also develop a power counting in the time and energy scales entering electroweak baryogenesis and include effects through second order in ratios $\\epsilon$ of the small and large scales. We illustrate the implications of the resonantly enhanced ${\\cal O}(\\epsilon^2)$ terms using the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, focusing on the interplay between the requirements of baryogenesis and constraints obtained from collider studies, precision electroweak data, and electric dipole moment searches.

Christopher Lee; Vincenzo Cirigliano; Michael J. Ramsey-Musolf

2004-12-23

305

Resonant relaxation in electroweak baryogenesis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the leading, chiral charge-changing relaxation term in the quantum transport equations that govern electroweak baryogenesis using the closed time path formulation of nonequilibrium quantum field theory. We show that the relaxation transport coefficients may be resonantly enhanced under appropriate conditions on electroweak model parameters and that such enhancements can mitigate the impact of similar enhancements in the CP-violating source terms. We also develop a power counting in the time and energy scales entering electroweak baryogenesis and include effects through second order in ratios ? of the small and large scales. We illustrate the implications of the resonantly enhanced O(?2) terms using the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, focusing on the interplay between the requirements of baryogenesis and constraints obtained from collider studies, precision electroweak data, and electric dipole moment searches.

Lee, Christopher; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

2005-04-01

306

Solid-state NMR spectroscopy can be used to probe internal protein dynamics in the absence of the overall molecular tumbling. In this study, we report (15)N backbone dynamics in differentially enriched 1-73(U-(13)C,(15)N)/74-108(U-(15)N) reassembled thioredoxin on multiple time scales using a series of 2D and 3D MAS NMR experiments probing the backbone amide (15)N longitudinal relaxation, (1)H-(15)N dipolar order parameters, (15)N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), and signal intensities in the temperature-dependent and (1)H T(2)'-filtered NCA experiments. The spin-lattice relaxation rates R(1) (R(1) = 1/T(1)) were observed in the range from 0.012 to 0.64 s(-1), indicating large site-to-site variations in dynamics on pico- to nanosecond time scales. The (1)H-(15)N dipolar order parameters, ~~, and (15)N CSA anisotropies, delta(sigma), reveal the backbone mobilities in reassembled thioredoxin, as reflected in the average ~~~~ = 0.89 +/- 0.06 and delta(sigma) = 92.3 +/- 5.2 ppm, respectively. From the aggregate of experimental data from different dynamics methods, some degree of correlation between the motions on the different time scales has been suggested. Analysis of the dynamics parameters derived from these solid-state NMR experiments indicates higher mobilities for the residues constituting irregular secondary structure elements than for those located in the alpha-helices and beta-sheets, with no apparent systematic differences in dynamics between the alpha-helical and beta-sheet residues. Remarkably, the dipolar order parameters derived from the solid-state NMR measurements and the corresponding solution NMR generalized order parameters display similar qualitative trends as a function of the residue number. The comparison of the solid-state dynamics parameters to the crystallographic B-factors has identified the contribution of static disorder to the B-factors. The combination of longitudinal relaxation, dipolar order parameter, and CSA line shape analyses employed in this study provides snapshots of dynamics and a new insight on the correlation of these motions on multiple time scales. PMID:19736935~~

Yang, Jun; Tasayco, Maria Luisa; Polenova, Tatyana

2009-09-30

307

Allometric scaling and maximum efficiency in physiological eigen time

General optimization results from physics indicate that maximum efficiency of a process, in the sense of minimum overall entropy production, is achieved when the rate of entropy production is constant over time, however not in ordinary clock time but on an, in general varying, “eigen time” scale, intrinsic to the system. We identify the eigen time of a biological system with “physiological time,” which generally scales with the 1/4 power of body mass, M1/4, over a vast range of species. Since it is equally well established that metabolic rate scales as M3/4, it follows that organisms produce entropy at the same intrinsic rate, fulfilling a necessary condition for maximum efficiency, and are all, furthermore, equally efficient on the physiological eigen time scale. PMID:11959910

Andresen, Bjarne; Shiner, J. S.; Uehlinger, Dominik E.

2002-01-01

308

Probing Photosynthesis on a Picosecond Time Scale

Fluorescent emission kinetics of isolated spinach chloroplasts have been observed at room temperature with an instrument resolution time of 10 ps using a frequency doubled, mode-locked Nd:glass laser and an optical Kerr gate. At 685 nm two maxima are apparent in the time dependency of the fluorescence; the first occurs at 15 ps and the second at 90 ps after the flash. The intervening minimum occurs at about 50 ps. On the basis of theoretical models, lifetimes of the components associated with the two peaks and spectra (in escarole chloroplasts), the fluorescence associated with the first peak is interpreted as originating from Photosystem I (PSI) (risetime ?10 ps, lifetime ?10 ps) and the second peak from Photosystem II (PSII) (lifetime, 210 ps in spinach chloroplasts and 320 ps in escarole chloroplasts). The fact that there are two fluorescing components with a quantum yield ratio ?0.048 explains the previous discrepancy between the quantum yield of fluorescence measured in chloroplasts directly and that calculated from the lifetime of PSII. The 90 ps delay in the peak of PSII fluorescence is probably explained by energy transfer between accessory pigments such as carotenoids and Chl a. Energy spillover between PSI and PSII is not apparent during the time of observation. The results of this work support the view that the transfer of excitation energy to the trap complex in both photosystems occurs by means of a molecular excitation mechanism of intermediate coupling strength. Although triplet states are not of major importance in energy transfer to PSII traps, the possibility that they are involved in PSI photochemistry has not been eliminated. PMID:4830466

Seibert, Michael; Alfano, Robert R.

1974-01-01

309

distributions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spec- troscopy. This large scale and ill-posed inverse problem allowing to determine the molecular structure and dynamics of a material. The NMR experiment consists method, allowing to solve this large-scale inverse problem for any convex and differentiable regularized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

A bifluorophoric molecule (1) capable of intramolecular Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is reported. The emission intensity of the FRET acceptor in 1 depends on the molar absorptivity of the donor, which is a function of zinc(II) complexation. The FRET dynamics of [Zn(1)](ClO4)2 is characterized by femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The solvent-mediated relaxation of the charge-transfer (CT) state of the isolated donor and the FRET process of the donor–acceptor conjugate are on similar time scales (40–50 ps in CH3CN), but distinguishable by the opposite solvent polarity dependency. As the solvent polarity increases, the efficiency of Columbic-based FRET is reduced, whereas CT relaxation is accelerated. In addition to revealing a method to distinguish CT and FRET dynamics, this work provides a photophysical foundation for developing indicators based on the FRET strategy. PMID:24504046

Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Yi, Chongyue; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Zhu, Lei

2014-03-21

311

T(1rho) and T(2) relaxation time constants have been proposed to probe biochemical changes in osteoarthritic cartilage. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial correlation and distribution of T(1rho) and T(2) values in osteoarthritic cartilage. Ten patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 10 controls were studied at 3T. The spatial correlation of T(1rho) and T(2) values was investigated using Z-scores. The spatial variation of T(1rho) and T(2) values in patellar cartilage was studied in different cartilage layers. The distribution of these relaxation time constants was measured using texture analysis parameters based on gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). The mean Z-scores for T(1rho) and T(2) values were significantly higher in OA patients vs. controls (P < 0.05). Regional correlation coefficients of T(1rho) and T(2) Z-scores showed a large range in both controls and OA patients (0.2-0.7). OA patients had significantly greater GLCM contrast and entropy of T(1rho) values than controls (P < 0.05). In summary, T(1rho) and T(2) values are not only increased but are also more heterogeneous in osteoarthritic cartilage. T(1rho) and T(2) values show different spatial distributions and may provide complementary information regarding cartilage degeneration in OA. PMID:19319904

Li, Xiaojuan; Pai, Alex; Blumenkrantz, Gabrielle; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas; Ma, Benjamin; Ries, Michael; Majumdar, Sharmila

2009-06-01

312

Scaling the Martian Walls of Time

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, when scientists want to investigate planetary history they take a core sample, with deeper fragments corresponding to older materials. In essence, descending through sedimentary layers is like going back in time. But creating a robot capable of taking samples more than a few meters below the planetary surface is still beyond the current available technology. The cliffhanger idea takes advantage of the natural surface features of Mars to explore the history of the planet without digging. So interesting and difficult questions can be answered not with the brute force of a drill, but with creative mission design. Penn State University HEDS-UP team has designed a novel Mars mission approach. A main Lander with a Rover and a Cliffhanger will land near cliffs of Valles Mariners. Especially design cannon (gas, guided munitions or rocket) will deploy a long rope into the canyon. The rover will carry the cliffhanger to the edge of Valles Marineris following the rope, attach the cliffhanger to the rope. The Cliffhanger will then climb a 2 km down the rope and will allow the team to study sedimentary layers of rock on the side of the cliff. Samples and high-resolution images will be taken and delivered to the Lander for further investigation (optical multispectral imaging microscope, spectrometry) and sending the results to Earth. The robot has been designed to have the capability for locomotion at any angle (including somewhat uphill slopes) but maximum effective After the mission of rope-climbing is completed, the Rover am Lander will embark on another long-term mission to provide meteorological and geological data over a long period of time (long-term Mars Observatory), and perform acoustic and seismic experiments on the surface of Mars in preparation for human arrival.

Thornton, Nikki; Yagloski, Joseph; Fledderman, Joe; OMarr, Gregg; Weber, Ben; Carlins, Chris; Krishna, Shubh; Sloan, Kevin; Merriman, Taite; Borowski, David

2000-01-01

313

Results are presented which lead to the characterization of [alcohol]x[water]1-x mixtures between ambient and glass temperature over the whole molar fraction range. Suitable extrapolations to zero alcohol concentration allow one to calculate the dielectric relaxation time and the static permittivity of supercooled water below its homogeneous nucleation temperature. Use is made of a dielectric relaxation spectrometer operating from 1 MHz

G. A. Noyel; L. J. Jorat; J. R. Huck; O. Derriche

1990-01-01

314

On time scale invariance of random walks in confined space.

Animal movement is often modelled on an individual level using simulated random walks. In such applications it is preferable that the properties of these random walks remain consistent when the choice of time is changed (time scale invariance). While this property is well understood in unbounded space, it has not been studied in detail for random walks in a confined domain. In this work we undertake an investigation of time scale invariance of the drift and diffusion rates of Brownian random walks subject to one of four simple boundary conditions. We find that time scale invariance is lost when the boundary condition is non-conservative, that is when movement (or individuals) is discarded due to boundary encounters. Where possible analytical results are used to describe the limits of the time scaling process, numerical results are then used to characterise the intermediate behaviour. PMID:25481837

Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskii, Sergei

2015-02-21

315

In this work, we report the use of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNs) and dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) to characterize the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time for sensitive bio-detection. The biomarkers are the human C-reactive protein (CRP) while the BMNs are the anti-CRP bound onto dextran-coated Fe3O4 particles labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. It was found the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time, T2, of protons decreases as time evolves. Additionally, the ?T2 of of protons in BMNs increases as the concentration of CRP increases. We attribute these to the formation of the magnetic clusters that deteriorate the field homogeneity of nearby protons. A sensitivity better than 0.1 ?g/mL for assaying CRP is achieved, which is much higher than that required by the clinical criteria (0.5 mg/dL). The present MR-detection platform shows promise for further use in detecting tumors, viruses, and proteins. PMID:25397920

Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Kuen-Lin; Wang, Chun-Min; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Wang, Li-Min; Wu, C. H.; Yang, Hong-Chang

2014-01-01

316

In this work, we report the use of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNs) and dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) to characterize the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time for sensitive bio-detection. The biomarkers are the human C-reactive protein (CRP) while the BMNs are the anti-CRP bound onto dextran-coated Fe3O4 particles labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. It was found the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time, T2, of protons decreases as time evolves. Additionally, the ?T2 of of protons in BMNs increases as the concentration of CRP increases. We attribute these to the formation of the magnetic clusters that deteriorate the field homogeneity of nearby protons. A sensitivity better than 0.1 ?g/mL for assaying CRP is achieved, which is much higher than that required by the clinical criteria (0.5 mg/dL). The present MR-detection platform shows promise for further use in detecting tumors, viruses, and proteins. PMID:25397920

Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Kuen-Lin; Wang, Chun-Min; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Wang, Li-Min; Wu, C H; Yang, Hong-Chang

2014-01-01

317

Time Scaling of Chaotic Systems: Application to Secure Communications

The paper deals with time-scaling transformations of dynamical systems. Such scaling functions operate a change of coordinates on the time axis of the system trajectories preserving its phase portrait. Exploiting this property, a chaos encryption technique to transmit a binary signal through an analog channel is proposed. The scheme is based on a suitable time-scaling function which plays the role of a private key. The encoded transmitted signal is proved to resist known decryption attacks offering a secure and reliable communication.

Donatello Materassi; Michele Basso

2007-10-25

318

Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

2014-01-01

319

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed time resolved investigation of the photoluminescence of a thin tetracene film deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is presented. In agreement with Lim et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107402 (2004)], we find strong evidence for superradiance: an increase of the relative intensity of the pure electronic transition with respect to the vibronic sideband and a concomitant decrease of the radiative lifetime from 10to1.83ns upon cooling from 300to4K. For lower temperatures, a redshift (˜200cm-1) of the free exciton is observed. Previously, this shift was attributed to a structural phase transition. Our time resolved spectra reveal that the spectral shift is related to a dynamical relaxation process which occurs within the first 50ps.

Voigt, M.; Langner, A.; Schouwink, P.; Lupton, J. M.; Mahrt, R. F.; Sokolowski, M.

2007-09-01

320

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an extensive and systematic investigation of the multi-point and multi-time correlation functions to reveal the spatio-temporal structures of dynamic heterogeneities in glass-forming liquids. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for the supercooled states of various prototype models of glass-forming liquids such as binary Kob-Andersen, Wahnström, soft-sphere, and network-forming liquids. While the first three models act as fragile liquids exhibiting super-Arrhenius temperature dependence in their relaxation times, the last is a strong glass-former exhibiting Arrhenius behavior. First, we quantify the length scale of the dynamic heterogeneities utilizing the four-point correlation function. The growth of the dynamic length scale with decreasing temperature is characterized by various scaling relations that are analogous to the critical phenomena. We also examine how the growth of the length scale depends upon the model employed. Second, the four-point correlation function is extended to a three-time correlation function to characterize the temporal structures of the dynamic heterogeneities based on our previous studies [K. Kim and S. Saito, Phys. Rev. E 79, 060501-R (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.060501; K. Kim and S. Saito, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044511 (2010), 10.1063/1.3464331]. We provide comprehensive numerical results obtained from the three-time correlation function for the above models. From these calculations, we examine the time scale of the dynamic heterogeneities and determine the associated lifetime in a consistent and systematic way. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the dynamical heterogeneities becomes much longer than the ?-relaxation time determined from a two-point correlation function in fragile liquids. The decoupling between the two time scales is remarkable, particularly in supercooled states, and the time scales differ by more than an order of magnitude in a more fragile liquid. In contrast, the lifetime is shorter than the ?-relaxation time in tetrahedral network-forming strong liquid, even at lower temperatures.

Kim, Kang; Saito, Shinji

2013-03-01

321

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently proposed a theory [Suresh, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 9727 (2000)], 10.1063/1.1320822, based on the principles of statistical mechanics, for describing the temperature variation of static dielectric constant of water and the average number of H-bonds per molecule in the liquid phase. The theoretical model contains three parameters; two of them pertain to the energy and entropy changes accompanying bond-formation, and the third (??) represents the dielectric constant at a frequency that is sufficiently low for atomic and electronic polarization, but sufficiently high for intermolecular relaxation processes involving the movement of permanent dipole moments to be inoperative. In the absence of a consensus in the literature for the value of ?? to be used in dielectric constant calculations, it was arbitrarily set to a commonly accepted value of 1.77 (corresponding to refractive index of 1.33). Values for H-bond parameters were then estimated by best fitting model calculations to experimental data for dielectric constant across temperatures ranging from melting to the critical point of water. It is the purpose of the present Note to eliminate the ambiguity on the choice of ?? and propose refined values for the H-bond parameters.

Rastogi, Abhishek; Yadav, Siddharth; Suresh, S. J.

2011-08-01

322

Time-Frequency Scaling Transformation of the Phonocardiogram Based of

. This difficulty increases when the heart rate increases. As an example, it is often difficult to recognize of the time scale of the PCG can be performed without perceptible change in its spectral characteristics been tested on 11 PCG's containing heart sounds and different murmurs. A scaling

Boyer, Edmond

323

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a fundamental subject in fluid mechanics, sophisticated cavity flow patterns due to the movement of multi-lids have been routinely analyzed by the computational fluid dynamics community. Unlike those reported computational studies that were conducted using more conventional numerical methods, this paper features employing the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to numerically investigate the two-dimensional cavity flows generated by the movements of two adjacent lids. The obtained MRT-LBM results reveal a number of important bifurcation flow features, such as the symmetry and steadiness of cavity flows at low Reynolds numbers, the multiplicity of stable cavity flow patterns when the Reynolds number exceeds its first critical value, as well as the periodicity of the cavity flow after the second critical Reynolds number is reached. Detailed flow characteristics are reported that include the critical Reynolds numbers, the locations of the vortex centers, and the values of stream function at the vortex centers. Through systematic comparison against the simulation results obtained elsewhere by using the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model and other numerical schemes, not only does the MRT-LBM approach exhibit fairly satisfactory accuracy, but also demonstrates its remarkable flexibility that renders the adjustment of its multiple relaxation factors fully manageable and, thus, particularly accommodates the need of effectively investigating the multiplicity of flow patterns with complex behaviors.

Guo, Xixiong; Zhong, Chengwen; Zhuo, Congshan; Cao, Jun

2014-04-01

324

Spin-lattice relaxation times for 13C in isotope-enriched glycine accumulated in frog muscle.

Spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) of 13C-enriched glycine accumulated in frog muscles were determined at 1 degrees C by the inversion-recovery (180 degrees -tau-90 degree pulse sequence) method and compared with the values obtained in free solution. The value of T1 for the alpha-13C nucleus of glycine in the tissue was 50% of that obtained in free solution. The observed value for T1 in the tissue was not concentration-dependent, and no difference in chemical shift was observed between tissue and free solution. Quantification of the area under the glycine peak suggested that the observed signal represents at least 80% of the intracellular glycine. An average nuclear Overhauser enhancement of 2.83 for intracellular glycine indicates that the relaxation mechanism within the cell is predominantly dipolar, as in free solution. The value of T1 for the 13C' nucleus of glycine in the tissue was 67% of that in a solution of similar concentration. A quantitative analysis of the findings suggests that the observed difference in the value of T1 between tissue and free solution results from a difference in viscosity. The data provide no evidence either for special organization of intracellular water or for glycine binding. It is proposed that intracellular diffusion coefficients may be determined from measurements of 13C T1's of 13C-enriched intracellular solutes. PMID:300254

Neville, M C; Wyssbrod, H R

1977-01-01

325

The aim of this work was to evaluate the utilization of analysis of the distribution of relaxation time (DRT) using a dynamic light back-scattering technique as alternative method for the determination of the concentration regimes in aqueous solutions of biopolymers (xanthan, clairana and tara gums) by an analysis of the overlap (c*) and aggregation (c**) concentrations. The diffusion coefficients were obtained over a range of concentrations for each biopolymer using two methods. The first method analysed the behaviour of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the concentration of the gum solution. This method is based on the analysis of the diffusion coefficient versus the concentration curve. Using the slope of the curves, it was possible to determine the c* and c** for xanthan and tara gum. However, it was not possible to determine the concentration regimes for clairana using this method. The second method was based on an analysis of the DRTs, which showed different numbers of relaxation modes. It was observed that the concentrations at which the number of modes changed corresponded to the c* and c**. Thus, the DRT technique provided an alternative method for the determination of the critical concentrations of biopolymers. PMID:23671627

Oliveira, Patrícia D.; Michel, Ricardo C.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Moreira, Angelita S.; Lomba, Rosana F. T.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.

2013-01-01

326

Modes and emergent time scales of embayed beach dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we use a simple numerical model (the Coastline Evolution Model) to explore alongshore transport-driven shoreline dynamics within generalized embayed beaches (neglecting cross-shore effects). Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identify two primary orthogonal modes of shoreline behavior that describe shoreline variation about its unchanging mean position: the rotation mode, which has been previously identified and describes changes in the mean shoreline orientation, and a newly identified breathing mode, which represents changes in shoreline curvature. Wavelet analysis of the PCA mode time series reveals characteristic time scales of these modes (typically years to decades) that emerge within even a statistically constant white-noise wave climate (without changes in external forcing), suggesting that these time scales can arise from internal system dynamics. The time scales of both modes increase linearly with shoreface depth, suggesting that the embayed beach sediment transport dynamics exhibit a diffusive scaling.

Ratliff, Katherine M.; Murray, A. Brad

2014-10-01

327

Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

2001-01-01

328

Kibble-Zurek mechanism and finite-time scaling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism has been applied to a variety of systems ranging from low-temperature Bose-Einstein condensations to grand unification scales in particle physics and cosmology and from classical phase transitions to quantum phase transitions. Here, we show that finite-time scaling (FTS) provides a detailed improved understanding of the mechanism. In particular, the finite time scale, which is introduced by the external driving (or quenching) and results in FTS, is the origin of the division of the adiabatic regimes from the impulse regime in the KZ mechanism. The origin of the KZ scaling for the defect density, generated during the driving through a critical point, is not that the correlation length ceases growing in the nonadiabatic impulse regime, but rather, is that it is taken over by the effective finite length scale corresponding to the finite time scale. We also show that FTS accounts well for and improves the scaling ansatz proposed recently by Liu, Polkovnikov, and Sandvik, [Phys. Rev. B 89, 054307 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.054307]. Further, we show that their universal power-law scaling form applies only to some observables in cooling but not to heating. Even in cooling, it is invalid either when an appropriate external field is present. However, this finite-time-finite-size scaling calls for caution in application of FTS. Detailed scaling behaviors of the FTS and finite-size scaling, along with their crossover, are explicitly demonstrated, with the dynamic critical exponent z being estimated for two- and three-dimensional Ising models under the usual Metropolis dynamics. These values of z are found to give rise to better data collapses than the extant values do in most cases but take on different values in heating and cooling in both two- and three-dimensional spaces.

Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Feng, Baoquan; Zhong, Fan

2014-10-01

329

Time scale for point-defect equilibration in nanostructures

Molecular dynamics simulations of high-temperature annealing are performed on nanostructured materials enabling direct observation of vacancy emission from planar defects (i.e., grain boundaries and free surfaces) to populate the initially vacancy-free grain interiors on a subnanosecond time scale. We demonstrate a universal time-length scale correlation that governs these re-equilibration processes, suggesting that nanostructures are particularly stable against perturbations in their point-defect concentrations, caused for example by particle irradiation or temperature fluctuations.

Millett, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Desai, Tapan [Materials Science Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Yamakov, Vesselin [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23693 (United States)

2008-10-20

330

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

331

Shape invariant time-scale and pitch modification of speech

The simplified linear model of speech production predicts that when the rate of articulation is changed, the resulting waveform takes on the appearance of the original, except for a change in the time scale. A time-scale modification system that preserves this shape-invariance property during voicing is developed. This is done using a version of the sinusoidal analysis-synthesis system that models

Thomas F. Quatieri; Robert J. McAulay

1992-01-01

332

Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-similar systems are characterized by continuous scale invariance and, in response, the existence of power laws. However, a significant number of systems exhibits discrete scale invariance (DSI) which in turn leads to log-periodic corrections to scaling that decorate the pure power law. Here, we present the results of a search of log-periodic corrections to scaling in the squares of Dst index increments which are taken as proxies of the energy dissipation rate in the magnetosphere. We show that Dst time series exhibit DSI and discuss the consequence of this feature, as well as the possible implications of Dst DSI on space weather forecasting efforts.

Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

2011-07-01

333

Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.

Marsh, B. D.

2004-05-01

334

Time Scales in Probabilistic Models of Wireless Sensor Networks

We consider a stochastic model of clock synchronization in a wireless network consisting of N sensors interacting with one dedicated accurate time server. For large N we find an estimate of the final time sychronization error for global and relative synchronization. Main results concern a behavior of the network on different time scales $t=t_N \\to \\infty$, $N \\to \\infty$. We discuss existence of phase transitions and find exact time scales on which an effective clock synchronization of the system takes place.

Anatoly Manita

2013-02-28

335

Effect of time scales on the unfolding of neural attractors.

A study of the effect of time scales in brain dynamics on the unfolding of the attractors in the phase space, reconstructed by a time delay embedding of the EEG signal, was carried out. Applying the techniques of nonlinear time series analysis, the unfolding rate of the system attractor was determined by analyzing the variation of the correlation dimension parameter and subjecting it to a bi-parametric fit. The behavior of the parameter, which measures the rate of unfolding, was monitored for varying time scales in two cases: (a) normal eyes closed condition and (b) the pathological case of epilepsy. Significant results were obtained. PMID:11912673

Pravitha, R; Indic, P; Nampoori, V P; Pratap, R

2001-01-01

336

Russian national time scale long-term stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.

Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

1994-01-01

337

Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy

The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919

Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

338

Relaxation of an unstable state in parametrically excited cold atoms.

We investigate the scaling behavior of the relaxation process for an unstable state near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation point. When the parametric modulation is applied to a magneto-optical trap, the atomic cloud becomes unstable and decays to the dynamic bistable states. Near the subcritical Hopf bifurcation point, we experimentally show that the relaxation process exhibits the scaling behavior; the relaxation time shows a scaling exponent of -1.002 (±0.024). We also present the passage time distribution for the statistical interpretation of the escape process associated with the relaxation of the unstable state. We compare the experimental results to the numerical and analytic results, demonstrating the good agreement between them. PMID:22060485

Moon, Geol; Kim, Yonghee; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Jina; Yum, Dahyun; Lee, Wanhee; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Jhe, Wonho

2011-09-01

339

Time/scale-adjusted dyadic wavelet packet bases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper generalizes the dyadic wavelet packet bases (DWP), developed by Coifman and Wickerhauser, to time/scale-adjusted DWP bases. These generalized DWP bases provide more flexibility in matching the time-scale characteristics of the input signal. Development of these generalized bases is achieved by combining the previously defined time-invariant DWP bases of Pesquet, Krim, Carfantan, and Proakis with a generalized scale sampling. The generalized scale sampling extends the usual dyadic sampling by adding a real-valued offset parameter to the integer power of two in the scale parameter. This offset parameter value is taken between zero and one. By combining both scale and translation generalizations, signal components existing between consecutive dyadic scales, or consecutive time translations, may be captured. It is shown how these DWP coefficients may be generated from a two step process; first projecting the input signal onto an appropriate space. Then, performing the usual wavelet low and highpass filtering operations, followed by downsampling. The projection operation is shown to be equivalent to a filtering operation. An expression for the filter taps is derived, and basic properties are proven. A translation-invariant transform defined on these scale-adjusted wavelet packets, is developed. An application to transient detection is presented, by developing a transient detector based on this transform. ROC curves, generated by Monte- Carlo simulation, are presented demonstrating detector performance. Detector performance is shown to be independent of the signal translation. It is further shown how matching the basis functions to the time-scale-frequency characteristics of the transient can provide improved detection performance.

Del Marco, Stephen P.

1996-03-01

340

Investigation of picosecond relaxation processes in cresyl violet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picosecond population relaxation time of cresyl violet in methanol was measured by phase-conjugation type time-delayed four- wave mixing using incoherent light (TDFWM-IL). The excited state population relaxation time T1 is about 157 ps. Another important dynamical process, absorption recovery, was also studied by correlation technique of mode-locked picosecond coherent pulses with different intensities. The ground-state absorption recovery time Tar is about 162 ps. These results were analysed theoretically using the appropriate models. It is shown that the excited-state population relaxation and the ground-state absorption recovery occurred on a comparable time scale. When ? 32?0 especially, the medium becomes a two-level system, and the absorption recovery time is identical to the population relaxation time.

Liu, Junye; Huang, Shihua; Qin, Weiping; Yu, Jiaqi

1992-07-01

341

Time scale construction from multiple sources of information (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological age estimates are provided by diverse chronometers, such as radiometric measurements, astrochronology, and the spacing of magnetic anomalies recorded on mid-ocean ridges by seafloor spreading. These age estimates are affected by errors that can be systematic (e.g., biased radiometric dates due to imperfect assumptions) or random (e.g., imprecise recording of astronomical cycles in sedimentary records). Whereas systematic errors can be reduced by improvements in technique and calibration, uncertainties due to random errors will always be present and need to be dealt with. A Bayesian framework can be used to construct an integrated time scale that is based on several uncertain sources of information. In this framework, each piece of data and the final time scale have an associated probability distribution that describes their uncertainty. The key calculation is to determine the uncertainty in the time scale from the uncertain data that constrain it. In practice, this calculation can be performed by Monte Carlo sampling. In Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, the time scale is iteratively perturbed and the perturbed time scale is accepted or rejected depending on how closely it fits the data. The final result is a large ensemble of possible time scales that are consistent with all the uncertain data; while the average of this ensemble defines a 'best' time scale, the ensemble variability quantifies the time scale uncertainty. An example of this approach is the M-sequence (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, ~160-120 Ma) MHTC12 geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of Malinverno et al. (2012, J. Geophys. Res., B06104, doi:10.1029/2012JB009260). Previous GPTSs were constructed by interpolating between dated marine magnetic anomalies while assuming constant or smoothly varying spreading rates. These GPTSs were typically based on magnetic lineations from one or a few selected spreading centers, and an undesirable result is that they imply larger spreading rate fluctuations on other ridges. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo algorithm used in MHTC12 makes it easy to sample GPTSs that result in small spreading rate variations over multiple spreading centers (in the Western Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Ocean NW of Australia). MHTC12 also accounts for the duration of five polarity chrons estimated from floating astrochronologies (CM0r through CM3r). A Bayesian framework and Monte Carlo sampling offer a useful strategy to construct time scales that incorporate different types of chronological information, have a quantified uncertainty, and can be easily updated with additional data that may become available in the future.

Malinverno, A.

2013-12-01

342

Space/time coupling in brittle deformation at geophysical scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong intermittency as well as spatial heterogeneity characterize the brittle deformation of geophysical objects such as the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea-ice cover. They can be expressed through specific scaling laws, that relate, for a space-time domain, (a) the number of earthquakes or (b) the strain rate, vs. the size of the domain, for the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea ice, respectively. However, in both cases, spatial (respectively temporal) scaling depends on the time (respectively spatial) scale considered, i.e., the space and time scaling dependences are coupled. Here, we show that this space-time coupling of brittle deformation at geophysical scales can be summarized through a unique scaling law characterizing the discrete fracturing events (earthquakes or displacement events along sea-ice leads). As suggested by an analysis of southern Californian seismicity, we argue that this space-time coupling is likely to emerge from the complex correlation patterns related to chain triggering of earth- or ice-quakes.

Marsan, David; Weiss, Jérôme

2010-08-01

343

Femtosecond excited state relaxation of dye molecules in solution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bleaching dynamics of organic dye molecules in solution have been investigated using 70 fs pulses from a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser. In addition to ground state relaxation on a nanosecond time scale, a fast partial recovery is observed. For the dyes Nile blue, oxazine 720, cresyl violet and rhodamine 640, this recovery is exponential, with relaxation times in the range 190-480 fs.

Weiner, A. M.; Ippen, E. P.

1985-03-01

344

This report aims to study the age related T1rho and T2 relaxation time changes in lumbar intervertebral disc. Lumbar sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with a 3 Tesla scanner in 52 subjects. With a spin-lock frequency of 500 Hz, T1rho was measured using a rotary echo spin-lock pulse embedded in a 3D balanced fast field echo sequence. A multi-echo turbo spin echo sequence was used for T2 mapping. Regions-of-interest were drawn over the T1rho and T2 maps, including nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus. For L1/2-L4/5 discs, results showed the age associated reduction of T1rho of nucleus pulposus had a of slope of –1.06, the reduction of T2 of nucleus pulposus had a slope of –1.47, the reduction of T1rho of annulus fibrosus had a slope of –0.25, and the reduction of T2 of annulus fibrosus had a slope of –0.18, with all the slopes significantly non-zero. In nucleus pulposus the slope of T2 was slightly steeper than that of T1rho (P=0.085), while in annulus fibrosus the slope of T1rho was slightly steeper than that of T2 (P=0.31). We conclude that significant age related reduction of T1rho and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times of lumbar intervertebral disc was observed, however, the relative performances of T1rho vs. T2 were broadly similar. PMID:25202661

Griffith, James F.; Leung, Jason C. S.; Yuan, Jing

2014-01-01

345

Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.

Peng, C. K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

1998-01-01

346

We studied the usefulness of simultaneous evaluation of the Doppler-derived transmitral flow velocity waveform and left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects consisted of 26 healthy volunteers, 54 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI), and 27 patients with CAD but without prior MI. IRT was measured as the time from the beginning of

Takeshi Hashimoto; Nobuyuki Ohte; Hitomi Narita; Kenji Kobayashi; Sachie Akita; Takao Fujinami

1996-01-01

347

Real-time three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping (3D-RSM) measurement during In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth has been performed to investigate anisotropy in relaxation processes along [110] and [110] directions caused by alpha and beta misfit dislocations (MDs). Anisotropies, strain relaxation, and crystal quality in both directions were simultaneously evaluated via the position and broadness of 022 diffraction in 3D-RSM. In the small-thickness region, strain relaxation caused by alpha-MDs is higher than that caused by beta-MDs, and therefore crystal quality along [110] is worse than that along [110]. Rapid relaxation along both [110] and [110] directions occurs at almost the same thickness. After rapid relaxation, anisotropy in strain relaxation gradually decreases, whereas crystal quality along [110] direction, presumably due to beta-MDs, becomes better that along [110] direction and the ratio does not decay with thickness.

Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Sai, Akihisa; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Takahasi, Masamitu; Fujikawa, Seiji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2010-07-26

348

Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A simple method for estimating ventilation time-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill, and the result is compared to age estimates

DÃ¶Ã¶s, Kristofer

349

Languages evolve too! Changing the Software Time Scale

Humans will have to live with software for a long time. As demonstrated by the Y2K problem, computer professionals used a wrong time scale when thinking about software. Large software products live much longer than expected. It took a few decades to the research community to admit that software engineering was not only about software development, but above all, about

Jean-marie Favre

2005-01-01

350

LOCALLY RECURRENT NETWORKS WITH MULTIPLE TIME-SCALES

the standard tap delay line solutions can require thousands of taps. Unfortunately, the gamma structure has the time- constant along the delay line, a single delay line is able to represent signals that include delay line because of its ability to automatically choose an appropriate time-scale [l][2] [3

Harris, John G.

351

Anomalous Multiphoton Photoelectric Effect in Ultrashort Time Scales

In a multiphoton photoelectric process, an electron needs to absorb a given number of photons to escape the surface of a metal. It is shown for the first time that this number is not a constant depending only on the characteristics of the metal and light, but varies with the interaction duration in ultrashort time scales. The phenomenon occurs when

J. Kupersztych; M. Raynaud

2005-01-01

352

Planck Scale Physics, Pregeometry and the Notion of Time

Recent progress in quantum gravity and string theory has raised interest among scientists to whether or not nature behaves discretely at the Planck scale. There are two attitudes twoards this discretenes i.e. top-down and bottom-up approach. We have followed up the bottom-up approach. Here we have tried to describe how macroscopic space-time or its underlying mesoscopic substratum emerges from a more fundamental concept. The very concept of space-time, causality may not be valid beyond Planck scale. We have introduced the concept of generalised time within the framework of Sheaf Cohomology where the physical time emrges around and above Planck scale. The possible physical amd metaphysical implications are discussed.

S. Roy

2003-11-04

353

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When inverting nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data in order to obtain quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times for fluids in porous media, it is common practice to impose a non-negative (NN) constraint on the distributions. While this approach can be useful in reducing the effects of data distortion and/or preventing wild oscillations in the distributions, it may give misleading results in the presence of real negative amplitude components. Here, some examples of valid negative components for articular cartilage and hydrated collagen are given. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen, proteoglycans and water, which can be considered, in many aspects, as a porous medium. Separate T1 relaxation data are obtained for low-mobility ('solid') macromolecular 1H and for higher-mobility ('liquid') 1H by the separation of these components in free induction decays, with ? denoting the solid/liquid 1H ratio. When quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times (T1) of the solid and liquid signal components of cartilage or collagen are computed from experimental relaxation data without imposing the usual NN constraint, valid negative peaks may appear. The features of the distributions, in particular negative peaks, and the fact that peaks at longer times for macromolecular and water protons are at essentially the same T1, are interpreted as the result of a magnetization exchange between these two spin pools. For the only-slightly-hydrated collagen samples, with ?>1, the exchange leads to small negative peaks at short T1 times for the macromolecular component. However, for the cartilage, with substantial hydration or for a strongly hydrated collagen sample, both with ?Lt1, the behavior is reversed, with a negative peak for water at short times. The validity of a negative peak may be accepted (dismissed) by a high (low) cost of NN in error of fit. Computed distributions for simulated data using observed signal-to-noise ratios also verify the need for some negative components. Observed relaxation times and signal ratios can be fitted formally by a simple two-site exchange model that gives the exchange times and the uncoupled relaxation times of the liquid and solid components, with significant trends of these parameters with increasing 1H ratio, ?. The solid-to-liquid exchange times are found to be in the range from 10 ms to a few tens of ms at all hydration levels. The results may be of interest for the application of magnetization exchange contrast in the imaging of articular cartilage to determine changes associated with pathologies and ageing. Other important porous media exist where exchange phenomena and negative relaxation components cannot be disregarded.

Fantazzini, Paola; Galassi, Francesca; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J. S.; Vittur, Franco

2011-06-01

354

Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes. The remaining unexplained variation in development time likely reflects additional ecological and evolutionary differences among insect species. PMID:24391935

Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

2013-01-01

355

Measuring true spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of half-integral quadrupolar nuclei having non-zero nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) presents challenges due to the presence of satellite-transitions (STs) that may lie outside the excitation bandwidth of the central transition (CT). This leads to complications in establishing well-defined initial conditions for the population differences in these multi-level systems. In addition, experiments involving magic-angle spinning (MAS) can introduce spin exchange due to zero-crossings of the ST and CT (or possibly rotational resonance recoupling in the case of multiple sites) and greatly altered initial conditions as well. An extensive comparison of pulse sequences that have been previously used to measure T1 in such systems is reported, using the (71)Ga (I=3/2) NMR of a Ge-doped h-GaN n-type semiconductor sample as the test case. The T1 values were measured at the peak maximum of the Knight shift distribution. Analytical expressions for magnetization-recovery of the CT appropriate to the pulse sequences tested were used, involving contributions from both a magnetic relaxation mechanism (rate constant W) and a quadrupolar one (rate constants W1 and W2, approximately equal in this case). An asynchronous train of high-power saturating pulses under MAS that is able to completely saturate both CT and STs is found to be the most reliable and accurate method for obtaining the "true T1", defined here as (2W+2W1,2)(-)(1). All other methods studied yielded poor agreement with this "true T1" value or even resulted in gross errors, for reasons that are analyzed in detail. These methods involved a synchronous train of saturating pulses under MAS, an inversion-recovery sequence under MAS or static conditions, and a saturating comb of pulses on a static sample. Although the present results were obtained on a sample where the magnetic relaxation mechanism dominated the quadrupolar one, the asynchronous saturating pulse train approach is not limited to this situation. The extent to which W1 and W2 are unequal does affect the interpretability of the experiment however, particularly when the quadrupolar mechanism dominates. A numerically approximate solution for the I=3/2 recovery case reveals the quantitative effects of any such inequality. PMID:25700115

Yesinowski, James P

2015-03-01

356

Effective masses, relaxation times, and carrier mobilities in some chloride intercalants of graphite

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective masses, carrier scattering times and carrier mobilities have been measured in selected graphite intercalation compounds using the Shubnikov-de Haas effect at a series of temperatures between 4 and 50 K. Effective masses are less than or equal to 0.1 of the free-electron mass, scattering times are about 10 to the -13th/s and carrier mobilities are on the order of 10,000 sq cm/V s.

Woollam, J. A.; Haugland, E.; Dowell, M. B.; Underhill, C.

1981-01-01

357

Non-parametric techniques for pitch-scale and time-scale modification of speech

Time-scale and, to a lesser extent, pitch-scale modifications of speech and audio signals are the subject of major theoretical and practical interest. Applications are numerous, including, to name but a few, text-to-speech synthesis (based on acoustical unit concatenation), transformation of voice characteristics, foreign language learning but also audio monitoring or film\\/soundtrack post-synchronization. To fulfill the need for high-quality time and

Eric Moulines; Jean Laroche

1995-01-01

358

Time Scales in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculation of eddy covariances in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) requires separating the instantaneous signal into mean and fluctuating components. Since the ASL is not statistically stationary, an inherent ambiguity exists in defining the mean quantities. The present study compares four methods of calculating physically relevant time scales in the unstable ASL that may be used to remove the unsteady mean components of instantaneous time signals, in order to yield local turbulent fluxes that appear to be statistically stationary. The four mean-removal time scales are: ( t c ) based on the location of the maximum in the ogive of the heat flux cospectra, (tilde t_{MR}) the location of the zero crossing in the multiresolution decomposition of the heat flux, ( t *) the ratio of the mixed-layer depth over the convective velocity, and (tilde t ) the convergence time of the vertical velocity and temperature variances. The four time scales are evaluated using high quality, three-dimensional sonic anemometry data acquired at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility located on the salt flats of Utah’s western desert. Results indicate that t_c? t_{MR} and t^*? tilde t , with t c achieving values about 2-3 times greater than t *. The sensitivity of the eddy covariances to the mean-removal time scale (given a fixed 4-h averaging period during midday) is also demonstrated.

Metzger, Meredith; Holmes, Heather

2008-01-01

359

Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

1997-01-01

360

Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry

When structures that interconvert on a given time scale are lumped together, the corresponding free-energy surface becomes a function of the observation time. This view is equivalent to grouping structures that are connected by free-energy barriers below a certain threshold. We illustrate this time dependence for some benchmark systems, namely atomic clusters and alanine dipeptide, highlighting the connections to broken ergodicity, local equilibrium, and “feasible” symmetry operations of the molecular Hamiltonian. PMID:24374625

Wales, David J.; Salamon, Peter

2014-01-01

361

Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin (<40 A) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

Carson, George Amos, Jr.

362

The introduction of ultrashort-echo-time-(UTE)-sequences to clinical whole-body MR scanners has opened up the field of MR characterization of materials or tissues with extremely fast signal decay. If the transverse relaxation time is in the range of the RF-pulse duration, approximation of the RF-pulse by an instantaneous rotation applied at the middle of the RF-pulse and immediately followed by free relaxation will lead to a distinctly underestimated echo signal. Thus, the regular Ernst equation is not adequate to correctly describe steady state signal under those conditions. The paper presents an analytically derived modified Ernst equation, which correctly describes in-pulse relaxation of transverse magnetization under typical conditions: The equation is valid for rectangular excitation pulses, usually applied in 3D UTE sequences. Longitudinal relaxation time of the specimen must be clearly longer than RF-pulse duration, which is fulfilled for tendons and bony structures as well as many solid materials. Under these conditions, the proposed modified Ernst equation enables adequate and relatively simple calculation of the magnetization of materials or tissues. Analytically derived data are compared to numerical results obtained by using an established Runge-Kutta-algorithm based on the Bloch equations. Validity of the new approach was also tested by systematical measurements of a solid polymeric material on a 3T whole-body MR scanner. Thus, the presented modified Ernst equation provides a suitable basis for T1 measurements, even in tissues with T2 values as short as the RF-pulse duration: independent of RF-pulse duration, the 'variable flip angle method' led to consistent results of longitudinal relaxation time T1, if the T2 relaxation time of the material of interest is known as well. PMID:20637661

Springer, Fabian; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

2010-09-01

363

Inferring Synaptic Structure in Presence of Neural Interaction Time Scales

Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network’s activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model’s time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389

Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo

2015-01-01

364

Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct three-dimensional space R?3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time M?,?4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in R?3 is developed. We state that M?,?4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ??0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ??0, where ?0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS?4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

Balankin, Alexander S.

2013-10-01

365

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that it is possible to characterize anomalous fluctuations in transients from marginal states using first-passage time statistics. The maximum of the fluctuations is found to occur in the median of the first-passage time distribution. The value of this maximum is given in terms of the initial and final state. This characterization of anomalous fluctuations is related to the phenomenon of transient bimodality. We analyze the existence of such a bimodality in terms of an adimensional parameter. Our results are substantiated by numerical simulations. Applications to the Bonifacio-Lugiato model of absorptive bistability are presented.

Valle, A.; Pesquera, L.; Rodríguez, M. A.

1990-10-01

366

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron spin relaxation times in a system of electrons interacting with piezoelectric phonons mediated through spin-orbit interactions were calculated using the formula derived from the projection-reduction method. The results showed that the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times in InSb and InAs were similar. The piezoelectric material constants obtained by a comparison with the reported experimental result were Ppe=4.0 ×1022 eV/m for InSb and Ppe=1.2 ×1023 eV/m for InAs. The result also showed that the relaxation of the electron spin by the Elliot-Yafet process is more relevant for InSb than InAs at a low density.

Kang, Nam Lyong

2014-12-01

367

Scaling law for crystal nucleation time in glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to high viscosity, glassy systems evolve slowly to the ordered state. Results of molecular dynamics simulation reveal that the structural ordering in glasses becomes observable over "experimental" (finite) time-scale for the range of phase diagram with high values of pressure. We show that the structural ordering in glasses at such conditions is initiated through the nucleation mechanism, and the mechanism spreads to the states at extremely deep levels of supercooling. We find that the scaled values of the nucleation time, ?1 (average waiting time of the first nucleus with the critical size), in glassy systems as a function of the reduced temperature, T ˜ , are collapsed onto a single line reproducible by the power-law dependence. This scaling is supported by the simulation results for the model glassy systems for a wide range of temperatures as well as by the experimental data for the stoichiometric glasses at the temperatures near the glass transition.

Mokshin, Anatolii V.; Galimzyanov, Bulat N.

2015-03-01

368

Scaling law for crystal nucleation time in glasses.

Due to high viscosity, glassy systems evolve slowly to the ordered state. Results of molecular dynamics simulation reveal that the structural ordering in glasses becomes observable over "experimental" (finite) time-scale for the range of phase diagram with high values of pressure. We show that the structural ordering in glasses at such conditions is initiated through the nucleation mechanism, and the mechanism spreads to the states at extremely deep levels of supercooling. We find that the scaled values of the nucleation time, ?1 (average waiting time of the first nucleus with the critical size), in glassy systems as a function of the reduced temperature, T˜, are collapsed onto a single line reproducible by the power-law dependence. This scaling is supported by the simulation results for the model glassy systems for a wide range of temperatures as well as by the experimental data for the stoichiometric glasses at the temperatures near the glass transition. PMID:25770546

Mokshin, Anatolii V; Galimzyanov, Bulat N

2015-03-14

369

Improving the Geologic Time Scale (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) provides the framework for the physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth. The time scale is the tool "par excellence" of the geological trade, and insight in its construction, strength, and limitations enhances its function and its utility. Earth scientists should understand how time scales are constructed and its myriad of physical and abstract data are calibrated, rather than merely using ages plucked from a convenient chart or card. Calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components: (1) the standard stratigraphic divisions and their correlation in the global rock record, (2) the means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record, and (3) the methods of effectively joining the two scales, the stratigraphic one and the linear one. Under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the international stratigraphic divisions and their correlative events are now largely standardized, especially using the GSSP (Global Stratigraphic Section and Point) concept. The means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record are objectives in the EARTH TIME and GTS NEXT projects, that also are educating a new generation of GTS dedicated scientists. The U/Pb, Ar/Ar and orbital tuning methods are intercalibrated, and external error analysis improved. Existing Ar/Ar ages become almost 0.5% older, and U/Pb ages stratigraphically more realistic. The new Os/Re method has potential for directly dating more GSSP's and its correlative events. Such may reduce scaling uncertainty between the sedimentary levels of an age date and that of a stage boundary. Since 1981, six successive Phanerozoic GTS have been published, each new one achieving higher resolution and more users. The next GTS is scheduled for 2011/2012, with over 50 specialists taking part. New chapters include an expanded planetary time scale, sequence stratigraphy, Osmium, Carbon and Oxygen stratigraphy, the Cryogenian period, history of the plants, hominid prehistory, and last but not least the Anthropocene. The Cambrian Period is radically improved with 10 standard stages and detailed trilobite biochronology. Ordovician now has a stable international stages and graptolites scale. The integration of a refined 100 and 400 ka sedimentary cycles scale and a truly high-resolution U/Pb ages scale for the Mississippian is a major step towards the global Carboniferous GTS. The Devonian GTS leaves to be desired with lack of firm definitions for its upper boundary, and the long Emsian stage; it also lacks age dates. Its stages scaling is disputed. The Rhaetian and Norian stages in the Triassic and the Berriasian stage in the Cretaceous urgently require lower boundary definitions, and also boundary age dates. The single ~400 ka eccentricity component is very stable and can extend orbital tuning from the Cenozoic well into the Mesozoic portion of the GTS. Jurassic and Cretaceous now have long orbitally tuned segments. A completely astronomical-tuned Geological Time Scale (AGTS) for the Cenozoic is within reach showing unprecedented accuracy, precision and resolution. Burdigalian in the Miocene, and Lutetian, Bartonian and Priabonian stages in the Eocene still require formal definition. The K/T boundary will become about 0.5 ± 0.1 Ma older. After 25 years of research and authorship in the GTS it behoves me to especially thank my colleagues James Ogg, Frits Agterberg, John McArthur and Roger Cooper for longstanding collaboration. As a final note I urge construction of more regional time scales(like developed ‘down under') calibrated to the standard global GTS, to scale regional rock units.

Gradstein, Felix M.

2010-05-01

370

Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series

Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

2014-01-01

371

A time scale for electrical screening in pulsed gas discharges

The Maxwell time is a typical time scale for the screening of an electric field in a medium with a given conductivity. We introduce a generalization of the Maxwell time that is valid for gas discharges: the \\emph{ionization screening time}, that takes the growth of the conductivity due to impact ionization into account. We present an analytic estimate for this time scale, assuming a planar geometry, and evaluate its accuracy by comparing with numerical simulations in 1D and 3D. We investigate the minimum plasma density required to prevent the growth of streamers with local field enhancement, and we discuss the effects of photoionization and electron detachment on ionization screening. Our results are especially relevant for the description of nanosecond pulsed discharges.

Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

2014-01-01

372

Influence of the molecular mass on the segmental relaxation times of polystyrene determined by DSC

The segmental dynamics of narrow fractions (Mw\\/Mn ?1.05) of polystyrene with molecular masses ranging from 4000 to 600000 has been characterised by DSC. The samples\\u000a were subjected to different thermal histories previously to the recorded heating scans including cooling from equilibrium\\u000a at different cooling rates and annealing at different temperatures for different times. The fragility parameter m=[?log?\\/?\\u000a (Tg\\/T)]Tggwas determined from

F. Hernández Sánchez; J. M. Meseguer Due?as; J. L. Gómez Ribelles

2003-01-01

373

The elaboration of the myelinated white matter is essential for normal neurodevelopment, establishing and mediating rapid communication pathways throughout the brain. These pathways facilitate the synchronized communication required for higher order behavioral and cognitive functioning. Altered neural messaging (or ‘disconnectivity’) arising from abnormal white matter and myelin development may underlie a number of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Despite the vital role myelin plays, few imaging studies have specifically examined its maturation throughout early infancy and childhood. Thus, direct investigations of the relationship(s) between evolving behavioral and cognitive functions and the myelination of the supporting neural systems have been sparse. Further, without knowledge of the ‘normative’ developmental time-course, identification of early abnormalities associated with developmental disorders remains challenging. In this work, we examined the use of longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation time mapping, and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging to investigate white matter and myelin development in 153 healthy male and female children, 3 months through 60 months in age. Optimized age-specific acquisition protocols were developed using the DESPOT and mcDESPOT imaging techniques; and mean T1, T2 and MWF trajectories were determined for frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal and cerebellar white matter, and genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum. MWF results provided a spatio-temporal pattern in-line with prior histological studies of myelination. Comparison of T1, T2 and MWF measurements demonstrates dissimilar sensitivity to tissue changes associated with neurodevelopment, with each providing differential but complementary information. PMID:22884937

Deoni, Sean C.L.; Dean, Douglas C.; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Jerskey, Beth A.

2012-01-01

374

Satellite attitude prediction by multiple time scales method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is made of the problem of predicting the attitude of satellites under the influence of external disturbing torques. The attitude dynamics are first expressed in a perturbation formulation which is then solved by the multiple scales approach. The independent variable, time, is extended into new scales, fast, slow, etc., and the integration is carried out separately in the new variables. The theory is applied to two different satellite configurations, rigid body and dual spin, each of which may have an asymmetric mass distribution. The disturbing torques considered are gravity gradient and geomagnetic. Finally, as multiple time scales approach separates slow and fast behaviors of satellite attitude motion, this property is used for the design of an attitude control device. A nutation damping control loop, using the geomagnetic torque for an earth pointing dual spin satellite, is designed in terms of the slow equation.

Tao, Y. C.; Ramnath, R.

1975-01-01

375

MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point in the bone-cartilage interface. Cartilage flattening was accomplished with Bezier splines and warping, and texture analysis was performed with second-order texture measures using gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). In a cohort of five normal subjects the performance and reproducibility of the techniques were evaluated using T1rho maps of femoral knee cartilage. The feasibility of creating a mean cartilage relaxation time map is also presented. Successful localized intra- and inter-subject T1rho comparisons were obtained with reproducibility similar to that reported in the literature for regional T2. Improvement of the reproducibility of GLCM features was obtained by flattening the T1rho maps. The results indicate that the presented techniques have potential in longitudinal and population studies of knee OA at different stages of the disease. PMID:18506807

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila

2008-06-01

376

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerning with the recent experiment of time-resolved two-photon photo-emission spectral measurements on semiconductors (GaAs, InP), we theoretically study real time relaxation dynamics of macroscopically photo-excited electrons, toward the Fermi degeneracy formation in an originally vacant conduction band of these semiconductors. Very soon after the photo-excitation, the whole electrons are shown to exhibit a quite rapid relaxation, like an avalanching phenomenon, mainly due to successive multi-(optical and acoustic) phonon emission from them. Repeating this multi-phonon process, the whole energy distribution of the electrons is shown to become a multi-peaked structure largely elongated over the lower part of the wide conduction band. However, after around 1 ps from the excitation, this relaxation critically slows down, since the emission of a long-wave acoustic phonon from electrons around the Fermi level becomes prohibitively difficult. By using the electron temperature approximation, we show that this slow relaxation is inversely proportional to time. Thus, the formation of the complete Fermi degeneracy takes an infinite time. These theoretical results are quite consistent to the aforementioned recent experiment.

Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Tomita, Norikazu; Nasu, Keiichiro

2015-04-01

377

MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point in the bone– cartilage interface. Cartilage flattening was accomplished with Bezier splines and warping, and texture analysis was performed with second-order texture measures using gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). In a cohort of five normal subjects the performance and reproducibility of the techniques were evaluated using T1? maps of femoral knee cartilage. The feasibility of creating a mean cartilage relaxation time map is also presented. Successful localized intra- and inter-subject T1? comparisons were obtained with reproducibility similar to that reported in the literature for regional T2. Improvement of the reproducibility of GLCM features was obtained by flattening the T1? maps. The results indicate that the presented techniques have potential in longitudinal and population studies of knee OA at different stages of the disease. PMID:18506807

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

2010-01-01

378

Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal

Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal Kirk Pruhs Cliff Stein 1 Introduction the Windows XP operating system to dynamically change the speed of the processor to prolong battery life schedule. By far the most commonly used QoS measure in the computer systems literature is average response/flow

Pruhs, Kirk

379

Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

2014-01-01

380

Time Flies When You're Learning About Scale!

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not many students would forget to say "Dinosaurs!" if you mention the Jurassic period, yet the word scale only conjures up ideas of measuring objects. Most students automatically think of measuring mass, volume, or distance, and not necessarily time. In t

Amy R. Taylor

2009-04-01

381

Dynamical masses, time-scales, and evolution of star clusters

This review discusses (i) dynamical methods for determining the masses of Galactic and extragalactic star clusters, (ii) dynamical processes and their time-scales for the evolution of clusters, including evaporation, mass segregation, core collapse, tidal shocks, dynamical friction and merging. These processes lead to significant evolution of globular cluster systems after their formation.

Ortwin Gerhard

2000-07-18

382

The time-scale of escape from star clusters

In this paper a cluster is modelled as a smooth potential (due to the cluster stars) plus the steady tidal field of the Galaxy. In this model there is a minimum energy below which stars cannot escape. Above this energy, however, the time-scale on which a star escapes varies with the orbital parameters of the star (mainly its energy) in

T. Fukushige; D. C. Heggie

2000-01-01

383

Space\\/time coupling in brittle deformation at geophysical scales

Strong intermittency as well as spatial heterogeneity characterize the brittle deformation of geophysical objects such as the Earth's crust or the Arctic sea-ice cover. They can be expressed through specific scaling laws, that relate, for a space–time domain, (a) the number of earthquakes or (b) the strain rate, vs. the size of the domain, for the Earth's crust or the

David Marsan; Jérôme Weiss

2010-01-01

384

Separation of time scales in the HCA model for sand

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separation of time scales is used in a high cycle accumulation (HCA) model for sand. An important difficulty of the model is the limited applicability of the Miner's rule to multiaxial cyclic loadings applied simultaneously or in a combination with monotonic loading. Another problem is the lack of simplified objective HCA formulas for geotechnical settlement problems. Possible solutions of these problems are discussed.

Niemunis, Andrzej; Wichtmann, Torsten

2014-10-01

385

MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM

MULTIPLE TIME SCALE NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM RICHARD SHARP, YEN-HSI TSAI multiscale methods (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum approximate the averaged equation and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1. INTRODUCTION

Soatto, Stefano

386

Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem

Multiple time scale numerical methods for the inverted pendulum problem Richard Sharp1, Yen (HMM) [1]. We apply the methods to compute the averaged path of the inverted pendulum under a highly and thus compute the average path of the inverted pendulum. 1 Introduction The focus of this paper

Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

387

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the initial time intervals, preceding the thermally activated flux creep regime, fast nonlogarithmic relaxation is found. The fully magnetic moment Pm(t) relaxation curve is shown. The magnetic measurements were made using SQUID-magnetometer. Two different relaxation regimes exist. The nonlogarithmic relaxation for the initial time intervals may be related to the viscous Abrikosov vortices flow with j is greater than j(sub c) for high enough temperature T and magnetic field induction B. This assumption correlates with Pm(t) measurements. The characteristic time t(sub O) separating two different relaxation regimes decreases as temperature and magnetic field are lowered. The logarithmic magnetization relaxation curves Pm(t) for fixed temperature and different external magnetic field inductions B are given. The relaxation rate dependence on magnetic field, R(B) = dPm(B, T sub O)/d(1nt) has a sharp maximum which is similar to that found for R(T) temperature dependences. The maximum shifts to lower fields as temperature goes up. The observed sharp maximum is related to a topological transition in shielding critical current distribution and, consequently, in Abrikosov vortices density. The nonlogarithmic magnetization relaxation for the initial time intervals is found. This fast relaxation has almost an exponentional character. The sharp relaxation rate R(B) maximum is observed. This maximum corresponds to a topological transition in Abrikosov vortices distribution.

Moshchalcov, V. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Kuznetzov, V. D.; Metlushko, V. V.; Leonyuk, L. I.

1990-01-01

388

The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation.

Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhong, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-06-07

389

Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (<40 interbeat intervals) and the decrease of the scaling exponent at longer scales (40-512 interbeat intervals). In certain cases, the scaling exponent during relaxing visualization indicates the breakdown of long-range correlations. These characteristics have been previously seen in the HRV dynamics during non-REM sleep.

Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

2010-05-01

390

Spatially resolved measurements of mean spin-spin relaxation time constants

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance measurements of the T2 distribution have become very common and they are a powerful way to probe microporous fluid bearing solids. While the structure of the T2 distribution, and changes in the structure, are often very informative, it is common to reduce the T2 distribution to a mean numeric quantity in order to provide a quantitative interpretation of the distribution. Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurements of the T2 distribution have recently been introduced, but they are time consuming, especially for 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. In this paper we explore a direct MRI measurement of the arithmetic mean of 1/T2, characterizing the distribution by using the initial slope of the spatially resolved T2 decay in a CPMG prepared Centric Scan SPRITE experiment. The methodology is explored with a test phantom sample and realistic petroleum reservoir core plug samples. The arithmetic mean of 1/T2 is related to the harmonic mean of T2. The mean obtained from the early decay is explored through measurements of uniform saturated core plug samples and by comparison to other means determined from the complete T2 distribution. Complementary data were obtained using SE-SPI T2 distribution MRI measurements. The utility of the arithmetic mean 1/T2 is explored through measurements of centrifuged core plug samples where the T2 distribution varies spatially. The harmonic mean T2 obtained from the early decay was employed to estimate the irreducible water saturation for core plug samples.

Nechifor, Ruben Emanuel; Romanenko, Konstantin; Marica, Florea; Balcom, Bruce J.

2014-02-01

391

Stress Relaxation in Aging Soft Colloidal Glasses

We investigate the stress relaxation behavior on the application of step strains to aging aqueous suspensions of the synthetic clay Laponite. The stress exhibits a two-step decay, from which the slow relaxation modes are extracted as functions of the sample ages and applied step strain deformations. Interestingly, the slow time scales that we estimate show a dramatic enhancement with increasing strain amplitudes. We argue that the system ends up exploring the deeper sections of its energy landscape following the application of the step strain.

Ranjini Bandyopadhyay; P. Harsha Mohan; Yogesh M. Joshi

2010-03-25

392

Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

2014-03-01

393

The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.…

Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.

2009-01-01

394

On the construction of shoreline diagrams and the inference of relaxation-time spectra for the earth

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of quantifying post-glacial uplift is the inference of the earth's viscosity stratification. McConnell (1968) presented a simple method of inverting for the viscosity, which he applied to a shoreline diagram for eastern Fennoscandia. First, the spatial variation of sea level at different time epochs represented by a shoreline diagram was transformed to the spectral domain. Then, from the temporal variation of the spectral amplitudes, a relaxation-time spectrum (RTS) was derived and, finally, inverted in terms of the viscosity stratification. The main advantage of McConnell's method is that it is essentially insensitive to the ice-sheet history and mass. The remaining assumptions are: (1) The approximate radius and center of the ice sheet are known, (2) the orientation of the shorelines is roughly radial to the ice-sheet center and (3) all shorelines refer to the time after deglaciation (free decay). Recently, Wieczerkowski et al. (1999) have extended McConnell's method to spherical geometry and inverted for the viscosity using an RTS derived from an improved shoreline diagram constructed by Donner (1995) for eastern Fennoscandia. A disadvantage of the method is that only a small number of well-documented shoreline diagrams can be found in literature. To overcome this, we propose a simple method of constructing shoreline diagrams from a given set of sea-level index points (SLIs). We apply this method to SLIs in the west and south of Fennoscandia and demonstrate the robustness of the RTS inferred with respect to the SLIs considered. Furthermore, we test the technique with respect to shoreline diagrams constructed using SLIs from Scotland and Canada, for which the construction of radially oriented shorelines is more difficult than for Fennoscandia. Donner, J., 1995. The Quaternary history of Scandinavia, Cambridge University Press. McConnell, R.K., 1968. J. Geophys. Res., 73, 7089--7105. Wieczerkowski, K., Mitrovica, J.X., Wolf, D., 1999. Geophys. J. Int., 139, 69--86.

Klemann, V.; Wolf, D.

2003-04-01

395

Scaling of average sending time on weighted Koch networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random walks on weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, have attracted considerable interest in the past. But the efficiency of a hub sending information on scale-free small-world networks has been addressed less. In this paper, we study random walks on a class of weighted Koch networks with scaling factor 0 < r ? 1. We derive some basic properties for random walks on the weighted Koch networks, based on which we calculate analytically the average sending time (AST) defined as the average of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself. The obtained result displays that for 0 < r < 1 in large networks the AST grows as a power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by log 43r+1/r, and for r = 1 in large networks the AST grows with network order as N ln N, which is larger than the linear scaling of the average receiving time defined as the average of MFPTs for random walks to a given hub node averaged over all starting points.

Dai, Meifeng; Liu, Jie

2012-10-01

396

Brownian motion at fast time scales and thermal noise imaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents experimental studies on Brownian motion at fast time scales, as well as our recent developments in Thermal Noise Imaging which uses thermal motions of microscopic particles for spatial imaging. As thermal motions become increasingly important in the studies of soft condensed matters, the study of Brownian motion is not only of fundamental scientific interest but also has practical applications. Optical tweezers with a fast position-sensitive detector provide high spatial and temporal resolution to study Brownian motion at fast time scales. A novel high bandwidth detector was developed with a temporal resolution of 30 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 A. With this high bandwidth detector, Brownian motion of a single particle confined in an optical trap was observed at the time scale of the ballistic regime. The hydrodynamic memory effect was fully studied with polystyrene particles of different sizes. We found that the mean square displacements of different sized polystyrene particles collapse into one master curve which is determined by the characteristic time scale of the fluid inertia effect. The particle's inertia effect was shown for particles of the same size but different densities. For the first time the velocity autocorrelation function for a single particle was shown. We found excellent agreement between our experiments and the hydrodynamic theories that take into account the fluid inertia effect. Brownian motion of a colloidal particle can be used to probe three-dimensional nano structures. This so-called thermal noise imaging (TNI) has been very successful in imaging polymer networks with a resolution of 10 nm. However, TNI is not efficient at micrometer scale scanning since a great portion of image acquisition time is wasted on large vacant volume within polymer networks. Therefore, we invented a method to improve the efficiency of large scale scanning by combining traditional point-to-point scanning to explore large vacant space with thermal noise imaging at the proximity of the object. This method increased the efficiency of thermal noise imaging by more than 40 times. This development should promote wider applications of thermal noise imaging in the studies of soft materials and biological systems.

Huang, Rongxin

397

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…

Ramey, Kyle

2004-01-01

398

Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.

Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Leng Yeo, Kok

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM) experiment that will take place at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron with a precision of order 10-28 e-cm, utilizing spin-polarized 3He in bulk liquid 4He to detect neutron precession in a 10 mG magnetic field and 50 kV/cm electric field. Since depolarized 3He will produce a background, relaxation of the polarized 3He, characterized by the probability of depolarization per bounce, Pd, was measured for materials that will be in contact with polarized 3He. Depolarization probabilities were determined from measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time of polarized 3He in bulk liquid 4He inside an acrylic cell coated with the wavelength shifter deuterated tetraphenyl butadiene (d-TPB), which will be used to coat the nEDM measurement cell. Relaxation measurements were also performed while rods, made from plumbing material Torlon and valve bellows material BeCu, were present in the cell. The BeCu was coated with Pyralin resin prior to relaxation measurements, while relaxation measurements were performed both before and after the Torlon rod was coated with Pyralin resin. The depolarization probabilities were found to be Pd-TPBd <1.32x10-7 PBareTorlon d=1.01+/-0.08 x10-6 PCoatedTorlon d=2.5+/-0.1 x10-7 PCoatedBeCu d=7.9+/-0.3 x10-7 The relaxation rates extrapolated from the observed values of Pd for d-TPB, coated Torlon, and coated BeCu in the nEDM apparatus were found to be consistent with design goals.

Yoder, Jacob

400

Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

2014-05-01

401

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…

Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.

2013-01-01

402

Space and Time Scales in Human-Landscape Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploring spatial and temporal scales provides a way to understand human alteration of landscape processes and human responses to these processes. We address three topics relevant to human-landscape systems: (1) scales of human impacts on geomorphic processes, (2) spatial and temporal scales in river restoration, and (3) time scales of natural disasters and behavioral and institutional responses. Studies showing dramatic recent change in sediment yields from uplands to the ocean via rivers illustrate the increasingly vast spatial extent and quick rate of human landscape change in the last two millennia, but especially in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent river restoration efforts are typically small in spatial and temporal scale compared to the historical human changes to ecosystem processes, but the cumulative effectiveness of multiple small restoration projects in achieving large ecosystem goals has yet to be demonstrated. The mismatch between infrequent natural disasters and individual risk perception, media coverage, and institutional response to natural disasters results in un-preparedness and unsustainable land use and building practices.

Kondolf, G. Mathias; Podolak, Kristen

2014-01-01

403

STUDY DESIGN Case series. BACKGROUND It has been shown in rodent and canine models that cartilage composition is significantly altered in response to long-term unloading. To date, however, no in vivo human studies have investigated this topic. The objective of this case series was to determine the influence of unloading and reloading on T1rho and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage in healthy young joints. CASE DESCRIPTION Ten patients who required 6 to 8 weeks of non–weight bearing (NWB) for injuries affecting the distal lower extremity participated in the study. Quantitative T1rho and T2 imaging of the ipsilateral knee joint was performed at 3 time points: (1) prior to surgery (baseline), (2) immediately after a period of NWB (post-NWB), and (3) after 4 weeks of full weight bearing (post-FWB). Cartilage regions of interest were segmented and overlaid on T1rho and T2 relaxation time maps for quantification. Descriptive statistics are provided for all changes. OUTCOMES Increases of 5% to 10% in T1rho times of all femoral and tibial compartments were noted post-NWB. All values returned to near-baseline levels post-FWB. Increases in medial tibia T2 times were noted post-NWB and remained elevated post-FWB. The load-bearing regions showed the most significant changes in response to unloading, with increases of up to 12%. DISCUSSION The observation of a transient shift in relaxation times confirms that cartilage composition is subject to alterations based on loading conditions. These changes appear to be mostly related to proteoglycan content and more localized to the load-bearing regions. However, following 4 weeks of full weight bearing, relaxation times of nearly all regions had returned to baseline levels, demonstrating reversibility in compositional fluctuations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 4. PMID:22402583

SOUZA, RICHARD B.; BAUM, THOMAS; WU, SAMUEL; FEELEY, BRIAN T.; KADEL, NANCY; LI, XIAOJUAN; LINK, THOMAS M.; MAJUMDAR, SHARMILA

2013-01-01

404

Time Scales in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

Calculation of eddy covariances in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) requires separating the instantaneous signal into mean\\u000a and fluctuating components. Since the ASL is not statistically stationary, an inherent ambiguity exists in defining the mean\\u000a quantities. The present study compares four methods of calculating physically relevant time scales in the unstable ASL that\\u000a may be used to remove the unsteady

Meredith Metzger; Heather Holmes

2008-01-01

405

Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

Labonte, B. J. (editor); Chapman, G. A. (editor); Hudson, H. S. (editor); Willson, R. C. (editor)

1984-01-01

406

Is climate predictable on a geological time scale?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our work is to show that the global climate is predictable on a geological time scale (several tens and hundred thousands of years) on the basis of the structure of the peaks in the power spectra of the Pleistocene climate oscillations, which are the responses of the climate system to variations in solar radiation due to the orbital cyclicity of obliquity and precession of the Earth's orbit.

Vakulenko, N. V.; Kotlyakov, V. M.; Sonechkin, D. M.

2015-01-01

407

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a technique which combines theory and experiments for determining relaxation times in gases. The technique is based on the measurement of shapes of the bow shock waves of low-fineness-ratio cones fired from high-velocity guns. The theory presented in the report provides a means by which shadowgraph data showing the bow waves can be analyzed so as to furnish effective relaxation times. Relaxation times in air were obtained by this technique and the results have been compared with values estimated from shock tube measurements in pure oxygen and nitrogen. The tests were made at velocities ranging from 4600 to 12,000 feet per second corresponding to equilibrium temperatures from 35900 R (19900 K) to 6200 R (34400 K), under which conditions, at all but the highest temperatures, the effective relaxation times were determined primarily by the relaxation time for oxygen and nitrogen vibrations.

Stephenson, Jack D.

1960-01-01

408

Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1)H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe2O3 nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257-298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical--5 nm diameter, cubic--6.5 nm diameter, and cubic--9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall (1)H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the (1)H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained. PMID:24811643

Kruk, D; Korpa?a, A; Taheri, S Mehdizadeh; Koz?owski, A; Förster, S; Rössler, E A

2014-05-01

409

Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz–20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257–298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical – 5 nm diameter, cubic – 6.5 nm diameter, and cubic – 9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained.

Kruk, D., E-mail: danuta.kruk@matman.uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, S?oneczna 54, 10-710 Olsztyn (Poland); Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Korpa?a, A. [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków (Poland) [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Taheri, S. Mehdizadeh; Förster, S. [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Koz?owski, A. [NU-MED Group Inc., Center of Radiotherapy and Improvements in Elbl?g, Królewiecka 146, 82-300 Elbl?g (Poland)] [NU-MED Group Inc., Center of Radiotherapy and Improvements in Elbl?g, Królewiecka 146, 82-300 Elbl?g (Poland); Rössler, E. A. [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2014-05-07

410

Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

2014-11-01

411

Locally Frozen Defects in Random Sequential Adsorption with Diffusional Relaxation

Locally Frozen Defects in Random Sequential Adsorption with Diffusional Relaxation Jian--Sheng Wang (even) size L, the final state is a frozen random rectangular grid of domain walls connecting single of particles, are observable on time scales of the deposition process. The resulting largeÂtime coverage

412

5nsec Dead time multichannel scaling system for Mössbauer spectrometer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PC programmable and fast multichannel scaling module has been designed to use a commercial Mössbauer spectrometer. This module is based on a 10 single chip 8 bits microcomputer (MC6805) and on a 35 fast ALU, which allows a high performance and low cost system. The module can operate in a stand-alone mode. Data analysis are performed in real time display, on XT/AT IBM PC or compatibles. The channels are ranged between 256 and 4096, the maximum number of counts is 232-1 per channel, the dwell time is 3 ?sec and the dead time between channels is 5 nsec. A friendly software display the real time spectrum and offers menues with different options at each state.

Verrastro, C.; Trombetta, G.; Pita, A.; Saragovi, C.; Duhalde, S.

1991-11-01

413

Two-time-scale population evolution on a singular landscape

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the effect of strong genetic drift, it is highly probable to observe gene fixation or gene loss in a population, shown by singular peaks on a potential landscape. The genetic drift-induced noise gives rise to two-time-scale diffusion dynamics on the bipeaked landscape. We find that the logarithmically divergent (singular) peaks do not necessarily imply infinite escape times or biological fixations by iterating the Wright-Fisher model and approximating the average escape time. Our analytical results under weak mutation and weak selection extend Kramers's escape time formula to models with B (Beta) function-like equilibrium distributions and overcome constraints in previous methods. The constructed landscape provides a coherent description for the bistable system, supports the quantitative analysis of bipeaked dynamics, and generates mathematical insights for understanding the boundary behaviors of the diffusion model.

Xu, Song; Jiao, Shuyun; Jiang, Pengyao; Ao, Ping

2014-01-01

414

Intrinsic short time scale variability of W3(OH) maser

We have studied the OH masers in the star forming region, W3(OH), with data obtained from the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The data provide an angular resolution of $\\sim$5 mas, and a velocity resolution of 106 m s$^{-1}$. A novel analysis procedure allows us to differentiate between broadband temporal intensity fluctuations introduced by instrumental gain variations plus interstellar diffractive scintillation, and intrinsic narrowband variations. Based on this 12.5 hours observation, we are sensitive to variations with time scales of minutes to hours. We find statistically significant intrinsic variations with time scales of $\\sim$15--20 minutes or slower, based on the {\\it velocity-resolved fluctuation spectra}. These variations are seen predominantly towards the line shoulders. The peak of the line profile shows little variation, suggesting that they perhaps exhibit saturated emission. The associated modulation index of the observed fluctuation varies from statistically insignificant values at the line center to about unity away from the line center. Based on light-travel-time considerations, the 20-minute time scale of intrinsic fluctuations translates to a spatial dimension of $\\sim$2--3 AU along the sight-lines. On the other hand, the transverse dimension of the sources, estimated from their observed angular sizes of about $\\sim$3 mas, is about 6 AU. We argue that these source sizes are intrinsic, and are not affected by interstellar scatter broadening. The implied peak brightness temperature of the 1612/1720 maser sources is about $\\sim2\\times 10^{13}$ K, and a factor of about five higher for the 1665 line.

R. Ramachandran; A. A. Deshpande; W. M. Goss

2006-08-04

415

White matter disorders can involve injury to myelin or axons but the respective contribution of each to clinical course is difficult to evaluate non-invasively. Here, to develop a paradigm for further investigations of axonal pathology by MRI, we compared two genetic mouse models exhibiting relatively selective axonal or myelin deficits using quantitative MRI relaxography of the transverse relaxation times (T2) in vivo and ultrastructural morphometry. In HM-DKO mice, which lack genes encoding the heavy (NF-H) and medium (NF-M) subunits of neurofilaments, neurofilament content of large myelinated axons of the central nervous system (CNS) is markedly reduced in the absence of changes in myelin thickness and volume. In shiverer mutant mice, which lack functional myelin basic protein, CNS myelin sheath formation is markedly reduced but neurofilament content is normal. We observed increases in T2 in nearly all white matter in Shiverer mice compared to their wild type, while more subtle increases in T2 were observed in HM-DKO in the corpus callosum. White matter T2 was generally greater in Shiverer mice than HM-DKO mice. Ultrastructural morphometry of the corpus callosum, which exhibited the greatest T2 differences, confirmed that total cross sectional area occupied by axons was similar in the two mouse models and that the major ultrastructural differences, determined by morphometry, were an absence of myelin and larger unmyelinated axons in shiverer mice and absence of neurofilaments in HM-DKO mice. Our findings indicate that T2 is strongly influenced by myelination state and axonal volume, while neurofilament structure within the intra-axonal compartment has a lesser effect upon single compartment T2 estimates. PMID:20226865

Dyakin, Victor V.; Chen, Yuanxin; Branch, Craig A.; Veeranna; Yuan, Aidong; Rao, Mala; Kumar, Asok; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Nixon, Ralph. A

2010-01-01

416

A Hierarchy of Time-Scales and the Brain

In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure–function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input. PMID:19008936

Kiebel, Stefan J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

2008-01-01

417

Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of the Joint-Research Interchange NCC2-5149 was to develop computer codes for accurate simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers [I]. The code should take into account all relevant processes such as the interband and intraband carrier relaxation mechanisms and the many-body effects arising from the Coulomb interaction among charge carriers [2]. This objective was fully accomplished. We made use of a previously developed algorithm developed at NASA Ames [3]-[5]. The new algorithm was tested on several problems of practical importance. One such problem was related to the amplification of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductors. These results were presented in several international conferences over a period of three years. With the help of a postdoctoral fellow, we also investigated the origin of instabilities that can lead to the formation of femtosecond pulses in different kinds of lasers. We analyzed the occurrence of absolute instabilities in lasers that contain a dispersive host material with third-order nonlinearities. Starting from the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derived general multimode equations to distinguish between convective and absolute instabilities. We find that both self-phase modulation and intensity-dependent absorption can dramatically affect the absolute stability of such lasers. In particular, the self-pulsing threshold (the so-called second laser threshold) can occur at few times the first laser threshold even in good-cavity lasers for which no self-pulsing occurs in the absence of intensity-dependent absorption. These results were presented in an international conference and published in the form of two papers.

Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

1998-01-01

418

Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

2011-01-01

419

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation is the result of turbulence in a plasma that behaves essentially as an ideal conducting fluid, but has a small resistivity and viscosity. These small effects are locally enhanced by the turbulence and lead to reconnection of magnetic field lines. This destroys an infinity of topological constraints, leaving only the total magnetic helicity as a valid invariant. The plasma therefore rapidly reaches a specific state of minimum energy. This minimum energy "relaxed state" can be calculated from first principles and has many striking features. These depend on the topology of the system. They include spontaneous field reversal, symmetry-breaking and current limitation in toroidal pinches, and flux generation and flux amplification in Spheromaks. In addition the relaxed states can be controlled and maintained by injection of helicity from an external circuit. These features, and the profiles of the relaxed states themselves, have been verified in many laboratory experiments.

Taylor, J. B.

2000-05-01

420

Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2012-01-01