Resistivity scaling and electron relaxation times in metallic nanowires
Moors, Kristof; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Tőkei, Zsolt
2014-08-14
We study the resistivity scaling in nanometer-sized metallic wires due to surface roughness and grain-boundaries, currently the main cause of electron scattering in nanoscaled interconnects. The resistivity has been obtained with the Boltzmann transport equation, adopting the relaxation time approximation of the distribution function and the effective mass approximation for the conducting electrons. The relaxation times are calculated exactly, using Fermi's golden rule, resulting in a correct relaxation time for every sub-band state contributing to the transport. In general, the relaxation time strongly depends on the sub-band state, something that remained unclear with the methods of previous work. The resistivity scaling is obtained for different roughness and grain-boundary properties, showing large differences in scaling behavior and relaxation times. Our model clearly indicates that the resistivity is dominated by grain-boundary scattering, easily surpassing the surface roughness contribution by a factor of 10.
Role of Relaxation Time Scale in Noisy Signal Transduction
Maity, Alok Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K
2015-01-01
Intra-cellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and derive the expressions for Fano factor and mutual information in close analytical form. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input population affects both quantities. We extend our calculation to long chain linear motif and show that with increasing chain length, the Fano factor value increases but the mutual information processing capability decreases. In this type of motif, the intermediate components act as a noise filter that tune up input fluctuations and maintain optimum fluctuations in the output. For branched chain motifs, both quantities vary within a large scale due to their network architecture and facilitate survival of living system in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:25955500
Role of relaxation time scale in noisy signal transduction.
Maity, Alok Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K
2015-01-01
Intra-cellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and derive the expressions for Fano factor and mutual information in close analytical form. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input population affects both quantities. We extend our calculation to long chain linear motif and show that with increasing chain length, the Fano factor value increases but the mutual information processing capability decreases. In this type of motif, the intermediate components act as a noise filter that tune up input fluctuations and maintain optimum fluctuations in the output. For branched chain motifs, both quantities vary within a large scale due to their network architecture and facilitate survival of living system in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:25955500
Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.
2015-05-01
Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.
Huge (but Finite) Time Scales in Slow Relaxations: Beyond Simple Aging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Ariel; Borini, Stefano; Oreg, Yuval; Imry, Yoseph
2011-10-01
Experiments performed in the last years demonstrated slow relaxations and aging in the conductance of a large variety of materials. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results for conductance relaxation and aging for the case-study example of porous silicon. The relaxations are experimentally observed even at room temperature over time scales of hours, and when a strong electric field is applied for a time tw, the ensuing relaxation depends on tw. We derive a theoretical curve and show that all experimental data collapse onto it with a single time scale as a fitting parameter. This time scale is found to be of the order of thousands of seconds at room temperature. The generic theory suggested is not fine-tuned to porous silicon, and thus we believe the results should be universal, and the presented method should be applicable for many other systems manifesting memory and other glassy effects.
A theoretical study of the stress relaxation in HMX on the picosecond time scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Yao; Chen, Jun
2015-12-01
The stress relaxation model of β-HMX on the picosecond time scale is studied by a theoretical approach. The relaxation of normal stress is contributed by lattice vibration, and the relaxation of shear stress is contributed by molecular rotation. Based on this model, the energy dissipation rule of the elastic wave and the profile of the shock wave are investigated. We find at low frequency the dissipation rate of the elastic wave is proportional to the power function of frequency, and under high speed shock loading the width of the stress relaxation zone is less than 0.3 μm there is a pressure peak with a height of 14 GPa near the wave front.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngai, K. L.; Habasaki, J.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.; Paluch, Marian
2012-07-01
By now it is well established that the structural α-relaxation time, τα, of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, τα is a function Φ of the product variable, ργ/T, where ρ is the density and T the temperature. The constant γ as well as the function, τα = Φ(ργ/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of τα on ργ/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time, τβ, or the primitive relaxation time, τ0, of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between τα and τβ or τ0 to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ργ/T with the same γ. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, τN, is another function of ργ/T with the same γ as segmental relaxation time τα. (6) While the data of τα from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rios, Edmilson Helton; Figueiredo, Irineu; Moss, Adam Keith; Pritchard, Timothy Neil; Glassborow, Brent Anthony; Domingues, Ana Beatriz Guedes; Azeredo, Rodrigo Bagueira de Vasconcellos
2016-04-01
The effect of the selection of different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times for permeability estimation is investigated for a set of fully brine-saturated rocks acquired from Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea and Middle East. Estimators that are obtained from the relaxation times based on the Pythagorean means are compared with estimators that are obtained from the relaxation times based on the concept of a cumulative saturation cutoff. Select portions of the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation-time distributions are systematically evaluated by applying various cutoffs, analogous to the Winland-Pittman approach for mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves. Finally, different approaches to matching the NMR and MICP distributions using different mean-based scaling factors are validated based on the performance of the related size-scaled estimators. The good results that were obtained demonstrate possible alternatives to the commonly adopted logarithmic mean estimator and reinforce the importance of NMR-MICP integration to improving carbonate permeability estimates.
Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2014-01-21
The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.
Messina, Fabrizio; Pomarico, Enrico; Silatani, Mahsa; Baranoff, Etienne; Chergui, Majed
2015-11-19
Using femtosecond-resolved photoluminescence up-conversion, we report the observation of the fluorescence of the high-lying ligand-centered (LC) electronic state upon 266 nm excitation of an iridium complex, Ir(ppy)3, with a lifetime of 70 ± 10 fs. It is accompanied by a simultaneous emission of all lower-lying electronic states, except the lowest triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) state that shows a rise on the same time scale. Thus, we observe the departure, the intermediate steps, and the arrival of the relaxation cascade spanning ∼1.6 eV from the (1)LC state to the lowest (3)MLCT state, which then yields the long-lived luminescence of the molecule. This represents the first measurement of the total relaxation time over an entire cascade of electronic states in a polyatomic molecule. We find that the relaxation cascade proceeds in ≤10 fs, which is faster than some of the highest-frequency modes of the system. We invoke the participation of the latter modes in conical intersections and their overdamping to low-frequency intramolecular modes. On the basis of literature, we also conclude that this behavior is not specific to transition-metal complexes but also applies to organic molecules. PMID:26509329
Relaxation times estimation in MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baselice, Fabio; Caivano, Rocchina; Cammarota, Aldo; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito
2014-03-01
Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a very powerful techniques for soft tissue diagnosis. At the present, the clinical evaluation is mainly conducted exploiting the amplitude of the recorded MR image which, in some specific cases, is modified by using contrast enhancements. Nevertheless, spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times can play an important role in many pathology diagnosis, such as cancer, Alzheimer or Parkinson diseases. Different algorithms for relaxation time estimation have been proposed in literature. In particular, the two most adopted approaches are based on Least Squares (LS) and on Maximum Likelihood (ML) techniques. As the amplitude noise is not zero mean, the first one produces a biased estimator, while the ML is unbiased but at the cost of high computational effort. Recently the attention has been focused on the estimation in the complex, instead of the amplitude, domain. The advantage of working with real and imaginary decomposition of the available data is mainly the possibility of achieving higher quality estimations. Moreover, the zero mean complex noise makes the Least Square estimation unbiased, achieving low computational times. First results of complex domain relaxation times estimation on real datasets are presented. In particular, a patient with an occipital lesion has been imaged on a 3.0T scanner. Globally, the evaluation of relaxation times allow us to establish a more precise topography of biologically active foci, also with respect to contrast enhanced images.
Morón, María Carmen; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Falo, Fernando
2016-04-14
The decay dynamics of ambient and low temperature liquid water has been investigated through all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, residence times calculations and time correlation functions from 300 K down to 243 K. Those simulations replicate the experimental value of the self-diffusion constant as a function of temperature by tuning the damping factor of the Langevin equation of motion. A stretched exponential function exp[-(t/τ)(β)] has been found to properly describe the relaxation of residence times calculated at different temperatures for solvent molecules in a nanodrop of free water modelled as a sphere of nanometric dimensions. As the temperature goes down the decay time τ increases showing a divergence at Ts = 227 ± 3 K. The temperature independence of the dimensionless stretched exponent β = 0.59 ± 0.01 suggests the presence of, not a characteristic relaxation time (since β≠ 1), but a distribution of decay times that also holds at low temperature. An explanation for such heterogeneity can be found at the nanoscopic level. Moreover it can be concluded that the distribution of times already reported for the dynamics of water surrounding proteins (β≤ 0.5) can not be exclusively due to the presence of the biomolecule itself since isolated water also exhibits such behaviour. The above reported Ts and β values quantitatively reproduce experimental data. PMID:26782269
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Béland, Laurent Karim; Mousseau, Normand
2012-02-01
The kinetic activation relaxation technique (kinetic ART) method, an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search,ootnotetextL. K. B'eland, P. Brommer, F. El-Mellouhi, J.-F. Joly and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. E 84, 046704 (2011). is used to study the relaxation of c-Si after Si^- bombardment at 3 keV. We describe the evolution of the damaged areas at room-temperature and above for periods of the order of seconds, treating long-range elastic deformations exactly. We assess the stability of the nanoscale structures formed by the damage cascade and the mechanisms that govern post-implantation annealing.
Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timofeev, A. V.
2015-11-01
Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.
Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems
Rocha, Rodrigo P.; Freire, José A.
2015-05-28
Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.
Structural relaxation is a scale-free process.
Lemaître, Anaël
2014-12-12
We show that in deeply supercooled liquids, structural relaxation proceeds via the accumulation of Eshelby events, i.e. local rearrangements that create long-ranged and anisotropic stresses in the surrounding medium. Such events must be characterized using tensorial observables and we construct an analytical framework to probe their correlations using local stress data. By analyzing numerical simulations, we then demonstrate that events are power-law correlated in space, with a time-dependent amplitude which peaks at the alpha relaxation time τ(α). This effect, which becomes stronger near the glass transition, results from the increasingly important role of local stress fluctuations in facilitating relaxation events. Our finding precludes the existence of any length scale beyond which the relaxation process decorrelates. PMID:25541780
A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2015-03-01
We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.
A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems
Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2015-03-15
We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.
Mirror cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsedonskyi, Oleksii
2016-01-01
The cosmological relaxation mechanism proposed in [1] allows for a dynamically generated large separation between the weak scale and a theory cutoff, using a sharp change of theory behaviour upon crossing the limit between unbroken and broken symmetry phases. In this note we present a variation of this scenario, in which stabilization of the electroweak scale in the right place is ensured by the Z 2 symmetry exchanging the Standard Model (SM) with its mirror copy. We sketch the possible ways to produce viable thermal evolution of the Universe and discuss experimental accessibility of the new physics effects. We show that in this scenario the mirror SM can either have sizeable couplings with the ordinary one, or, conversely, can interact with it with a negligible strength. The overall cutoff allowed by such a construction can reach 109 GeV.
Alternate Forms Reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale: Preliminary Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lundervold, Duane A.; Dunlap, Angel L.
2006-01-01
Alternate forms reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS; Poppen,1998), a direct observation measure of relaxed behavior, was examined. A single BRS score, based on long duration observation (5-minute), has been found to be a valid measure of relaxation and is correlated with self-report and some physiological measures. Recently,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uneyama, Takashi; Akimoto, Takuma; Miyaguchi, Tomoshige
2012-09-01
In entangled polymer systems, there are several characteristic time scales, such as the entanglement time and the disengagement time. In molecular simulations, the longest relaxation time (the disengagement time) can be determined by the mean square displacement (MSD) of a segment or by the shear relaxation modulus. Here, we propose the relative fluctuation analysis method, which is originally developed for characterizing large fluctuations, to determine the longest relaxation time from the center of mass trajectories of polymer chains (the time-averaged MSDs). Applying the method to simulation data of entangled polymers (by the slip-spring model and the simple reptation model), we provide a clear evidence that the longest relaxation time is estimated as the crossover time in the relative fluctuations.
Scaling behaviour of relaxation dependencies in metaloxide superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidorenko, A. S.; Panaitov, G. I.; Gabovich, A. M.; Moiseev, D. P.; Postnikov, V. M.
1990-01-01
Superconducting glass state has been investigated in different types of metaloxide ceramics, Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Ba-Pb-Bi-O, using the highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer. The analysis of long-time relaxation processes of thermoremanent magnetization m(sup trm) (+) = M(sub o) - Slnt displayed scaling dependence of the decay rate S = -dM/dlnt on quantity of trapped magnetic flux M(sub o): 1gs = 31g M(sub o) - observed universal dependence S is approximately M(sup 3) (sub o) seems to one of the features of superconducting glass state in metaloxide ceramics.
Short-Time Beta Relaxation in Glass-Forming Liquids Is Cooperative in Nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth
2016-02-01
Temporal relaxation of density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition occurs in multiple steps. Using molecular dynamics simulations for three model glass-forming liquids, we show that the short-time β relaxation is cooperative in nature. Using finite-size scaling analysis, we extract a growing length scale associated with beta relaxation from the observed dependence of the beta relaxation time on the system size. We find, in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode coupling theory, that the temperature dependence of this length scale is the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α -relaxation regime.
Nuclear Spin Relaxation Times for Methane-Helium ``Slush'' at 4 MHz using Pulsed NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamida, J. A.; Sullivan, N. S.
2006-09-01
We report measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and spin-spin relaxation times (T2) for small grains of methane suspended in liquid helium (methane-helium "slush") for temperatures 2 K
Scale-truncating relaxation models for large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstappen, Roel; Silvis, Maurits
2015-11-01
This paper discusses novel relaxation models for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. To verify that the scales of motion are truncated properly by the LES-model an explicit box filter is introduced. The relaxation parameter is then determined such that the production of all box-fitting scales is counterbalanced by the dissipation associated with the relaxation model. This balance is imposed at the discrete level; here using a second-order finite-volume discretization. Notice that the approach can in principle be applied to any discretization method. The resulting relaxation parameter depends on the invariants of the discrete velocity gradient. The model is successfully tested for canonical turbulent flows (isotropic turbulence, turbulent channel flow, mixing layer).
Validation of NMR relaxation exchange time measurements in porous media.
Mitchell, J; Griffith, J D; Collins, J H P; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F; Johns, M L
2007-12-21
Two-dimensional T(2)-T(2) NMR relaxation exchange spectroscopy has been applied to model porous media composed of mixtures of nonporous borosilicate and soda lime glass spheres in water. The spheres had a mean diameter of 100 microm, thus providing an approximately constant characteristic pore dimension throughout the structures, while the use of two glass types ensured that water in different pore-space regions had significantly different T(2) relaxation rates. The packed beds were constructed in various ways with controlled glass type domain sizes to rigorously validate a model for region-to-region exchange of water. From the determined exchange times, the corresponding length scales were calculated based on the molecular self-diffusion of water; these agreed to better than +/-25% with the expected domain sizes. Furthermore, exchange distances on the order of the pore size were observed in thoroughly mixed systems. Depending on the relaxation rates present in the sample, this technique can provide estimates of length scales ranging from microns to millimeters. PMID:18154403
Non-equilibrium relaxation and tumbling times of polymers in semidilute solution.
Huang, Chien-Cheng; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G
2012-07-18
The end-over-end tumbling dynamics of individual polymers in dilute and semidilute solutions is studied under shear flow by large-scale mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations. End-to-end vector relaxation times are determined along the flow, gradient, and vorticity directions. Along the flow and gradient directions, the correlation functions decay exponentially with sinusoidal modulations at short times. In dilute solution, the decay times of the various directions are very similar. However, in semidilute solutions, the relaxation behaviors are rather different along the various directions, with the longest relaxation time in the vorticity direction and the shortest time in the flow direction. The various relaxation times exhibit a power-law shear-rate dependence with the exponent - 2/3 at high shear rates. Quantitatively, the relaxation times are equal to the tumbling times extracted from cross-correlation functions of fluctuations of radius-of-gyration components along the flow and gradient direction. PMID:22739124
Occupational Cohort Time Scales
Roth, H. Daniel
2015-01-01
Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318
Variational formula for the relaxation time in the Boltzmann equation.
Giuggioli, L; Parris, P E; Kenkre, V M
2006-09-28
The relaxation time approximation (RTA) is commonly employed in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to approximate solutions to the Boltzmann equation in terms of an exponential relaxation to equilibrium. Despite its common use, the RTA suffers from the drawback that relaxation times commonly employed are independent of initial conditions. We derive a variational principle for solutions to the Boltzmann equation, which allows us to extend the standard RTA using relaxation times that depend on the initial distribution. Tests of the approach on a calculation of the mobility for a one-dimensional (1D) tight-binding band indicate that our analysis typically provides a better approximation than the standard RTA. PMID:16986884
Ultrafast relaxation rates and reversal time in disordered ferrimagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez, O. J.; Nieves, P.; Laroze, D.; Altbir, D.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.
2015-10-01
In response to ultrafast laser pulses, single-phase metals have been classified as "fast" (with magnetization quenching on the time scale of the order of 100 fs and recovery in the time scale of several picoseconds and below) and "slow" (with longer characteristic time scales). Disordered ferrimagnetic alloys consisting of a combination of "fast" transition (TM) and "slow" rare-earth (RE) metals have been shown to exhibit an ultrafast all-optical switching mediated by the heat mechanism. The behavior of the characteristic time scales of coupled alloys is more complicated and is influenced by many parameters such as the intersublattice exchange, doping (RE) concentration, and the temperature. Here, the longitudinal relaxation times of each sublattice are analyzed within the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch framework. We show that for moderate intersublattice coupling strength both materials slow down as a function of slow (RE) material concentration. For larger coupling, the fast (TM) material may become faster, while the slow (RE) one is still slower. These conclusions may have important implications in the switching time of disordered ferrimagnets such as GdFeCo with partial clustering. Using atomistic modeling, we show that in the moderately coupled case, the reversal would start in the Gd-rich region, while the situation may be reversed if the coupling strength is larger.
Scaling behavior of quantum critical relaxation dynamics of a system in a heat bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Shuai; Lo, Chung-Yu; Chen, Pochung
2016-05-01
We study the scaling behavior of the relaxation dynamics to thermal equilibrium when a quantum system is near the quantum critical point. In particular, we investigate systems whose relaxation dynamics is described by a Lindblad master equation. We find that the universal scaling behavior not only appears in the equilibrium stage at the long-time limit but also manifests in the nonequilibrium relaxation process. While the critical behavior is dictated by the low-lying energy levels of the Hamiltonian, the dissipative part in the Lindblad equation also plays important roles in two aspects: First, the dissipative part makes the high-energy levels decay fast, after which the universal behavior controlled by the low-lying modes emerges. Second, the dissipation rate gives rise to a time scale that affects the scaling behavior. We confirm our theory by solving the Lindblad equation for the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.
2016-05-01
The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H2O and D2O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H2O and 102 ± 8 fs in D2O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.
Origin of the relaxation time in dissipative fluid dynamics
Denicol, Gabriel S.; Noronha, Jorge; Niemi, Harri; Rischke, Dirk H.
2011-04-01
We show how the linearized equations of motion of any dissipative current are determined by the analytical structure of the associated retarded Green's function. If the singularity of Green's function, which is nearest to the origin in the complex-frequency plane, is a simple pole on the imaginary frequency axis, the linearized equations of motion can be reduced to relaxation type equations for the dissipative currents. The value of the relaxation time is given by the inverse of this pole. We prove that, if the relaxation time is sent to zero, or equivalently, the pole to infinity, the dissipative currents approach the values given by the standard gradient expansion.
Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times in brain edema
Kamman, R.L.; Go, K.G.; Berendsen, H.J. )
1990-01-01
Proton relaxation times of protein solutions, bovine brain, and edematous feline brain tissue were studied as a function of water concentration, protein concentration, and temperature. In accordance with the fast proton exchange model for relaxation, a linear relation could be established between R1 and the inverse of the weight fraction of tissue water. This relation also applied to R2 of gray matter and of protein solutions. No straightforward relation with water content was found for R2 of white matter. Temperature-dependent studies indicated that in this case, the slow exchange model for relaxation had to be applied. The effect of macromolecules in physiological relevant concentrations on the total relaxation behavior of edematous tissue was weak. Total water content changes predominantly affected the relaxation rates. The linear relation may have high clinical potential for assessment of the status of cerebral edema on the basis of T1 and T2 readings from MR images.
Ab Initio Electronic Relaxation Times and Transport in Noble Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Jamal I.; Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.
Relaxation times employed to study electron transport in metals are typically assumed to be constants and obtained empirically using the Drude model. Here, we employ ab initio calculations to compute the electron-phonon relaxation times of Cu, Ag, and Au, and find that they vary significantly on the Fermi surface, spanning ~15 -45 fs. We compute room temperature resistivities in excellent agreement with experiment by combining GW bandstructures, Wannier-interpolated band velocities, and ab initio relaxation times. Our calculations are compared to other approximations used for the relaxation times. Additionally, an importance sampling scheme is introduced to speed up the convergence of resistivity and transport calculations by sampling directly points on the Fermi surface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at LBNL's NERSC facility.
Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.
Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in electronic transport
Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael
2016-01-01
Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic transport in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. Transport through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of electrons in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes electrons, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. We also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent transport. PMID:27094206
Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in electronic transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael
2016-04-01
Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic transport in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. Transport through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of electrons in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes electrons, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. We also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent transport.
Landauer's formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers' crossover in electronic transport.
Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Zwolak, Michael
2016-01-01
Landauer's formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic transport in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. Transport through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of electrons in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes electrons, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. We also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent transport. PMID:27094206
Femtosecond time-resolved electronic relaxation dynamics in tetrathiafulvalene
Staedter, D.; Polizzi, L.; Thiré, N.; Mairesse, Y.; Mayer, P.; Blanchet, V.
2015-05-21
In the present paper, the ultrafast electronic relaxation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) initiated around 4 eV is studied by femtosecond time-resolved velocity-map imaging. The goal is to investigate the broad double structure observed in the absorption spectrum at this energy. By monitoring the transients of the parent cation and its fragments and by varying the pump and the probe wavelengths, two internal conversions and intramolecular vibrational relaxation are detected both on the order of a few hundred of femtoseconds. Photoelectron images permit the assignment of a dark electronic state involved in the relaxation. In addition, the formation of the dimer of TTF has been observed.
Femtosecond time-resolved electronic relaxation dynamics in tetrathiafulvalene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staedter, D.; Thiré, N.; Polizzi, L.; Mairesse, Y.; Mayer, P.; Blanchet, V.
2015-05-01
In the present paper, the ultrafast electronic relaxation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) initiated around 4 eV is studied by femtosecond time-resolved velocity-map imaging. The goal is to investigate the broad double structure observed in the absorption spectrum at this energy. By monitoring the transients of the parent cation and its fragments and by varying the pump and the probe wavelengths, two internal conversions and intramolecular vibrational relaxation are detected both on the order of a few hundred of femtoseconds. Photoelectron images permit the assignment of a dark electronic state involved in the relaxation. In addition, the formation of the dimer of TTF has been observed.
Analysis of the Palierne model by relaxation time spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Mi Kyung; Cho, Kwang Soo
2016-02-01
Viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends is affected by relaxation of the interface. Several attempts have been made for linear viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends. The Palierne model (1990) and the Gramespacher-Meissner model (1992) are representative. The Gramespacher-Meissner model consists of two parts: ingredients and interface. Moreover, it provides us the formula of the peak of interface in weighted relaxation time spectrum, which enables us to analyze the characteristics relating to interface more obviously. However, the Gramespacher-Meissner model is a kind of empirical model. Contrary to the Gramespacher-Meissner model, the Palierne model was derived in a rigorous manner. In this study, we investigated the Palierne model through the picture of the Gramespacher-Meissner model. We calculated moduli of immiscible blend using two models and obtained the weighted relaxation time spectra of them. The fixed-point iteration of Cho and Park (2013) was used in order to determine the weighted relaxation spectra.
Measurement of longitudinal relaxation times for spin-decoupled protons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerace, M. J.; Kuhlmann, K. F.
1972-01-01
Description of an experimental method for the determination of the longitudinal relaxation time for spin-decoupled protons by a modified version of the saturation recovery technique reported by Van Geet and Hume (1965). The described method should facilitate relaxation studies of chemically shifted protons (or fluorines) and can be applied to more complicated spin systems with the aid of triple resonance and noise-decoupling techniques.
Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times
Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. )
1990-01-01
Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Igor; Seydel, Tilo; Müller, Martin
2015-04-01
Structural relaxations in humid silk fibers exposed to tensile stress have been reported to take place on a very wide range of time scales from a few milliseconds to several hours. The time-dependence of the measured tensile force following a quasi-instantaneously applied external strain on the fibers can be understood in terms of a fractional viscoelastic relaxation function introducing memory effects by which the mechanical state of a fiber depends on its tensile history. An analog fractional relaxation also gives rise to the subdiffusion observed on picosecond time scales, which governs the mobility of the amorphous polymer chains and adsorbed water on the molecular level. The reduction of the subdiffusive memory effect in stretched fibers compared to native fibers is consistent with the higher order of the polymers in the stretched state.
Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.
1989-01-01
Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.
Phenomenological Theory of the Translational Relaxation Times in Gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuckerwar, Allan J.
1999-01-01
The exact solution to the classical equations governing the translational dispersion and absorption of sound in a gas obscures its relaxational character because of its mathematical complexity. The approach taken here is to solve the secular equation by the method of Pade approximants, which even to the relatively low order R(sub 11) yields a remarkably close approximation to the exact solution over a wide range of frequency/pressure (f/P) ratios. As a result, translational relaxation can be formulated in terms of a conventional relaxation process with well-defined relaxation times, relaxation strength, collision numbers, additivity relations, etc. To extend the theory to high values of f/P ratio, a model is proposed to account for the noncontinuum behavior of the transport coefficients (viscosity and thermal conductivity) as the molecular mean free path approaches the acoustical enclosure dimensions. The theoretical dispersion and absorption show good agreement with measurements in argon over the classical and transition regions of f/P, but a discrepancy appears at higher values of f/P, where collective propagating modes, assumed in the theory, give way to single-particle modes, prevailing in the experiments.
Landauer's formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers' crossover in electronic transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill; Zwolak, Michael
Landauer's formula relates the conductance of a region of interest to its transmission probability. It is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic transport in nano- and meso-scale junctions and devices. This view of transport as transmission necessitates a simplified view of transmission, one occurring through an essentially fixed structure. Starting from a description of transport that includes relaxation of electrons in the reservoirs, we derive a Landauer-like formula for the steady-state current. We demonstrate that the finite relaxation time gives rise to three regimes of behavior. Weak relaxation within a small region nearby to the junction gives a contact limited current. Strong relaxation also influences the current by localizing electrons, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current. In an intermediate regime, the standard Landauer view is recovered. This behavior is analogous to Kramers' turnover in chemical reactions. Supported by UMD/CNST Cooperative Research Agreement, Award 70NANB10H193.
Subsecond pore-scale displacement processes and relaxation dynamics in multiphase flow
Armstrong, Ryan T; Ott, Holger; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Rücker, Maja; Schwing, Alex; Berg, Steffen
2014-01-01
With recent advances at X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) synchrotron beam lines, it is now possible to study pore-scale flow in porous rock under dynamic flow conditions. The collection of four-dimensional data allows for the direct 3-D visualization of fluid-fluid displacement in porous rock as a function of time. However, even state-of-the-art fast-μCT scans require between one and a few seconds to complete and the much faster fluid movement occurring during that time interval is manifested as imaging artifacts in the reconstructed 3-D volume. We present an approach to analyze the 2-D radiograph data collected during fast-μCT to study the pore-scale displacement dynamics on the time scale of 40 ms which is near the intrinsic time scale of individual Haines jumps. We present a methodology to identify the time intervals at which pore-scale displacement events in the observed field of view occur and hence, how reconstruction intervals can be chosen to avoid fluid-movement-induced reconstruction artifacts. We further quantify the size, order, frequency, and location of fluid-fluid displacement at the millisecond time scale. We observe that after a displacement event, the pore-scale fluid distribution relaxes to (quasi-) equilibrium in cascades of pore-scale fluid rearrangements with an average relaxation time for the whole cascade between 0.5 and 2.0 s. These findings help to identify the flow regimes and intrinsic time and length scales relevant to fractional flow. While the focus of the work is in the context of multiphase flow, the approach could be applied to many different μCT applications where morphological changes occur at a time scale less than that required for collecting a μCT scan. PMID:25745271
Modeling the Relaxation Time of DNA Confined in a Nanochannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanwei; Tree, Douglas R.; Dorfman, Kevin D.
2014-03-01
Using a mapping between a dumbbell model and fine-grained Monte Carlo simulations, we have computed the relaxation time of ?-DNA in a high ionic strength buffer confined in a nanochannel (Tree et al., Biomicrofluidics 2013, 7, 054118). The relaxation time thus obtained agrees quantitatively with experimental data (Reisner et al., PRL 2005, 94, 196101) using only a single O(1) fitting parameter to account for the uncertainty in model parameters. In addition to validating our mapping, this agreement supports our previous estimates of the friction coefficient of DNA confined in a nanochannel (Tree et al., PRL 2012, 108, 228105), which have been difficult to validate due to the lack of direct experimental data. Furthermore, our calculation shows that as the channel size passes below ~100 nm (or roughly the Kuhn length of DNA) there is a dramatic drop in the relaxation time. Inasmuch as the chain friction rises with decreasing channel size, the reduction in the relaxation time can be solely attributed to the sharp decline in the fluctuations of the chain extension. Practically, the low variance in the observed DNA extension in such small channels has important implications for genome mapping. This work was supported by the NIH (R01-HG005216 and R01-HG006851) and the NSFC (21204061) and was carried out in part using computing resources at the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.
The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Measurement of cyclotron resonance relaxation time in the two-dimensional electron system
Andreev, I. V. Muravev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Belyanin, V. N.
2014-11-17
Dependence of cyclotron magneto-plasma mode relaxation time on electron concentration and temperature in the two-dimensional electron system in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells has been studied. Comparative analysis of cyclotron and transport relaxation time has been carried out. It was demonstrated that with the temperature increase transport relaxation time tends to cyclotron relaxation time. It was also shown that cyclotron relaxation time, as opposed to transport relaxation time, has a weak electron density dependence. The cyclotron time can exceed transport relaxation time by an order of magnitude in a low-density range.
Relaxed Time Slot Negotiation for Grid Resource Allocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong
Since participants in a computational grid may be independent bodies, some mechanisms are necessary for resolving the differences in their preferences for price and desirable time slots for utilizing/leasing computing resources. Whereas there are mechanisms for supporting price negotiation for grid resource allocation, there is little or no negotiation support for allocating mutually acceptable time slots for grid participants. The contribution of this work is designing a negotiation mechanism for facilitating time slot negotiations between grid participants. In particular, this work adopts a relaxed time slot negotiation protocol designed to enhance the success rate and resource utilization level by allowing some flexibility for making slight adjustments following a tentative agreement for a mutually acceptable time slot. The ideas of the relaxed time slot negotiation are implemented in an agent-based grid testbed, and empirical results of the relaxed time slot negotiation mechanism carried out, (i) a consumer and a provider agent have a mutually satisfying agreement on time slot and price, (ii) consumer agents achieved higher success rates in negotiation, and (iii) provider agents achieved higher utility and resource utilization of overall grid.
Inversion of generalized relaxation time distributions with optimized damping parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florsch, Nicolas; Revil, André; Camerlynck, Christian
2014-10-01
Retrieving the Relaxation Time Distribution (RDT), the Grains Size Distribution (GSD) or the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) from low-frequency impedance spectra is a major goal in geophysics. The “Generalized RTD” generalizes parametric models like Cole-Cole and many others, but remains tricky to invert since this inverse problem is ill-posed. We propose to use generalized relaxation basis function (for instance by decomposing the spectra on basis of generalized Cole-Cole relaxation elements instead of the classical Debye basis) and to use the L-curve approach to optimize the damping parameter required to get smooth and realistic inverse solutions. We apply our algorithm to three examples, one synthetic and two real data sets, and the program includes the possibility of converting the RTD into GSD or PSD by choosing the value of the constant connecting the relaxation time to the characteristic polarization size of interest. A high frequencies (typically above 1 kHz), a dielectric term in taken into account in the model. The code is provided as an open Matlab source as a supplementary file associated with this paper.
Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin-relaxation times
Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David E.J.; Reilly, David J.
2015-01-01
The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically <60 s for 13C liquid-state compounds, which limit the time that the signal remains boosted. Here we demonstrate that 1.1% natural abundance 13C spins in synthetic nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance. PMID:26450570
Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin-relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David E. J.; Reilly, David J.
2015-10-01
The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically <60 s for 13C liquid-state compounds, which limit the time that the signal remains boosted. Here we demonstrate that 1.1% natural abundance 13C spins in synthetic nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.
Volume Recovery of Polystyrene: Evolution of Characteristic Relaxation Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Sindee; Bernazzani, Paul
2001-03-01
The phenomenology of structural recovery observed for glass-forming materials below their glass transition temperature is well-understood; however, mathematical models of structural recovery are unable to simultaneously describe experiments performed over a wide range of thermal histories. We have developed a new experiment using intermittent temperature perturbations during volume recovery in order to obtain quantitative information concerning the evolution of the characteristic relaxation time during structural recovery. The experiments are analogous to the intermittent creep experiments developed by Struik. Using such experiments, we can test whether the characteristic relaxation time depends on the time-temperature-pressure history of the material or on the instantaneous state of the material as is assumed in most models of structural recovery. Experiments are performed using an automated capillary dilatometer and a polystyrene sample. The implications of the results will be discussed.
A Bayesian approach for relaxation times estimation in MRI.
Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito
2016-04-01
Relaxation time estimation in MRI field can be helpful in clinical diagnosis. In particular, T1 and T2 changes can be related to tissues modification, being an effective tool for detecting the presence of several pathologies and measure their development, thus their estimation is a useful research field. Currently, most techniques work pixel-wise, and transfer the noise reduction task to post processing filters. A novel method for estimating spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times is proposed. The approach exploits Markov Random Field theory for modeling the unknown data and implements an a posteriori estimator in the Bayesian framework. The effect is the joint parameters estimation and noise reduction. Proposed methodology, with respect to already existing techniques, is able to provide effective results while preserving details also in case of few acquisitions or severe signal to noise ratio. The algorithm has been tested on both simulated and real datasets. PMID:26596555
Temperature of the Magnetic Nanoparticle Microenvironment: Estimation from Relaxation Times
Perreard, IM; Reeves, DB; Zhang, X; Kuehlert, E; Forauer, ER; Weaver, JB
2014-01-01
Accurate temperature measurements are essential to safe and effective thermal therapies for cancer and other diseases. However, conventional thermometry is challenging so using the heating agents themselves as probes allows for ideal local measurements. Here, we present a new noninvasive method for measuring the temperature of the microenvironment surrounding magnetic nanoparticles from the Brownian relaxation time of nanoparticles. Experimentally, the relaxation time can be determined from the nanoparticle magnetization induced by an alternating magnetic field at various applied frequencies. A previously described method for nanoparticle temperature estimation used a low frequency Langevin function description of magnetic dipoles and varied the excitation field amplitude to estimate the energy state distribution and the corresponding temperature. We show that the new method is more accurate than the previous method at higher applied field frequencies that push the system farther from equilibrium. PMID:24556943
Carrier relaxation time divergence in single and double layer cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, M. L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, M.; Demsar, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Glinka, Y.; Tolk, N. H.; Ren, Y. H.; Lüpke, G.; Klimov, A.; Xu, Y.; Sobolewski, R.; Si, W.; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, X. X.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Krapf, A.; Manzke, R.; Printz, J. O.; Williamsen, M. S.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.; Bozovic, I.
2003-12-01
We report the transient optical pump-probe reflectivity measurements on single and double layer cuprate single crystals and thin films of ten different stoichiometries. We find that with sufficiently low fluence the relaxation time (tauR) of all samples exhibits a power law divergence with temperature (T): tauR ∝ T^{-3 ± 0.5}. Further, the divergence has an onset temperature above the superconducting transition temperature for all superconducting samples. Possible causes of this divergence are discussed.
Nuclear longitudinal relaxation time images by radiofrequency field gradients.
Humbert, F; Collenne, E; Valtier, M; Canet, D
1999-05-01
Combination of the Super Fast Inversion Recovery (SUFIR) method (D. Canet, J. Brondeau, and K. Elbayed, J. Magn. Reson. 77, 483 (1988)) and imaging procedures by radiofrequency field gradients (P. Maffei, P. Mutzenhardt, A. Retournard, B. Diter, R. Raulet, J. Brondeau, and D. Canet, J. Magn. Reson. A 107, 40 (1994)) provides spatially resolved maps of longitudinal relaxation times (T1). In addition to accurate T1 values, enhanced spatial resolution is obtained. PMID:10329240
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babintsev, Ilya A.; Adzhemyan, Loran Ts.; Shchekin, Alexander K.
2014-08-01
The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix of coefficients of the linearized kinetic equations applied to aggregation in surfactant solution determine the full spectrum of characteristic times and specific modes of micellar relaxation. The dependence of these relaxation times and modes on the total surfactant concentration has been analyzed for concentrations in the vicinity and well above the second critical micelle concentration (cmc2) for systems with coexisting spherical and cylindrical micelles. The analysis has been done on the basis of a discrete form of the Becker-Döring kinetic equations employing the Smoluchowsky diffusion model for the attachment rates of surfactant monomers to surfactant aggregates with matching the rates for spherical aggregates and the rates for large cylindrical micelles. The equilibrium distribution of surfactant aggregates in solution has been modeled as having one maximum for monomers, another maximum for spherical micelles and wide slowly descending branch for cylindrical micelles. The results of computations have been compared with the analytical ones known in the limiting cases from solutions of the continuous Becker-Döring kinetic equation. They demonstrated a fair agreement even in the vicinity of the cmc2 where the analytical theory looses formally its applicability.
Diffusion MRI/NMR magnetization equations with relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de, Dilip; Daniel, Simon
2012-10-01
Bloch-Torrey diffusion magnetization equation ignores relaxation effects of magnetization. Relaxation times are important in any diffusion magnetization studies of perfusion in tissues(Brain and heart specially). Bloch-Torrey equation cannot therefore describe diffusion magnetization in a real-life situation where relaxation effects play a key role, characteristics of tissues under examination. This paper describes derivations of two equations for each of the y and z component diffusion NMR/MRI magnetization (separately) in a rotating frame of reference, where rf B1 field is applied along x direction and bias magnetic field(Bo) is along z direction. The two equations are expected to further advance the science & technology of Diffusion MRI(DMRI) and diffusion functional MRI(DFMRI). These two techniques are becoming increasingly important in the study and treatment of neurological disorders, especially for the management of patients with acute stroke. It is rapidly becoming a standard for white matter disorders, as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal abnormalities in white matter fibre structure and provide models of brain connectivity.
Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite
Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao
2015-01-01
The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913
Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite.
Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao
2015-01-01
The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 10(8) Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 10(8) Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913
Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao
2015-08-01
The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior.
van Heeswijk, Ruud B; Laus, Sabrina; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf
2007-07-01
The relaxivity of commercially available gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents was studied for X-nuclei resonances with long intrinsic relaxation times ranging from 6 s to several hundred seconds. Omniscan in pure 13C formic acid had a relaxivity of 2.9 mM(-1) s(-1), whereas its relaxivity on glutamate C1 and C5 in aqueous solution was approximately 0.5 mM(-1) s(-1). Both relaxivities allow the preparation of solutions with a predetermined short T1 and suggest that in vitro substantial sensitivity gains in their measurement can be achieved. 6Li has a long intrinsic relaxation time, on the order of several minutes, which was strongly affected by the contrast agents. Relaxivity ranged from approximately 0.1 mM(-1) s(-1) for Omniscan to 0.3 for Magnevist, whereas the relaxivity of Gd-DOTP was at 11 mM(-1) s(-1), which is two orders of magnitude higher. Overall, these experiments suggest that the presence of 0.1- to 10-microM contrast agents should be detectable, provided sufficient sensitivity is available, such as that afforded by hyperpolarization, recently introduced to in vivo imaging. PMID:17448617
Relaxation time based classification of magnetic resonance brain images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito
2015-03-01
Brain tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is useful for a wide range of applications. Within this manuscript a novel approach for brain tissue joint segmentation and classification is presented. Starting from the relaxation time estimation, we propose a novel method for identifying the optimal decision regions. The approach exploits the statistical distribution of the involved signals in the complex domain. The technique, compared to classical threshold based ones, is able to improve the correct classification rate. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated on a simulated case study.
Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Donghan; Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt
2006-01-01
Knowledge of the effective rotational correlation times, τc, for the modulation of anisotropic spin-spin interactions in macromolecules subject to Brownian motion in solution is of key interest for the practice of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The value of τc enables an estimate of the NMR spin relaxation rates, and indicates possible aggregation of the macromolecular species. This paper reports a novel NMR pulse scheme, [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT, which is based on transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy and permits to determine τc for 15N- 1H bonds without interference from dipole-dipole coupling of the amide proton with remote protons. [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT is highly efficient since only a series of one-dimensional NMR spectra need to be recorded. Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time, to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Practical applications are illustrated with the 110 kDa 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase from Staphylococcus aureus, the uniformly 15N-labeled Escherichia coli outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in 60 kDa mixed OmpX/DHPC micelles with approximately 90 molecules of unlabeled 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), and the 16 kDa pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori, which cover a wide range of correlation times.
Impact of Internal Magnetic Field Gradients on the NMR Relaxation Time Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grombacher, D. J.; Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.
2014-12-01
We explore the impact of internal magnetic field gradients, which arise due to the presence of a magnetic susceptibility contrast between grains and the pore fluid, on the relaxation time distribution. Relaxation times provide powerful insight into the pore geometry. This link to pore geometry relies on the fast-diffusion assumption, where relaxation is controlled by the pore surface and each pore is treated as isolated and is described by a single relaxation time. This allows the relaxation time distribution to be interpreted as a pore size distribution. However, internal gradients can complicate this interpretation by providing an additional relaxation mechanism impacting the decay. We present both synthetic and laboratory studies investigating the impact of internal gradients on the relaxation time distribution. A COMSOL multiphysics package is employed to determine the magnetic field's spatial distribution across the pore space, and to simulate the pore's NMR relaxation. The NMR simulation accounts for both surface relaxation, and relaxation related to internal gradients. We observe that as the influence of internal gradients increases, through either greater magnetic susceptibility contrasts or the use of longer echo times, the shape of the relaxation time distribution is altered. In these cases, relaxation within a single pore is no longer described by a single characteristic relaxation time, instead requiring multiple relaxation times to capture the time-dependent behavior. As a result, the relaxation time distribution is broadened and shifted to faster relaxation times. Laboratory results, performed for several samples sieved to ensure narrow grain size distributions and with varying magnitudes of magnetic susceptibility contrasts, exhibit similar trends to those observed in the synthetic studies. These results have significant implications for the interpretation of relaxation data to obtain pore size distributions, and the derived estimates of hydraulic conductivity for materials containing magnetic components.
The time correlation function perspective of NMR relaxation in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Yury E.; Meirovitch, Eva
2013-08-01
We applied over a decade ago the two-body coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach to NMR relaxation in proteins. One rotator is the globally moving protein and the other rotator is the locally moving probe (spin-bearing moiety, typically the 15N-1H bond). So far we applied SRLS to 15N-H relaxation from seven different proteins within the scope of the commonly used data-fitting paradigm. Here, we solve the SRLS Smoluchowski equation using typical best-fit parameters as input, to obtain the corresponding generic time correlation functions (TCFs). The following new information is obtained. For actual rhombic local ordering and main ordering axis pointing along C_{i - 1}^α - C_i^α, the measurable TCF is dominated by the (K,K') = (-2,2), (2,2), and (0,2) components (K is the order of the rank 2 local ordering tensor), determined largely by the local motion. Global diffusion axiality affects the analysis significantly when the ratio between the parallel and perpendicular components exceeds approximately 1.5. Local diffusion axiality has a large and intricate effect on the analysis. Mode-coupling becomes important when the ratio between the global and local motional rates falls below 0.01. The traditional method of analysis - model-free (MF) - represents a simple limit of SRLS. The conditions under which the MF and SRLS TCFs are the same are specified. The validity ranges of wobble-in-a-cone and rotation on the surface of a cone as local motions are determined. The evolution of the intricate Smoluchowski operator from the simple diffusion operator for a sphere reorienting in isotropic medium is delineated. This highlights the fact that SRLS is an extension of the established stochastic theories for treating restricted motions. This study lays the groundwork for TCF-based comparison between mesoscopic SRLS and atomistic molecular dynamics.
Dielectric Relaxation Time of Ice-Ih with Different Preparation.
Sasaki, Kaito; Kita, Rio; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin
2016-04-28
Dielectric relaxation process of ice-Ih has been investigated by many researchers. Pioneering studies focused on the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation time, τice, were reported by Auty in 1952 [ Auty, R. P.; Cole, R. H. J. Chem. Phys . 1952 , 120 , 1309 ] and Johari in 1981 [ Johari, G. P.; Whalley, E. J. Chem. Phys. 1981 , 75 , 1333 ]. However, the temperature dependences of τice found in these studies are not in agreement. While Auty et al. reported a single Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice for the entire 207-273 K temperature range, Johari et al. reported changes in the temperature dependence of τice at 230 and 140 K. In this study, the temperature dependence of τice is investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy for ice prepared by three different procedures. For all investigated ices, a dielectric relaxation process is observed, and τice decreases with increasing temperature. Temperature dependence of τice with rapid crystallization shows the same properties at temperatures down to 140 K as that reported by Johari et al. On the other hand, ice obtained by slow crystallization exhibits the same temperature dependence of τice as those reported by Auty et al. We suggest that the difference between the temperature dependences of τice found by Auty et al. and Johari et al. can be controlled by preparation conditions. That is, the growth rate of the ice crystal can affect τice because a slow growth speed of the ice crystal induces a smaller impurity content of ice, giving rise to an Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice. PMID:27056192
Tailoring relaxation time spectrum in soft glassy materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaushal, Manish; Joshi, Yogesh M.
2013-07-01
Physical properties of out of equilibrium soft materials depend on time as well as deformation history. In this work we propose to transform this major shortcoming into gain by applying controlled deformation field to tailor the rheological properties. We take advantage of the fact that deformation field of a certain magnitude can prevent particles in an aging soft glassy material from occupying energy wells up to a certain depth, thereby populating only the deeper wells. We employ two soft glassy materials with dissimilar microstructures and demonstrate that increase in strength of deformation field while aging leads to narrowing of spectrum of relaxation times. We believe that, in principle, this philosophy can be universally applied to different kinds of glassy materials by changing nature and strength of impetus.
Upper D region chemical kinetic modeling of LORE relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Luque, A.; Haldoupis, C.
2016-04-01
The recovery times of upper D region electron density elevations, caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP), are modeled. The work was motivated from the need to understand a recently identified narrowband VLF perturbation named LOREs, an acronym for LOng Recovery Early VLF events. LOREs associate with long-living electron density perturbations in the upper D region ionosphere; they are generated by strong EMP radiated from large peak current intensities of ±CG (cloud to ground) lightning discharges, known also to be capable of producing elves. Relaxation model scenarios are considered first for a weak enhancement in electron density and then for a much stronger one caused by an intense lightning EMP acting as an impulsive ionization source. The full nonequilibrium kinetic modeling of the perturbed mesosphere in the 76 to 92 km range during LORE-occurring conditions predicts that the electron density relaxation time is controlled by electron attachment at lower altitudes, whereas above 79 km attachment is balanced totally by associative electron detachment so that electron loss at these higher altitudes is controlled mainly by electron recombination with hydrated positive clusters H+(H2O)n and secondarily by dissociative recombination with NO+ ions, a process which gradually dominates at altitudes >88 km. The calculated recovery times agree fairly well with LORE observations. In addition, a simplified (quasi-analytic) model build for the key charged species and chemical reactions is applied, which arrives at similar results with those of the full kinetic model. Finally, the modeled recovery estimates for lower altitudes, that is <79 km, are in good agreement with the observed short recovery times of typical early VLF events, which are known to be associated with sprites.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and relaxation time mapping of concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyea, Steven Donald
2001-07-01
The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of water in concrete is presented. This thesis will approach the problem of MR imaging of concrete by attempting to design new methods, suited to concrete materials, rather than attempting to force the material to suit the method. A number of techniques were developed, which allow the spatial observation of water in concrete in up to three dimensions, and permits the determination of space resolved moisture content, as well as local NMR relaxation times. These methods are all based on the Single-Point Imaging (SPI) method. The development of these new methods will be described, and the techniques validated using phantom studies. The study of one-dimensional moisture transport in drying concrete was performed using SPI. This work examined the effect of initial mixture proportions and hydration time on the drying behaviour of concrete, over a period of three months. Studies of drying concrete were also performed using spatial mapping of the spin-lattice (T1) and effective spin-spin (T2*) relaxation times, thereby permitting the observation of changes in the water occupied pore surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) as a function of drying. Results of this work demonstrated changes in the S/V due to drying, hydration and drying induced microcracking. Three-dimensional MRI of concrete was performed using SPRITE (Single-Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement) and turboSPI (turbo Single Point Imaging). While SPRITE allows for weighting of MR images using T 1 and T2*, turboSPI allows T2 weighting of the resulting images. Using relaxation weighting it was shown to be possible to discriminate between water contained within a hydrated cement matrix, and water in highly porous aggregates, used to produce low-density concrete. Three dimensional experiments performed using SPRITE and turboSPI examined the role of self-dessication, drying, initial aggregate saturation and initial mixture conditions on the transport of moisture between porous aggregates and the hydrated matrix. The results demonstrate that water is both added and removed from the aggregates, depending upon the physical conditions. The images also appear to show an influx of cement products into cracks in the solid aggregate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Implicit versus explicit momentum relaxation time solution for semiconductor nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marin, E. G.; Ruiz, F. G.; Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.
2015-07-01
We discuss the necessity of the exact implicit Momentum Relaxation Time (MRT) solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to achieve reliable carrier mobility results in semiconductor nanowires. Firstly, the implicit solution for a 1D electron gas with a isotropic bandstructure is presented resulting in the formulation of a simple matrix system. Using this solution as a reference, the explicit approach is demonstrated to be inaccurate for the calculation of inelastic anisotropic mechanisms such as polar optical phonons, characteristic of III-V materials. Its validity for elastic and isotropic mechanisms is also evaluated. Finally, the implications of the MRT explicit approach inaccuracies on the total mobility of Si and III-V NWs are studied.
Relaxation time of neutrinos in the early universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, M. A.; Hacyan, S.
1989-01-01
The relaxation time of neutrinos and antineutrinos interacting with electrons and positrons in the early universe is calculated using the relativistic version of the two-temperature formalism, and the cross sections predicted by the Weinberg-Salam theory. The results indicate that primordial neutrinos decoupled from the rest of matter at a temperature around 2 x 10 to the 10th K. It is also shown that, as a consequence of this result, the ratio of the radiation temperature to the neutrino temperature becomes 0.2 percent smaller than the standard value (11/4) 1/3 and that the He-4 abundance resulting from primeval nucleosynthesis will differ, also from the standard value, by an amount of -0.000188.
Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength
Deissler, Robert J. Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.
2014-01-15
Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the applied magnetic field. Conclusions: A simple treatment of Néel relaxation using the common zero-field relaxation time overestimates the relaxation time of the magnetization in situations relevant for MPI and MPS. For sinusoidally driven (or ramped) systems, whether or not a particular relaxation mechanism dominates or is even relevant depends on the magnetic field strength, the frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the applied magnetic field.
In Vivo T2 Relaxation Time Measurement with Echo-Time Averaging
Prescot, Andrew P.; Shi, Xianfeng; Choi, Changho; Renshaw, Perry. F.
2014-01-01
The accuracy of metabolite concentrations measured using in vivo proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is enhanced following correction for spin-spin (T2) relaxation effects. In addition, metabolite proton T2 relaxation times provide unique information regarding cellular environment and molecular mobility. Echo-time (TE) averaging 1H MRS involves the collection and averaging of multiple TE steps that greatly simplifies resulting spectra due to the attenuation of spin-coupled and macromolecule resonances. Given the simplified spectral appearance and inherent metabolite T2 relaxation information, the aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to develop a novel data processing scheme to estimate metabolite T2 relaxation times from TE-averaged 1H MRS data. Spectral simulations are used to validate the proposed TE-averaging methods for estimating methyl proton T2 relaxation times for N-acetyl aspartate, total creatine, and choline-containing compounds. The utility of the technique and its reproducibility are demonstrated using data obtained in vivo from the posterior-occipital cortex of ten healthy control subjects. Compared to standard methods, distinct advantages of this approach include built-in macromolecule resonance attenuation, in vivo T2 estimates closer to reported values when maximum TE ≈ T2, and the potential for T2 calculation of metabolite resonances otherwise inseparable in standard 1H MRS spectra recorded in vivo. PMID:24865447
Time dependent parallel viscosity and relaxation rate of poloidal rotation in the banana regime
Hsu, C.T.; Shaing, K.C.; Gormley, R. )
1994-01-01
Time dependent ion parallel viscous force in the banana regime with arbitrary inverse aspect ratio [epsilon] is calculated using the eigenfunction approach. The flux surface averaged viscosity is then used to study the relaxation process of the poloidal rotation which leads to oscillatory relaxation behavior. The relaxation rate [nu][sub [ital p
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for homogeneous mixture flows with external force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asinari, Pietro
2008-05-01
A lattice Boltzmann scheme is developed for homogeneous mixture modeling, based on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) formulation, which fully recovers the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model in the continuum limit with (a) external force and (b) tunable Schmidt number. The theoretical basis of the proposed MRT formulation is a recently proposed Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-type kinetic model for gas mixtures [Andries , J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)] and it substantially extends the applicability of a scheme already proposed by the same author, which used only one relaxation parameter. The recovered equations at the macroscopic level are derived by an innovative expansion technique, based on the Grad moment system. Some numerical simulations are reported for the solvent test case with external force, aiming to find the numerical ranges for the transport coefficients that ensure acceptable accuracies. The numerical results reduce the theoretical expectations, which are based on a strong separation among the characteristic scales.
Kanatharana, J.; Sukpisan, J.; Wang, S.Q.
1995-12-01
The dependences on the polyion concentration through the scaling relations in {eta} {alpha} c{sup {alpha}} and {Tau}{sub q} {alpha} c{sup {beta}}, where {eta} and {Tau}{sub q} are the solution viscosity and the relaxation time obtained from the dynamic light scattering respectively, are investigated for the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides at different degrees of hydrolysis. The scaling exponents a and {beta}, as determined in the semidilute regime, depend critically on the amount of salt added or the ionic strength. Both exponents, however, are independent of the amount of glycerol added which suggests that the excluded volume effect is relatively small in comparison with the effect of electrostatic repulsion. The salt-concentration dependence of the solution is also investigated: the corresponding scaling exponents for the 70% HPAM are insensitive to the solvent quality. The present experiment results are compared with recent scaling theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, G.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Terrestrial time is at present derived from atomic clocks. The SI second, the unit of time of the international system of units, has been defined since 1967 in terms of a hyperfine transition of the cesium atom and the best primary frequency standards now realize it with a relative uncertainty of a few parts in 1015, which makes it the most accurately measurable physical quantity. INTERNATIONAL A...
Time scale independent signal transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faltin, L.
1980-05-01
The paper presents a method which permits the conversion of time scale variations occurring during signal transmission into time shifts proportionally related to these variations. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to reject the adverse effects of the time scale variations (such as wow and flutter in magnetic tape recordings) and/or to determine the scale change exactly (such as would be required in Doppler signal processing). Finally, it is noted that since the system performance degrades with rising frequency of the time scale distortions, an upper bound for this frequency is derived.
Growth strains and stress relaxation in alumina scales during high temperature oxidation
Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.
2004-03-23
A novel X-ray technique was used, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, to investigate the growth stresses in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In-situ measurements of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the scale were recorded during oxidation and cooling, and the elliptical distortion of the diffraction rings was analyzed to yield the in-plane strain. Fe-28Al, Fe-40Al, Fe-40Al-0.2Hf, Fe-20Cr-10Al and Ni-50Al (at. %) were studied. Data were acquired in air at temperatures between 950-1100 C and during cool down. In all cases, the steady stage growth strain was relatively low (<0.1%) and was either tensile or compressive depending on the alloy. A higher tensile strain often existed during the initial oxidation period when transition alumina was present. Thermal stresses imposed on NiAl by reducing the sample temperature to 950 C for a period of time showed noticeable stress relaxation by creep. Different degrees of relaxation were also found during cooling depending on alloy composition and scale microstructure. On all Fe-based alloys, the first formed {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was highly textured with the degree of texture decreasing with further oxidation. The relationships between stress development, scale wrinkling, oxide phase changes, and the effect of reactive element addition on growth stresses are discussed. Results are compared with other reports of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales.
An axisymmetric multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Wenjun
2015-01-01
A multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme developed for axisymmetric flows recovers the complete continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. This scheme follows the strategy of the standard D2Q9 model by using a single particle distribution function and a simple "collision-streaming" updating rule. The extra terms related to axisymmetry in the macroscopic equations are recovered by adding source terms into the LB equation, which are simple and involve no gradients. The compressible effect retained in the Navier-Stokes equations is recovered by introducing a term related to the reversed transformation matrix for MRT collision operator, so as to produce a correct bulk viscosity, making it suitable for compressible flows with high frequency and low Mach number. The validity of the scheme is demonstrated by testing the Hagen-Poiseuille flow and 3D Womersley flow, as well as the standing acoustic waves in a closed cylindrical chamber. The numerical experiments show desirable stability at low viscosities, enabling to simulate a standing ultrasound field in centimeters space.
Comparison of Viscosities from the Chapman -- Enskog & Relaxation Time Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiranata, Anton; Prakash, Madappa
2010-10-01
Viscosity to entropy ratios of hadrons and the quark-gluon system control the elliptic flow observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Here we establish the extent to which results from different approximation schemes for shear viscosities agree (or disagree) by choosing classic examples in which the elastic scattering cross sections are specified. The two different approximation schemes chosen are the Chapman-Enskog [1] and the Relaxation Time [2] methods. These test studies are performed for (i) a hard sphere gas (σ= a^2/(4π), where a is the hard sphere radius), (ii) the Maxwell gas (σ= mγ(θ)/2g) with m being the mass of the particles, γ(θ) is an arbitrary function of θ, and g is the relative velocity), (iii) chiral pions (σ= 5s/(48πf^4π), where s is the squared c.m. energy and fπ is the pion-decay constant, and (iv) massive pions (here σ(θ) is taken from experiments). Where possible, analytical results are obtained in either the non-relativistic or extremely relativistic cases. [4pt] [1] M. Prakash, et. al, Physics Report 227, 6 (1993) 321 -- 366. [0pt] [2] P. Chakraborty and J. I. Kapusta, arxiv:1006.0257v1 (2010).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chun, Myung-Suk; Ko, Min Jae
2012-10-01
The Rouse-Zimm model based on the polymer dynamics theory allows us to predict the relaxation time of polyelectrolyte dilute solution as a function of the intrinsic viscosity. In finite concentrated solutions, the empirical analysis adopted in this study is quite useful to examine the relaxation behavior, noting that proper theories are not well-clarified and experimental measurements are rather complicated. For the xanthan biopolymer selected as the polyelectrolyte model of a semiflexible chain, we measured rheological properties of shear viscosity η and first normal stress difference σ Δ1 in dilute and semidilute solutions over a wide range of shear rates dot γ. Power-law scaling relations are commonly observed in the region of dot γ ≥slant 1 s-1. Accurate regressions on η and σ Δ1 present empirical plots as functions of the shear rate and the xanthan concentration, from which each of relevant fitting parameters are determined. Empirically determined curves agree well with the experimental data, ensuring that the empirical formula for the characteristic relaxation time λ is applicable at dilute and finite concentrations, which has not been reported in the literature. We further interpreted the non-Newtonian fluid behavior over a full range of shear rates by applying the Carreau A constitutive model.
Tuning of molecular qubits: very long coherence and spin-lattice relaxation times.
Bader, K; Winkler, M; van Slageren, J
2016-02-23
We report a pulsed EPR study on different transition metal phthalocyanines, elucidating the dependence of spin relaxation on solvent, ligand and metal ion. Coherence times of >40 µs and spin-lattice relaxation times of up to 2 s were found. Minimization of SOMO-environment overlap leads to increased coherence times. PMID:26854001
Time-domain spectrum of dielectric relaxation in relaxor ferroelectrics: Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.-M.; Dong, S.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.
2006-10-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulation on the dielectric relaxation behaviour of a model relaxor ferroelectric, based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory of ferroelectrics with dipole-defect induced random field. The coexistence of ferroelectric nanoclusters and paraelectric matrix is demonstrated. It is found that the time-domain spectrum for dielectric relaxation below the ferroelectric transition point exhibits a multi-peaked pattern rather than the diffusive single-peaked pattern, indicating the existence of multi-characteristic times for the dielectric relaxation. The extended multi-peaked time-domain spectrum is responsible for the diffusive ferroelectric transitions and frequency dispersion of the dielectric relaxation, usually observed for relaxor ferroelectrics.
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion.
Xu, Aiguo; Lin, Chuandong; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun
2015-04-01
To probe both the hydrodynamic nonequilibrium (HNE) and thermodynamic nonequilibrium (TNE) in the combustion process, a two-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) version of lattice Boltzmann kinetic model (LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Aside from describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum, and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some nonconserved quantities. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model, both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various nonequilibrium behaviors, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs, and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed. It is found that the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) decreases the local TNE, but increases the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity (or heat conductivity) takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses. PMID:25974611
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Aiguo; Lin, Chuandong; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun
2015-04-01
To probe both the hydrodynamic nonequilibrium (HNE) and thermodynamic nonequilibrium (TNE) in the combustion process, a two-dimensional multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) version of lattice Boltzmann kinetic model (LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Aside from describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum, and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some nonconserved quantities. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model, both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various nonequilibrium behaviors, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs, and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed. It is found that the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) decreases the local TNE, but increases the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity (or heat conductivity) takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses.
Time Course of Corticospinal Excitability and Intracortical Inhibition Just before Muscle Relaxation
Suzuki, Tomotaka; Sugawara, Kenichi; Ogahara, Kakuya; Higashi, Toshio
2016-01-01
Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we investigated how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was involved with transient motor cortex (M1) excitability changes observed just before the transition from muscle contraction to muscle relaxation. Ten healthy participants performed a simultaneous relaxation task of the ipsilateral finger and foot, relaxing from 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force after the go signal. In the simple reaction time (RT) paradigm, single or paired TMS pulses were randomly delivered after the go signal, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We analyzed the time course prior to the estimated relaxation reaction time (RRT), defined here as the onset of voluntary relaxation. SICI decreased in the 80–100 ms before RRT, and MEPs were significantly greater in amplitude in the 60–80 ms period before RRT than in the other intervals in single-pulse trials. TMS pulses did not effectively increase RRT. These results show that cortical excitability in the early stage, before muscle relaxation, plays an important role in muscle relaxation control. SICI circuits may vary between decreased and increased activation to continuously maintain muscle relaxation during or after a relaxation response. With regard to M1 excitability dynamics, we suggest that SICI also dynamically changes throughout the muscle relaxation process. PMID:26858619
Suzuki, Tomotaka; Sugawara, Kenichi; Ogahara, Kakuya; Higashi, Toshio
2016-01-01
Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we investigated how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was involved with transient motor cortex (M1) excitability changes observed just before the transition from muscle contraction to muscle relaxation. Ten healthy participants performed a simultaneous relaxation task of the ipsilateral finger and foot, relaxing from 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force after the go signal. In the simple reaction time (RT) paradigm, single or paired TMS pulses were randomly delivered after the go signal, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We analyzed the time course prior to the estimated relaxation reaction time (RRT), defined here as the onset of voluntary relaxation. SICI decreased in the 80-100 ms before RRT, and MEPs were significantly greater in amplitude in the 60-80 ms period before RRT than in the other intervals in single-pulse trials. TMS pulses did not effectively increase RRT. These results show that cortical excitability in the early stage, before muscle relaxation, plays an important role in muscle relaxation control. SICI circuits may vary between decreased and increased activation to continuously maintain muscle relaxation during or after a relaxation response. With regard to M1 excitability dynamics, we suggest that SICI also dynamically changes throughout the muscle relaxation process. PMID:26858619
Relaxation-time measurement via a time-dependent helicity balance model
Wrobel, J. S.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Smith, R. J.; Hossack, A. C.; Nelson, B. A.; Marklin, G. J.; Ennis, D. A.; Akcay, C.; Victor, B. S.
2013-01-15
A time-dependent helicity balance model applied to a spheromak helicity-injection experiment enables the measurement of the relaxation time during the sustainment phase of the spheromak. The experiment, the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI), studies spheromak formation and sustainment through inductive helicity injection. The model captures the dominant plasma behavior seen during helicity injection in HIT-SI by using an empirical helicity-decay rate, a time-dependent helicity-injection rate, and a composite Taylor state to model both the helicity content of the system and to calculate the resulting spheromak current. During single-injector operations, both the amplitude and the phase of the periodic rise and fall of the toroidal current are predicted by this model, with an exchange of helicity between the injector states and the spheromak state proposed as the causal mechanism. This phenomenon allows for the comparison of the delay between the current rises in the experiment and the numerical model, enabling a measurement of the relaxation time. The measured relaxation time of 4.8 {mu}s {+-} 2.8 {mu}s is shorter than the toroidal Alfven timescale. These results validate Hall MHD calculations of the Geospace Environmental Modeling challenge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, R. T.; Ott, H.; Georgiadis, A.; Rucker, M.; Berg, S.
2014-12-01
With recent advances at X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) synchrotron beam lines, it is now possible to study pore-scale flow in porous rock under dynamic flow conditions. The collection of 4 dimensional (4D) data allows for the direct 3D visualization of fluid-fluid displacement in porous rock as a function of time. However, even state-of-the-art fast-μCT scans require between one and a few seconds to complete and the (much faster) fluid movement occurring during that time interval is manifested as imaging artifacts in the reconstructed 3D volume. We present an approach to analyze the 2D radiograph data collected during fast-μCT to study the pore-scale displacement dynamics on the time scale of 40 milliseconds which is near the intrinsic time scale of individual Haines jumps. We present a methodology to identify the time intervals at which pore scale displacement events in the observed field of view occur and hence, how reconstruction intervals can be chosen to avoid fluid-movement induced reconstruction artifacts. We further quantify the size, order, frequency, and location of fluid-fluid displacement at the millisecond time scale. We observe that after a displacement event, the pore scale fluid distribution relaxes to (quasi-) equilibrium in cascades of pore-scale fluid re-arrangements with an average relaxation time for the whole cascade between 0.5 and 2.0 seconds. These findings help to identify the flow regimes and intrinsic time and length scales relevant to fractional flow.
The derivation of thermal relaxation time between two-phase bubbly flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadein, S. A.
2006-03-01
Thermal relaxation time constant is derived analytically for the relaxed model with unequal phase-temperatures of a vapour bubble at saturation temperature and a non-steady temperature field around the growing vapour bubble. The energy and state equation are solved between two finite boundary conditions. Thermal relaxation time perform a good agreement with Mohammadein (in Doctoral thesis, PAN, Gdansk, 1994) and Moby Dick experiment in terms of non-equilibrium homogeneous model (Bilicki et al. in Proc R Soc Lond A428:379-397, 1990) for lower values of initial void fraction. Thermal relaxation is affected by Jacob number, superheating, initial bubble radius and thermal diffusivity.
Zellini, Francesco; Niepel, Graham; Tench, Christopher R; Constantinescu, Cris S
2009-12-01
Recent work in multiple sclerosis, focusing on neuropathological abnormalities, found a frequent and severe hypothalamic involvement. The possible clinical implications are disturbances in sleep and sexual activity, depression, memory impairment and fatigue. Despite this there are no magnetic resonance imaging studies focusing on in vivo hypothalamic pathology in multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to investigate magnetic resonance imaging-detectable abnormalities related to pathological changes in the hypothalamus of patients with multiple sclerosis, and to subsequently explore the relationship with fatigue. We used T1 relaxation time as a sensitive measure of pathology. Using region of interest analysis, median T1 values in the hypothalamus were measured in 44 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and in 13 healthy controls. Fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale, and patients were divided in two subgroups, fatigued and non-fatigued, according to Fatigue Severity Scale scores. We found a significantly higher T1 relaxation time in the hypothalamus of multiple sclerosis patients compared with controls (p = 0.027). There was a significant correlation between T1 values and fatigue severity (rho 0.437, p = 0.008), and median T1 values were different among the study groups. Our results show that pathological involvement of the hypothalamus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is detectable using magnetic resonance imaging, and that the pathology measured by quantitative T1 might reflect fatigue. PMID:19995847
Casalini, R; Roland, C M
2014-08-22
An equation is derived that expresses the thermodynamic scaling exponent, γ, which superposes relaxation times τ and other measures of molecular mobility determined over a range of temperatures and densities, in terms of static physical quantities. The latter are available in the literature or can be measured at ambient pressure. We show for 13 materials, both molecular liquids and polymers, that the calculated γ are equivalent to the scaling exponents obtained directly by superpositioning. The assumptions of the analysis are that the glass transition T(g) is isochronal (i.e., τ(α) is constant at T(g), which is true by definition) and that the pressure derivative of the glass temperature is given by the first Ehrenfest relation. The latter, derived assuming continuity of the entropy at the glass transition, has been corroborated for many glass-forming materials at ambient pressure. However, we find that the Ehrenfest relation breaks down at elevated pressure; this limitation is of no consequence herein, since the appeal of the new equation is its applicability to ambient-pressure data. The ability to determine, from ambient-pressure measurements, the scaling exponent describing the high-pressure dynamics extends the applicability of this approach to a broader range of materials. Since γ is linked to the intermolecular potential, the new equation thus provides ready access to information about the forces between molecules. PMID:25192107
T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity
Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter
2016-01-01
Background The grading of liver fibrosis relies on liver biopsy. Imaging techniques, including elastography and relaxometric, techniques have had varying success in diagnosing moderate fibrosis. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the T2-relaxation time of hepatic parenchyma and the histologic grade of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C undergoing both routine, liver MRI and liver biopsy, and to validate our methodology with phantoms and in a rat model of liver fibrosis. Methods This study is composed of three parts: (I) 123 patients who underwent both routine, clinical liver MRI and biopsy within a 6-month period, between July 1999 and January 2010 were enrolled in a retrospective study. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using dual-echo turbo-spin echo equivalent pulse sequence. T2 relaxation time of liver parenchyma in patients was calculated by mono-exponential fit of a region of interest (ROI) within the right lobe correlating to histopathologic grading (Ishak 0–6) and routine serum liver inflammation [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. Statistical comparison was performed using ordinary logistic and ordinal logistic regression and ANOVA comparing T2 to Ishak fibrosis without and using AST and ALT as covariates; (II) a phantom was prepared using serial dilutions of dextran coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. T2 weighed imaging was performed by comparing a dual echo fast spin echo sequence to a Carr-Purcell-Meigboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence at 1.5 T. Statistical comparison was performed using a paired t-test; (III) male Wistar rats receiving weekly intraperitoneal injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) control (n=4 rats); diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for either 5 (n=5 rats) or 8 weeks (n=4 rats) were MR imaged on a Bruker Pharmascan 4.7 T magnet with a home-built bird-cage coil. T2 was quantified by using a mono-exponential fitting algorithm on multi-slice multi echo T2 weighted data. Statistical comparison was performed using ANOVA. Results (I) Histopathologic evaluation of both rat and human livers demonstrated no evidence of steatosis or hemochromatosis There was a monotonic increase in mean T2 value with increasing degree of fibrosis (control 65.4±2.9 ms, n=6 patients); mild (Ishak 1–2) 66.7±1.9 ms (n=30); moderate (Ishak 3–4) 71.6±1.7 ms (n=26); severe (Ishak 5–6) 72.4±1.4 ms (n=61); with relatively low standard error (~2.9 ms). There was a statistically significant difference between degrees of mild (Ishak <4) vs. moderate to severe fibrosis (Ishak >4) (P=0.03) based on logistic regression of T2 and Ishak, which became insignificant (P=0.07) when using inflammatory markers as covariates. Expanding on this model using ordinal logistic regression, there was significance amongst all 4 groups comparing T2 to Ishak (P=0.01), with significance using inflammation as a covariate (P=0.03) and approaching statistical significance amongst all groups by ANOVA (P=0.07); (II) there was a monotonic increase in T2 and statistical significance (ANOVA P<0.0001) between each rat subgroup [phosphate buffer solution (PBS) 25.2±0.8, DEN 5-week (31.1±1.5), and DEN 9-week (49.4±0.4) ms]; (III) the phantoms that had T2 values within the relevant range for the human liver (e.g., 20–100 ms), demonstrated no statistical difference between two point fits on turbo spin echo (TSE) data and multi-echo CPMG data (P=0.9). Conclusions The finding of increased T2 with liver fibrosis may relate to inflammation that may be an alternative or adjunct to other noninvasive MR imaging based approaches for assessing liver fibrosis. PMID:27190762
Scaling of transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation due to magnetic nanoparticle aggregation.
Brown, Keith A; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Issadore, David; Berezovsky, Jesse; Cima, Michael J; Westervelt, R M
2010-10-01
The aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles decreases the transverse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time T2CP of adjacent water molecules measured by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse-echo sequence. This effect is commonly used to measure the concentrations of a variety of small molecules. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of water diffusing around SPIO nanoparticle aggregates to determine the relationship between T2CP and details of the aggregate. We find that in the motional averaging regime T2CP scales as a power law with the number N of nanoparticles in an aggregate. The specific scaling is dependent on the fractal dimension d of the aggregates. We find T2CP∝N-0.44 for aggregates with d = 2.2, a value typical of diffusion limited aggregation. We also find that in two-nanoparticle systems, T2CP is strongly dependent on the orientation of the two nanoparticles relative to the external magnetic field, which implies that it may be possible to sense the orientation of a two-nanoparticle aggregate. To optimize the sensitivity of SPIO nanoparticle sensors, we propose that it is best to have aggregates with few nanoparticles, close together, measured with long pulse-echo times. PMID:20689678
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandusschoten, D.; Dejager, P. A.; Vanas, H.
Heterogeneous (bio)systems are often characterized by several water-containing compartments that differ in relaxation time values and diffusion constants. Because of the relatively small differences among these diffusion constants, nonoptimal measuring conditions easily lead to the conclusion that a single diffusion constant suffices to describe the water mobility in a heterogeneous (bio)system. This paper demonstrates that the combination of a T2 measurement and diffusion measurements at various echo times (TE), based on the PFG MSE sequence, enables the accurate determination of diffusion constants which are less than a factor of 2 apart. This new method gives errors of the diffusion constant below 10% when two fractions are present, while the standard approach of a biexponential fit to the diffusion data in identical circumstances gives larger (>25%) errors. On application of this approach to water in apple parenchyma tissue, the diffusion constant of water in the vacuole of the cells ( D = 1.7 × 10 -9 m 2/s) can be distinguished from that of the cytoplasm ( D = 1.0 × 10 -9 m 2/s). Also, for mung bean seedlings, the cell size determined by PFG MSE measurements increased from 65 to 100 μm when the echo time increased from 150 to 900 ms, demonstrating that the interpretation of PFG SE data used to investigate cell sizes is strongly dependent on the T2 values of the fractions within the sample. Because relaxation times are used to discriminate the diffusion constants, we propose to name this approach diffusion analysis by relaxation- time- separated (DARTS) PFG NMR.
Tuncer, Enis; Bowler, Nicola; Youngs, I. J.; Lymer, K. P.
2006-01-01
The distribution of relaxation times approach, a less frequently employed dielectric data analysis technique, is utilized to better understand the relaxation characteristics of composites consisting of metal-coated, hollow glass spheres dispersed in a paraffin wax matrix. The dielectric properties of the composite samples are measured by means of impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.1 mHz to 10 MHz. The application of a mixture law is not appropriate for the analysis of the frequency-dependent properties of the considered system on this broad frequency range. However, utilization of the distribution of relaxation times procedure to study the dielectric behaviour shows clear trends in the mixtures' relaxation spectra. Relaxation processes of the paraffin wax and those specific to the composites are found from the extracted distribution of relaxation times spectra. The influence of the filler concentration, q, on the dielectric properties is examined; a relaxation with a narrow distribution at intermediate frequencies becomes broad with the addition of the filler. This relaxation, in the form of the low-frequency-dispersions (also known as constant phase angle) phenomenon, dominates the dielectric properties of the composites with high bead concentration, q>0.15. The variation in dielectric properties of individual samples whose bead concentrations q are nominally the same is discussed in terms of possible microstructural variations.
Tuncer, Enis
2006-01-01
The distribution of relaxation times approach, a less frequently employed dielectric data analysis technique, is utilized to better understand the relaxation characteristics of composites consisting of metal-coated, hollow glass spheres dispersed in a paraffin wax matrix. The dielectric properties of the composite samples are measured by means of impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.1mHz to 10 MHz. The application of a mixture law is not appropriate for the analysis of the frequency-dependent properties of the considered system on this broad frequency range. However, utilization of the distribution of relaxation times procedure to study the dielectric behaviour shows clear trends in the mixtures' relaxation spectra. Relaxation processes of the paraffin wax and those specific to the composites are found from the extracted distribution of relaxation times spectra. The influence of the filler concentration, q, on the dielectric properties is examined; a relaxation with a narrow distribution at intermediate frequencies becomes broad with the addition of the filler. This relaxation, in the form of the low-frequency-dispersions (also known as constant phase angle) phenomenon, dominates the dielectric properties of the composites with high bead concentration, q > 0:15. The variation in dielectric properties of individual samples whose bead concentrations q are nominally the same is discussed in terms of possible microstructural variations.
Length scale of dynamic heterogeneity and its relation to time scales in a glass-forming liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Chandan
2011-03-01
The role of the length scale of dynamic heterogeneity in the enormous increase in the relaxation times of glass-forming liquids upon supercooling has received much attention recently. Using molecular dynamics simulations and finite-size scaling for a realistic glass-forming liquid, we establish that the growth of dynamic heterogeneity with decreasing temperature is governed by a growing dynamic length scale. We also perform a computational study of a four-point structure factor, defined from spatial correlations of mobility, for the same liquid and show that estimates of the dynamic correlation length and susceptibility obtained from this study are consistent with the results of the finite-size scaling analysis. However, the observed dependence of the simultaneously growing time scale of the long-time ? -relaxation on system size does not exhibit the same scaling behavior as the dynamic heterogeneity: this time scale is instead determined, for all studied system sizes and temperatures, by the configurational entropy, in accordance with the Adam-Gibbs relation. We also investigate the dependence of the time scale of the short-time ? -relaxation on temperature and system size. A finite-size scaling analysis of this dependence reveals the existence of a length scale that grows as the temperature is reduced. Surprisingly, the temperature dependence of this length scale is found to be identical to that of the length scale that governs the growth of dynamic heterogeneity at the ? -relaxation time scale. This result suggests a close connection between short-time dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity at time scales of the order of the ? -relaxation time. This talk is based on work done in collaboration with S. Karmakar, S. Sastry and S. Sengupta.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Mizuno, Shohei; Tsutsumi, Hironori; Kinomura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Itoh, Akio
2016-05-01
Relaxation dynamics of ion damage in fused quartz is investigated by our newly developed pump–probe technique combining energetic ions (pump) with slow positrons (probe). This method enables determination of time-resolved positron lifetime. We study the time-dependent relaxation of ion damage, by analyzing the intensity variation in the ortho-positronium lifetime component associated with irradiation damage. For irradiation with 160 keV He ions in the temperature range of 300–573 K, the positron annihilation lifetime spectra are obtained as a function of time after ion irradiation. We observe that the relaxation time of ion damage is strongly influenced by specimen temperatures; the relaxation time constant is approximately 400 ms at room temperature (300 K) and becomes smaller with an increasing temperature. Analysis for the effect of temperature on damage accumulation reveals that the activation energy for thermal annealing of the observed damage is approximately 0.1 eV.
Variable thermal properties and thermal relaxation time in hyperbolic heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Mcrae, D. Scott
1989-01-01
Numerical solutions were obtained for a finite slab with an applied surface heat flux at one boundary using both the hyperbolic (MacCormack's method) and parabolic (Crank-Nicolson method) heat conduction equations. The effects on the temperature distributions of varying density, specific heat, and thermal relaxation time were calculated. Each of these properties had an effect on the thermal front velocity (in the hyperbolic solution) as well as the temperatures in the medium. In the hyperbolic solutions, as the density or specific heat decreased with temperature, both the temperatures within the medium and the thermal front velocity increased. The value taken for the thermal relaxation time was found to determine the 'hyperbolicity' of the heat conduction model. The use of a time dependent relaxation time allowed for solutions where the thermal energy propagated as a high temperature wave initially, but approached a diffusion process more rapidly than was possible with a constant large relaxation time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jingliang; Zhao, Kongshuang; Liu, Chunyan
2013-04-01
Dielectric properties of poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAA-g-PEO) aqueous solution were measured as a function of concentration and temperature over a frequency range of 40 Hz to 110 MHz. After subtracting the contribution of electrode polarization, three relaxation processes were observed at about 20 kHz, 220 kHz, and 4 MHz, and they are named low-, mid- and high-frequency relaxation, respectively. The relaxation parameters of these three relaxations (dielectric increment Δɛ and relaxation time τ) showed scaling relations with the polyelectrolyte concentration. The mechanisms of the three relaxations were concluded in light of the scaling theory: The relaxations of low- and mid frequency were attributed to the fluctuation of condensed counterions, while the high-frequency relaxation was ascribed to the fluctuation of free counterions. Based on the dielectric measurements of varying temperatures, the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS) of the three relaxations were calculated and these relaxation processes were also discussed from the microscopic thermodynamical view. In addition, the impacts of PEO side chains on the conformation of PAA-g-PEO chains were discussed. PEO side chains greatly strengthen the hydrogen-bonding interactions between PAA-g-PEO chains, resulting in the chains overlapping at a very low concentration and the formation of a hydrogen-bonding complex. Some physicochemical parameters of PAA-g-PEO molecules were calculated, including the overlap concentration, the effective charge of the chain, the friction coefficient, and the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen counterions.
Garcia-Bernabé, Abel; Dominguez-Espinosa, Gustavo; Diaz-Calleja, Ricardo; Riande, Evaristo; Haag, Rainer
2007-09-28
The non-Debye relaxation behavior of hyperbranched polyglycerol was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. A thorough study of the relaxations was carried out paying special attention to truncation effects on deconvolutions of overlapping processes. Hyperbranched polyglycerol exhibits two relaxations in the glassy state named in increasing order of frequency beta and gamma processes. The study of the evolution of these two fast processes with temperature in the time retardation spectra shows that the beta absorption is swallowed by the alpha in the glass-liquid transition, the gamma absorption being the only relaxation that remains operative in the liquid state. In heating, a temperature is reached at which the alpha absorption vanishes appearing the alphagamma relaxation. Two characteristics of alpha absorptions, decrease of the dielectric strength with increasing temperature and rather high activation energy, are displayed by the alphagamma process. Williams' ansatz seems to hold for these topologically complex macromolecules. PMID:17902934
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann modeling of incompressible flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling
2015-07-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional eight-velocity multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible porous flows at the representative elementary volume scale based on the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model. In the model, the porosity is included into the pressure-based equilibrium moments, and the linear and nonlinear drag forces of the porous matrix are incorporated into the model by adding a forcing term to the MRT-LB equation in the moment space. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the incompressible generalized Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. Numerical simulations of several typical porous flows are carried out to validate the present MRT-LB model. It is found that the present numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions and/or other numerical results reported in the literature.
Magnetic-field dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieckhoff, Jan; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2016-01-01
The investigation of the rotational dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic fields is of academic interest but also important for applications such as magnetic particle imaging where the particles are exposed to magnetic fields with amplitudes of up to 25 mT. We have experimentally studied the dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on ac and dc magnetic field amplitude using ac susceptibility measurements in the frequency range between 2 Hz and 9 kHz for field amplitudes up to 9 mT. As samples, single-core iron oxide nanoparticles with core diameters between 20 nm and 30 nm were used either suspended in water-glycerol mixtures or immobilized by freeze-drying. The experimentally determined relaxation times are compared with theoretical models. It was found that the Néel relaxation time decays much faster with increasing field amplitude than the Brownian one. Whereas the dependence of the Brownian relaxation time on the ac and dc field amplitude can be well explained with existing theoretical models, a proper model for the dependence of the Néel relaxation time on ac field amplitude for particles with random distribution of easy axes is still lacking. The extrapolation of the measured relaxation times of the 25 nm core diameter particles to a 25 mT ac field with an empirical model predicts that the Brownian mechanism clearly co-determines the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic particle imaging applications, in agreement with magnetic particle spectroscopy data.
Molecular motions and phase transitions. NMR relaxation times studies of several lecithins.
Bar-Adon, R; Gilboa, H
1981-01-01
The spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, and the dipolar energy relaxation time, TD, were measured as a function of temperature. The materials studied were samples of anhydrous L-dipalmitoyl lecithin, DL-dipalmitoyl lecithin, L-dimyristoyl lecithin, DL-dimyristoyl lecithin and their monohydrates, and of anhydrous egg yolk lecithin. It is shown that TD is a much more sensitive parameter than T1 for the determination of the Chapman phase transition. Comparison between T1 and TD provides information about new types of slow molecular motions below and above the phase transition temperature. It is suggested that the relaxation mechanisms for T1 and TD in the gel phase are governed by segmental motion in the phospholipid molecule. A new metastable phase was detected in dimyristoyl lecithin monohydrates. This phase could only be detected from the dipolar energy relaxation times. PMID:7225514
After stress comes relax(ation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isa, Lucio
2015-11-01
Viscoelastic materials take a finite time to relax and dissipate stress and this time scale is directly connected to the microstructure of the material itself. In their paper, Gomez-Solano and Bechinger (2015 New J. Phys. 17 103032) perform ‘miniaturized’ mechanical tests on a range of viscoelastic materials by dragging a micron-sized bead across them using optical tweezers. Upon switching off all the external forces, they watch the bead recoil to its original position and by tracking its motion they pinpoint the relaxation time of the material. These experiments open up a new range of possibilities to characterize stress relaxation at the microscale just by watching it.
Time scales in cognitive neuroscience
Papo, David
2013-01-01
Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.; Schmidt, R. W.
2016-03-01
This is the third in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot (i.e. massive) in Papers I and II of this series. Here we consider the thermodynamics of the intracluster medium, in particular the profiles of density, temperature and related quantities, as well as integrated measurements of gas mass, average temperature, total luminosity and centre-excluded luminosity. We fit power-law scaling relations of each of these quantities as a function of redshift and cluster mass, which can be measured precisely and with minimal bias for these relaxed clusters using hydrostatic arguments. For the thermodynamic profiles, we jointly model the density and temperature and their intrinsic scatter as a function of radius, thus also capturing the behaviour of the gas pressure and entropy. For the integrated quantities, we also jointly fit a multidimensional intrinsic covariance. Our results reinforce the view that simple hydrodynamical models provide a good description of relaxed clusters outside their centres, but that additional heating and cooling processes are important in the inner regions (radii r ≲ 0.5 r2500 ≈ 0.15 r500). The thermodynamic profiles remain regular, with small intrinsic scatter, down to the smallest radii where deprojection is straightforward (˜20 kpc); within this radius, even the most relaxed systems show clear departures from spherical symmetry. Our results suggest that heating and cooling are continuously regulated in a tight feedback loop, allowing the cluster atmosphere to remain stratified on these scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larini, L.; Ottochian, A.; de Michele, C.; Leporini, D.
2008-01-01
If liquids, polymers, bio-materials, metals and molten salts can avoid crystallization during cooling or compression, they freeze into a microscopically disordered solid-like state, a glass. On approaching the glass transition, particles become trapped in transient cages-in which they rattle on picosecond timescales-formed by their nearest neighbours; the particles spend increasing amounts of time in their cages as the average escape time, or structural relaxation time τα, increases from a few picoseconds to thousands of seconds through the transition. Owing to the huge difference between relaxation and vibrational timescales, theoretical studies addressing the underlying rattling process have challenged our understanding of the structural relaxation. Numerical and experimental studies on liquids and glasses support the theories, but not without controversies (for a review see ref. 21). Here we show computer simulations that, when compared with experiments, reveal the universal correlation of the structural relaxation time (as well as the viscosity η) and the rattling amplitude from glassy to low-viscosity states. According to the emerging picture the glass softens when the rattling amplitude exceeds a critical value, in agreement with the Lindemann criterion for the melting of crystalline solids and the free-volume model.
The SPORT-NMR Software: A Tool for Determining Relaxation Times in Unresolved NMR Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geppi, Marco; Forte, Claudia
1999-03-01
A software package which allows the correct determination of individual relaxation times for all the nonequivalent nuclei in poorly resolved NMR spectra is described. The procedure used, based on the fitting of each spectrum in the series recorded in the relaxation experiment, should improve the analysis of relaxation data in terms of quantitative dynamic information, especially in anisotropic phases. Tests on simulated data and experimental examples concerning1H and13CT1ρmeasurement in a solid copolymer and2HT1ZandT1Qmeasurement in a liquid crystal are shown and discussed.
Difference-NMR techniques for selection of components on the basis of relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Douglas J.; de Azevedo, Eduardo R.; Bonagamba, Tito J.
2003-05-01
This work describes a numerical methodology to obtain more efficient relaxation filters to selectively retain or remove components based on relaxation times. The procedure uses linear combinations of spectra with various recycle or filter delays to obtain components that are both quantitative and pure. Modulation profiles are calculated assuming exponential relaxation behavior. The method is general and can be applied to a wide range of solution or solid-state NMR experiments including direct-polarization (DP), or filtered cross-polarization (CP) spectra. 13C NMR experiments on isotactic poly(1-butene) and dimethyl sulfone showed the utility of the technique for selectively suppressing peaks.
Relativistic bulk viscosity in the relaxation time approximation: a chaotic velocities approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garca-Perciante, A. L.; Mndez, A. R.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.
2015-11-01
In this short note, the bulk viscosity for a high temperature dilute gas is calculated by applying the Chapman-Enskog method within Marle's relaxation time approximation. The expression for the stress-tensor established in Ref.[1], using explicitly the concept of chaotic velocity, is used in order to obtain the transport coefficient. The result is compared with previous expressions obtained by other authors using similar methods and emphasis is made on the agreement when a corrected relaxation parameter is considered.
Time Scales in Evolutionary Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roca, Carlos P.; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel
2006-10-01
Evolutionary game theory has traditionally assumed that all individuals in a population interact with each other between reproduction events. We show that eliminating this restriction by explicitly considering the time scales of interaction and selection leads to dramatic changes in the outcome of evolution. Examples include the selection of the inefficient strategy in the Harmony and Stag-Hunt games, and the disappearance of the coexistence state in the Snowdrift game. Our results hold for any population size and in more general situations with additional factors influencing fitness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling
2015-11-01
In this paper, a double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is developed for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. The model uses two different multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equations, one for the flow field and the other for the temperature field with nonlinear latent heat source term. The model is based on the generalized non-Darcy formulation, and the solid-liquid interface is traced through the liquid fraction which is determined by the enthalpy-based method. The present model is validated by numerical simulations of conduction melting in a semi-infinite space, solidification in a semi-infinite corner, and convection melting in a square cavity filled with porous media. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present model for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media.
Zhang, Liqun; Greenfield, Michael L
2007-11-21
Molecular dynamics simulation was used to calculate rotational relaxation time, diffusion coefficient, and zero-shear viscosity for a pure aromatic compound (naphthalene) and for aromatic and aliphatic components in model asphalt systems over a temperature range of 298-443 K. The model asphalt systems were chosen previously to represent real asphalt. Green-Kubo and Einstein methods were used to estimate viscosity at high temperature (443.15 K). Rotational relaxation times were calculated by nonlinear regression of orientation correlation functions to a modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation was used to analyze the temperature dependences of relaxation time, viscosity, and diffusion coefficient. The temperature dependences of viscosity and relaxation time were related using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation, enabling viscosity at low temperatures of two model asphalt systems to be estimated from high temperature (443.15 K) viscosity and temperature-dependent relaxation time results. Semiquantitative accuracy of such an equivalent temperature dependence was found for naphthalene. Diffusion coefficient showed a much smaller temperature dependence for all components in the model asphalt systems. Dimethylnaphthalene diffused the fastest while asphaltene molecules diffused the slowest. Neat naphthalene diffused faster than any component in model asphalts. PMID:18035887
Time and Temperature Dependence of Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation in Gold and Gold Alloy Thin Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mongkolsuttirat, Kittisun
Radio frequency (RF) switches based on capacitive MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) devices have been proposed as replacements for traditional solid-state field effect transistor (FET) devices. However, one of the limitations of the existing capacitive switch designs is long-term reliability. Failure is generally attributed to electrical charging in the capacitor's dielectric layer that creates an attractive electrostatic force between a moving upper capacitor plate (a metal membrane) and the dielectric. This acts as an attractive stiction force between them that may cause the switch to stay permanently in the closed state. The force that is responsible for opening the switch is the elastic restoring force due to stress in the film membrane. If the restoring force decreases over time due to stress relaxation, the tendency for stiction failure behavior will increase. Au films have been shown to exhibit stress relaxation even at room temperature. The stress relaxation observed is a type of viscoelastic behavior that is more significant in thin metal films than in bulk materials. Metal films with a high relaxation resistance would have a lower probability of device failure due to stress relaxation. It has been shown that solid solution and oxide dispersion can strengthen a material without unacceptable decreases in electrical conductivity. In this study, the viscoelastic behavior of Au, AuV solid solution and AuV2O5 dispersion created by DC magnetron sputtering are investigated using the gas pressure bulge testing technique in the temperature range from 20 to 80°C. The effectiveness of the two strengthening approaches is compared with the pure Au in terms of relaxation modulus and 3 hour modulus decay. The time dependent relaxation curves can be fitted very well with a four-term Prony series model. From the temperature dependence of the terms of the series, activation energies have been deduced to identify the possible dominant relaxation mechanism. The measured modulus relaxation of Au films also proves that the films exhibit linear viscoelastic behavior. From this, a linear viscoelastic model is shown to fit very well to experimental steady state stress relaxation data and can predict time dependent stress for complex loading histories including the ability to predict stress-time behavior at other strain rates during loading. Two specific factors that are expected to influence the viscoelastic behavior-degree of alloying and grain size are investigated to explore the influence of V concentration in solid solution and grain size of pure Au. It is found that the normalized modulus of Au films is dependent on both concentration (C) and grain size (D) with proportionalities of C1/3 and D 2, respectively. A quantitative model of the rate-equation for dislocation glide plasticity based on Frost and Ashby is proposed and fitted well with steady state anelastic stress relaxation experimental data. The activation volume and the density of mobile dislocations is determined using repeated stress relaxation tests in order to further understand the viscoelastic relaxation mechanism. A rapid decrease of mobile dislocation density is found at the beginning of relaxation, which correlates well with a large reduction of viscoelastic modulus at the early stage of relaxation. The extracted activation volume and dislocation mobility can be ascribed to mobile dislocation loops with double kinks generated at grain boundaries, consistent with the dislocation mechanism proposed for the low activation energy measured in this study.
Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.
2014-12-14
The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T{sub 2}, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T{sub 2} provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T{sub 2} distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T{sub 2} is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form −ant{sub e}{sup k} (where n is the number and t{sub e} the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T{sub 2} distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.
Mitchell, J; Chandrasekera, T C
2014-12-14
The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ante(k) (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries. PMID:25494741
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.
2014-12-01
The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ant_e^k (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.
ARTICLES: Time-Dependent Stokes Shift from Solvent Dielectric Relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jing; Wang, Quan-de; Zhu, Quan; Fu, Ke-xiang; He, Fu-cheng; Li, Xiang-yuan
2010-06-01
The Stokes shift response function, which is related to the time dependent solvation energy, is calculated with the dielectric response function and a novel expression of nonequilibrium solvation energy. In the derivation, relationship between the polarization and the dielectric response function is used. With the dipole-in-a-sphere model applied to the system coumarin 343 and water as the solvent, encouraging agreement with the experimental data from Jimenez et al. is obtained [Nature 369, 471 (1994)].
Kaminski, K.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M.; Kaminska, E.
2011-06-15
Time-dependent isothermal dielectric measurements were carried out deeply in the glassy state on two very important saccharides: sucrose and trehalose. In both compounds two prominent secondary relaxation processes were identified. The faster one is an inherent feature of the whole family of carbohydrates. The slower one can also be detected in oligo- and polysaccharides. It was shown earlier that the {beta} process is the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation coupled to motions of the glycosidic linkage, while the {gamma} relaxation originates from motions of the exocyclic hydroxymethyl unit. Recently, it was shown that the JG relaxation process can be used to determine structural relaxation times in the glassy state [R. Casalini and C. M. Roland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 035701 (2009)]. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of the data obtained during aging using two independent approaches. The first was proposed by Casalini and Roland, and the second one is based on the variation of the dielectric strength of the secondary relaxation process during aging [J. K. Vij and G. Power, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 783 (2011)]. Surprisingly, we found that the estimated structural relaxation times in the glassy state of both saccharides are almost the same, independent of the type of secondary mode. This finding calls into question the common view that secondary modes of intramolecular origin do not provide information about the dynamics of the glassy state.
A modified multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2014-10-01
A modified lattice Boltzmann model with multiple relaxation times (MRT) for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) is proposed. By modifying the relaxation matrix, as well as choosing the corresponding equilibrium distribution function properly, the present model can recover the CDE with anisotropic diffusion coefficient with no deviation term even when the velocity vector varies generally with space or time through the Chapman-Enskog analysis. This model is firstly validated by simulating the diffusion of a Gaussian hill, which demonstrates it can handle the anisotropic diffusion problem correctly. Then it is adopted to calculate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of the Taylo-Aris dispersion. Numerical results show that the present model can further reduce the numerical error under the condition of non-zero velocity vector, especially when the dimensionless relaxation time is relatively large.
Conductivity and relaxation time of porous silicon using the Kramers-Kronig relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dariani, R. S.; Tavakoli, F.
2015-01-01
To review the dielectric characteristics of porous silicon samples with various porosities, an equivalent circuit including a capacitor and parallel resistance was used. By applying AC voltage with a constant amplitude of 200 mV to the circuit and using impedance measurements of the samples between 10-100 KHz, the variations in the capacitance, dielectric function, refractive index, and resistance for the samples at room temperature and up to 350 °C were studied. The dielectric characteristics of the samples decreased with increasing frequency. In addition, with increasing temperature, the pore diameters increased, and the dielectric characteristics varied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the relaxation time and DC conductivity could be obtained using the Kramers-Kronig function and Hilbert transformation. Our results indicate that the relaxation time and DC conductivity increase with increasing porosity, and with increasing temperature, the relaxation time decreases and the DC conductivity increases.
Only through perturbation can relaxation times be estimated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr
2012-11-01
Estimation of model parameters is as important as model building, but is often neglected in model studies. Here we show that despite the existence of well known results on parameter estimation in a simple homogenous Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in most practical situations the methods suffer greatly from finite sample sizes and especially the estimator of the time constant of the system is degraded. Therefore an alternative solution is of paramount importance. We present such a solution based on perturbation of the system, observing trajectories far from equilibrium. The results are illustrated on computer experiments based on applications in neuroscience and pharmacokinetics, which show a striking improvement of the quality of estimation. The results are important for judicious designs of experiments to obtain maximal information from each data point, especially when samples are expensive or difficult to obtain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang; Ai, Tinghua; Stoter, Jantien; Zhao, Xi
2014-06-01
The aim of matching spatial data at different map scales is to find corresponding objects at different levels of detail (LODs) that represent the same real-world phenomena. This is a prerequisite for integrating, evaluating and updating spatial data collected and maintained at various scales. However, matching spatial data is not straightforward due to the ambiguities caused by problems like many-to-many correspondence, non-systematic displacement and different LODs between data sets. This paper proposes an approach to matching areal objects (e.g. buildings) based on relaxation labeling techniques widely applied in pattern recognition and computer vision. The underlying idea is to utilize contextual information (quantified by compatibility coefficient) in an iterative process, where the ambiguities are reduced until a consistent matching is achieved. This paper describes (1) a domain-specific extension to previous relaxation schemes and (2) a new compatibility coefficient that exploits relative relationships between areal object pairs in spatial data. Our approach were validated through extensive experiments using building data sets at 1:10k and 1:50k as an example. Our contextual approach showed superior performance against a non-contextual approach in general and especially in ambiguous situations. The proposed approach can also be applied to matching other areal features and/or for a different scale range.
Relaxation-time limit in the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yeping; Zhou, Zhiming
2015-05-01
In this paper, we consider the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems, which model various physical phenomena in semiconductor devices, plasmas and channel proteins. We mainly study the relaxation-time limit of the initial value problem for the bipolar full Euler-Poisson equations with well-prepared initial data. Inspired by the Maxwell iteration, we construct the different approximation states for the case ?? = 1 and ? = 1, respectively, and show that periodic initial-value problems of the certain scaled bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems in the case ?? = 1 and ? = 1 have unique smooth solutions in the time interval where the classical energy transport equation and the drift-diffusive equation have smooth solution. Moreover, it is also obtained that the smooth solutions converge to those of energy-transport models at the rate of ?2 and those of the drift-diffusive models at the rate of ?, respectively. The proof of these results is based on the continuation principle and the error estimates.
Direct Visualization of Short Transverse Relaxation Time Component (ViSTa)
Oh, Se-Hong; Bilello, Michel; Schindler, Matthew; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Detre, John A.; Lee, Jongho
2013-01-01
White matter of the brain has been demonstrated to have multiple relaxation components. Among them, the short transverse relaxation time component (T2 < 40 ms; T2* < 25 ms at 3T) has been suggested to originate from myelin water whereas long transverse relaxation time components have been associated with axonal and/or interstitial water. In myelin water imaging, T2 or T2* signal decay is measured to estimate myelin water fraction based on T2 or T2* differences among the water components. This method has been demonstrated to be sensitive to demyelination in the brain but suffers from low SNR and image artifacts originating from ill-conditioned multi-exponential fitting. In this study, a novel approach that selectively acquires short transverse relaxation time signal is proposed. The method utilizes a double inversion RF pair to suppress a range of long T1 signal. This suppression leaves short T2* signal, which has been suggested to have short T1, as the primary source of the image. The experimental results confirms that after suppression of long T1 signals, the image is dominated by short T2* in the range of myelin water, allowing us to directly visualize the short transverse relaxation time component in the brain. Compared to conventional myelin water imaging, this new method of direct visualization of short relaxation time component (ViSTa) provides high quality images. When applied to multiple sclerosis patients, chronic lesions show significantly reduced signal intensity in ViSTa images suggesting sensitivity to demyelination. PMID:23796545
The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.
1986-01-01
Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.
A multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for high-speed compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kai; Zhong, Cheng-Wen
2015-05-01
This paper presents a coupling compressible model of the lattice Boltzmann method. In this model, the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme is used for the evolution of density distribution functions, whereas the modified single-relaxation-time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann scheme is applied for the evolution of potential energy distribution functions. The governing equations are discretized with the third-order Monotone Upwind Schemes for scalar conservation laws finite volume scheme. The choice of relaxation coefficients is discussed simply. Through the numerical simulations, it is found that compressible flows with strong shocks can be well simulated by present model. The numerical results agree well with the reference results and are better than that of the SRT version. Project supported by the Innovation Fund for Aerospace Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2009200066) and the Aeronautical Science Fund of China (Grant No. 20111453012).
Pinning field distribution and relaxation time of domain wall in 2605CO Metglas
Kim, D.Y.; Kim, C.G.; Ahn, S.J.; Kim, H.C.
1999-09-01
The pinning field H{sub p} is obtained from the discontinuous variation of permeability according to ac magnetic field amplitude. The probability distribution of pinning field P(H{sub p}) in 2605CO Metglas ribbon of as-quenched state shows a Gaussian distribution, indicating that the pinning sites with different pinning field are randomly distributed. The permeability spectra for pinned state of domain wall are caused by the pure rotational magnetization with 1 MHz relaxation frequency. For the magnetization overcoming the pinning field, the permeability spectra are superposition of rotational magnetization and wall displacement. The average pinning field and relaxation time of wall displacement decrease with the magnetizing angle from ribbon axis, and the relaxation times are found to be exponentially proportional to the average pinning field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revil, A.; Binley, A.; Mejus, L.; Kessouri, P.
2015-08-01
Low-frequency quadrature conductivity spectra of siliclastic materials exhibit typically a characteristic relaxation time, which either corresponds to the peak frequency of the phase or the quadrature conductivity or a typical corner frequency, at which the quadrature conductivity starts to decrease rapidly toward lower frequencies. This characteristic relaxation time can be combined with the (intrinsic) formation factor and a diffusion coefficient to predict the permeability to flow of porous materials at saturation. The intrinsic formation factor can either be determined at several salinities using an electrical conductivity model or at a single salinity using a relationship between the surface and quadrature conductivities. The diffusion coefficient entering into the relationship between the permeability, the characteristic relaxation time, and the formation factor takes only two distinct values for isothermal conditions. For pure silica, the diffusion coefficient of cations, like sodium or potassium, in the Stern layer is equal to the diffusion coefficient of these ions in the bulk pore water, indicating weak sorption of these couterions. For clayey materials and clean sands and sandstones whose surface have been exposed to alumina (possibly iron), the diffusion coefficient of the cations in the Stern layer appears to be 350 times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of the same cations in the pore water. These values are consistent with the values of the ionic mobilities used to determine the amplitude of the low and high-frequency quadrature conductivities and surface conductivity. The database used to test the model comprises a total of 202 samples. Our analysis reveals that permeability prediction with the proposed model is usually within an order of magnitude from the measured value above 0.1 mD. We also discuss the relationship between the different time constants that have been considered in previous works as characteristic relaxation time, including the mean relaxation time obtained from a Debye decomposition of the spectra and the Cole-Cole time constant.
Hot-electron energy relaxation time in Ga-doped ZnO films
Šermukšnis, E. Liberis, J.; Ramonas, M.; Matulionis, A.; Toporkov, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.
2015-02-14
Hot-electron energy relaxation time is deduced for Ga-doped ZnO epitaxial layers from pulsed hot-electron noise measurements at room temperature. The relaxation time increases from ∼0.17 ps to ∼1.8 ps when the electron density increases from 1.4 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 1.3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. A local minimum is resolved near an electron density of 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. The longest energy relaxation time (1.8 ps), observed at the highest electron density, is in good agreement with the published values obtained by optical time-resolved luminescence and absorption experiments. Monte Carlo simulations provide a qualitative interpretation of our observations if hot-phonon accumulation is taken into account. The local minimum of the electron energy relaxation time is explained by the ultrafast plasmon-assisted decay of hot phonons in the vicinity of the plasmon–LO-phonon resonance.
Scaling and alpha-helix regulation of protein relaxation in a lipid bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Cheng, Kwan Hon; Vaughn, Mark W.
2014-12-01
Protein conformation and orientation in the lipid membrane plays a key role in many cellular processes. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the relaxation and C-terminus diffusion of a model helical peptide: beta-amyloid (Aβ) in a lipid membrane. We observed that after the helical peptide was initially half-embedded in the extracelluar leaflet of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or PC/cholesterol (PC/CHOL) membrane, the C-terminus diffused across the membrane and anchored to PC headgroups of the cytofacial lipid leaflet. In some cases, the membrane insertion domain of the Aβ was observed to partially unfold. Applying a sigmoidal fit to the process, we found that the characteristic velocity of the C-terminus, as it moved to its anchor site, scaled with θu-4/3, where θu is the fraction of the original helix that was lost during a helix to coil transition. Comparing this scaling with that of bead-spring models of polymer relaxation suggests that the C-terminus velocity is highly regulated by the peptide helical content, but that it is independent of the amino acid type. The Aβ was stabilized by the attachment of the positive Lys28 side chain to the negative phosphate of PC or 3β oxygen of CHOL in the extracellular lipid leaflet and of the C-terminus to its anchor site in the cytofacial lipid leaflet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jaswinder
2013-12-01
The analysis of a three-dimensional (3-D) wavelength/time/space (W-T-S) asynchronous optical CDMA code family is presented considering MAI only under relaxed cross-correlation (λc ⩾ 1). Based on the code performance, it is shown that for code-limited systems (when W and/or T are non-prime), the number of generated codes and hence the supported users can be significantly increased by relaxing the cross-correlation constraint if a slight degradation in code performance can be tolerated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanxiang; Chen, Yu; Li, Mei; Yan, Mufu; Ni, Meng; Xia, Changrong
2016-03-01
A new Tikhonov regularization approach without adjusting parameters is proposed for reconstructing distribution of relaxation time (DRT). It is capable of eliminating the pseudo peaks and capturing discontinuities in the DRT, making it feasible to resolve the number and the nature of electrochemical processes without making assumptions.
Enhancement of spin relaxation time in hydrogenated graphene spin-valve devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wojtaszek, M.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Maassen, T.; van Wees, B. J.
2013-02-01
Hydrogen adsorbates in graphene are interesting as they are not only strong Coulomb scatterers, but they also induce a change in orbital hybridization of the carbon network from sp2 into sp3. This change increases the spin-orbit coupling and is expected to largely modify spin relaxation. In this work, we report the change in spin transport properties of graphene due to plasma hydrogenation. We observe an up to threefold increase of spin relaxation time τS after moderate hydrogen exposure. This increase of τS is accompanied by the decrease of charge and spin diffusion coefficients, resulting in a minor change in spin relaxation length λS. At high carrier density, we obtain λS of 7 μm, which allows for spin detection over a distance of 11 μm. After hydrogenation, a value of τS as high as 2.7 ns is measured at room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimavicius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Balevicius, Vytautas
2014-11-01
NMR relaxation processes of anions were studied in two neat imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide- and chloride. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of 81Br and 35Cl nuclei were found to be extremely fast due to very strong quadrupolar interactions. The determined relaxation rates are comparable with those observed in the solids or in some critical organic solute/water/salt systems. In order to eliminate the acoustic ringing of the probe-head during relaxation times measurements the novel pulse sequence has been devised. It is based on the conventional inversion recovery pulse sequence, however, instead of the last 90° pulse the subsequence of three 90° pulses applied along axes to fulfill the phase cycling condition is used. Using this pulse sequence it was possible to measure T1 for both studied nuclei. The viscosity measurements have been carried out and the rotational correlation times were calculated. The effective 35Cl quadrupolar coupling constant was found to be almost one order lower than that for 81Br, i.e. 1.8 MHz and 16.0 MHz, respectively. Taking into account the facts that the ratio of (Q(35Cl)/Q(81Br))2 ≈ 0.1 and EFG tensors on the anions are quite similar, analogous structural organizations are expected for both RTILs. The observed T1/T2 (1.27-1.44) ratios were found to be not sufficiently high to confirm the presence of long-living (on the time scale of ⩾10-8 s) mesoscopic structures or heterogeneities in the studied neat ionic liquids.
Klimavicius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Balevicius, Vytautas
2014-11-11
NMR relaxation processes of anions were studied in two neat imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide- and chloride. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of 81Br and 35Cl nuclei were found to be extremely fast due to very strong quadrupolar interactions. The determined relaxation rates are comparable with those observed in the solids or in some critical organic solute/water/salt systems. In order to eliminate the acoustic ringing of the probe-head during relaxation times measurements the novel pulse sequence has been devised. It is based on the conventional inversion recovery pulse sequence, however, instead of the last 90° pulse the subsequence of three 90° pulses applied along axes to fulfill the phase cycling condition is used. Using this pulse sequence it was possible to measure T1 for both studied nuclei. The viscosity measurements have been carried out and the rotational correlation times were calculated. The effective 35Cl quadrupolar coupling constant was found to be almost one order lower than that for 81Br, i.e. 1.8 MHz and 16.0 MHz, respectively. Taking into account the facts that the ratio of (Q(35Cl)/Q(81Br))2≈0.1 and EFG tensors on the anions are quite similar, analogous structural organizations are expected for both RTILs. The observed T1/T2 (1.27-1.44) ratios were found to be not sufficiently high to confirm the presence of long-living (on the time scale of ≥10(-8) s) mesoscopic structures or heterogeneities in the studied neat ionic liquids. PMID:24938418
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evenson, Z.; Naleway, S. E.; Wei, S.; Gross, O.; Kruzic, J. J.; Gallino, I.; Possart, W.; Stommel, M.; Busch, R.
2014-05-01
The slow β relaxation is understood to be a universal feature of glassy dynamics. Its presence in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is evidence of a broad relaxation time spectrum that extends to deep within the glassy state. Despite the breadth of research devoted to this phenomenon, its microscopic origin is still not fully understood. The low-temperature aging behavior and atomic structural rearrangements of a Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3 BMG are investigated in the regime of the slow β relaxation by employing an ensemble of experimental techniques such as high-intensity synchrotron x-ray scattering, modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), impulse excitation, and dilatometry. Evidence of a distinct slow β-relaxation regime is seen in the form of (1) an excess wing of the DMA loss modulus beginning at ˜50 ∘C, (2) a crossover effect of elastic modulus with isothermal aging at 50∘C, and (3) a broad, nonreversing and largely irreversible sub-Tg endotherm in the MDSC results. Atomic rearrangements occurring at the onset of the measured slow β-relaxation temperature regime were found to be confined mainly to the short-range order length scale while no significant atomic rearrangements occur on the length scale of the medium-range order. Furthermore, evidence is presented that suggests the crossover effect in Young's modulus is due to the evolution of chemical short-range order. These results support the emergent picture of a dynamically heterogeneous glassy structure, in which low-temperature relaxation occurs through atomic rearrangements confined mostly to the short-range order length scale.
Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria
Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.
Relaxation times of the two-phonon processes with spin-flip and spin-conserving in quantum dots
Wang, Zi-Wu; Liu, Lei; Li, Shu-Shen
2014-04-07
We perform a theoretical investigation on the two-phonon processes of the spin-flip and spin-conserving relaxation in quantum dots in the frame of the Huang-Rhys' lattice relaxation model. We find that the relaxation time of the spin-flip is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the spin-conserving, which is in agreement with previous experimental measurements. Moreover, the opposite variational trends of the relaxation time as a function of the energy separation for two-phonon processes are obtained in different temperature regime. The relaxation times display the oscillatory behaviors at the demarcation point with increasing magnetic field, where the energy separation matches the optical phonon energy and results in the optical phonon resonance. These results are useful in understanding the intraband levels' relaxation in quantum dots and could be helpful in designing photoelectric and spin-memory devices.
Stability of Rasch Scales over Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun
2010-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…
Surface NMR measurement of proton relaxation times in medium to coarse-grained sand aquifer.
Shushakov, O A
1996-01-01
A surface NMR investigation of groundwater in the geomagnetic field is under study. To detect the surface NMR a wire loop with a diameter of about 100 m, being an antenna for both an exciting field source and the NMR signal receiver, is laid out on the ground. A sinusoidal current pulse with a rectangular envelope is passed through the loop to excite the NMR signal. The carrier frequency of the oscillating current in this pulse is equal to the Larmor frequency of protons in the Earth's magnetic field. The current amplitude is changed up to 200 amps and the pulse duration is fixed and is equal to 40 ms. The exciting pulse is followed by an induction emf signal caused by the Larmor nuclear precession in geomagnetic field. The relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* were measured by the surface NMR for both groundwater in medium to coarse-grained sand at borehole and for bulk water under the ice surface of frozen lake. To determine T1, a longitudinal interference in experiments with repeated pulses was measured. A sequence with equal period between equal excitation pulses was used. The relaxation times T1, T2, measured for bulk water under the ice of the Ob reservoir were 1.0 s and 0.7 s, respectively. To estimate an influence of dissolved oxygen T1 of the same water at the same temperature was measured by lab NMR with and without pumping of oxygen. The relaxation time T1 measured for water in the medium to coarse-grained sand is 0.65 s. The relaxation time T2 estimated by spin echo sequence is found to be equal to 0.15 s. The relaxation time T2* is found to be about 80 ms. This result contradicts published earlier phenomenological correlation between relaxation time T2* and grain size of water-bearing rock. This could be as a result of unsound approach based on grain size or influence of paramagnetic impurities. PMID:8970122
Assink, Roger Alan; Mowery, Daniel Michael; Celina, Mathias Christopher
2004-09-01
Solid-state {sup 1}H NMR relaxometry studies were conducted on a hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based polyurethane elastomer thermo-oxidatively aged at 80 C. The {sup 1}H T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, and T{sub 1{rho}} relaxation times of samples thermally aged for various periods of time were determined as a function of NMR measurement temperature. The response of each measurement was calculated from a best-fit linear function of the relaxation time vs. aging time. It was found that the T{sub 2,H} and T{sub 1{rho},H} relaxation times exhibited the largest response to thermal degradation, whereas T{sub 1,H} showed minimal change. All of the NMR relaxation measurements on solid samples showed significantly less sensitivity to thermal aging than the T{sub 2,H} relaxation times of solvent-swollen samples.
Introduction to the time scale problem
Voter, A. F.
2002-01-01
As motivation for the symposium on extended-scale atomistic methods, I briefly discuss the time scale problem that plagues molecular dynamics simulations, some promising recent developments for circumventing the problem, and some remaining challenges.
Relationships between induced polarization relaxation time and hydraulic properties of sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, Konstantin; Tarasov, Andrey; Ilyin, Yuri; Seleznev, Nikita; Boyd, Austin
2010-03-01
We investigated electrical and physical-chemical properties of six sandstone samples with contrasting mineralogical characteristics and with hydraulic conductivity varying in a wide range. The electrical data were obtained from time domain spectral induced polarization (IP) measurements. We inverted the IP decays to relaxation time distributions, and then compared the modal relaxation times with the dominant pore throat diameters obtained from the Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) data. We found a positive logarithmic relationship between the relaxation time and the pore throat diameter. Also, we found the normalized chargeability (an integral IP parameter) to be positively correlated with the clay content. These two results suggest that the polarization of our sandstones is controlled by the pore throat distribution, and by the clay content. The logarithmic relationship contradicts previous theories, and is not universal. Adopting an approach of Kruschwitz and her co-workers, we calculated the effective diffusivity from IP and MICP data, and we found the effective diffusivity values ranging from 2.9 10-13 to 1.6 10-10 m2s-1. High diffusivity values, typical of surface diffusion, were obtained for clean sandstones. Low diffusivity values were obtained for clayey sandstones, and they were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those characteristic of the surface diffusion. We proposed two mechanisms to explain the `slow' diffusion: (1) the effect of surface tortuosity of pore throats filled with clay minerals and (2) the effect of pore geometry. These two effects represent an obstacle in assessing the pore throat diameter and hydraulic conductivity of sandstones with large specific surface and clay content on the basis of spectral IP measurements. However, we believe that the sandstones featuring `slow' diffusion can be discriminated based on the integral polarization parameters, and that the relaxation time remains a valuable parameter for assessing hydraulic properties of clean sandstones.
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation-time reduction in small particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabbani, S. R.; Edmonds, D. T.
1994-09-01
A method is described of reducing the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time in a polycrystalline solid without the introduction of any paramagnetic impurities. It relies on the fact that the relaxation times of nuclei on a surface are usually much shorter than those in the bulk due to greater freedom of movement. Simply reducing the particle size by grinding or other methods is shown to be effective in markedly reducing the spin-lattice relaxation time of all the nuclei in the specimen because of the good thermal contact between like nuclei in the interior and surface of small particles. The nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N, 2D, or 23Na was measured for the same specimens with different particle sizes by nuclear quadrupole double resonance to ensure that the chemical structure of the compound did not alter due to the grinding. In all samples studied, except sodium thiosulphate, the NQR spectrum was unaffected by the grinding except that the time necessary to collect the data was reduced. In the case of sodium thiosulphate a marked change in the NQR spectrum was observed despite the fact that no change in chemical composition could be detected. Data is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of the technique and a simple model of the underlying mechanism is described.
Estimation of stress relaxation time for normal and abnormal breast phantoms using optical technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.
2015-03-01
Many of the early occurring micro-anomalies in breast may transform into a deadliest cancer tumor in future. Probability of curing early occurring abnormalities in breast is more if rightly identified. Even in mammogram, considered as a golden standard technique for breast imaging, it is hard to pick up early occurring changes in the breast tissue due to the difference in mechanical behavior of the normal and abnormal tissue when subjected to compression prior to x-ray or laser exposure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the stress relaxation time of normal and abnormal breast mimicking phantom using laser speckle image correlation. Phantoms mimicking normal breast is prepared and subjected to precise mechanical compression. The phantom is illuminated by a Helium Neon laser and by using a CCD camera, a sequence of strained phantom speckle images are captured and correlated by the image mean intensity value at specific time intervals. From the relation between mean intensity versus time, tissue stress relaxation time is quantified. Experiments were repeated for phantoms with increased stiffness mimicking abnormal tissue for similar ranges of applied loading. Results shows that phantom with more stiffness representing abnormal tissue shows uniform relaxation for varying load of the selected range, whereas phantom with less stiffness representing normal tissue shows irregular behavior for varying loadings in the given range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spodick, D. H.; Quarry, V. M.; Khan, A. H.
1974-01-01
Systolic and diastolic time intervals in 14 cardiac patients with pulsus alternans revealed significant alternation of preinjection period (PEP), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), ejection time index (ETI), PEP/LVET, and carotid dD/dt with better functional values in the strong beats. Cycle length, duration of electromechanical systole (EMS) and total diastole, i.e., isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) and diastolic filling period (DFP) occurred in 7 out of 8 patients. These diastolic intervals alternated reciprocally such that the IRP of the strong beats encroached upon the DFP of the next (weak) beats.
The Study of Water's Interaction With PEG-DM hydrogels through T1 relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Joseph; Maneval, James; Jeblonski, Erin
2007-10-01
Polyethylene glycol(PEG), a hydrophilic polymer, is different then poly-propelene glycol(PPG) and polymethylene glycol(PMG) which are hydrophobic. Study of this difference was carried out by empirically determining how water interacts with PEG using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer to measure T1 relaxation times of water with PEG-dimethacrylate(PEG-DM) hydrogels. The PEG-DM hydrogels were synthesized in a two part reaction involving attaching methacrylic acid to the two ends of the polymer, then cross-linking vinyl groups of the methacylic acid to form a linked matrix of all the PEG-DM molecules. The presentation will cover how the measurements were taken, what can be learned from the T1 relaxation times, and what future studies will entail.
The T1 ρ13C spin-lattice relaxation time of helical polyguanidines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, A. R.; Stewart, J. R.; Novak, B. M.
1999-03-01
The solid state dynamics of three helical polyguanidines differing only in their stereochemistry was investigated by 13C CP/MAS NMR. From these studies, the structures of the polyguanidines were confirmed, and the 13C spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame were measured. The relaxation times of all the polyguanidines indicated that they undergo fast motions, i.e. motions on the fast side of the T1 ρ minimum. The main chain carbon of polyguanidine I-( R/ S), with equal amounts of ( R) and ( S) chiral side chains, has higher activation energy, 10.7 kJ/mol, than the analogous polymers with enantiomerically pure side chains ( I-( R) and I-( S)), 5.1 kJ/mol.
Driscoll, J.R. ); Gabow, H.N.; Shrairman, R. ); Tarjan, R.E. )
1988-11-01
The relaxed heap is a priority queue data structure that achieves the same amortized time bounds as the Fibonacci heap - a sequence of m decrease key and n delete min operations takes time O(m + n log n). A variant of relaxed heaps achieves similar bounds in the worst case - O(1) time for decrease key and O(log n) for delete min. Relaxed heaps give a processor-efficient parallel implementation of Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, and hence other algorithms in network optimization. A relaxed heap is a type of binomial queue that allows heap order to be violated.
Effects of formalin fixation and temperature on MR relaxation times in the human brain.
Birkl, Christoph; Langkammer, Christian; Golob-Schwarzl, Nicole; Leoni, Marlene; Haybaeck, Johannes; Goessler, Walter; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan
2016-04-01
Post-mortem MRI of the brain is increasingly applied in neuroscience for a better understanding of the contrast mechanisms of disease induced tissue changes. However, the influence of chemical processes caused by formalin fixation and differences in temperature may hamper the comparability with results from in vivo MRI. In this study we investigated how formalin fixation and temperature affect T1 , T2 and T2 * relaxation times of brain tissue. Fixation effects were examined with respect to changes in water content and crosslinking. Relaxometry was performed in brain slices from five deceased subjects at different temperatures. All measurements were repeated after 190 days of formaldehyde immersion. The water content of unfixed and fixed tissue was determined using the wet-to-dry ratio following drying. Protein weight was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Fixation caused a strong decrease of all relaxation times, the strongest effect being seen on T1 , with a reduction of up to 76%. The temperature coefficient of T1 was lower in the fixed than unfixed tissue, which was in contrast to T2 , where an increase of the temperature coefficient was observed following fixation. The reduction of the water content after fixation was in the range of 1-6% and thus not sufficient to explain the changes in relaxation time. Results from SDS-PAGE indicated a strong increase of the protein size above 260 kDa in all brain structures examined. Our results suggest that crosslinking induced changes of the macromolecular matrix are responsible for T1 shortening and a decreased temperature dependency. The relaxation times provided in this work should allow optimization of post-mortem MRI protocols for the brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26835664
In-vivo T2-relaxation times of asymptomatic cervical intervertebral discs.
Driscoll, Sean J; Zhong, Weiye; Torriani, Martin; Mao, Haiqing; Wood, Kirkham B; Cha, Thomas D; Li, Guoan
2016-03-01
Limited research exists on T2-mapping techniques for cervical intervertebral discs and its potential clinical utility. The objective of this research was to investigate the in-vivo T2-relaxation times of cervical discs, including C2-C3 through C7-T1. Ten asymptomatic subjects were imaged using a 3.0T MR scanner and a sagittal multi-slice multi-echo sequence. Using the mid-sagittal image, intervertebral discs were divided into five regions-of-interest (ROIs), centered along the mid-line of the disc. Average T2 relaxation time values were calculated for each ROI using a mono-exponential fit. Differences in T2 values between disc levels and across ROIs of the same disc were examined. For a given ROI, the results showed a trend of increasing relaxation times moving down the spinal column, particularly in the middle regions (ROIs 2, 3 and 4). The C6-C7 and C7-T1 discs had significantly greater T2 values compared to superior discs (discs between C2 and C6). The results also showed spatial homogeneity of T2 values in the C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6 discs, while C2-C3, C6-C7, and C7-T1 showed significant differences between ROIs. The findings indicate there may be inherent differences in T2-relaxation time properties between different cervical discs. Clinical evaluations utilizing T2-mapping techniques in the cervical spine may need to be level-dependent. PMID:26643385
Multiple-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method for the finite Knudsen number region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szalmás, L.
2007-06-01
A multiple-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model discretized with second order trapezoid rule in a coherent framework is presented for the finite Knudsen number region. Combination of bounce back and specular reflection boundary condition is implemented at the walls, which gives tunable second order slip coefficient as it is shown by the analysis of the boundary condition. Plane channel flow is simulated in good agreement with the analytical derivation and predictions, which demonstrates the applicability of the present approach for microfluidic applications.
T2 Relaxation Time Quantitation Differs Between Pulse Sequences in Articular Cartilage
Matzat, Stephen J.; McWalter, Emily J.; Kogan, Feliks; Chen, Weitian; Gold, Garry E.
2015-01-01
Background To compare T2 relaxation time measurements between MR pulse sequences at 3 Tesla in agar phantoms and in vivo patellar, femoral, and tibial articular cartilage. Methods T2 relaxation times were quantified in phantoms and knee articular cartilage of eight healthy individuals using a single echo spin echo (SE) as a reference standard and five other pulse sequences: multi-echo SE (MESE), fast SE (2D-FSE), magnetization-prepared spoiled gradient echo (3D-MAPSS), three-dimensional (3D) 3D-FSE with variable refocusing flip angle schedules (3D vfl-FSE), and quantitative double echo steady state (qDESS). Cartilage was manually segmented and average regional T2 relaxation times were obtained for each sequence. A regression analysis was carried out between each sequence and the reference standard, and root-mean-square error (RMSE) was calculated. Results Phantom measurements from all sequences demonstrated strong fits (R2>0.8; P<0.05). For in vivo cartilage measurements, R2 values, slope, and RMSE were: MESE: 0.25/0.42/5.0 ms, 2D-FSE: 0.64/1.31/9.3 ms, 3D-MAPSS: 0.51/0.66/3.8 ms, 3D vfl-FSE: 0.30/ 0.414.2 ms, qDESS: 0.60/0.90/4.6 ms. Conclusion 2D-FSE, qDESS, and 3D-MAPSS demonstrated the best fits with SE measurements as well as the greatest dynamic ranges. The 3D-MAPSS, 3D vfl-FSE, and qDESS demonstrated the closest average measurements to SE. Discrepancies in T2 relaxation time quantitation between sequences suggest that care should be taken when comparing results between studies. PMID:25244647
What controls the relaxation time? Lessons learnt from simple liquids' quasiuniversality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyre, Jeppe
2013-03-01
The relaxation time of a supercooled liquid is extremely temperature and density dependent, approaching hours upon cooling or compression. Is this quantity controlled by the entropy, is it controlled by high-frequency elastic properties as assumed in the shoving and related elastic models, or by another physical property? It is far from certain that there is a simple and generally valid answer to this question for glass-forming liquids with quite different chemistry, but as physicists we like to think that this is the case. The talk summarizes recent results on the quasiuniversality of simple liquids, where a simple liquid is defined as a system with strong virial / potential-energy correlations in the equilibrium NVT fluctuations. Such systems, which include e.g. the Lennard-Jones liquid, have good isomorphs. An isomorph is a curve in the phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and some thermodynamic properties in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. It was recently conjectured that simple liquids have almost the same isomorphs in the sense that these systems are characterized by a quasiuniversal one-parameter family of reduced-coordinate constant-potential-energy manifolds encoding all isomorph invariants. The entropy is the logarithm of the area of this manifold and the high-frequency elastic properties are basically the surface's curvature. Since the relaxation time is also encoded in the manifold, both quantities will appear to ``control'' the relaxation time, as will any isomorph invariant.
Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.
2014-01-01
The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ˜42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.
Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules
Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.
2014-01-21
The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.
Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules.
Li, Derek D; Greenfield, Michael L
2014-01-21
The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion. PMID:25669400
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkinson, Iain; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Mikosch, Jochen; Bertrand, Julien B.; Wörner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, David M.; Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Stolow, Albert
2014-05-01
The excited state dynamics of isolated sulfur dioxide molecules have been investigated using the time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. Excited state wavepackets were prepared in the spectroscopically complex, electronically mixed ({tildeB})1B1/(Ã)1A2, Clements manifold following broadband excitation at a range of photon energies between 4.03 eV and 4.28 eV (308 nm and 290 nm, respectively). The resulting wavepacket dynamics were monitored using a multiphoton ionisation probe. The extensive literature associated with the Clements bands has been summarised and a detailed time domain description of the ultrafast relaxation pathways occurring from the optically bright ({tildeB})1B1 diabatic state is presented. Signatures of the oscillatory motion on the ({tildeB})1B1/(Ã)1A2 lower adiabatic surface responsible for the Clements band structure were observed. The recorded spectra also indicate that a component of the excited state wavepacket undergoes intersystem crossing from the Clements manifold to the underlying triplet states on a sub-picosecond time scale. Photoelectron signal growth time constants have been predominantly associated with intersystem crossing to the ({tildec})3B2 state and were measured to vary between 750 and 150 fs over the implemented pump photon energy range. Additionally, pump beam intensity studies were performed. These experiments highlighted parallel relaxation processes that occurred at the one- and two-pump-photon levels of excitation on similar time scales, obscuring the Clements band dynamics when high pump beam intensities were implemented. Hence, the Clements band dynamics may be difficult to disentangle from higher order processes when ultrashort laser pulses and less-differential probe techniques are implemented.
Long-time stress relaxation of a filled elastomer in vacuum environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ward, T. C.
1981-01-01
Samples of a filled elastomeric ablative material were stored at 45 C and 10 to the -6th torr for 7 months. Their tensile stress-relaxation modulus at constant strain was measured throughout the 7 months. Results of the testing are discussed primarily by comparisons of the data to atmospheric-pressure moduli (determined in this work for shorter periods of time) and with moduli predicted from short-time testing. Confirmation of the strengthening effects of vacuum on this composite was obtained. The use of time-temperature superposition techniques as an approximate accelerated testing procedure for this material under these conditions was also verified.
de Julian, C.; Emura, M.; Cebollada, F.; Gonzalez, J.M.
1996-12-01
We present magnetic relaxation data of PrNdFeB magnets. These data were obtained by measuring the time evolution of the magnetization under constant applied demagnetizing fields. The results corresponding to fields far from the range of the coercive force evidenced a nonmonotonic time variation of the magnetization. We propose that the occurrence of magnetic interactions underlies the observed anomalous behavior. This idea is checked through a micromagnetic simulation of the time evolution of the magnetization of a low field reversed nucleus which is exchange and magnetostically coupled to the main hard phase. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Estimates of expansion time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, E. M.
Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy.
Shores, D.A.; Stout, J.H.; Gerberich, W.W.
1993-06-01
This report summarizes a three-year study of stresses arising in the oxide scale and underlying metal during high temperature oxidation and of scale cracking. In-situ XRD was developed to measure strains during oxidation over 1000{degrees}C on pure metals. Acoustic emission was used to observe scale fracture during isothermal oxidation and cooling, and statistical analysis was used to infer mechanical aspects of cracking. A microscratch technique was used to measure the fracture toughness of scale/metal interface. A theoretical model was evaluated for the development and relaxation of stresses in scale and metal substrate during oxidation.
Phonon induced spin relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsueh, Yuling; Buch, Holger; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Simmons, Michelle; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib
2014-03-01
The phonon induced relaxation times (T1) of electron spins bound to single phosphorous (P) donors and P donor clusters in silicon is computed using the atomistic tight-binding method. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian is directly computed from the strain dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian, and the relaxation time is computed from Fermi's Golden Rule using the donor states and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian. The self-consistent Hartree method is used to compute the multi-electron wavefunctions in donor clusters. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction, and captures both valley repopulation and single valley g-factor shifts in a unified framework. The single donor relaxation rate varies proportionally to B5, and is of the order of seconds at B =2T, both in good agreement with experimental single donor data (A. Morello et. al., Nature 467, 687 (2010)). T1 calculations in donor clusters show variations for different electron numbers and donor numbers and locations. The computed T1 in a 4P:5e donor cluster match well with a scanning tunneling microscope patterned P donor cluster (H. Buch et. al., Nature Communications 4, 2017 (2013)).
Biogeographic Kinetics: Estimation of Relaxation Times for Avifaunas of Southwest Pacific Islands
Diamond, Jared M.
1972-01-01
When species diversity S on an island is displaced from the equilibrium value by injection or removal of species, S relaxes to equilibrium by an imbalance between immigration and extinction rates. Estimates of exponential relaxation times, tr, for avifaunas of New Guinea satellite islands are calculated from analysis of four “experiments of nature”: recolonization of exploded volcanoes, contraction in island area due to rising sea level, severing of land bridges, and disappearance of landbridge relict species. tr is in the range 3,000-18,000 years for avifaunas of islands of 50-3000 square miles (130-7800 km2), and increases with island area. Immigration coefficients decrease and extinction coefficients increase with increasing S. The results may be relevant to the design of rainforest preserves. PMID:16592024
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Mey, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Verdonck, P. R.
2001-01-01
The objective of this study was to use high-fidelity animal data and numerical simulations to gain more insight into the reliability of the estimated relaxation constant derived from left ventricular pressure decays, assuming a monoexponential model with either a fixed zero or free moving pressure asymptote. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of the simulations demonstrated a trade off between the fixed zero and the free moving asymptote approach. The latter method more closely fits the pressure curves and has the advantage of producing an extra coefficient with potential diagnostic information. On the other hand, this method suffers from larger standard errors on the estimated coefficients. The method with fixed zero asymptote produces values of the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation (tau) within a narrow confidence interval. However, if the pressure curve is actually decaying to a nonzero pressure asymptote, this method results in an inferior fit of the pressure curve and a biased estimation of tau.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, E.; Fleitout, L.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J. D.
2016-06-01
Megathrust earthquakes of magnitude close to 9 are followed by large-scale (thousands of km) and long-lasting (decades), significant crustal and mantle deformation. This deformation can be observed at the surface and quantified with GPS measurements. Here we report on deformation observed during the 5 yr time span after the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Megathrust Earthquake (2010 February 27) over the whole South American continent. With the first 2 yr of those data, we use finite element modelling (FEM) to relate this deformation to slip on the plate interface and relaxation in the mantle, using a realistic layered Earth model and Burgers rheologies. Slip alone on the interface, even up to large depths, is unable to provide a satisfactory fit simultaneously to horizontal and vertical displacements. The horizontal deformation pattern requires relaxation both in the asthenosphere and in a low-viscosity channel along the deepest part of the plate interface and no additional low-viscosity wedge is required by the data. The vertical velocity pattern (intense and quick uplift over the Cordillera) is well fitted only when the channel extends deeper than 100 km. Additionally, viscoelastic relaxation alone cannot explain the characteristics and amplitude of displacements over the first 200 km from the trench and aseismic slip on the fault plane is needed. This aseismic slip on the interface generates stresses, which induce additional relaxation in the mantle. In the final model, all three components (relaxation due to the coseismic slip, aseismic slip on the fault plane and relaxation due to aseismic slip) are taken into account. Our best-fit model uses slip at shallow depths on the subduction interface decreasing as function of time and includes (i) an asthenosphere extending down to 200 km, with a steady-state Maxwell viscosity of 4.75 × 1018 Pa s; and (ii) a low-viscosity channel along the plate interface extending from depths of 55-135 km with viscosities below 1018 Pa s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, E.; Fleitout, L.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J. D.
2016-03-01
Megathrust earthquakes of magnitude close to 9 are followed by large scale (thousands of km) and long-lasting (decades), significant crustal and mantle deformation. This deformation can be observed at the surface and quantified with GPS measurements. Here we report on deformation observed during the 5-years time span after the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule Megathrust Earthquake (February 27, 2010) over the whole South American continent. With the first two years of those data, we use finite element modelling (FEM) to relate this deformation to slip on the plate interface and relaxation in the mantle, using a realistic layered Earth model and Burgers rheologies. Slip alone on the interface, even up to large depths, is unable to provide a satisfactory fit simultaneously to horizontal and vertical displacements. The horizontal deformation pattern requires relaxation both in the asthenosphere and in a Low Viscosity Channel along the deepest part of the plate interface and no additional Low Viscosity Wedge is required by the data. The vertical velocity pattern (intense and quick uplift over the Cordillera) is well fitted only when the channel extends deeper than 100km. Additionally, viscoelastic relaxation alone cannot explain the characteristics and amplitude of displacements over the first 200 km from the trench and aseismic slip on the fault plane is needed. This aseismic slip on the interface generates stresses, which induce additional relaxation in the mantle. In the final model, all three components (relaxation due to the coseismic slip, aseismic slip on the fault plane and relaxation due to aseismic slip) are taken into account. Our best-fit model uses slip at shallow depths on the subduction interface decreasing as function of time and includes (i) an asthenosphere extending down to 200km, with a steady-state Maxwell viscosity of 4.75 × 1018 Pa.s; and (ii) a Low Viscosity Channel along the plate interface extending from depths of 55 to 135 km with viscosities below 1018 Pa.s.
Zasetsky, A Y; Buchner, R
2011-01-19
We present a new fitting procedure and computer code for numerical evaluation of dielectric relaxation time distribution functions. The technique is based on linear least squares minimization and aims primarily at the analysis of compound experimental spectra of complex dielectric permittivity. It is fast, robust, and easy to use. No prior knowledge about the number of relaxation modes, their characteristic times, relaxation strengths, or the functional form of the underlying relaxation time distribution function is required, the procedure determines these parameters instead. The method is tested by both synthetic spectra with well-defined parameters of dielectric relaxation and experimental wide-band dielectric spectra of different types. We believe that this new fitting instrument, which allows an unbiased approach to the formal description of dielectric spectra, may be of interest in many areas of dielectric spectroscopy. PMID:21406849
Alexandrov, Nikola A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Gurkov, Theodor D; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Arnaudov, Luben N; Pelan, Eddie G; Lips, Alex
2012-06-15
The pendant-drop method (with drop-shape analysis) and Langmuir trough are applied to investigate the characteristic relaxation times and elasticity of interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Such layers undergo a transition from fluid to elastic solid films. The transition is detected as an increase in the error of the fit of the pendant-drop profile by means of the Laplace equation of capillarity. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial expansion follows an exponential-decay law, which indicates adsorption kinetics under barrier control. The experimental data for the relaxation time suggest that the adsorption rate is determined by the balance of two opposing factors: (i) the barrier to detachment of protein molecules from bulk aggregates and (ii) the attraction of the detached molecules by the adsorption layer due to the hydrophobic surface force. The hydrophobic attraction can explain why a greater surface coverage leads to a faster adsorption. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial compression follows a different, square-root law. Such behavior can be attributed to surface diffusion of adsorbed protein molecules that are condensing at the periphery of interfacial protein aggregates. The surface dilatational elasticity, E, is determined in experiments on quick expansion or compression of the interfacial protein layers. At lower surface pressures (<11 mN/m) the experiments on expansion, compression and oscillations give close values of E that are increasing with the rise of surface pressure. At higher surface pressures, E exhibits the opposite tendency and the data are scattered. The latter behavior can be explained with a two-dimensional condensation of adsorbed protein molecules at the higher surface pressures. The results could be important for the understanding and control of dynamic processes in foams and emulsions stabilized by hydrophobins, as well as for the modification of solid surfaces by adsorption of such proteins. PMID:22480400
Review of time scales. [Universal Time-Ephemeris Time-International Atomic Time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinot, B.
1974-01-01
The basic time scales are presented: International Atomic Time, Universal Time, and Universal Time (Coordinated). These scales must be maintained in order to satisfy specific requirements. It is shown how they are obtained and made available at a very high level of precision.
Time scale evolution of avipoxviruses.
Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Bertagnoli, Stphane; Ducatez, Mariette F
2015-10-01
Avipoxviruses are divided into three clades: canarypox-like viruses, fowlpox-like viruses, and psittacinepox-like viruses. Several molecular clock and demographic models available in the BEAST package were compared on three avipoxvirus genes (P4b, cnpv186 and DNA polymerase genes), which enabled to determine that avipoxviruses evolved at a rate of 2-810(-5)substitution/site/year, in the range of poxviruses previously reported evolution rates. In addition, the date of mean time of divergence of avipoxviruses from a common ancestor was extrapolated to be about 10,000-30,000years ago, at the same period as modern poxvirus species. Our findings will facilitate epidemiological investigations on avipoxviruses' spread, origin and circulation. PMID:26231721
Kalman plus weights: a time scale algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenhall, C. A.
2001-01-01
KPW is a time scale algorithm that combines Kalman filtering with the basic time scale equation (BTSE). A single Kalman filter that estimates all clocks simultaneously is used to generate the BTSE frequency estimates, while the BTSE weights are inversely proportional to the white FM variances of the clocks. Results from simulated clock ensembles are compared to previous simulation results from other algorithms.
Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics
Jardin, S.C.
1984-01-01
Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B/sup 2//2..mu../sub 0/, which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed.
Electron spin relaxation time in (110) InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokota, Nobuhide; Yasuda, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi
2014-07-01
Electron spin relaxation time τs in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells (QWs) grown on (110) and (100) InP substrates was investigated by pump-probe transmission measurements. Similar τs of 0.83-1.0 ns were measured at room temperature for all the measured (110) and (100) QWs, indicating suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism in (110) QWs is not effective in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs as opposed to GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. Contribution of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism dominant in (110) GaAs/AlGaAs QWs was found to be small in both the (110) and (100) InGaAs/InAlAs QWs from the weak dependences of τs on pump intensity at room temperature. These results suggest that the spin relaxation mechanism dominant in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs at a temperature higher than 200 K is the Elliott-Yafet mechanism independent of the crystal orientation among the above three major mechanisms.
Costabel, Stephan; Yaramanci, Ugur
2013-01-01
[1] For characterizing water flow in the vadose zone, the water retention curve (WRC) of the soil must be known. Because conventional WRC measurements demand much time and effort in the laboratory, alternative methods with shortened measurement duration are desired. The WRC can be estimated, for instance, from the cumulative pore size distribution (PSD) of the investigated material. Geophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry have successfully been applied to recover PSDs of sandstones and limestones. It is therefore expected that the multiexponential analysis of the NMR signal from water-saturated loose sediments leads to a reliable estimation of the WRC. We propose an approach to estimate the WRC using the cumulative NMR relaxation time distribution and approximate it with the well-known van-Genuchten (VG) model. Thereby, the VG parameter n, which controls the curvature of the WRC, is of particular interest, because it is the essential parameter to predict the relative hydraulic conductivity. The NMR curves are calibrated with only two conventional WRC measurements, first, to determine the residual water content and, second, to define a fixed point that relates the relaxation time to a corresponding capillary pressure. We test our approach with natural and artificial soil samples and compare the NMR-based results to WRC measurements using a pressure plate apparatus and to WRC predictions from the software ROSETTA. We found that for sandy soils n can reliably be estimated with NMR, whereas for samples with clay and silt contents higher than 10% the estimation fails. This is the case when the hydraulic properties of the soil are mainly controlled by the pore constrictions. For such samples, the sensitivity of the NMR method for the pore bodies hampers a plausible WRC estimation. Citation: Costabel, S., and U. Yaramanci (2013), Estimation of water retention parameters from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time distributions, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2068-2079, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20207. PMID:23935225
Costabel, Stephan; Yaramanci, Ugur
2013-04-01
[1] For characterizing water flow in the vadose zone, the water retention curve (WRC) of the soil must be known. Because conventional WRC measurements demand much time and effort in the laboratory, alternative methods with shortened measurement duration are desired. The WRC can be estimated, for instance, from the cumulative pore size distribution (PSD) of the investigated material. Geophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry have successfully been applied to recover PSDs of sandstones and limestones. It is therefore expected that the multiexponential analysis of the NMR signal from water-saturated loose sediments leads to a reliable estimation of the WRC. We propose an approach to estimate the WRC using the cumulative NMR relaxation time distribution and approximate it with the well-known van-Genuchten (VG) model. Thereby, the VG parameter n, which controls the curvature of the WRC, is of particular interest, because it is the essential parameter to predict the relative hydraulic conductivity. The NMR curves are calibrated with only two conventional WRC measurements, first, to determine the residual water content and, second, to define a fixed point that relates the relaxation time to a corresponding capillary pressure. We test our approach with natural and artificial soil samples and compare the NMR-based results to WRC measurements using a pressure plate apparatus and to WRC predictions from the software ROSETTA. We found that for sandy soils n can reliably be estimated with NMR, whereas for samples with clay and silt contents higher than 10% the estimation fails. This is the case when the hydraulic properties of the soil are mainly controlled by the pore constrictions. For such samples, the sensitivity of the NMR method for the pore bodies hampers a plausible WRC estimation. Citation: Costabel, S., and U. Yaramanci (2013), Estimation of water retention parameters from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time distributions, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2068-2079, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20207. PMID:23935225
Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XVIII. Does entropy control structural relaxation times?
Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko
2015-01-28
We study the dielectric dynamics of viscous glycerol in the presence of a large bias field. Apart from dielectric saturation and polarization anisotropy, we observe that the steady state structural relaxation time is longer by 2.7% in the presence of a 225 kV/cm dc-field relative to the linear response counterpart, equivalent to a field induced glass transition (Tg) shift of +84 mK. This result compares favorably with the 3.0% time constant increase predicted on the basis of a recent report [G. P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 154503 (2013)], where the field induced reduction of the configurational entropy translates into slower dynamics by virtue of the Adam-Gibbs relation. Other models of field dependent glass transition temperatures are also discussed. Similar to observations related to the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise time of the field induced effect is much longer than its collapse when the field is removed again. The orientational relaxation time of the plastic crystal cyclo-octanol is more sensitive to a bias field, showing a 13.5% increase at a field of 150 kV/cm, equivalent to an increase of Tg by 0.58 K. PMID:25637992
Postmortem MRI of Human Brain Hemispheres: T2 Relaxation Times during Formaldehyde Fixation
Dawe, Robert J.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Vasireddi, Sunil K.; Arfanakis, Konstantinos
2009-01-01
Unlike in vivo imaging, postmortem MRI allows for invasive examination of the tissue specimen immediately following the MR scan. However, natural tissue decomposition and chemical fixation cause the postmortem tissue’s MRI properties to be different from those found in vivo. Moreover, these properties change as postmortem fixation time elapses. The goal of this study was to characterize the T2 relaxation changes that occur over time in cadaveric human brain hemispheres during fixation. Five hemispheres immersed in formaldehyde solution were scanned on a weekly basis for three months postmortem, and once again at six months postmortem. The T2 relaxation times were measured throughout the hemispheres. Over time, T2 values near the edges of the hemispheres decreased rapidly after death, while T2 values of deep tissue decreased more slowly. This difference is likely due to the relatively large distance from the hemisphere surface, and other barriers limiting diffusion of formaldehyde molecules to deep tissues. In addition, T2 values in deep tissue did not continuously decay to a plateau, but instead reached a minimum and then increased to a plateau. This final increase may be due to the effects of prolonged tissue decomposition, a hypothesis that is supported by numerical simulations of the fixation process. PMID:19189294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panagiotelis, Ioannis; Nicholson, Ian; Hutchison, James M. S.
2001-03-01
Longitudinally detected ESR (LODESR) involves transverse ESR irradiation with a modulated source and observing oscillations in the spin magnetization parallel to the main magnetic field. In this study, radiofrequency-LODESR was used for oximetry by measuring the relaxation times of the electron. T1e and T2e were measured by investigating LODESR signal magnitude as a function of detection frequency. We have also predicted theoretically and verified experimentally the LODESR signal phase dependence on detection frequency and relaxation times. These methods are valid even for inhomogeneous lines provided that T1e≫T2e. We have also developed a new method for measuring T1e, valid for inhomogeneous spectra, for all values of T1e and T2e, based on measuring the spectral area as a function of detection frequency. We have measured T1e and T2e for lithium phthalocyanine crystals, for the nitroxide TEMPOL, and for the single line agent Triarylmethyl (TAM). Furthermore, we have collected spectra from aqueous solutions of TEMPOL and TAM at different oxygen concentrations and confirmed that T1e values are reduced with increased oxygen concentration. We have also measured the spin-lattice electronic relaxation time for degassed aqueous solutions of the same agents at different agent concentrations. T1e decreases as a function of concentration for TAM while it remains independent of free radical concentration for TEMPOL, a major advantage for oxygen mapping. This method, combined with the ability of LODESR to provide images of exogenous free radicals in vivo, presents an attractive alternative to the conventional transverse ESR linewidth based oximetry methods.
Sodium relaxation times in the knee joint in vivo at 7T
Madelin, Guillaume; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.
2011-01-01
The sodium concentration correlates directly with the concentration of proteoglycans (PG) in cartilage, the loss of which is an early signature of osteoarthritis (OA). As a result, quantitative sodium MRI is a promising technique for assessing the degradation of articular cartilage in patients with OA. Sodium relaxation times can also provide information on the degradation of cartilage: it has already been shown on bovine cartilage that T1 and T2long are longer and T2short shorter when the PG concentration decreases. In this study, sodium T1, T2short* and T2long* relaxation maps were measured in vivo at 7T on 8 healthy volunteers and in 4 different regions of the cartilage in the knee joint. The patellar, femoro-tibial medial, lateral, and femoral condyle cartilage have an average T1 ~ 20 ms, but different T2short* (from 0.5 ms to 1.4 ms) and T2long* (from 11.4 ms to 14.8 ms). Statistically significant differences in T1, T2short* and T2long* were observed between the different regions in cartilage (p ≪ 10−5). Statistical differences in T1 were also observed between male and female data (p ≪ 10−5). These relaxation times measurements can further be applied as correction factors for sodium concentration maps in vivo and also be useful as complementary information to quantitative sodium MRI in the quest for detecting early OA. These measurements were done on low resolution sodium images in order to acquire sufficient quality data for fitting (5 images for T1 and 9 images for T2*) while keeping the total time of acquisition of the data reasonable for the volunteer’s comfort (1 h 15 min). PMID:21853493
Going up in time and length scales in modeling polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grest, Gary S.
Polymer properties depend on a wide range of coupled length and time scales, with unique macroscopic viscoelastic behavior stemming from interactions at the atomistic level. The need to probe polymers across time and length scales and particularly computational modeling is inherently challenging. Here new paths to probing long time and length scales including introducing interactions into traditional bead-spring models and coarse graining of atomistic simulations will be compared and discussed. Using linear polyethylene as a model system, the degree of coarse graining with two to six methylene groups per coarse-grained bead derived from a fully atomistic melt simulation were probed. We show that the degree of coarse graining affects the measured dynamic. Using these models we were successful in probing highly entangled melts and were able reach the long-time diffusive regime which is computationally inaccessible using atomistic simulations. We simulated the relaxation modulus and shear viscosity of well-entangled polyethylene melts for scaled times of 500 µs. Results for plateau modulus are in good agreement with experiment. The long time and length scale is coupled to the macroscopic viscoelasticity where the degree of coarse graining sets the minimum length scale instrumental in defining polymer properties and dynamics. Results will be compared to those obtained from simple bead-spring models to demonstrate the additional insight that can be gained from atomistically inspired coarse grained models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Relaxation time of the Cooper pairs near Tc in cuprate superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramallo, M. V.; Carballeira, C.; Viña, J.; Veira, J. A.; Mishonov, T.; Pavuna, D.; Vidal, F.
1999-10-01
It is first shown that the thermal fluctuation effects on the transport and on the thermodynamic observables above the superconducting transition may provide, when they are analyzed simultaneously and consistently, a powerful tool to access the relaxation time, τ0, of the Cooper pairs with wave vector k = 0 in high-temperature cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Then, we apply this procedure to optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7 - δ (Y-123) crystals. It is found that in this HTSC τ0 follows, within 20% accuracy, the BCS temperature behaviour and amplitude given by τ0 = πhbar/[8kB(T - Tc0)].
A Novel Statistical Approach for Brain MR Images Segmentation Based on Relaxation Times
Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito
2015-01-01
Brain tissue segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is useful for a wide range of applications. Classical approaches exploit the gray levels image and implement criteria for differentiating regions. Within this paper a novel approach for brain tissue joint segmentation and classification is presented. Starting from the estimation of proton density and relaxation times, we propose a novel method for identifying the optimal decision regions. The approach exploits the statistical distribution of the involved signals in the complex domain. The technique, compared to classical threshold based ones, is able to globally improve the classification rate. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated on both simulated and real datasets. PMID:26798631
Del Giudice, Francesco; D'Avino, Gaetano; Greco, Francesco; De Santo, Ilaria; Netti, Paolo A; Maffettone, Pier Luca
2016-03-21
Correction for 'Rheometry-on-a-chip: measuring the relaxation time of a viscoelastic liquid through particle migration in microchannel flows' by Francesco Del Giudice et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 783-792. PMID:26926799
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoud, Sami; Trochet, Mickaël; Restrepo, Oscar; Mousseau, Normand
The microscopic mechanisms associated with the evolution of metallic materials are still a matter of debate as both experimental and numerical approaches fail to provide a detailed atomic picture of their time evolution. Here, we use the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an unbiased off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building to overcome these limitations and follow the atomistic evolution of a 10.000-atom grain boundary Ni system over macroscopic time scales. We first characterize the kinetic properties of four different empirical potentials, the embedded atom method (EAM), the first and second modified embedded atom method (MEAM1NN and MEAM2NN respectively) and the Reax force field (ReaxFF) potentials. Comparing the energetics, the elastic effects and the diffusion mechanisms for systems with one to three vacancies and one to three self-interstitials in nickel simulated over second time scale, we conclude that ReaxFF and EAM potentials are closest to experimental values. We then proceed to study the long-time evolution of a grain boundary with the Reax forcefield and to offer a detailed description of its energy landscape, including the exact description of short and long-range effects on self-diffusion along the interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello, A.; Laredo, E.; Grimau, M.; Nogales, A.; Ezquerra, T. A.
2000-07-01
A new application of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to the extraction of the relaxation time distribution from dielectric spectroscopy either in time or frequency domain. This decomposition method named simulated annealing direct signal analysis (SADSA), is applied to computer generated curves, ɛ(t), ɛ'(ω), and ɛ″(ω), by using the most widely accepted empirical distributions. The discretized distribution fits exactly the analytical expression which can be evaluated in these cases for the set of parameters used in the simulation. Also, both distribution functions are found to be identical which proves that the method is certainly converging to the right solution in both cases. Experimental results on amorphous poly(aryl ether ether ketone) for ɛ(t), ɛ'(ω), and ɛ″(ω) are analyzed with SADSA and the obtained relaxation time distribution is used to go from time to frequency domain and reciprocally. The results are compared to those obtained by assuming a Havriliak-Negami profile for the distribution function.
Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios
Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.
2014-01-01
In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better understanding of neuroautonomic regulation mechanisms. PMID:25275515
Mardini, I.A.; McCarter, R.J.; Fullerton, G.D.
1986-03-01
NMR studies of muscle have typically used muscles of mixed fiber composition and have not taken into account the metabolic state of the host. Samples of psoas (type IIB fibers) and soleus (type I fibers) muscles were obtained from 3 groups of rabbits: group C, fed regular chow; group DK fed a potassium deficient diet; and group HC fed a high cholesterol diet. The T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ relaxation times of psoas and soleus muscles were not significantly different for group C. Following dietary manipulation, (groups KD and HC), however, the relaxation times of the psoas and soleus muscles were significantly different. There was also a significant difference in water content of psoas muscles in groups KD and HC vs. group C but the observed differences in NMR results could be only partially accounted for by the shift in water content. The authors results suggest that (1) changes in ion or cholesterol concentration are capable of inducing changes in water bonding and structuring in muscle tissues; (2) diet must be added to the growing list of environmental factors that can cause NMR contrast changes; (3) selective use of muscles rich in one fiber type or another for NMR measurements could provide either control or diagnostic information, related to changes in body composition.
On the nonlinear variation of dc conductivity with dielectric relaxation time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johari, G. P.; Andersson, Ove
2006-09-01
The long-known observations that dc conductivity σdc of an ultraviscous liquid varies nonlinearly with the dielectric relaxation time τ, and the slope of the logσdc against logτ plot deviates from -1 are currently seen as two of the violations of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation. Here we provide a formalism using a zeroth order Bjerrum description for ion association to show that in addition to its variation with temperature T and pressure P, impurity ion population varies with a liquid's equilibrium dielectric permittivity. Inclusion of this electrostatic effect modifies the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation to log(σdcτ )=constant+logα, where α is the T and P-dependent degree of ionic dissociation of an electrolytic impurity. Variation of a liquid's shear modulus with T and P would add to the nonlinearity of σdc-τ relation, as would a nonequivalence of the shear and dielectric relaxation times, proton transfer along the hydrogen bonds, or occurrence of another chemical process. This is illustrated by using the data for ultraviscous acetaminophen-aspirin liquid.
Liang, H; Shi, B C; Guo, Z L; Chai, Z H
2014-05-01
In this paper, a phase-field-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible multiphase flow systems. In this model, one distribution function is used to solve the Chan-Hilliard equation and the other is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike previous phase-field-based LB models, a proper source term is incorporated in the interfacial evolution equation such that the Chan-Hilliard equation can be derived exactly and also a pressure distribution is designed to recover the correct hydrodynamic equations. Furthermore, the pressure and velocity fields can be calculated explicitly. A series of numerical tests, including Zalesak's disk rotation, a single vortex, a deformation field, and a static droplet, have been performed to test the accuracy and stability of the present model. The results show that, compared with the previous models, the present model is more stable and achieves an overall improvement in the accuracy of the capturing interface. In addition, compared to the single-relaxation-time LB model, the present model can effectively reduce the spurious velocity and fluctuation of the kinetic energy. Finally, as an application, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at high Reynolds numbers is investigated. PMID:25353927
Bulk viscosity and relaxation time of causal dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics
Huang Xuguang; Rischke, Dirk H.; Kodama, Takeshi; Koide, Tomoi
2011-02-15
The microscopic formulas of the bulk viscosity {zeta} and the corresponding relaxation time {tau}{sub {Pi}} in causal dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics are derived by using the projection operator method. In applying these formulas to the pionic fluid, we find that the renormalizable energy-momentum tensor should be employed to obtain consistent results. In the leading-order approximation in the chiral perturbation theory, the relaxation time is enhanced near the QCD phase transition, and {tau}{sub {Pi}} and {zeta} are related as {tau}{sub {Pi}={zeta}}/[{beta}{l_brace}(1/3-c{sub s}{sup 2})({epsilon}+P)-2({epsilon}-3P)/9{r_brace}], where {epsilon}, P, and c{sub s} are the energy density, pressure, and velocity of sound, respectively. The predicted {zeta} and {tau}{sub {Pi}} should satisfy the so-called causality condition. We compare our result with the results of the kinetic calculation by Israel and Stewart and the string theory, and confirm that all three approaches are consistent with the causality condition.
Enhancing Web applications in radiology with Java: estimating MR imaging relaxation times.
Dagher, A P; Fitzpatrick, M; Flanders, A E; Eng, J
1998-01-01
Java is a relatively new programming language that has been used to develop a World Wide Web-based tool for estimating magnetic resonance (MR) imaging relaxation times, thereby demonstrating how Java may be used for Web-based radiology applications beyond improving the user interface of teaching files. A standard processing algorithm coded with Java is downloaded along with the hypertext markup language (HTML) document. The user (client) selects the desired pulse sequence and inputs data obtained from a region of interest on the MR images. The algorithm is used to modify selected MR imaging parameters in an equation that models the phenomenon being evaluated. MR imaging relaxation times are estimated, and confidence intervals and a P value expressing the accuracy of the final results are calculated. Design features such as simplicity, object-oriented programming, and security restrictions allow Java to expand the capabilities of HTML by offering a more versatile user interface that includes dynamic annotations and graphics. Java also allows the client to perform more sophisticated information processing and computation than is usually associated with Web applications. Java is likely to become a standard programming option, and the development of stand-alone Java applications may become more common as Java is integrated into future versions of computer operating systems. PMID:9747620
Theory of the ac spin valve effect: a new method to measure spin relaxation time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochan, Denis; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav
2012-02-01
Parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) configurations of FNF junctions have, in a dc regime, different resistivities (RAP>RP), giving rise to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be explained within the spin injection drift-diffusion model. We extend the model to include ac phenomena and predict new spin dynamical phenomenon; the resonant amplification and depletion of spin accumulation in the P and AP configurations, respectively. As the major new effect, the spin valve magnetoimpedance of the FNF junction oscillates with the driving ac frequency, which leads to negative GMR effect (|ZAP|<|ZP|). We show that from the spin-valve oscillation periods, measured all electrically in the GHz regime, the spin relaxation times could be extracted without any magnetic field and sample size changes (contrary to other techniques). For thin tunnel junctions the ac signal becomes pure Lorentzian, also enabling one to obtain the spin relaxation time of the N region from the signal width. This work, was published in Physical Review Letters,10, 176604 (2011).
Ab Initio Electron Relaxation Times and Computational Screening of Thermoelectric Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozinsky, Boris; Samsonidze, Georgy
2015-03-01
We report recent progress in development of an efficient approximation scheme for computing electron relaxation times in bulk crystalline materials from first principles. This technique takes into account electron-phonon coupling and opens up the possibility for ab initio calculations of electronic transport coefficients: electrical conductivity, the electronic part of thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. We find that electron relaxation times and transport coefficients are very sensitive to carrier concentration, and their accurate prediction is necessary for computational optimization of thermoelectric material composition. For a given thermoelectric material, we are able to determine the optimal carrier concentration which maximizes ZT at a target temperature. With this methodology at hand, systematic computational screening is performed in the compositional space of half-Heusler materials selected from materials databases and consisting of cheap earth-abundant elements. Good agreement is found with the available experimental data for previously synthesized half-Heusler compounds, and several new promising candidates for thermoelectric applications are identified, which have been synthesized and validated by experimental collaborators. Based on the results of our calculations, we also discuss the validity and applicability limits of the Wiedemann-Franz law for thermoelectric materials.
Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Relaxation Techniques for Stress
... limited evidence of usefulness for specific health conditions. Research is under way to find out more about relaxation and health outcomes. Relaxation techniques include a number of practices such as progressive relaxation, guided imagery, biofeedback, self-hypnosis, and deep breathing exercises. ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hearn, E. H.
2001-12-01
Techniques for measuring displacements of the Earth's surface have recently advanced to the point where the time-dependence of postseismic deformation (as well as its spatial patterns) can be characterized for large earthquakes. Given the availability of such data (and the promise of increasingly detailed measurements from future earthquakes), describing differences in early postseismic deformation from different rheological profiles of the lithosphere is no longer just a theoretical exercise. If postseismic deformation is due to stress relaxation in a viscoelastic crust or upper mantle layer below an effectively elastic upper crust of known thickness, the viscoelastic layer thickness and viscosity (η ) may be determined independently using temporally detailed displacement observations (i.e., continuous GPS) from one or more locations. A related strategy of modeling postseismic displacements over a single time interval at several measurement points is currently used to estimate these parameters independently (e.g. Pollitz, 2001). For models of an earthquake in an elastic layer of known thickness overlying a viscoelastic halfspace, η /G (Maxwell time, or Tm) is the rate-controlling parameter. In a given location relative to the fault, displacements produced by models with various Maxwell times may all be represented with one curve, provided displacement is plotted against time/Tm. The time-depence of postseismic surface deformation even for this simple model is complicated, but the same complicated response occurs for models with identical Maxwell times. This is not so for earthquake models incorporating viscoelastic layers, however: thicker viscoelastic layers yield faster postseismic velocities early in the earthquake cycle than thinner layers with the same Maxwell time (e.g. Pollitz, 1997; Cohen, 1984). Elsasser time (proportional to η /w, where w is viscoelastic layer thickness) is often posited as a reasonable rate-governing parameter for layered viscoelastic models because it has been proven to control time-dependent evolution of surface displacements in some cases (e.g., screw dislocation models for geometries in which variation of horizontal shear stress in the relaxing layer may be ignored, Rice, 1980). For near-field postseismic deformation following strike-slip earthquakes, however, thin viscoelastic layers yield faster postseismic velocities early in the earthquake cycle than thicker layers with the same Elsasser time (the opposite holds in some far-field locations). This means that for models with the same elastic plate thickness, η and w may be independently identified (theoretically) by modeling time-dependent surface displacement data from a single point. Such monitoring sites must be chosen carefully. If the observation point is adjacent to the rupture, relaxing layers with identical Maxwell times tend to produce similar time-dependent displacements. These data can provide an estimate of viscosity but not layer thickness. Models with the same Elsasser time can yield similar, time-dependent displacements in the far-field; data from these locations can constrain only η /w. I will present some descriptions of how ideal monitoring locations depend on model geometry, and will address how well displacement data from various locations relative to an earthquake rupture can bracket the width and viscosity of a relaxing layer. I will also show that for a range of reasonable lithosphere viscosity profiles, detailed displacement data from most locations between a few kilometers and 1-2 rupture lengths from the fault can contribute toward independent estimates of η and w.
Average-atom treatment of relaxation time in x-ray Thomson scattering from warm dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, W. R.; Nilsen, J.
2016-03-01
The influence of finite relaxation times on Thomson scattering from warm dense plasmas is examined within the framework of the average-atom approximation. Presently most calculations use the collision-free Lindhard dielectric function to evaluate the free-electron contribution to the Thomson cross section. In this work, we use the Mermin dielectric function, which includes relaxation time explicitly. The relaxation time is evaluated by treating the average atom as an impurity in a uniform electron gas and depends critically on the transport cross section. The calculated relaxation rates agree well with values inferred from the Ziman formula for the static conductivity and also with rates inferred from a fit to the frequency-dependent conductivity. Transport cross sections determined by the phase-shift analysis in the average-atom potential are compared with those evaluated in the commonly used Born approximation. The Born approximation converges to the exact cross sections at high energies; however, differences that occur at low energies lead to corresponding differences in relaxation rates. The relative importance of including relaxation time when modeling x-ray Thomson scattering spectra is examined by comparing calculations of the free-electron dynamic structure function for Thomson scattering using Lindhard and Mermin dielectric functions. Applications are given to warm dense Be plasmas, with temperatures ranging from 2 to 32 eV and densities ranging from 2 to 64 g/cc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorozhkin, S. I.; Lell, F.; Schoepe, W.
1986-10-01
In a sandwich consisting of a thin Au film and a thin Bi film insulated by a 500 Å SiO layer the electrons of one film are heated above the lattice temperature while in the other film they are kept in thermal equilibrium temperature while in the other film they are kept in thermal equilibrium with the phonons. By measuring the magnetoresistance of both films we obtain the temperature difference between electrons and phonons from which we imply the energy-relaxation time τ ɛ from 0.3 K to 2 K. We find that electron-phonon scattering determines τ ɛ and, above 5 K, also the inelastic collision time τ i obtained from weak localization theory in thermal equilibrium.
Method to determine in vivo the relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized xenon in rat brain.
Choquet, Philippe; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Duhamel, Guillaume; Grillon, Emmanuelle; Leviel, Jean-Louis; Constantinesco, André; Ziegler, Anne
2003-06-01
The magnetic polarization of the stable (129)Xe isotope may be enhanced dramatically by means of optical techniques and, in principle, hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI should allow quantitative mapping of cerebral blood flow with better spatial resolution than scintigraphic techniques. A parameter necessary for this quantitation, and not previously known, is the longitudinal relaxation time (T(1) (tissue)) of (129)Xe in brain tissue in vivo: a method for determining this is reported. The time course of the MR signal in the brain during arterial injection of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in a lipid emulsion was analyzed using an extended two-compartment model. The model uses experimentally determined values of the RF flip angle and the T(1) of (129)Xe in the lipid emulsion. Measurements on rats, in vivo, at 2.35 T gave T(1) (tissue) = 3.6 +/- 2.1 sec (+/-SD, n = 6). This method enables quantitative mapping of cerebral blood flow. PMID:12768578
Dynamical theory of spin noise and relaxation: Prospects for real-time NMR measurements.
Field, Timothy R
2014-11-01
Recent developments in theoretical aspects of spin noise and relaxation and their interrelationship reveal a modified spin density, distinct from the density matrix, as the necessary object to describe fluctuations in spin systems. These fluctuations are to be viewed as an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of such systems immersed in random magnetic environments and are observed as "spin noise" in the absence of any radio frequency excitation. With the prospect of ultrafast digitization, the role of spin noise in real-time parameter extraction for (NMR) spin systems, and the advantage over standard techniques, is of essential importance, especially for systems containing a small number of spins. In this article we outline prospects for harnessing the recent dynamical theory in terms of spin-noise measurement, with attention to real-time properties. PMID:25493776
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose-Basu, Bidisha; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Bondo, Gail; Zhao, Shikai; Kubsch, Meredith; Carmichael, Ian; Serianni, Anthony S.
2000-06-01
13C and 2H spin-lattice relaxation times have been determined by inversion recovery in a range of site-specific 13C- and 2H-labeled saccharides under identical solution conditions, and the data were used to calculate deuterium nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants (2H NQCC) at specific sites within cyclic and acyclic forms in solution. 13C T1 values ranged from ∼0.6 to 8.2 s, and 2H T1 values ranged from ∼79 to 450 ms, depending on molecular structure (0.4 M sugar in 5 mM EDTA (disodium salt) in 2H2O-depleted H2O, pH 4.8, 30°C). In addition to providing new information on 13C and 2H relaxation behavior of saccharides in solution, the resulting 2H1 NQCC values reveal a dependency on anomeric configuration within aldopyranose rings, whereas 2H NQCC values at other ring sites appear less sensitive to configuration at C1. In contrast, 2H NQCC values at both anomeric and nonanomeric sites within aldofuranose rings appear to be influenced by anomeric configuration. These experimental observations were confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 2H NQCC values in model aldopyranosyl and aldofuranosyl rings.
7Li relaxation time measurements at very low magnetic field by 1H dynamic nuclear polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeghib, Nadir; Grucker, Daniel
2001-09-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of water protons was used to measure the relaxation time of lithium at very low magnetic field as a demonstration of the use of DNP for nuclei less abundant than water protons. Lithium (Li+) was chosen because it is an efficient treatment for manic-depressive illness, with an unknown action mechanism. After having recalled the theoretical basis of a three-spin system comprising two nuclei - the water proton of the solvent, the dissolved Li+ ion and the free electron of a free radical - we have developed a transient solution in order to optimize potential biological applications of Li DNP. The three-spin model has allowed computation of all the parameters of the system - the longitudinal relaxation rate per unit of free radical concentration, the dipolar and scalar part of the coupling between the nuclei and the electron, and the maximum signal enhancement achievable for both proton and lithium spins. All these measurements have been obtained solely through the detection of the proton resonance.
Spin-spin Relaxation Time Measurements of 2D 3He on Graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, D.; Naruse, K.; Matsui, T.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi
2012-12-01
Spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the second layer 3He adsorbed on Grafoil, exfoliated graphite, preplated with a monolayer 4He are studied by pulsed-NMR in a density range of 0.68 <= ρ <= 5.28 nm-2. The temperature dependence of χ(T) and χ(T = 0) show Fermi fluid behaviour and no evidence of self-condensation are found even at the lowest density ρ = 0.68 nm-2. Density dependence of T2 at f = 5.5 MHz shows a broad maximum of 5.7 ms around ρ = 3 nm-2. Since the decrease of T2 in dilute side can not be expected in the ideal 2D fluid, it can be understood as the relaxation caused by a small amount of solid 3He at heterogeneity of the substrate. We also measured the Larmor frequency dependence of T2 at ρ = 5.28 nm-2. 1/T2 has a f-linear dependence similarly to the earlier study on a first layer solid 3He [14]. From a comparison between our result and the earlier one, this linearity is almost independent of the particle motion. Now, it could be caused by a microscopic magnetic field inhomogeneity arisen from the mosaic angle spread and diamagnetism of the graphite substrate.
Understanding long-time vacancy aggregation in iron: A kinetic activation-relaxation technique study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brommer, Peter; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand
2014-10-01
Vacancy diffusion and clustering processes in body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe are studied using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities. For monovacancies and divacancies, k-ART recovers previously published results while clustering in a 50-vacancy simulation box agrees with experimental estimates. Applying k-ART to the study of clustering pathways for systems containing from one to six vacancies, we find a rich set of diffusion mechanisms. In particular, we show that the path followed to reach a hexavacancy cluster influences greatly the associated mean-square displacement. Aggregation in a 50-vacancy box also shows a notable dispersion in relaxation time associated with effective barriers varying from 0.84 to 1.1 eV depending on the exact pathway selected. We isolate the effects of long-range elastic interactions between defects by comparing to simulations where those effects are deliberately suppressed. This allows us to demonstrate that in bcc Fe, suppressing long-range interactions mainly influences kinetics in the first 0.3 ms, slowing down quick energy release cascades seen more frequently in full simulations, whereas long-term behavior and final state are not significantly affected.
Temperature dependence of proton NMR relaxation times at earth's magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niedbalski, Peter; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Cervantes, Eduardo; Oomen, Anisha; Krishnan, Anagha; Goyal, Aayush; Lumata, Lloyd
The theoretical description of relaxation processes for protons, well established and experimentally verified at conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fields, has remained untested at low fields despite significant advances in low field NMR technology. In this study, proton spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times in pure water and water doped with varying concentrations of the paramagnetic agent copper chloride have been measured from 6 to 92oC at earth's magnetic field (1700 Hz). Results show a linear increase of T1 with temperature for each of the samples studied. Increasing the concentration of the copper chloride greatly reduced T1 and reduced dependence on temperature. The consistency of the results with theory is an important confirmation of past results, while the ability of an ultra-low field NMR system to do contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is promising for future applicability to low-cost medical imaging and chemical identification. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.
Long-time relaxation of the magnetization in a pure crystal magnet La5Mo4O16
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Katsufuji, T.
2015-07-01
We found that a layered magnet La5Mo4O16 exhibits a long-time relaxation of the magnetization from a ferromagnetic to an antiferromagnetic state. This unconventional relaxation in a pure crystal magnet far below the transition temperature arises from the extremely two-dimensional nature of the magnetic interactions, by which the Mo spins are strongly coupled and form a big spin within a layer.
Time scales of turbulent relative dispersion.
Bitane, Rehab; Homann, Holger; Bec, Jrmie
2012-10-01
Tracers in a turbulent flow separate according to the celebrated t3/2 Richardson-Obukhov law, which is usually explained by a scale-dependent effective diffusivity. Here, supported by state-of-the-art numerics, we revisit this argument. The Lagrangian correlation time of velocity differences increases too quickly for validating this approach, but acceleration differences decorrelate on dissipative time scales. Phenomenological arguments are used to relate the behavior of separations to that of a "local energy dissipation," defined as the average ratio between the cube of the longitudinal velocity difference and the distance between the two tracers. This quantity is shown to stabilize on short time scales and this results in an asymptotic diffusion ?t1/2 of velocity differences. The time of convergence to this regime is shown to be that of deviations from Batchelor's initial ballistic regime, given by a scale-dependent energy dissipation time rather than the usual turnover time. It is finally demonstrated that the fluid flow intermittency should not affect this long-time behavior of the relative motion. PMID:23214642
Zhu, Tianqi; Dos Reis, Mario; Yang, Ziheng
2015-03-01
Genetic sequence data provide information about the distances between species or branch lengths in a phylogeny, but not about the absolute divergence times or the evolutionary rates directly. Bayesian methods for dating species divergences estimate times and rates by assigning priors on them. In particular, the prior on times (node ages on the phylogeny) incorporates information in the fossil record to calibrate the molecular tree. Because times and rates are confounded, our posterior time estimates will not approach point values even if an infinite amount of sequence data are used in the analysis. In a previous study we developed a finite-sites theory to characterize the uncertainty in Bayesian divergence time estimation in analysis of large but finite sequence data sets under a strict molecular clock. As most modern clock dating analyses use more than one locus and are conducted under relaxed clock models, here we extend the theory to the case of relaxed clock analysis of data from multiple loci (site partitions). Uncertainty in posterior time estimates is partitioned into three sources: Sampling errors in the estimates of branch lengths in the tree for each locus due to limited sequence length, variation of substitution rates among lineages and among loci, and uncertainty in fossil calibrations. Using a simple but analogous estimation problem involving the multivariate normal distribution, we predict that as the number of loci ([Formula: see text]) goes to infinity, the variance in posterior time estimates decreases and approaches the infinite-data limit at the rate of 1/[Formula: see text], and the limit is independent of the number of sites in the sequence alignment. We then confirmed the predictions by using computer simulation on phylogenies of two or three species, and by analyzing a real genomic data set for six primate species. Our results suggest that with the fossil calibrations fixed, analyzing multiple loci or site partitions is the most effective way for improving the precision of posterior time estimation. However, even if a huge amount of sequence data is analyzed, considerable uncertainty will persist in time estimates. PMID:25503979
Zhu, Tianqi; Dos Reis, Mario; Yang, Ziheng
2015-01-01
Genetic sequence data provide information about the distances between species or branch lengths in a phylogeny, but not about the absolute divergence times or the evolutionary rates directly. Bayesian methods for dating species divergences estimate times and rates by assigning priors on them. In particular, the prior on times (node ages on the phylogeny) incorporates information in the fossil record to calibrate the molecular tree. Because times and rates are confounded, our posterior time estimates will not approach point values even if an infinite amount of sequence data are used in the analysis. In a previous study we developed a finite-sites theory to characterize the uncertainty in Bayesian divergence time estimation in analysis of large but finite sequence data sets under a strict molecular clock. As most modern clock dating analyses use more than one locus and are conducted under relaxed clock models, here we extend the theory to the case of relaxed clock analysis of data from multiple loci (site partitions). Uncertainty in posterior time estimates is partitioned into three sources: Sampling errors in the estimates of branch lengths in the tree for each locus due to limited sequence length, variation of substitution rates among lineages and among loci, and uncertainty in fossil calibrations. Using a simple but analogous estimation problem involving the multivariate normal distribution, we predict that as the number of loci (L) goes to infinity, the variance in posterior time estimates decreases and approaches the infinite-data limit at the rate of 1/L, and the limit is independent of the number of sites in the sequence alignment. We then confirmed the predictions by using computer simulation on phylogenies of two or three species, and by analyzing a real genomic data set for six primate species. Our results suggest that with the fossil calibrations fixed, analyzing multiple loci or site partitions is the most effective way for improving the precision of posterior time estimation. However, even if a huge amount of sequence data is analyzed, considerable uncertainty will persist in time estimates. PMID:25503979
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costabel, Stephan; Yaramanci, Ugur
2013-04-01
For characterizing water flow in the vadose zone, the water retention curve (WRC) of the soil must be known. Because conventional WRC measurements demand much time and effort in the laboratory, alternative methods with shortened measurement duration are desired. The WRC can be estimated, for instance, from the cumulative pore size distribution (PSD) of the investigated material. Geophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry have successfully been applied to recover PSDs of sandstones and limestones. It is therefore expected that the multiexponential analysis of the NMR signal from water-saturated loose sediments leads to a reliable estimation of the WRC. We propose an approach to estimate the WRC using the cumulative NMR relaxation time distribution and approximate it with the well-known van-Genuchten (VG) model. Thereby, the VG parameter n, which controls the curvature of the WRC, is of particular interest, because it is the essential parameter to predict the relative hydraulic conductivity. The NMR curves are calibrated with only two conventional WRC measurements, first, to determine the residual water content and, second, to define a fixed point that relates the relaxation time to a corresponding capillary pressure. We test our approach with natural and artificial soil samples and compare the NMR-based results to WRC measurements using a pressure plate apparatus and to WRC predictions from the software ROSETTA. We found that for sandy soils n can reliably be estimated with NMR, whereas for samples with clay and silt contents higher than 10% the estimation fails. This is the case when the hydraulic properties of the soil are mainly controlled by the pore constrictions. For such samples, the sensitivity of the NMR method for the pore bodies hampers a plausible WRC estimation.
Flexoelectricity and competition of time scales in electroconvection.
Tóth-Katona, Tibor; Eber, Nándor; Buka, Agnes; Krekhov, Alexei
2008-09-01
An unexpected type of behavior in electroconvection (EC) has been detected in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) under the condition of comparable time scales of the director relaxation and the period of the driving ac voltage. The studied NLCs exhibit standard EC (s-EC) at the onset of the instability, except one compound in which nonstandard EC (ns-EC) has been detected. In the relevant frequency region, the threshold voltage for conductive s-EC bends down considerably, while for dielectric s-EC it bends up strongly with the decrease of the driving frequency. We show that inclusion of the flexoelectric effect into the theoretical description of conductive s-EC leads to quantitative agreement, while for dielectric s-EC a qualitative agreement is achieved. The frequency dependence of the threshold voltage for ns-EC strongly resembles that of the dielectric s-EC. PMID:18851142
The Time Scale of Evolutionary Innovation
Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A.
2014-01-01
A fundamental question in biology is the following: what is the time scale that is needed for evolutionary innovations? There are many results that characterize single steps in terms of the fixation time of new mutants arising in populations of certain size and structure. But here we ask a different question, which is concerned with the much longer time scale of evolutionary trajectories: how long does it take for a population exploring a fitness landscape to find target sequences that encode new biological functions? Our key variable is the length, of the genetic sequence that undergoes adaptation. In computer science there is a crucial distinction between problems that require algorithms which take polynomial or exponential time. The latter are considered to be intractable. Here we develop a theoretical approach that allows us to estimate the time of evolution as function of We show that adaptation on many fitness landscapes takes time that is exponential in even if there are broad selection gradients and many targets uniformly distributed in sequence space. These negative results lead us to search for specific mechanisms that allow evolution to work on polynomial time scales. We study a regeneration process and show that it enables evolution to work in polynomial time. PMID:25211329
Time constant of defect relaxation in ion-irradiated 3C-SiC
Wallace, J. B.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Shao, L.
2015-05-18
Above room temperature, the buildup of radiation damage in SiC is a dynamic process governed by the mobility and interaction of ballistically generated point defects. Here, we study the dynamics of radiation defects in 3C-SiC bombarded at 100 °C with 500 keV Ar ions, with the total ion dose split into a train of equal pulses. Damage–depth profiles are measured by ion channeling for a series of samples irradiated under identical conditions except for different durations of the passive part of the beam cycle. Results reveal an effective defect relaxation time constant of ∼3 ms (for second order kinetics) and a dynamic annealing efficiency of ∼40% for defects in both Si and C sublattices. This demonstrates a crucial role of dynamic annealing at elevated temperatures and provides evidence of the strong coupling of defect accumulation processes in the two sublattices of 3C-SiC.
Slutsky, R.A.; Andre, M.P.; Mattrey, R.F.; Brahme, F.J.
1984-01-01
To assess the effects of renal ischemia and reperfusion on in vitro magnetic relaxation times (T/sub 1/ = magnetization recovery, T/sub 2/ = spin echo), we evaluated the spectroscopic characteristics of the renal cortex from 25 rabbits. Eight served as controls (Group 1), nine had one renal pedicle ligated for 1 hr (Group 2), and eight (Group 3) were occluded for 1 hr and reperfused for 30 min. For intraanimal comparison purposes, % H/sub 2/O content, T/sub 1/ (msec), and T/sub 2/ (msec) of the ischemic (reperfused) kidney were normalized to the values from the normal kidney within the same animal. Renal ischemia consistently increased water content, which was exaggerated by reperfusion. In association with ischemia, T/sub 1/ fell, and with reperfusion T/sub 1/ lengthened. T/sub 2/ increased with ischemia and declined from the peak ischemic effects with reperfusion.
Equilibrium distributions and relaxation times in gaslike economic models: An analytical derivation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calbet, Xavier; López, José-Luis; López-Ruiz, Ricardo
2011-03-01
A step-by-step procedure to derive analytically the exact dynamical evolution equations of the probability density functions (PDFs) of well-known kinetic wealth exchange economic models is shown. This technique gives a dynamical insight into the evolution of the PDF, for example, allowing the calculation of its relaxation times. Their equilibrium PDFs can also be calculated by finding its stationary solutions. This gives as a result an integro-differential equation, which can be solved analytically in some cases and numerically in others. This should provide some guidance into the type of PDFs that can be derived from particular economic agent exchange rules or, for that matter, any other kinetic model of gases with particular collision physics.
Shear viscosities from the Chapman-Enskog and the relaxation time approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiranata, Anton; Prakash, Madappa
2012-05-01
The interpretation of the measured elliptic and higher order collective flows in heavy-ion collisions in terms of viscous hydrodynamics depends sensitively on the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density. Here we perform a quantitative comparison between the results of shear viscosities from the Chapman-Enskog and relaxation time methods for selected test cases with specified elastic differential cross sections: (i) the nonrelativistic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic hard sphere gas with angle and energy independent differential cross section, (ii) the Maxwell gas, (iii) chiral pions, and (iv) massive pions for which the differential elastic cross section is taken from experiments. Our quantitative results (i) reveal that the extent of agreement (or disagreement) depends sensitively on the energy dependence of the differential cross sections employed, and (ii) stress the need to perform quantum molecular dynamical (URQMD) simulations that employ Green-Kubo techniques with similar cross sections to validate the codes employed and to test the accuracy of other methods.
Effects of the individual particle relaxation time on superspin glass dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, Mikael Svante; De Toro, Jose Angel; Lee, Su Seong; Normile, Peter S.; Nordblad, Per; Mathieu, Roland
2016-02-01
The low temperature dynamic magnetic properties of two dense magnetic nanoparticle assemblies with similar superspin glass transition temperatures Tg˜140 K are compared. The two samples are made from batches of 6 and 8 nm monodisperse γ -Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively. The properties of the individual particles are extracted from measurements on reference samples where the particles have been covered with a thick silica coating. The blocking temperatures of these dilute assemblies are found at 12.5 K for the 6 nm particles and at 35 K for the 8 nm particles, which implies different anisotropy energy barriers of the individual particles and vastly different temperature evolution of their relaxation times. The results of the measurements on the concentrated particle assemblies suggest a strong influence of the particle energy barrier on the details of the aging dynamics, memory behavior, and apparent superspin dimensionality of the particles.
Time constant of defect relaxation in ion-irradiated 3C-SiC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, J. B.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Shao, L.; Kucheyev, S. O.
2015-05-01
Above room temperature, the buildup of radiation damage in SiC is a dynamic process governed by the mobility and interaction of ballistically generated point defects. Here, we study the dynamics of radiation defects in 3C-SiC bombarded at 100 C with 500 keV Ar ions, with the total ion dose split into a train of equal pulses. Damage-depth profiles are measured by ion channeling for a series of samples irradiated under identical conditions except for different durations of the passive part of the beam cycle. Results reveal an effective defect relaxation time constant of 3 ms (for second order kinetics) and a dynamic annealing efficiency of 40 % for defects in both Si and C sublattices. This demonstrates a crucial role of dynamic annealing at elevated temperatures and provides evidence of the strong coupling of defect accumulation processes in the two sublattices of 3C-SiC.
The hippocampus, time, and memory across scales.
Howard, Marc W; Eichenbaum, Howard
2013-11-01
A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of "time cells" that encode moments in time, much as the well-known "place cells" map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the "mental time travel" hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a "jump back in time" in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced--this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126
Analysis of the time scales in time periodic Darcy flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, T.; Waluga, C.; Wohlmuth, B.; Manhart, M.
2014-12-01
We investigate unsteady flow in a porous medium under time - periodic (sinusoidal) pressure gradient. DNS were performed to benchmark the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation with two different expressions of the time scale : one given by a consistent volume averaging of the Navier - Stokes equation [1] with a steady state closure for the flow resistance term, another given by volume averaging of the kinetic energy equation [2] with a closure for the dissipation rate . For small and medium frequencies, the analytical solutions with the time scale obtained by the energy approach compare well with the DNS results in terms of amplitude and phase lag. For large frequencies (f > 100 [Hz]) we observe a slightly smaller damping of the amplitude. This study supports the use of the unsteady form of Darcy's equation with constant coefficients to solve time - periodic Darcy flows at low and medium frequencies. Our DNS simulations, however, indicate that the time scale predicted by the VANS approach together with a steady - state closure for the flow resistance term is too small. The one obtained by the energy approach matches the DNS results well. At large frequencies, the amplitudes deviate slightly from the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation. Note that at those high frequencies, the flow amplitudes remain below 1% of those of steady state flow. This result indicates that unsteady porous media flow can approximately be described by the unsteady Darcy equation with constant coefficients for a large range of frequencies, provided, the proper time scale has been found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaretto, Tatiana; Andrade, Fabiana Diuk; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Souza, Andre Alves; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro; Colnago, Luiz Alberto
2015-10-01
T1 and T2 relaxation times have been frequently used as probes for physical-chemical properties in several time-domain NMR applications (TD-NMR) such as food, polymers and petroleum industries. T2 measurements are usually achieved using the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence because it is a fast and robust method. On the other hand, the traditional methods for determining T1, i.e., inversion and saturation recovery, are time-consuming, driving several authors to develop rapid 1D and 2D methods to obtain T1 and T2 or T1/T2 ratio. However, these methods usually require sophisticated processing and/or high signal to noise ratio (SNR). This led us to develop simple methods for rapid and simultaneous determination of T1 and T2 using Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) and Carr-Purcell Continuous Wave Free Precession (CP-CWFP) pulse sequences. Nevertheless, a drawback of these sequences is that they require specific adjustment of the frequency offset or the time interval between pulses (Tp). In this paper we present an alternative form of these sequences, named CWFPx-x, CP-CWFPx-x, where a train of π/2 pulses with phases alternated by π enable performing the experiments on-resonance and independently of Tp, when Tp < T2∗. Moreover, a CPMG type sequence with π/2 refocusing pulses shows similar results to CP-CWFP when the pulses are alternated between y and -y axis, CPMG90y-y. In these approaches, the relaxation times are determined using the magnitude of the signals after the first pulse |M0| and in the steady-state |Mss|, as well as the exponential time constant T∗ to reach the steady-state regime, as in conventional CWFP. CP-CWFPx-x shows the highest dynamic range to measure T∗ among CWFP sequences and, therefore, is the best technique to measure T1 and T2 since it is less susceptible to SNR and can be performed for any T1/T2 ratio.
Monaretto, Tatiana; Andrade, Fabiana Diuk; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Souza, Andre Alves; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro; Colnago, Luiz Alberto
2015-10-01
T1 and T2 relaxation times have been frequently used as probes for physical-chemical properties in several time-domain NMR applications (TD-NMR) such as food, polymers and petroleum industries. T2 measurements are usually achieved using the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence because it is a fast and robust method. On the other hand, the traditional methods for determining T1, i.e., inversion and saturation recovery, are time-consuming, driving several authors to develop rapid 1D and 2D methods to obtain T1 and T2 or T1/T2 ratio. However, these methods usually require sophisticated processing and/or high signal to noise ratio (SNR). This led us to develop simple methods for rapid and simultaneous determination of T1 and T2 using Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) and Carr-Purcell Continuous Wave Free Precession (CP-CWFP) pulse sequences. Nevertheless, a drawback of these sequences is that they require specific adjustment of the frequency offset or the time interval between pulses (Tp). In this paper we present an alternative form of these sequences, named CWFPx-x, CP-CWFPx-x, where a train of ?/2 pulses with phases alternated by ? enable performing the experiments on-resonance and independently of Tp, when Tp
Structure of Student Time Management Scale (STMS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balamurugan, M.
2013-01-01
With the aim of constructing a Student Time Management Scale (STMS), the initial version was administered and data were collected from 523 standard eleventh students. (Mean age = 15.64). The data obtained were subjected to Reliability and Factor analysis using PASW Statistical software version 18. From 42 items 14 were dropped, resulting in the…
Soroushian, Behrouz; Yang, Xinmai
2011-01-01
Modulated tone-burst light was employed to measure non-radiative relaxation time of fluorophores with biomedical importance through photoacoustic effect. Non-radiative relaxation time was estimated through the frequency dependence of photoacoustic signal amplitude. Experiments were performed on solutions of new indocyanine green (IR-820), which is a near infrared dye and has biomedical applications, in two different solvents (water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). A 1.5 times slower non-radiative relaxation for the solution of dye in DMSO was observed comparing with the aqueous solution. This result agrees well with general finding that non-radiative relaxation of molecules in triplet state depends on viscosity of solvents in which they are dissolved. Measurements of the non-radiative relaxation time can be used as a new source of contrast mechanism in photoacoustic imaging technique. The proposed method has potential applications such as imaging tissue oxygenation and mapping of other chemophysical differences in microenvironment of exogenous biomarkers. PMID:22025981
Picosecond-Time-Scale Fluctuations of Proteins in Glassy Matrices: The Role of Viscosity
Cornicchi, Elena; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro
2005-10-07
Through elastic neutron scattering we investigated the fast dynamics of lysozyme in hydrated powder form or embedded in glycerol-water and glucose-water matrices. We calculated the relaxational contribution to the mean square displacements of protein hydrogen atoms. We found that the inverse of this quantity is linearly proportional to the logarithm of the viscosity of the solvent glassy matrix. This relationship suggests a close connection between the picosecond-time-scale dynamics of protein side chains and the solvent structural relaxation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Chen, H.-C.
2008-06-01
We reconstruct the initial two-body relaxation time at the half mass radius for a sample of young ⪉ 300 Myr star clusters in the Large Magellanic cloud. We achieve this by simulating star clusters with 12288 to 131072 stars using direct N-body integration. The equations of motion of all stars are calculated with high precision direct N-body simulations which include the effects of the evolution of single stars and binaries. We find that the initial relaxation times of the sample of observed clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud ranges from about 200 Myr to about 2 Gyr. The reconstructed initial half-mass relaxation times for these clusters have a much narrower distribution than the currently observed distribution, which ranges over more than two orders of magnitude.
Stability of graph communities across time scales.
Delvenne, J-C; Yaliraki, S N; Barahona, M
2010-07-20
The complexity of biological, social, and engineering networks makes it desirable to find natural partitions into clusters (or communities) that can provide insight into the structure of the overall system and even act as simplified functional descriptions. Although methods for community detection abound, there is a lack of consensus on how to quantify and rank the quality of partitions. We introduce here the stability of a partition, a measure of its quality as a community structure based on the clustered autocovariance of a dynamic Markov process taking place on the network. Because the stability has an intrinsic dependence on time scales of the graph, it allows us to compare and rank partitions at each time and also to establish the time spans over which partitions are optimal. Hence the Markov time acts effectively as an intrinsic resolution parameter that establishes a hierarchy of increasingly coarser communities. Our dynamical definition provides a unifying framework for several standard partitioning measures: modularity and normalized cut size can be interpreted as one-step time measures, whereas Fiedler's spectral clustering emerges at long times. We apply our method to characterize the relevance of partitions over time for constructive and real networks, including hierarchical graphs and social networks, and use it to obtain reduced descriptions for atomic-level protein structures over different time scales. PMID:20615936
Stability of graph communities across time scales
Delvenne, J.-C.; Yaliraki, S. N.; Barahona, M.
2010-01-01
The complexity of biological, social, and engineering networks makes it desirable to find natural partitions into clusters (or communities) that can provide insight into the structure of the overall system and even act as simplified functional descriptions. Although methods for community detection abound, there is a lack of consensus on how to quantify and rank the quality of partitions. We introduce here the stability of a partition, a measure of its quality as a community structure based on the clustered autocovariance of a dynamic Markov process taking place on the network. Because the stability has an intrinsic dependence on time scales of the graph, it allows us to compare and rank partitions at each time and also to establish the time spans over which partitions are optimal. Hence the Markov time acts effectively as an intrinsic resolution parameter that establishes a hierarchy of increasingly coarser communities. Our dynamical definition provides a unifying framework for several standard partitioning measures: modularity and normalized cut size can be interpreted as one-step time measures, whereas Fiedler’s spectral clustering emerges at long times. We apply our method to characterize the relevance of partitions over time for constructive and real networks, including hierarchical graphs and social networks, and use it to obtain reduced descriptions for atomic-level protein structures over different time scales. PMID:20615936
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, Sushil K.
The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 < T 1 < 10-6 s) is of great importance today for the study of relaxation processes. Recent case studies include, for example, glasses doped with paramagnetic ions (Vergnoux et al., 1996; Zinsou et al., 1996), amorphous Si (dangling bonds) and copper-chromium-tin spinel (Cr3+) (Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.
Cade-Menun, B J; Liu, C W; Nunlist, R; McColl, J G
2002-01-01
Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an excellent tool with which to study soil organic P, allowing quantitative, comparative analysis of P forms. However, for 31P NMR to be tative, all peaks must be completely visible, and in their correct relative proportions. There must be no line broadening, and adequate delay times must be used to avoid saturation of peaks. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of extractants on delay times and peak saturation. Two samples (a forest litter and a mineral soil sample) and three extractants (0.25 M NaOH, NaOH plus Chelex (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA), and NaOH plus EDTA) were used to determine the differences in the concentration of P and cations solubilized by each extractant, and to measure spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times of P peaks in each extract. For both soil and litter, NaOH-Chelex extracted the lowest concentrations of P. For the litter sample, T1 values were short for all extractants due to the high Fe concentration remaining after extraction. For the soil sample, there were noticeable differences among the extractants. The NaOH-Chelex sample had less Fe and Mn remaining in solution after extraction than the other extractants, and the longest delay times used in the study, 6.4 s, were not long enough for quantitative analysis. Delay times of 1.5 to 2 s for the NaOH and NaOH-EDTA were adequate. Line broadening was highest in the NaOH extracts, which had the highest concentration of Fe. On the basis of these results, recommendations for future analyses of soil and litter samples by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy include: careful selection of an extractant; measurement of paramagnetic ions extracted with P; use of appropriate delay times and the minimum number of scans; and measurement of T1 values whenever possible. PMID:11931434
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porcar, L.; Hamilton, W. A.; Butler, P. D.; Warr, G. G.
2004-07-01
We have measured the relaxation of Couette shear-induced Lα lamellar states to their isotropic L3 ``sponge'' equilibrium phases in the cetylpryridinium-hexanol/dextrose-brine system by (cycled) time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. Although diffusive motions of adjacent membrane sheets may be estimated to bring them into contact with frequencies ~10kHz, we observe structural relaxation times on the order of seconds. This indicates a significant activation energy against the re-establishment of the passages characterizing the convoluted sponge structure.
Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.
1994-01-01
Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.
Picosecond-time-resolved studies of nonradiative relaxation in ruby and alexandrite
Gayen, S.K.; Wang, W.B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R.R.
1985-01-01
Dynamics of the nonradiative transitions between the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ pump band and the /sup 2/E storage level of the Cr/sup 3 +/ ion in ruby and alexandrite crystals is studied using the picosecond excite-and-probe absorption technique. A 527-nm picosecond pulse excites the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ state of the Cr/sup 3 +/ ion, and an infrared picosecond probe pulse monitors the subsequent growth and decay of population in the excited states as a function of pump-probe delay. An upper limit of 7 ps is determined for the nonradiative lifetime of the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ state in ruby. A vibrational relaxation time of 25 ps for the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ band in alexandrite is estimated. The time to attain thermal equilibrium population between the /sup 2/E and /sup 4/T/sub 2/ levels of alexandrite following excitation of /sup 4/T/sub 2/ band is estimated to be approx. 100 ps.
T2 relaxation time post febrile status epilepticus predicts cognitive outcome.
Barry, Jeremy M; Choy, ManKin; Dube, Celine; Robbins, Ashlee; Obenaus, Andre; Lenck-Santini, Pierre Pascal; Scott, Rod C; Baram, Tallie Z; Holmes, Gregory L
2015-07-01
Evidence from animal models and patient data indicates that febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in early development can result in permanently diminished cognitive abilities. To understand the variability in cognitive outcome following FSE, we used MRI to measure dynamic brain metabolic responses to the induction of FSE in juvenile rats. We then compared these measurements to the ability to learn an active avoidance spatial task weeks later. T2 relaxation times were significantly lower in FSE rats that were task learners in comparison to FSE non-learners. While T2 time in whole brain held the greatest predictive power, T2 in hippocampus and basolateral amygdala were also excellent predictors. These signal differences in response to FSE indicate that rats that fail to meet metabolic and oxygen demand are more likely to develop spatial cognition deficits. Place cells from FSE non-learners had significantly larger firing fields and higher in-field firing rate than FSE learners and control animals and imply increased excitability in the pyramidal cells of FSE non-learners. These findings suggest a mechanistic cause for the spatial memory deficits in active avoidance and are relevant to other acute neurological insults in early development where cognitive outcome is a concern. PMID:25939697
A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales
Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, Stephen G.
2002-01-01
Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.
Liquidity crises on different time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
2015-12-01
We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.
Early Warning Systems at Different Time Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bain, C.
2014-12-01
Early Warning Systems (EWS) reduce the negative aspects of natural hazard impacts on vulnerable communities. Despite its frequent use as a term there is no real 'one size fits all' approach to EWS and the system may comprise of different elements depending on the time scale of the hazard, the quality of the information available to make decisions, as well as the population needs and habits. In most developing countries, the primary hydro-meteorological hazards are droughts and floods. These two hazards demand very different approaches: droughts occur over long time scales and are generally a consequence of a gradual process of reduced rainfall across a rainy season; Floods may be caused on seasonal timescales as well due to an overactive rainy season, but the most extreme consequences and loss of life are often suffered at short timescales and relate to flash flooding caused by severe thunderstorms, monsoon extremes and tropical cyclones. This presentation will address the issues around implementing successful EWS and how these can be targeted to different time scales of hazards. Case studies illustrating the benefits of early information use and action will be shown along with open questions for debate on how the science community might better engage and help develop solutions to hazard warning.
Short-time scale behavior modeling within long-time scale fuel cycle evaluations
Johnson, M.; Tsvetkov, P.; Lucas, S.
2012-07-01
Typically, short-time and long-time scales in nuclear energy system behavior are accounted for with entirely separate models. However, long-term changes in system characteristics do affect short-term transients through material variations. This paper presents an approach to consistently account for short-time scales within a nuclear system lifespan. The reported findings and developments are of significant importance for small modular reactors and other nuclear energy systems operating in autonomous modes. It is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by the Bateman equations. (authors)
Multidimensional scaling of musical time estimations.
Cocenas-Silva, Raquel; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Molin, Paul; Bigand, Emmanuel
2011-06-01
The aim of this study was to identify the psycho-musical factors that govern time evaluation in Western music from baroque, classic, romantic, and modern repertoires. The excerpts were previously found to represent variability in musical properties and to induce four main categories of emotions. 48 participants (musicians and nonmusicians) freely listened to 16 musical excerpts (lasting 20 sec. each) and grouped those that seemed to have the same duration. Then, participants associated each group of excerpts to one of a set of sine wave tones varying in duration from 16 to 24 sec. Multidimensional scaling analysis generated a two-dimensional solution for these time judgments. Musical excerpts with high arousal produced an overestimation of time, and affective valence had little influence on time perception. The duration was also overestimated when tempo and loudness were higher, and to a lesser extent, timbre density. In contrast, musical tension had little influence. PMID:21853763
Angular dependence of the FMR linewidth and the anisotropy of the relaxation time in iron garnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobelev, A. V.; Shvachko, Yu. N.; Ustinov, V. V.
2016-01-01
This work is devoted to the problem of extracting the contribution of the anisotropy of relaxation to the angular dependence of the FMR linewidth and to the opportunity of determining the values of the parameters of relaxation. The results of the FMR study of films based on the yttrium iron garnet prepared by the method of liquid-phase epitaxy are given. The orientational dependence of the linewidth has been calculated using the traditional method of measuring an FMR spectrum and a method based on scanning at an angle to the resonance field for obtaining the minimum linewidth. A model for calculating the linewidth has been proposed that takes into account the anisotropy of the relaxation term in the equation of motion of the magnetic moment. The model leads to a dependence that agrees well with the experimental data, which makes it possible to state that the anisotropy of relaxation most likely takes place in the samples under consideration at the temperatures employed.
Exciton relaxation in PbSe nanorods.
Yang, Jun; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Basile, Anthony J; Wise, Frank W
2012-09-25
Measurements of the picosecond-time-scale dynamics of photoexcited electrons in PbSe nanorods are reported. The intraband (1Π → 1Σ) relaxation occurs with a time constant of ~500 fs, which corresponds to a fast energy-relaxation rate of ~0.6 eV/ps. The biexciton lifetime in PbSe nanorods is significantly (3-4 times) longer than the lifetime of PbSe quantum dots with the same energy gap, roughly as expected considering the increased volume. The multiexciton lifetimes of PbSe nanorods scale as expected for a bimolecular recombination mechanism. Implications of the observed relaxations will be discussed. PMID:22861811
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann simulations of turbulent channel and pipe flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opadrishta, Harish; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The mesoscopic Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has become a reliable alternative for solving incompressible turbulent flows. However, the statistics of a simulated turbulent flow near a curved boundary may deviate from the physical rotational invariance (RI) of lattice coordinates. The main objective of this study is to compare the effects of different lattice models on the simulation results of turbulent flows, and explore ways to restore RI near a curved boundary. We will apply D3Q19 and D3Q27 multiple-relaxation-time LBM models to simulate turbulent pipe and channel flows. The statistics of the simulated flows are examined to quantify the nature of departures from RI. To help understand whether the departure is originated from the bounce-back scheme at the solid wall, we will perform simulations of a turbulent channel flow with walls orientated at an angle from the lattice grid, and test the use of an overset lattice grid near a pipe wall. The Chapman-Enskog analysis of these models will be performed to probe RI errors near a boundary. Our goal is to eventually perform an accurate direct numerical simulation of a turbulent pipe flow, and compare the results to previous simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clay, M. P.; Yeung, P. K.; Warhaft, Z.
2015-11-01
Turbulence subjected to axisymmetric strain is a fundamental problem which is common in engineering equipment with variable cross-section, but is not yet fully understood. We have performed direct numerical simulations on a deforming domain with grids up to 10243 and a time-dependent strain history designed to mimic spatial gradients in wind-tunnel experiments. Isotropic turbulence with a specified energy spectrum is allowed to decay and then passed through a numerical conduit of 4:1 contraction ratio. The Reynolds stress tensor, velocity gradient variances, and longitudinal and transverse one-dimensional (1D) spectra are studied during both the contraction and subsequent relaxation. Contraction leads to amplification of energy in the compressed directions and departures from local isotropy. When the strain is removed local isotropy returns quickly while the energy decays with a power law exponent smaller than for decaying isotropic turbulence. The evolution of 1D spectra including changes in shape is consistent with experiments, but a large solution domain is important. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1510749 (Fluid Dynamics Program).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Simon J.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Hall, Laurance D.
1994-07-01
The steady-state temperature distribution within a block of cis-polybutadiene has been mapped using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The experiment described makes use of the temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the polymer protons. Hot and cold water flowed through two axially mounted pipes in a cylindrical sample, creating a dipolar temperature distribution. A fast inversion recovery imaging sequence was used to map T1 values in the sample with a spatial resolution of 0.3 mm and random error of ±5% for individual pixels in the 128×128 image. The T1 values thus obtained were converted into temperatures using an empirical calibration curve, leading to a temperature resolution of ±2 K for each pixel. Using a median filter (which reduces the image resolution by a variable factor of up to 3), the data are rendered smooth enough to obtain a clear contour plot. This is compared with a finite element solution of Laplace's equation over the same domain, demonstrating that the MRI technique is reliable. A number of experimental problems limiting both the exact comparison between theory and experiment and the long-term utility of the technique are discussed.
Tighten after Relax: Minimax-Optimal Sparse PCA in Polynomial Time
Wang, Zhaoran; Lu, Huanran; Liu, Han
2014-01-01
We provide statistical and computational analysis of sparse Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in high dimensions. The sparse PCA problem is highly nonconvex in nature. Consequently, though its global solution attains the optimal statistical rate of convergence, such solution is computationally intractable to obtain. Meanwhile, although its convex relaxations are tractable to compute, they yield estimators with suboptimal statistical rates of convergence. On the other hand, existing nonconvex optimization procedures, such as greedy methods, lack statistical guarantees. In this paper, we propose a two-stage sparse PCA procedure that attains the optimal principal subspace estimator in polynomial time. The main stage employs a novel algorithm named sparse orthogonal iteration pursuit, which iteratively solves the underlying nonconvex problem. However, our analysis shows that this algorithm only has desired computational and statistical guarantees within a restricted region, namely the basin of attraction. To obtain the desired initial estimator that falls into this region, we solve a convex formulation of sparse PCA with early stopping. Under an integrated analytic framework, we simultaneously characterize the computational and statistical performance of this two-stage procedure. Computationally, our procedure converges at the rate of 1∕t within the initialization stage, and at a geometric rate within the main stage. Statistically, the final principal subspace estimator achieves the minimax-optimal statistical rate of convergence with respect to the sparsity level s*, dimension d and sample size n. Our procedure motivates a general paradigm of tackling nonconvex statistical learning problems with provable statistical guarantees. PMID:25620858
Transverse relaxation time reflects brain amyloidosis in young APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
El Tayara, Nadine El Tannir; Volk, Andreas; Dhenain, Marc; Delatour, Benoît
2007-07-01
Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. In transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's pathology, the MR transverse relaxation time (T(2)) has been described to be modulated by amyloidosis. This modification has been attributed to the age-related iron deposition that occurs within the amyloid plaques of old animals. In the present study, young APP/PS1 transgenic mice without histochemically detectable iron in the brain were specifically studied. In vivo measurements of T(2) in the hippocampus, at the level of the subiculum, were shown to reflect the density of amyloid plaques. This suggests that T(2) variations can be induced solely by aggregated amyloid deposits in the absence of associated histologically-detectable iron. Thus T(2) from regions with high amyloid load, such as the subiculum, is particularly well suited for following plaque deposition in young animals, i.e., at the earliest stages of the pathological process. PMID:17659609
Ikeda, Kazuhiro Kawaguchi, Hitoshi
2015-02-07
We performed measurements at room temperature for a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well grown on GaAs(110) using a time-resolved microscopic photoluminescence (micro-PL) technique to find what effects spin diffusion had on the measured electron spin relaxation time, τ{sub s}, and developed a method of estimating the spin diffusion coefficient, D{sub s}, using the measured data and the coupled drift-diffusion equations for spin polarized electrons. The spatial nonuniformities of τ{sub s} and the initial degree of electron spin polarization caused by the pump intensity distribution inside the focal spot were taken into account to explain the dependence of τ{sub s} on the measured spot size, i.e., a longer τ{sub s} for a smaller spot size. We estimated D{sub s} as ∼100 cm{sup 2}/s, which is similar to a value reported in the literature. We also provided a qualitative understanding on how spin diffusion lengthens τ{sub s} in micro-PL measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, B. M.; Ikari, M. J.; Marone, C.
2016-02-01
Interseismic recovery of fault strength (healing) following earthquake failure is a fundamental requirement of the seismic cycle and likely plays a key role in determining the stability and slip behavior of tectonic faults. We report on laboratory measurements of time- and slip-dependent frictional strengthening for natural and synthetic gouges to evaluate the role of mineralogy in frictional strengthening. We performed slide-hold-slide (SHS) shearing experiments on nine natural fault gouges and eight synthetic gouges at conditions of 20 MPa normal stress, 100% relative humidity (RH), large shear strain (~15), and room temperature. Phyllosilicate-rich rocks show the lowest rates of frictional strengthening. Samples rich in quartz and feldspar exhibit intermediate rates of frictional strengthening, and calcite-rich gouges show the largest values. Our results show that (1) the rates of frictional strengthening and creep relaxation scale with frictional strength, (2) phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges have low strength and healing characteristics that promote stable, aseismic creep, (3) most natural fault gouges exhibit intermediate rates of frictional strengthening, consistent with a broad range of fault slip behaviors, and (4) calcite-rich fault rocks show the highest rates of frictional strengthening, low values of dilation upon reshear, and high frictional strengths, all of which would promote seismogenic behavior.
Calixto, Nathaniel E; Kumar, Deepak; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Singh, Justin; Schooler, Joseph; Nardo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaojuan; Souza, Richard B; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila
2016-02-01
This study assessed the effects of static loading on MRI relaxation times of menisci in individuals with and without radiographic knee OA. High-resolution fast spin-echo (FSE) and T1 ρ /T2 relaxation time MR sequences were obtained with and without loading at 50% body weight in 124 subjects. T1ρ /T2 relaxation times were calculated in menisci, and meniscus lesions were assessed through clinical grading. Student's t-test compared OA and control unloaded relaxation times as well as within-group changes with loading, Generalized Linear Models evaluated zonal variation, and ANCOVA compared loading response between groups. Unloaded T1ρ and T2 in the middle and inner zones of the lateral anterior horn and outer zone of the medial posterior horn were significantly higher in OA and suggest that meniscal OA change occurs unevenly. Zonal T1ρ and T2 showed differing patterns between anterior and posterior horns, suggesting differences in macromolecular organization. Significant increases with loading were seen largely in the T2 of controls and less frequently in subjects with OA. In the medial posterior horn, T1ρ and T2 decreased with loading in OA but changed negligibly in controls; these significantly different loading responses between groups may indicate load transmission failure in OA menisci. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:249-261, 2016. PMID:26223430
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni
2004-01-01
An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.
A perspective on time: Loss frequencies, time scales, and lifetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prather, Michael; Holmes, Christopher
2013-04-01
The need to describe the Earth system and its components with a quantity that has units of time is ubiquitous since the 1970s work of Bolin, Rodhe and Junge. These quantities are often used as metrics of the system to describe the duration or cumulative impact of an action, such as in global-warming and ozone-depletion potentials, as in the SPARC lifetime re-assessment. The quantity designated "lifetime" is often calculated inconsistently and/or misused when applied to the subsequent evaluations of impacts. A careful set of definitions and derivations is needed to ensure that we are reporting, publishing, and comparing the same quantities. There are many different ways to derive metrics of time, and they describe different properties of the system. Here we carefully define several of those metrics - denoted here as loss frequency, time scale, and lifetime - and demonstrate which properties of the system they describe. Three generalizable examples demonstrate (i) how the non-linear chemistry of tropospheric ozone makes simple approaches for tracking pollution in error; (ii) why the lifetime of a gas depends on the history of emissions, and (iii) when multiple reservoirs generate time scales quite separate from the traditionally defined lifetime. Proper use of the many "time" parameters in a system, however, gives a very powerful understanding of the response to anthropogenic perturbations.
Deciphering Time Scale Hierarchy in Reaction Networks.
Nagahata, Yutaka; Maeda, Satoshi; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Horiyama, Takashi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki
2016-03-01
Markovian dynamics on complex reaction networks are one of the most intriguing subjects in a wide range of research fields including chemical reactions, biological physics, and ecology. To represent the global kinetics from one node (corresponding to a basin on an energy landscape) to another requires information on multiple pathways that directly or indirectly connect these two nodes through the entire network. In this paper we present a scheme to extract a hierarchical set of global transition states (TSs) over a discrete-time Markov chain derived from first-order rate equations. The TSs can naturally take into account the multiple pathways connecting any pair of nodes. We also propose a new type of disconnectivity graph (DG) to capture the hierarchical organization of different time scales of reactions that can capture changes in the network due to changes in the time scale of observation. The crux is the introduction of the minimum conductance cut (MCC) in graph clustering, corresponding to the dividing surface across the network having the "smallest" transition probability between two disjoint subnetworks (superbasins on the energy landscape) in the network. We present a new combinatorial search algorithm for finding this MCC. We apply our method to a reaction network of Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether that consists of 23 nodes and 66 links (saddles on the energy landscape) connecting them. We compare the kinetic properties of our DG to those of the transition matrix of the rate equations and show that our graph can properly reveal the hierarchical organization of time scales in a network. PMID:26641663
MRI of bone marrow in the distal radius: in vivo precision of effective transverse relaxation times
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grampp, S.; Majumdar, S.; Jergas, M.; Lang, P.; Gies, A.; Genant, H. K.
1995-01-01
The effective transverse relaxation time T2* is influenced by the presence of trabecular bone, and can potentially provide a measure of bone density as well as bone structure. We determined the in vivo precision of T2* in repeated bone marrow measurements. The T2* measurements of the bone marrow of the distal radius were performed twice within 2 weeks in six healthy young volunteers using a modified water-presaturated 3D Gradient-Recalled Acquisition at Steady State (GRASS) sequence with TE 7, 10, 12, 20, and 30; TR 67; flip angle (FA) 90 degrees. An axial volume covering a length of 5.6 cm in the distal radius was measured. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined manually and consisted of the entire trabecular bone cross-section extending proximally from the radial subchondral endplate. Reproducibility of T2* and area measurements was expressed as the absolute precision error (standard deviation [SD] in ms or mm2) or as the relative precision error (SD/mean x 100, or coefficient of variation [CV] in %) between the two-point measurements. Short-term precision of T2* and area measurements varied depending on section thickness and location of the ROI in the distal radius. Absolute precision errors for T2* times were between 1.3 and 2.9 ms (relative precision errors 3.8-9.5 %) and for area measurements between 20 and 55 mm2 (relative precision errors 5.1-16.4%). This MR technique for quantitative assessment of trabecular bone density showed reasonable reproducibility in vivo and is a promising future tool for the assessment of osteoporosis.
Electrochemical properties and relaxation times of the hematite/water interface.
Shimizu, Kenichi; Boily, Jean-François
2014-08-12
Electric double layer properties and protonation rates at the surface of a mechanically and chemically polished (001) surface of hematite (α-Fe2O3) contacted with aqueous solutions of NaCl were extracted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of pH (4-12) and ionic strength (10-1000 mM) on the EIS response of the electrode were predicted using an electrical equivalent circuit model accounting for hematite bulk and interfacial processes. These efforts generated diffuse layer as well as compact layer capacitances and resistance values pertaining to interfacial processes. Diffuse layer capacitance values lie in the 0.5-0.6 μF cm(-2) region and are about 1.5 times smaller than those obtained on a roughened hematite surface. Compact layer capacitances are strongly pH dependent as they pertain to the transfer of ions (charge carriers) from the diffuse layer onto surface (hydr)oxo groups. These values, alongside those of resistance adsorption, pointed a 50% decrease in proton adsorption/desorption resistance under acidic and alkaline conditions relative to that of the point of zero charge (pH 8-9). Increasing ionic strength generally induces larger diffuse layer capacitances, larger adsorption capacitances, and lower resistance values. Such a response is in line with the concept for thinner electric double layers and facilitated proton adsorption reactions by solutions of high ionic strengths. Relaxation times pertaining to the transfer of charge carriers across the compact plane induced by the EIS experiments lie in the 0.7-4.2 s range and become larger under acidic conditions. Decreases in site availability and increases in electrostatic repulsion are two possible contributing factors impeding reaction rates below the point of zero charge. Collectively, these finding are underpinning important relationships between classical views on mineral surface complexation reactions and electrochemical views of semiconductor/water interfaces. PMID:25072470
Nanosecond Time Scale Motions in Proteins Revealed by High-Resolution NMR Relaxometry
2013-01-01
Understanding the molecular determinants underlying protein function requires the characterization of both structure and dynamics at atomic resolution. Nuclear relaxation rates allow a precise characterization of protein dynamics at the Larmor frequencies of spins. This usually limits the sampling of motions to a narrow range of frequencies corresponding to high magnetic fields. At lower fields one cannot achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution in NMR. Here, we use a fast shuttle device where the polarization builds up and the signals are detected at high field, while longitudinal relaxation takes place at low fields 0.5 < B0 < 14.1 T. The sample is propelled over a distance up to 50 cm by a blowgun-like system in about 50 ms. The analysis of nitrogen-15 relaxation in the protein ubiquitin over such a wide range of magnetic fields offers unprecedented insights into molecular dynamics. Some key regions of the protein feature structural fluctuations on nanosecond time scales, which have so far been overlooked in high-field relaxation studies. Nanosecond motions in proteins may have been underestimated by traditional high-field approaches, and slower supra-τc motions that have no effect on relaxation may have been overestimated. High-resolution relaxometry thus opens the way to a quantitative characterization of nanosecond motions in proteins. PMID:24228712
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Daiki; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi
2016-05-01
A thin p-type InGaN with a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface was used to measure the relaxation time of a surface charge limit (SCL) by irradiating rectangular laser beam pulses at changing time interval. The p-type InGaN film was grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and the NEA activation was performed after the sample was heat cleaned. 13 nC per pulse with 10 ms width was obtained from the InGaN photocathode. The current decreased exponentially from the beginning of the pulse. The initial current value after the laser irradiation decreased with the time interval. As a result, the SCL relaxation time was estimated through the InGaN photocathode measurements at 100 ms.
Chen, H; Shepherd, R; Chung, H K; Dyer, G; Faenov, A; Fournier, K B; Hansen, S B; Hunter, J; Kemp, A; Pikuz, T; Ping, Y; Widmann, K; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P
2006-08-22
The authors have measured the relaxation time of hot electrons in short pulse laser-solid interactions using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. Employing laser intensities of 10{sup 17}, 10{sup 18}, and 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, they find increased laser coupling to hot electrons as the laser intensity becomes relativistic and thermalization of hot electrons at timescales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. They propose a simple model based on collisional coupling and plasma expansion to describe the rapid relaxation of hot electrons. The agreement between the resulting K{sub {alpha}} time-history from this model with the experiments is best at highest laser intensity and less satisfactory at the two lower laser intensities.
Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales
Baldis, H.A.; Rozmus, W.; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
1993-03-01
The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.
COPD Patients Have Short Lung Magnetic Resonance T1 Relaxation Time.
Alamidi, Daniel F; Morgan, Alexandra R; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Nordenmark, Lars H; Hockings, Paul D; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Young, Simon S; Naish, Josephine H; Waterton, John C; Maguire, Niall C; Olsson, Lars E; Parker, Geoffrey J M
2016-04-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide attractive biomarkers for assessment of pulmonary disease in clinical trials as it is free from ionizing radiation, minimally invasive and allows regional information. The aim of this study was to characterize lung MRI T1 relaxation time as a biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and specifically its relationship to smoking history, computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements in comparison to healthy age-matched controls. Lung T1 and inter-quartile range (IQR) of T1 maps from 24 COPD subjects and 12 healthy age-matched non-smokers were retrospectively analyzed from an institutional review board approved study. The subjects underwent PFTs and two separate MR imaging sessions at 1.5 tesla to test T1 repeatability. CT scans were performed on the COPD subjects. T1 repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient) was 0.72 for repeated scans acquired on two visits. The lung T1 was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) and T1 IQR was significantly larger (p = 0.0002) for the COPD subjects compared to healthy controls. Lung T1 significantly (p = 0.001) correlated with lung density assessed with CT. Strong significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between lung T1 and all PFT measurements were observed. Cigarette exposure did not correlate with lung T1 in COPD subjects. In conclusion, lung MRI T1 mapping shows potential as a repeatable, radiation free, non-invasive imaging technique in the evaluation of COPD. PMID:26488310
A numerical study of vector resonant relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Bence; Tremaine, Scott
2015-04-01
Stars bound to a supermassive black hole interact gravitationally. Persistent torques acting between stellar orbits lead to a rapid resonant relaxation of the orbital orientation vectors (`vector' resonant relaxation) and slower relaxation of the eccentricities (`scalar' resonant relaxation), both at rates much faster than two-body or non-resonant relaxation. We describe a new parallel symplectic integrator, N-RING, which follows the dynamical evolution of a cluster of N stars through vector resonant relaxation, by averaging the pairwise interactions over the orbital period and periapsis precession time-scale. We use N-RING to follow the evolution of clusters containing over 104 stars for tens of relaxation times. Among other results, we find that the evolution is dominated by torques among stars with radially overlapping orbits, and that resonant relaxation can be modelled as a random walk of the orbit normals on the sphere, with angular step size ranging from ˜0.5-1 rad. The relaxation rate in a cluster with a fixed number of stars is proportional to the root mean square (rms) mass of the stars. The rms torque generated by the cluster stars is reduced below the torque between Kepler orbits due to apsidal precession and declines weakly with the eccentricity of the perturbed orbit. However, since the angular momentum of an orbit also decreases with eccentricity, the relaxation rate is approximately eccentricity-independent for e ≲ 0.7 and grows rapidly with eccentricity for e ≳ 0.8. We quantify the relaxation using the autocorrelation function of the spherical multipole moments; this decays exponentially and the e-folding time may be identified with the vector resonant relaxation time-scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwaoka, Nobuyuki; Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi
2015-04-01
A framework for estimating the linear relaxation modulus of polymer melts by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is presented on the basis of relaxation mode analysis (RMA). Conventional calculations of the relaxation modulus based on the Green-Kubo formula are computationally very expensive owing to long relaxation times and poor convergence of stress autocorrelation functions: In practice, reliable calculations usually require a time average over O(10τ 1-100τ 1), where τ1 is the longest relaxation time of a chain in the melt. RMA is a method that systematically extracts relaxation modes and rates of a polymer chain from the time correlation functions of coordinates of polymer segments. In the present method, the relaxation modulus is evaluated by fitting the data of the stress autocorrelation functions to the generalized Maxwell model whose relaxation times are determined from the relaxation rate spectrum obtained by RMA. It is demonstrated that the stress relaxation modulus of a polymer melt is well estimated by the present method over a wide range of time scales from MD simulations of length O(1τ 1-10τ 1).
RADIAL TRANSPORT OF LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN ACCRETION DISKS. II. RELAXATION TO STEADY STATES
Takeuchi, Taku; Okuzumi, Satoshi
2014-12-20
We study the time evolution of a large-scale magnetic flux threading an accretion disk. The induction equation of the mean poloidal field is solved under the standard viscous disk model. Magnetic flux evolution is controlled by two timescales: one is the timescale of the inward advection of the magnetic flux, τ{sub adv}. This is induced by the dragging of the flux by the accreting gas. The other is the outward diffusion timescale of the magnetic flux τ{sub dif}. We consider diffusion due to the Ohmic resistivity. These timescales can be significantly different from the disk viscous timescale τ{sub disk}. The behaviors of the magnetic flux evolution are quite different depending on the magnitude relationship of the timescales τ{sub adv}, τ{sub dif}, and τ{sub disk}. The most interesting phenomena occur when τ{sub adv} << τ{sub dif}, τ{sub disk}. In such a case, the magnetic flux distribution approaches a quasi-steady profile much faster than the viscous evolution of the gas disk, and the magnetic flux has also been tightly bundled to the inner part of the disk. In the inner part, although the poloidal magnetic field becomes much stronger than the interstellar magnetic field, the field strength is limited to the maximum value that is analytically given by our previous work. We also find a condition for the initial large magnetic flux, which is a fossil of the magnetic field dragging during the early phase of star formation that survives for a duration in which significant gas disk evolution proceeds.
Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krantz, D. H.
2010-12-01
In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large number of insurees: each contributes a small premium toward a fund that is adequate to cover the large losses that occasionally occur. Participatory processes are needed that extend risk sharing to larger social scales and that reduce adversarial relationships between insurers, insurees, insurance regulators, and governments that intervene or fail to intervene on an ad hoc rather than a contractual basis.
The T1 ρ13C spin-lattice relaxation time of interpenetrating networks by solid state NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Ae Ran; Schueneman, G. T.; Novak, B. M.
1999-02-01
Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) interpenetrated with 5% SiO 2 (PHEMA-IPN) were studied by 13C CP/MAS NMR. From these results, the structure of two polymers were verified by 13C NMR. Spin-lattice relaxation times for the polymer carbons in the rotating frame, T1 ρ, have been measured as a function of temperature. The T1 ρ spin-lattice relaxation times of the α-quarternary and carbonyl in the PHEMA and PHEMA-IPN undergo slow motions, i.e., motions on the slow side of the T1 ρ minimum, while those of the 1-,2-, β-methylene, and 3-methyl undergo fast motions, i.e., motions on the fast side of the T1 ρ minimum. From these T1 ρ spin-lattice relaxation times, we discuss the mobility, the correlation time, and activation energy for the PHEMA and PHEMA-IPN, respectively. The activation energies for the PHEMA-IPN were found to be generally higher than those of PHEMA. The higher activation energy for the side-chain 2-methylene in the PHEMA-IPN is attributed to bonding between the SiO 2 and the hydroxyl group of the PHEMA.
Slip-flow in complex porous media as determined by a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.
2014-12-01
The pores and throats of shales and mudrocks are predominantly found within a range of 1-100 nm, within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the slip-flow and low transition-flow regime (0.001 < Kn < 0.5). Currently, the study of slip-flows is for the most part limited to simple tube and channel geometries, however, the geometry of mudrock pores is often sponge-like (organic matter) and/or platy (clays). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to predict slip-flow in complex geometries, but due to prohibitive computational demand are generally limited to small volumes (one to several pores). Here we present a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) parameterized for slip-flow (Guo et al. 2008) and adapted here to complex geometries. LBMs are inherently parallelizable, such that flow in complex geometries of significant (near REV-scale) volumes can be readily simulated at a fraction of the computational cost of MD simulations. At the macroscopic-scale the LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean-free-path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The corrected mean-free-path for each lattice node is determined using the mean distance of the node to the pore-wall and Stop's correction for mean-free-paths in an infinite parallel-plate geometry. At the microscopic-scale, a combined bounce-back specular-reflection boundary condition is applied to the pore-wall nodes to capture Maxwellian-slip. The LBM simulation results are first validated in simple tube and channel geometries, where good agreement is found for Knudsen numbers below 0.1, and fair agreement is found for Knudsen numbers between 0.1 and 0.5. More complex geometries are then examined including triangular-ducts and ellipsoid-ducts, both with constant and tapering/expanding cross-sections, as well as a clay pore-network imaged from a hydrocarbon producing shale by sequential focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy. These results are analyzed to determine grid-independent resolutions, and used to explore the relationship between effective permeability and Knudsen number in complex geometries.
Colla, M. -S.; Amin-Ahmadi, B.; Idrissi, H.; Malet, L.; Godet, S.; Raskin, J. -P.; Schryvers, D.; Pardoen, T.
2015-01-01
The high-rate sensitivity of nanostructured metallic materials demonstrated in the recent literature is related to the predominance of thermally activated deformation mechanisms favoured by a large density of internal interfaces. Here we report time-resolved high-resolution electron transmission microscopy creep tests on thin nanograined films using on-chip nanomechanical testing. Tests are performed on palladium, which exhibited unexpectedly large creep rates at room temperature. Despite the small 30-nm grain size, relaxation is found to be mediated by dislocation mechanisms. The dislocations interact with the growth nanotwins present in the grains, leading to a loss of coherency of twin boundaries. The density of stored dislocations first increases with applied deformation, and then decreases with time to drive additional deformation while no grain boundary mechanism is observed. This fast relaxation constitutes a key issue in the development of various micro- and nanotechnologies such as palladium membranes for hydrogen applications. PMID:25557273
Temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation times of (23)Na in Na(4)HTm[DOTP].
Shapiro, E M; Borthakur, A; Bansal, N; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R
2000-03-01
We describe the characterization of a (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation rates in the complex, Na(4)HTm[DOTP]. This is the first characterization of a (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift in a nonmetallic sample. The (23)Na temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient is approximately -0. 5 PPM/ degrees C for both an aqueous solution and a 6% agarose gel of this compound. This is 50 times the magnitude of the temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient of water protons. The relaxation times, T(1), T(2f), and T(2s) increased by 0.1, 0.01, and 0.05 ms/ degrees C, respectively. Applications of these unique properties for designing an MRI technique for monitoring heat deposition in tissue and tissue phantoms are discussed. PMID:10698662
Temperature-Dependent Chemical Shift and Relaxation Times of 23Na in Na 4HTm[DOTP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Erik M.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Bansal, Navin; Leigh, John S.; Reddy, Ravinder
2000-03-01
We describe the characterization of a 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift and relaxation rates in the complex, Na4HTm[DOTP]. This is the first characterization of a 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift in a nonmetallic sample. The 23Na temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient is ∼-0.5 PPM/°C for both an aqueous solution and a 6% agarose gel of this compound. This is 50 times the magnitude of the temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficient of water protons. The relaxation times, T1, T2f, and T2s increased by 0.1, 0.01, and 0.05 ms/°C, respectively. Applications of these unique properties for designing an MRI technique for monitoring heat deposition in tissue and tissue phantoms are discussed.
Papaleo, R. M.; Leal, R.; Carreira, W. H.; Barbosa, L. G.; Bello, I.; Bulla, A.
2006-09-01
We report on measurements of relaxation times of nanometer-sized deformations resulting from the impact of individual energetic ions on poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces at temperatures close to and below the glass transition T{sub g}. The temporal evolution of the dimensions of the deformations is well described by a stretched exponential function, but with relaxation times {tau}(T) many orders of magnitude smaller than bulk values at the same T. The local T{sub g} was around 86 deg. C, roughly 30 deg. C below the conventional bulk T{sub g}. At the vicinity of the local T{sub g}, {tau}(T) follows the Vogel-Fulcher type of T dependence, but at lower T a transition towards a less steep behavior is seen.
Effects of long and short relaxation times of particle interactions in dense and slow granular flows
Zhang, D. Z.; Rauenzahn, Rick M.
2002-01-01
In this work, dense granular flows are numerically simulated using a discrete element method. The interaction of a pair of colliding particles is modeled as a parallel connection of a linear spring and a linear dashpot. Although the force model for particle interactions is simplistic for many practical problems, a significant amount of meaningful new physics can be extracted from the numerical simulations by studying the behavior of particle interaction time and its probability distribution. For instance, it is found that the probability distribution of particle contact ages is exponential for long-term contacts. The time scale of the exponential decay of the contact age probability is related to the rheological properties of the dense granular medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello, A.; Laredo, E.; Grimau, M.
1999-11-01
The existence of a distribution of relaxation times has been widely used to describe the relaxation function versus frequency in glass-forming liquids. Several empirical distributions have been proposed and the usual method is to fit the experimental data to a model that assumes one of these functions. Another alternative is to extract from the experimental data the discrete profile of the distribution function that best fits the experimental curve without any a priori assumption. To test this approach a Monte Carlo algorithm using the simulated annealing is used to best fit simulated dielectric loss data, ɛ''(ω), generated with Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson, Havriliak-Negami, and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) functions. The relaxation times distribution, G(ln(τ)), is obtained as an histogram that follows very closely the analytical expression for the distributions that are known in these cases. Also, the temporal decay functions, φ(t), are evaluated and compared to a stretched exponential. The method is then applied to experimental data for α-polyvinylidene fluoride over a temperature range 233 K<=T<=278 K and frequencies varying from 3 MHz to 0.001 Hz. These data show the existence of two relaxation processes: the fast segmental αa process associated with the glass transition and a αc mode, which is slower and due to changes in conformation that can occur in the crystalline regions. The experimental curves are fitted by the simulated annealing direct signal analysis procedure, and the relaxation times distributions are calculated and found to vary with temperature. The decay function is also evaluated and it shows clearly its bimodal character and a good agreement with a KWW function with a temperature dependent β for each mode. The relaxation plots are drawn for each mode and the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher and Arrhenius parameters are found. The fragility parameter for polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) is found to be 87, which characterizes this polymer as a relatively structurally strong material.
Singh, Sheela P.; Lu, Chunhua; Han, Lin; Hobbs, Brian P.; Pradeep, Sunila; Choi, Hyun J.; Bankson, James A.
2015-01-01
Purpose To assess whether T1 relaxation time of tumors may be used to assess response to bevacizumab anti-angiogenic therapy. Procedures: 12 female nude mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV3ip1-LC ovarian tumors were administered bevacizumab (6.25ug/g, n=6) or PBS (control, n=6) therapy twice a week for two weeks. T1 maps of tumors were generated before, two days, and 2 weeks after initiating therapy. Tumor weight was assessed by MR and at necropsy. Histology for microvessel density, proliferation, and apoptosis was performed. Results Bevacizumab treatment resulted in tumor growth inhibition (p<0.04, n=6), confirming therapeutic efficacy. Tumor T1 relaxation times increased in bevacizumab treated mice 2 days and 2 weeks after initiating therapy (p<.05, n=6). Microvessel density decreased 59% and cell proliferation (Ki67+) decreased 50% in the bevacizumab treatment group (p<.001, n=6), but not apoptosis. Conclusions Findings suggest that increased tumor T1 relaxation time is associated with response to bevacizumab therapy in ovarian cancer model and might serve as an early indicator of response. PMID:26098849
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weston, Joseph; Waintal, Xavier
2016-04-01
We report on a "source-sink" algorithm which allows one to calculate time-resolved physical quantities from a general nanoelectronic quantum system (described by an arbitrary time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian) connected to infinite electrodes. Although mathematically equivalent to the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, the approach is based on the scattering wave functions of the system. It amounts to solving a set of generalized Schrödinger equations that include an additional "source" term (coming from the time-dependent perturbation) and an absorbing "sink" term (the electrodes). The algorithm execution time scales linearly with both system size and simulation time, allowing one to simulate large systems (currently around 106 degrees of freedom) and/or large times (currently around 105 times the smallest time scale of the system). As an application we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a Josephson junction for both short and long junctions, and recover the multiple Andreev reflection physics. We also discuss two intrinsically time-dependent situations: the relaxation time of a Josephson junction after a quench of the voltage bias, and the propagation of voltage pulses through a Josephson junction. In the case of a ballistic, long Josephson junction, we predict that a fast voltage pulse creates an oscillatory current whose frequency is controlled by the Thouless energy of the normal part. A similar effect is found for short junctions; a voltage pulse produces an oscillating current which, in the absence of electromagnetic environment, does not relax.
Direct Time-Domain Observation of Conformational Relaxation in Gas-Phase Cold Collisions.
Drayna, Garrett K; Hallas, Christian; Wang, Kenneth; Domingos, Sergio R; Eibenberger, Sandra; Doyle, John M; Patterson, David
2016-04-11
Cooling molecules in the gas phase is important for precision spectroscopy, cold molecule physics, and physical chemistry. Measurements of conformational relaxation cross sections shed important light on potential energy surfaces and energy flow within a molecule. However, gas-phase conformational cooling has not been previously observed directly. In this work, we directly observe conformational dynamics of 1,2-propanediol in cold (6 K) collisions with atomic helium using microwave spectroscopy and buffer-gas cooling. Precise knowledge and control of the collisional environment in the buffer-gas allows us to measure the absolute collision cross-section for conformational relaxation. Several conformers of 1,2-propanediol are investigated and found to have relaxation cross-sections with He ranging from σ=4.7(3.0)×10(-18) cm(2) to σ>5×10(-16) cm(2) . Our method is applicable to a broad class of molecules and could be used to provide information about the potential energy surfaces of previously uninvestigated molecules. PMID:26992036
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kingsley, Peter B.; Monahan, W. Gordon
2000-04-01
In the presence of an off-resonance radiofrequency field, recovery of longitudinal magnetization to a steady state is not purely monoexponential. Under reasonable conditions with zero initial magnetization, recovery is nearly exponential and an effective relaxation rate constant R1eff = 1/T1eff can be obtained. Exact and approximate formulas for R1eff and steady-state magnetization are derived from the Bloch equations for spins undergoing cross-relaxation and chemical exchange between two sites in the presence of an off-resonance radiofrequency field. The relaxation formulas require that the magnetization of one spin is constant, but not necessarily zero, while the other spin relaxes. Extension to three sites with one radiofrequency field is explained. The special cases of off-resonance effects alone and with cross-relaxation or chemical exchange, cross-relaxation alone, and chemical exchange alone are compared. The inaccuracy in saturation transfer measurements of exchange rate constants by published formulas is discussed for the creatine kinase reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walbrecker, Jan O.; Behroozmand, Ahmad A.
2012-12-01
Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (surface NMR) is a geophysical technique used in the exploration of shallow aquifers. It is based on measuring the NMR response of water molecules to excitation by electromagnetic pulses. By increasing the moment of applied pulses, successively deeper regions of an aquifer can be probed. The longitudinal relaxation time T1, determined from the NMR experiment, depends on pore size and can be potentially used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. A novel scheme was recently proposed that was shown theoretically to be more reliable for acquiring surface-NMR T1 data than traditional acquisition. In this proof-of-concept study we provide the first empirical evidence for the superiority of the novel scheme. We chose a survey site close to Skive, Denmark, where proximate boreholes indicate a homogeneous sandy aquifer in the top 30 m. The homogeneous composition implies that the distribution of pore sizes does not vary significantly across the formation. Because pore size is reflected by the T1 relaxation time, we therefore assume that the homogeneous aquifer can be characterized by a single T1 independent of the applied pulse moment (i.e., sampled depth region)—this is the benchmark condition we tested with our surface-NMR measurements. We collected surface-NMR T1 data employing the traditional as well as the novel acquisition scheme at various pulse moments. For each pulse moment we infer a T1 relaxation time based on extensively sampled data (14 delay-time data points). The T1 relaxation times obtained using the novel scheme show a constant value of about 820 ms (± 38 ms) for all pulse moments. In contrast, the T1 relaxation times determined using the traditional scheme vary significantly between 530 and 750 ms with pulse moment, which in an inversion would result in a spatial variation of T1 across the aquifer. The results based on the novel scheme are consistent with a homogeneous aquifer, which we expect based on the borehole information, whereas the variation of T1 obtained by the traditional scheme could be misinterpreted as a variation of pore size or hydraulic conductivity.
Chieng, Norman; Mizuno, Masayasu; Pikal, Michael
2013-01-01
The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔTg). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50°C and 60°C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40°C) and glass transition region width (ΔTg) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-disaccharide, HES-polyol and HES-disaccharide-polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔTg. Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔTg, but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data is directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔTg data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔTg derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔTg method and TAM data at 40°C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature is well below the Tg of the sample. PMID:23608636
An optimal modification of a Kalman filter for time scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenhall, C. A.
2003-01-01
The Kalman filter in question, which was implemented in the time scale algorithm TA(NIST), produces time scales with poor short-term stability. A simple modification of the error covariance matrix allows the filter to produce time scales with good stability at all averaging times, as verified by simulations of clock ensembles.
Kibble-Zurek mechanism beyond adiabaticity: Finite-time scaling with critical initial slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Hu, Qijun; Zhong, Fan
2016-01-01
The Kibble-Zurek mechanism demands an initial adiabatic stage before an impulse stage to have a frozen correlation length that generates topological defects in a cooling phase transition. Here we study such a driven critical dynamics but with an initial condition that is near the critical point and that is far away from equilibrium. In this case, there is no initial adiabatic stage at all and thus adiabaticity is broken. However, we show that there again exists a finite length scale arising from the driving that divides the evolution into three stages. A relaxation-finite-time-scaling-adiabatic scenario is then proposed in place of the adiabatic-impulse-adiabatic scenario of the original Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A unified scaling theory, which combines finite-time scaling with critical initial slip, is developed to describe the universal behavior and is confirmed with numerical simulations of a two-dimensional classical Ising model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlaváček, Bořivoj; Drašar, Čestmír; Kalendová, Andréa; Menc, Pavel; Veselý, David
The temperature-dependent changes of molecular and sub-molecular motions are studied in amorphous substances. The solid and liquid phases of amorphous bodies are characterized at the micro-level by two types of oscillators, linear and non-linear. It is accepted that an amorphous liquid is formed by domains that group the linear oscillators into the form of icebergs. The serial connection of the viscoelastic elements are arranged inside of these icebergs. The size of the linear connection within the domains is characterized by the number "n", which increases during the cooling process. The linear viscoelastic behavior of the individual serial connections is connected to the individual relaxation processes α, β, and γ. Only the "alpha" process exhibits growth of "n" to infinity on cooling. Therefore, the corresponding relaxation time, τα, for the infinite chain of "n" elements (Voigt or Maxwell elements) can also reach infinity as the material transforms to a glassy state. In contrast to the "alpha" process, the β and γ processes are limited in growth for serial connections in a chain structure. Therefore, the relaxation times for the β and γ processes, τβ and τγ, will only follow the temperature dependence of the sample viscosity on cooling, which is, of course, Arrhenian. We discuss the role of non-linear oscillators in the solid-liquid transition in relation to Brownian motion.
Leyet, Y.; Guerrero, F.; Amorin, H.; Guerra, J. de Los S.; Eiras, J. A.
2010-10-18
The influence of the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition on the relaxation parameters of conductive processes in ferroelectric materials is studied in the time domain. Three well-known ferroelectric systems were chosen with transition temperatures in different regions, these are, high-temperature PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}-based ceramics; nanostructured Pb(Zr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4})O{sub 3} ceramics; and submicron BaTiO{sub 3}. The thermal evolution of relaxation parameters shows clear anomalies in their typical behavior when conductivity processes arise in the temperature range where the ferroelectric transition takes place. The method here described allows obtaining information about the correlation between charge transport and the motion of the off-center ions at the phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walbrecker, J.; Behroozmand, A.
2011-12-01
Efficient groundwater management requires reliable means of characterizing shallow groundwater aquifers. One key parameter in this respect is hydraulic conductivity. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical exploration technique that can potentially provide this type of information in a noninvasive, cost-effective way. The technique is based on measuring the precession of nuclear spins of protons in groundwater molecules. It involves large loop antennas deployed on Earth's surface to generate electromagnetic pulses tuned to specifically excite and detect groundwater proton spins. Naturally, the excited state of spins is transitory - once excited, spins relax back to their equilibrium state. This relaxation process is strongly influenced by the spin environment, which, in the case of groundwater, is defined by the aquifer. By employing empirical relations, changes in relaxation behavior can be used to identify changes in aquifer hydraulic conductivity, making the NMR relaxation signal a very important piece of information. Particularly, efforts are made to record the longitudinal relaxation parameter T1, because it is known from laboratory studies that it often reliably correlates with hydraulic conductivity, even in the presence of magnetic species. In surface NMR, T1 data are collected by recording the NMR signal amplitude following two sequential excitation pulses as a function of the delay time τ between the two pulses. In conventional acquisition, the two pulses have a mutual phase shift of π. Based on theoretical arguments it was recently shown that T1 times acquired according to this conventional surface-NMR scheme are systematically biased. It was proposed that the bias can be minimized by cycling the phase of the two pulses between π and zero in subsequent double-pulse experiments, and subtracting the resulting signal amplitudes (phase-cycled pseudosaturation recovery scheme, pcPSR). We present the first surface-NMR T1 data set recorded employing the pcPSR scheme and compare it to conventional T1 data. For our feasibility study we have chosen a site in Skive, Denmark, that features excellent signal/noise conditions, allowing us to collect high quality data in reasonable survey time. In addition, proximate boreholes and TEM measurements suggest a relatively homogeneous aquifer extending from 5 to more than 25m below surface. We may therefore expect roughly constant T1 relaxation times throughout the shallow aquifer, providing us a simple framework for our comparative study. We used a 50x50m surface-NMR loop and employed 16 pulse moments selected to spatially cover the shallow aquifer region. For each pulse moment, we recorded surface-NMR T1 data densely sampled at 14 delay times τ between 250 and 4'000 ms. On this high-quality data set we demonstrate that the pcPSR acquisition approach yields to a good degree homogeneous T1 relaxation times, whereas the conventional approach leads to variations in T1 that could be misinterpreted in terms of changes of aquifer characteristics. Thereby we provide first empirical evidence for the superiority of the pcPSR scheme for surface NMR T1 acquisition.
Scaling of Langevin and molecular dynamics persistence times of nonhomogeneous fluids.
Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer; Colmenares, Pedro J
2012-01-01
The existing solution for the Langevin equation of an anisotropic fluid allowed the evaluation of the position-dependent perpendicular and parallel diffusion coefficients, using molecular dynamics data. However, the time scale of the Langevin dynamics and molecular dynamics are different and an ansatz for the persistence probability relaxation time was needed. Here we show how the solution for the average persistence probability obtained from the backward Smoluchowski-Fokker-Planck equation (SE), associated to the Langevin dynamics, scales with the corresponding molecular dynamics quantity. Our SE perpendicular persistence time is evaluated in terms of simple integrals over the equilibrium local density. When properly scaled by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, it gives a good match with that obtained from molecular dynamics. PMID:22400522
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geissman, J. W.; Walker, J. D.
2012-12-01
Geologic time scales, of one form or another, are used in most undergraduate geosciences courses, even including introductory physical geology or equivalent. However, satisfactory discussions of how geologic time scales originated, and how they have evolved to modern versions, are far too often conveniently or inconveniently left out of classroom discussions. Yet it is these kinds of discussions that have the potential of solidifying student appreciation of deep time and rates of geologic processes. We use the history and development of the Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale, which reflects major developments in the fields of stratigraphy, geochronology, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, astrochronology, and chemostratigraphy, as a focus of how specific details of time scales can be used to teach about time. Advances in all of these fields have allowed many parts of the time scale to be calibrated to precisions approaching less than 0.05 %. Notable time intervals for which collaborative, multifaceted efforts have led to dramatic improvements in our understanding of the character and temporal resolution of key evolutionary events, in both marine and terrestrial environments, include the Triassic-Jurassic, Permo-Triassic, and Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries (or transitions). Many of the details, but certainly not all, can be incorporated in discussions of how we know about geologic time in the classroom. For example, we presently understand that both the end-Permian ecological crisis and the biostratigraphic Permian-Triassic boundary, as calibrated by conodonts, lie within a ca. 700 ka long normal polarity chron. The reverse to normal polarity transition at the beginning of this chron is ca. 100 ka earlier than the ecological crisis and thus slightly older than the current estimate, based on high precision U-Pb zircon age determinations, of ca. 252.4 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary. This polarity transition occurred during the early part of the major negative del 13C isotope excursion that is estimated to have lasted ca. 500 ka beginning in the very latest Permian. Current geologic time scales are vastly improved over the first geologic time scale published by Holmes, nearly a hundred years ago in 1913, that used a total of eight numerical ages to establish the Phanerozoic time scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffey, W. T.
1999-04-01
The formula for the relaxation time of the magnetization of a single domain ferromagnetic particle in the low damping limit which has hitherto been derived by the method of first passage times [I. Klik, L. Gunther, J. Stat. Phys. 60 (1990) 473] is derived by extending the low damping escape rate theory (flux over barrier method) of Kramers [H.A. Kramers, Physica 7 (1940) 284], originally given for mechanical particles to spins, yielding a much simpler calculation. The analogy with macroscopic mechanisms of polarization oscillations in H-bonded chains is emphasized.
Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee
2013-04-01
Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.
Noether theorem for Birkhoffian systems on time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chuan-Jing; Zhang, Yi
2015-10-01
Birkhoff equations on time scales and Noether theorem for Birkhoffian system on time scales are studied. First, some necessary knowledge of calculus on time scales are reviewed. Second, Birkhoff equations on time scales are obtained. Third, the conditions for invariance of Pfaff action and conserved quantities are presented under the special infinitesimal transformations and general infinitesimal transformations, respectively. Fourth, some special cases are given. And finally, an example is given to illustrate the method and results.
Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm
A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the highest tier, tier 0, but not on the relaxation rates. Two different viscosities in myoglobin-CO are compared. The dependence of relaxations on the thermodynamic history of a sample is shown. For substrate-free P450cam-CO, relaxations after a p-jump are observed far above the glass transition of the protein-solvent system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2015-10-01
We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.
Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Callaghan, Martina F; Josephs, Oliver; Lutti, Antoine; Mohammadi, Siawoosh
2014-01-01
Relaxation rates provide important information about tissue microstructure. Multi-parameter mapping (MPM) estimates multiple relaxation parameters from multi-echo FLASH acquisitions with different basic contrasts, i.e., proton density (PD), T1 or magnetization transfer (MT) weighting. Motion can particularly affect maps of the apparent transverse relaxation rate R2(*), which are derived from the signal of PD-weighted images acquired at different echo times. To address the motion artifacts, we introduce ESTATICS, which robustly estimates R2(*) from images even when acquired with different basic contrasts. ESTATICS extends the fitted signal model to account for inherent contrast differences in the PDw, T1w and MTw images. The fit was implemented as a conventional ordinary least squares optimization and as a robust fit with a small or large confidence interval. These three different implementations of ESTATICS were tested on data affected by severe motion artifacts and data with no prominent motion artifacts as determined by visual assessment or fast optical motion tracking. ESTATICS improved the quality of the R2(*) maps and reduced the coefficient of variation for both types of data-with average reductions of 30% when severe motion artifacts were present. ESTATICS can be applied to any protocol comprised of multiple 2D/3D multi-echo FLASH acquisitions as used in the general research and clinical setting. PMID:25309307
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhirong; Chan, Hue Sun
2015-09-01
How type-2 topoisomerases discern global topology from local properties of DNA is not known precisely but the hypothesis that the enzymes selectively pass double-helix strands at hook-like juxtapositions is promising. Building upon an investigation of unknotting and decatenating using an improved wormlike DNA model, here we focus primarily on the enzymes' action in narrowing the distribution of linking number (Lk) in supercoiled DNA. Consistent with experiments, with selective passage at a hooked juxtaposition, the simulated narrowing factor RLk diminishes with decreasing DNA circle size but approaches an asymptotic RLk ≈ 1.7-1.8 for circle size ≳3.5 kb. For the larger DNA circles, we found that (RLk - 1) ≈ 0.42log10RK ≈ 0.68log10RL and thus RK ≈ (RL)1.6 holds for the computed RLk and knot and catenane reduction factors RK and RL attained by selective passage at different juxtaposition geometries. Remarkably, this general scaling relation is essentially identical to that observed experimentally for several type-2 topoisomerases from a variety of organisms, indicating that the different disentangling powers of the topoisomerases likely arise from variations in the hooked geometries they select. Taken together, our results suggest strongly that type-2 topoisomerases recognize not only the curvature of the G-segment but also that of the T-segment.
Time scales in Galveston Bay: An unsteady estuary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rayson, Matthew D.; Gross, Edward S.; Hetland, Robert D.; Fringer, Oliver B.
2016-04-01
Estuarine time scales including the turnover, particle e-folding time, the age (calculated with a passive tracer), and residence time (calculated with Lagrangian particles) were computed using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galveston Bay, a low-flow, partially stratified estuary. Time scales were computed during a time period when river flow varied by several orders of magnitude and all time scales therefore exhibited significant temporal variability because of the unsteadiness of the system. The spatial distributions of age and residence time were qualitatively similar and increased from 15 days in a shipping channel to >45 days in the upper estuary. Volume-averaged age and residence time decreased during high-flow conditions. Bulk time scales, including the freshwater and salinity turnover times, were far more variable due to the changing river discharge and salt flux through the estuary mouth. A criterion for calculating a suitable averaging time is discussed to satisfy a steady state assumption and to estimate a more representative bulk time scale. When scaled with a freshwater advective time, all time scales were approximately equal to the advective time scale during high-flow conditions and many times higher during low-flow conditions. The mean age, Lagrangian residence, and flushing times exhibited a relationship that was weakly dependent on the freshwater advective time scale demonstrating predictability even in an unsteady, realistic estuary.
Critical conditions for failure; stress levels, length scales, time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourne, Neil
2015-06-01
There is a range of thresholds for the response of condensed matter under loading in compression, from the yield point to that at which the bond strength is overcome and warm dense matter is formed. Yield stress shows a correlation between the length scale swept by the rise of the pulse and the defect distribution within the target for a range of materials. Strain rate is also a useful term that reflects the evolution of the stress state within a target but must also be defined for a volume element containing a particular defect distribution to reflect continuum conditions acting within and thus applies to a defined length scale within a target. Examples are shown using shock pulses to spall metal targets. Different stacking shows differing behaviour yet in each case momentum is conserved. This overview of behaviour suggests concepts borrowed from rate-independent plasticity may be viewed in a different manner and accompanying behaviours such as brittle-ductile transition may be reviewed when explaining a range of dynamic failure modes under load for materials and structures.
A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, B. S.
2013-12-01
Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought. Rather, during the Quaternary period, they occur nearly three times as often as full polarity reversals. I will address analytical issues, including the size and consistency of system blanks, that have led to the recognition of minor (1%) discrepencies between the 40Ar/39Ar age for a particular reversal or excursion and the best astrochronologic estimates from ODP sediment cores. For example, re-analysis of lava flows from Haleakala volcano, Maui that record in detail the Matuyama-Brunhes polarity reversal have been undertaken with blanks an order of magntitude smaller and more stable than was common a decade ago. Using the modern astrochronologic calibration of 28.201 Ma for the age of the Fish Canyon sanidine standard, results thus far yield an 40Ar/39Ar age of 772 × 11 ka for the reversal that is identical to the most precise and accurate astrochronologic age of 773 × 2 ka for this reversal from ODP cores. Similarly, new dating of sanidine in the Cerro Santa Rosa I rhyolite dome, New Mexico reveals an age of 932 × 5 ka for the excursion it records, in perfect agreement with astrochronologically dated ODP core records. Work underway aims at refining the 40Ar/39Ar ages that underpin the entire GITS by further eliminating the bias between the radioisotopic and astrochronologically determined ages for several reversals and excursions.
Ellipsoidal Relaxation of Deformed Vesicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Miao; Lira, Rafael B.; Riske, Karin A.; Dimova, Rumiana; Lin, Hao
2015-09-01
Theoretical analysis and experimental quantification on the ellipsoidal relaxation of vesicles are presented. The current work reveals the simplicity and universal aspects of this process. The Helfrich formula is shown to apply to the dynamic relaxation of moderate-to-high tension membranes, and a closed-form solution is derived which predicts the vesicle aspect ratio as a function of time. Scattered data are unified by a time scale, which leads to a similarity behavior, governed by a distinctive solution for each vesicle type. Two separate regimes in the relaxation are identified, namely, the "entropic" and the "constant-tension" regimes. The bending rigidity and the initial membrane tension can be simultaneously extracted from the data analysis, posing the current approach as an effective means for the mechanical analysis of biomembranes.
Atomic time scales for dynamical astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guinot, B.
1992-06-01
A series of recommendations on space-time references issued in the framework of the general theory of relativity in 1991 by the International Astronomical Unions (IAU) is presented. The recommendations, their background, the difficulties that were met, and the connection with previous recommendations--with an emphasis on time--are given. For simplicity of theoretical developments in celestial mechanics, several coordinate systems must be defined. The implied definitions of new coordinate times are presented together with their relation between themselves and to other times. International Atomic Time (TAI) is not affected by these recommendations, but appears now as a realization of the ideal terrestrial time having a clear scientific definition.
NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T(1) of thin films obtained by magnetic resonance force microscopy.
Saun, Seung-Bo; Won, Soonho; Kwon, Sungmin; Lee, Soonchil
2015-05-01
We obtained the NMR spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for thin film samples by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The samples were CaF2 thin films which were 50 nm and 150 nm thick. T1 was measured at 18 K using a cyclic adiabatic inversion method at a fixed frequency. A comparison of the bulk and two thin films showed that T1 becomes shorter as the film thickness decreases. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, all three samples were loaded onto different beams of a multi-cantilever array and measured in the same experimental environment. PMID:25828244
NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of thin films obtained by magnetic resonance force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saun, Seung-Bo; Won, Soonho; Kwon, Sungmin; Lee, Soonchil
2015-05-01
We obtained the NMR spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for thin film samples by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The samples were CaF2 thin films which were 50 nm and 150 nm thick. T1 was measured at 18 K using a cyclic adiabatic inversion method at a fixed frequency. A comparison of the bulk and two thin films showed that T1 becomes shorter as the film thickness decreases. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, all three samples were loaded onto different beams of a multi-cantilever array and measured in the same experimental environment.
Wehrenberg, C. E.; Comley, A. J.; Barton, N. R.; Coppari, F.; Fratanduono, D.; Huntington, C. M.; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H. -S.; Plechaty, C.; Prisbrey, S. T.; et al
2015-09-29
We report direct lattice level measurements of plastic relaxation kinetics through time-resolved, in-situ Laue diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal [001] Ta at pressures of 27-210 GPa. For a 50 GPa shock, a range of shear strains is observed extending up to the uniaxial limit for early data points (<0.6 ns) and the average shear strain relaxes to a near steady state over ~1 ns. For 80 and 125 GPa shocks, the measured shear strains are fully relaxed already at 200 ps, consistent with rapid relaxation associated with the predicted threshold for homogeneous nucleation of dislocations occurring at shock pressure ~65 GPa.more » The relaxation rate and shear stresses are used to estimate the dislocation density and these quantities are compared to the Livermore Multiscale Strength model as well as various molecular dynamics simulations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.
2015-11-01
We reconstruct the time dependent quantum map corresponding to the relaxation process of a two-spin system in liquid-state NMR at room temperature. By means of quantum tomography techniques that handle informational incomplete data, we show how to properly post-process and normalize the measurements data for the simulation of quantum information processing, overcoming the unknown number of molecules prepared in a non-equilibrium magnetization state (Nj) by an initial sequence of radiofrequency pulses. From the reconstructed quantum map, we infer both longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) relaxation times, and introduce the J-coupling relaxation times ({T}1J,{T}2J), which are relevant for quantum information processing simulations. We show that the map associated to the relaxation process cannot be assumed approximated unital and trace-preserving for times greater than {T}2J.
Sciolla, Bruno; Poletti, Dario; Kollath, Corinna
2015-05-01
We use two-time correlation functions to study the complex dynamics of dissipative many-body quantum systems. In order to measure, understand, and categorize these correlations we extend the framework of the adiabatic elimination method. We show that, for the same parameters and times, two-time correlations can display two distinct behaviors depending on the observable considered: a fast exponential decay or a much slower dynamics. We exemplify these findings by studying strongly interacting bosons in a double well subjected to phase noise. While the single-particle correlations decay exponentially fast with time, the density-density correlations display slow aging dynamics. We also show that this slow relaxation regime is robust against particle losses. Additionally, we use the developed framework to show that the dynamic properties of dissipatively engineered states can be drastically different from their Hamiltonian counterparts. PMID:25978211
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciolla, Bruno; Poletti, Dario; Kollath, Corinna
2015-05-01
We use two-time correlation functions to study the complex dynamics of dissipative many-body quantum systems. In order to measure, understand, and categorize these correlations we extend the framework of the adiabatic elimination method. We show that, for the same parameters and times, two-time correlations can display two distinct behaviors depending on the observable considered: a fast exponential decay or a much slower dynamics. We exemplify these findings by studying strongly interacting bosons in a double well subjected to phase noise. While the single-particle correlations decay exponentially fast with time, the density-density correlations display slow aging dynamics. We also show that this slow relaxation regime is robust against particle losses. Additionally, we use the developed framework to show that the dynamic properties of dissipatively engineered states can be drastically different from their Hamiltonian counterparts.
On time scales and time synchronization using LORAN-C as a time reference signal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chi, A. R.
1974-01-01
The long term performance of the eight LORAN-C chains is presented in terms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO); and the use of the LORAN-C navigation system for maintaining the user's clock to a UTC scale is described. The atomic time scale and the UTC of several national laboratories and observatories relative to the international atomic time are reported. Typical performance of several NASA tracking station clocks, relative to the USNO master clock, is also presented.
Linking Response-Time Parameters onto a Common Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.
2010-01-01
Although response times on test items are recorded on a natural scale, the scale for some of the parameters in the lognormal response-time model (van der Linden, 2006) is not fixed. As a result, when the model is used to periodically calibrate new items in a testing program, the parameter are not automatically mapped onto a common scale. Several…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Qiang
The search for the existence of a nonzero neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation beyond the Standard Model and may have a significant impact on our understanding of the universe. A new experiment aiming at two orders of magnitude improvement (˜ 10--28 e·cm) over the current experimental upper limit has been proposed in the United States. In the experiment, the measurement cell will be made of dTPB-dPS coated acrylic and filled with superfluid 4He at ˜300-500 mK. The measurement of the neutron precession frequency will rely on the spin-dependence of the cross section of the nuclear reaction between polarized neutrons and 3He atoms: n⃗+H3 ⃗e → p + t + 764 keV. Polarized 3He will also be used as a comagnetometer based on the nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The 3He polarization needs to have sufficiently long relaxation time so that little polarization is lost during the measurement period in order to achieve the proposed sensitivity. Understanding the relaxation mechanism of 3He polarization in the measurement cell under the nEDM experimental conditions and maintaining 3He polarization is crucial for the experiment. With the presence of superfluid 4He, 3He relaxation time measurements in a dTPB-dPS coated cylindrical acrylic cell at the temperature of 1.9 K and ˜400 mK have been performed at the Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) on the campus of Duke University. The extracted depolarization probabilities of polarized 3He on the cell surface are on the order of (1 -- 2) x 10--7 at 1.9 K and ˜ 4.7 x 10--7 at ˜400 mK. The extrapolated relaxation time of polarized 3He in the nEDM cell geometry is ˜ 4870 seconds at ˜400 mK, which is sufficiently long for the nEDM experiment and further improvements are anticipated.
The Organization of Time in Schools: Time Scales and Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karweit, Nancy
This paper examines the effects of learning time on student achievement. It begins by reviewing what is known about how time is allocated and utilized in schools and the effects of differing amounts of exposure to schooling on achievement. Several theoretical perspectives concerning how time spent affects achievement are briefly discussed. The…
Quarkonia and heavy-quark relaxation times in the quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riek, F.; Rapp, R.
2010-09-01
A thermodynamic T-matrix approach for elastic two-body interactions is employed to calculate spectral functions of open and hidden heavy-quark systems in the quark-gluon plasma. This enables the evaluation of quarkonium bound-state properties and heavy-quark diffusion on a common basis and thus to obtain mutual constraints. The two-body interaction kernel is approximated within a potential picture for spacelike momentum transfers. An effective field-theoretical model combining color-Coulomb and confining terms is implemented with relativistic corrections and for different color channels. Four pertinent model parameters, characterizing the coupling strengths and screening, are adjusted to reproduce the color-average heavy-quark free energy as computed in thermal lattice QCD. The approach is tested against vacuum spectroscopy in the open (D, B) and hidden (Ψ and ϒ) flavor sectors, as well as in the high-energy limit of elastic perturbative QCD scattering. Theoretical uncertainties in the static reduction scheme of the four-dimensional Bethe-Salpeter equation are elucidated. The quarkonium spectral functions are used to calculate Euclidean correlators which are discussed in light of lattice QCD results, while heavy-quark relaxation rates and diffusion coefficients are extracted utilizing a Fokker-Planck equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tepper, H. L.; Briels, W. J.
2001-11-01
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on the growth and melting of the Lennard-Jones (100) interface at small undercoolings and superheatings. Two regimes of linear growth rate were discovered: a short-time regime associated with interface relaxation and a long-time regime associated with the macroscopic limit of growth and melting. It was shown that, if system sizes or equilibration times are taken too small, one will find only the initial regime. On the basis of our very accurate results on the macroscopic growth rates close to equilibrium, the possibility of a discontinuity in the temperature dependence of growth and melting rates at the melting point was ruled out.
Relaxed observer design of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems via a novel slack variable approach.
Xie, Xiang-Peng; Hui, Guo-Tao
2015-09-01
The problem of further studies on observer design for discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems is investigated in this paper. Different from the existing result, a new slack variable approach is presented by developing some useful matrix equalities which rely on both the current-time and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions. As a result, the relaxation quality of recent fuzzy observer design is significantly enhanced. Moreover, the conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(∞) observer that minimizes an upper bound to H(∞) norms are also proposed. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show that the given results are less conservative than other results available in the literature. PMID:26231255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yan; Bürgmann, Roland; Uchida, Naoki; Banerjee, Paramesh; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.
2016-01-01
Understanding of postseismic deformation following great subduction zone earthquakes is complicated by the combined effects of viscoelastic relaxation of earthquake-induced stresses in the upper mantle and time-dependent afterslip on the megathrust. We integrate geodetic observations and constraints on afterslip from small repeating earthquakes on the megathrust to better distinguish contributions from these two postseismic processes. We have developed a three-dimensional, spherical viscoelastic finite element model to study the postseismic deformation of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake that has been recorded at unprecedented high resolution in space and time. We model stress-driven afterslip in a 2 km thick weak shear zone away from historic rupture zones on the megathrust. We model both the viscoelastic relaxation of the upper mantle and shear zone deformation with a transient Burgers body rheology. The transient Kelvin viscosity is assumed to be one order of magnitude lower than that of the Maxwell viscosity. Viscoelastic relaxation of the mantle wedge alone causes postseismic uplift and seaward motion in the upper plate, opposite to the pattern from relaxation of just the oceanic upper mantle. Afterslip on the fault produces uplift updip of the afterslip zone and subsidence over its downdip edge and mostly seaward motion above the afterslip zone. The best fit Maxwell viscosity of the shear zone at depths ≤50 km is 1017 Pa s, constrained by afterslip estimates from repeating earthquakes. The optimal viscosities of the deep weak shear zone, continental mantle wedge, and oceanic upper mantle are determined to be 5 × 1017 Pa s, 3 × 1019 Pa s, and 5 × 1019 Pa s, respectively. The stress-driven afterslip in the shear zone is up to ~3.5 m in the first 2 years after the earthquake, equivalent to an Mw8.4. Our model reproduces the first-order pattern of the GPS observations both in horizontal and in vertical directions. Seafloor geodetic observations of subsidence and landward motions near the high-slip zone of the earthquake provide evidence for a low-viscosity asthenosphere below the oceanic lithosphere.
Slipchenko, S. O. Sokolova, Z. N.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Borschev, K. S.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Tarasov, I. S.
2006-08-15
It is shown that the reason why the maximum attainable optical power in semiconductor lasers is limited is the finite time of carrier energy relaxation via scattering by nonequilibrium optical phonons in the quantum-well active region. The power and spectral characteristics of semiconductor lasers are studied experimentally at high excitation levels (up to 100 kA/cm{sup 2}) in pulsed lasing mode (100 ns, 10 kHz). As the drive current increases, the maximum intensity of stimulated emission tends to a constant value ('saturates'), and the emitted power increases owing to extension of the spectrum to shorter wavelengths. The intensity saturation is due to limitation of the rate of stimulated recombination, caused by a finite time of the electron energy relaxation via scattering by polar optical phonons. It is found that the broadening of the stimulated emission spectrum is related to an increase in carrier concentration in the active region, which enhances the escape of electrons into the waveguide layers. As the drive current increases, the carrier concentration in the waveguide reaches its threshold value and there appears an effective channel of current leakage from the active region. The experiment shows that the appearance of a band of waveguide lasing correlates with a sharp drop in the differential quantum efficiency of a semiconductor laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biele, R.; Timm, C.; D'Agosta, R.
2014-10-01
Quantum stochastic methods based on effective wave functions form a framework for investigating the generally non-Markovian dynamics of a quantum-mechanical system coupled to a bath. They promise to be computationally superior to the master-equation approach, which is numerically expensive for large dimensions of the Hilbert space. Here, we numerically investigate the suitability of a known stochastic Schrödinger equation that is local in time to give a description of thermal relaxation and energy transport. This stochastic Schrödinger equation can be solved with a moderate numerical cost, indeed comparable to that of a Markovian system, and reproduces the dynamics of a system evolving according to a general non-Markovian master equation. After verifying that it describes thermal relaxation correctly, we apply it for the first time to the energy transport in a spin chain. We also discuss a portable algorithm for the generation of the coloured noise associated with the numerical solution of the non-Markovian dynamics.
Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.
1986-05-01
Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.
On the Uncertainty of the Annular Mode Time Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas
2015-04-01
The proper simulation of the annular mode (AM) time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that climate models systematically overestimate this time scale. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the AM time scale. Here, we use a 4000-year-long control simulation with the GFDL climate model CM2.1 to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability on the stability of the AM time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's AM time scale and climate sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the AM time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under fixed forcing conditions, at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the AM time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10%; over the Southern Hemisphere the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's AM time scale is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. We further use the model simulation to investigate the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere from the perspective of the AM time scale. Over the Northern Hemisphere we find only weak indication for influences from stratosphere-troposphere coupling on the AM time scale. The situation is very different over the Southern Hemisphere, where we find robust connections between the AM time scale in the stratosphere and that in the troposphere, confirming and extending earlier results of influences of stratospheric variability on the troposphere.
Jírů, Filip; Dezortová, Monika; Burian, Martin; Hájek, Milan
2003-11-01
1H MR spectroscopy is routinely used for lateralization of epileptogenic lesions. The present study deals with the role of relaxation time corrections for the quantitative evaluation of long (TE=135 ms) and short echo time (TE=10 ms) 1H MR spectra of the hippocampus using two methods (operator-guided NUMARIS and LCModel programs). Spectra of left and right hippocampi of 14 volunteers and 14 patients with epilepsy were obtained by PRESS (TR/TE=5000/135 ms) and STEAM (TR/TE=5000/10 ms) sequences with a 1.5-T imager. Evaluation was carried out using Siemens NUMARIS software and the results were compared with data from LCModel processing software. No significant differences between the two methods of processing spectra with TE=135 ms were found. The range of relaxation corrections was determined. Metabolite concentrations in hippocampi calculated from spectra with TE=135 ms and 10 ms after application of correction coefficients did not differ in the range of errors and agreed with published data (135 ms/10 ms: NAA=10.2+/-0.6/10.4+/-1.3 mM, Cho=2.4+/-0.1/2.7+/-0.3 mM, Cr=12.2+/-1.3/11.3+/-1.3 mM). When relaxation time corrections were applied, quantitative results from short and long echo time evaluation with LCModel were in agreement. Signal intensity ratios obtained from long echo time spectra by NUMARIS operator-guided processing also agreed with the LCModel results. PMID:14564645
Atmospheric bridge on orbital time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohmann, Gerrit
2016-01-01
Large-scale atmospheric patterns are examined on orbital timescales using a climate model which explicitly resolves the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice dynamics. It is shown that, in contrast to boreal summer where the climate mainly follows the local radiative forcing, the boreal winter climate is strongly determined by modulation of circulation modes linked to the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO) and the Northern/Southern Annular Modes. We find that during a positive phase of the AO/NAO the convection in the tropical Pacific is below normal. The related atmospheric circulation provides an atmospheric bridge for the precessional forcing inducing a non-uniform temperature anomalies with large amplitudes over the continents. We argue that this is important for mechanisms responsible for multi-millennial climate variability and glacial inception.
Timing signatures of large scale solar eruptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Hock-Mysliwiec, Rachel; Henry, Timothy; Kirk, Michael S.
2016-05-01
We examine the timing signatures of large solar eruptions resulting in flares, CMEs and Solar Energetic Particle events. We probe solar active regions from the chromosphere through the corona, using data from space and ground-based observations, including ISOON, SDO, GONG, and GOES. Our studies include a number of flares and CMEs of mostly the M- and X-strengths as categorized by GOES. We find that the chromospheric signatures of these large eruptions occur 5-30 minutes in advance of coronal high temperature signatures. These timing measurements are then used as inputs to models and reconstruct the eruptive nature of these systems, and explore their utility in forecasts.
On the depletion and accretion time-scales of cold gas in local early-type galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin
2016-03-01
We consider what can be learnt about the processes of gas accretion and depletion from the kinematic misalignment between the cold/warm gas and stars in local early-type galaxies. Using simple analytic arguments and a toy model of the processes involved, we show that the lack of objects with counter-rotating gas reservoirs strongly constrains the relaxation, depletion and accretion time-scales of gas in early-type galaxies. Standard values of the accretion rate, star-formation efficiency and relaxation rate are not simultaneously consistent with the observed distribution of kinematic misalignments. To reproduce that distribution, both fast gas depletion (tdep ≲ 108 yr; e.g. more efficient star formation) and fast gas destruction (e.g. by active galactic nucleus feedback) can be invoked, but both also require a high rate of gas-rich mergers (>1 Gyr-1). Alternatively, the relaxation of misaligned material could happen over very long time-scales (≃100 dynamical times or ≈1-5 Gyr). We explore the various physical processes that could lead to fast gas depletion and/or slow gas relaxation, and discuss the prospects of using kinematic misalignments to probe gas-rich accretion processes in the era of large integral-field spectroscopic surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzybowska, K.; Grzybowski, A.; Pawlus, S.; Pionteck, J.; Paluch, M.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we investigate how changes in the system entropy influence the characteristic time scale of the system molecular dynamics near the glass transition. Independently of any model of thermodynamic evolution of the time scale, against some previous suppositions, we show that the system entropy S is not sufficient to govern the time scale defined by structural relaxation time τ. In the density scaling regime, we argue that the decoupling between τ and S is a consequence of different values of the scaling exponents γ and γS in the density scaling laws, τ =f (ργ/T ) and S =h (ργS/T ) , where ρ and T denote density and temperature, respectively. It implies that the proper relation between τ and S requires supplementing with a density factor, u (ρ), i.e., τ =g ( u (ρ )w (S ) ) . This meaningful finding additionally demonstrates that the density scaling idea can be successfully used to separate physically relevant contributions to the time scale of molecular dynamics near the glass transition. The relation reported by us between τ and S constitutes a general pattern based on nonconfigurational quantities for describing the thermodynamic evolution of the characteristic time scale of molecular dynamics near the glass transition in the density scaling regime, which is a promising alternative to the approaches based as the Adam-Gibbs model on the configurational entropy that is difficult to evaluate in the entire thermodynamic space. As an example, we revise the Avramov entropic model of the dependence τ(T ,ρ), giving evidence that its entropic basis has to be extended by the density dependence of the maximal energy barrier for structural relaxation. We also discuss the excess entropy Sex, the density scaling of which is found to mimic the density scaling of the total system entropy S .
Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Kuen-Lin; Wang, Chun-Min; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Wang, Li-Min; Wu, C. H.; Yang, Hong-Chang
2014-01-01
In this work, we report the use of bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNs) and dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) to characterize the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time for sensitive bio-detection. The biomarkers are the human C-reactive protein (CRP) while the BMNs are the anti-CRP bound onto dextran-coated Fe3O4 particles labeled as Fe3O4-antiCRP. It was found the time-dependent spin-spin relaxation time, T2, of protons decreases as time evolves. Additionally, the ΔT2 of of protons in BMNs increases as the concentration of CRP increases. We attribute these to the formation of the magnetic clusters that deteriorate the field homogeneity of nearby protons. A sensitivity better than 0.1 μg/mL for assaying CRP is achieved, which is much higher than that required by the clinical criteria (0.5 mg/dL). The present MR-detection platform shows promise for further use in detecting tumors, viruses, and proteins. PMID:25397920
Oh-E, Masahito; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Koeberg, Mattijs; Hendry, Euan; Bonn, Mischa
2006-11-13
Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to study the dielectric relaxation of pure 4'-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal (LC) and its mixtures with 10 mum SiO2 particles in the frequency range 0.2-2 THz. For the pure sample, we find that spatial inhomogeneities consisting of oriented domains, comparable in size to our probe area (~1 mm(2)), cause a large scatter in the measured dielectric function, due to varying contributions from the ordinary and extraordinary components. In the LC/particle mixtures, ordering of the LC at the surface of the SiO2 particles results in a break-up of these domains, giving rise to a spatially much more homogeneous dielectric response. The inferred dielectric function can be interpreted using effective medium theory and the Debye relaxation model. We observe this stabilizing effect for interparticle distances < ~30 mum, setting a lower limit for the size of oriented domains in the bulk LC. PMID:19529561
Ovejas, Virginia; Montero, Ral; Fernndez-Fernndez, Marta; Longarte, Asier
2015-04-01
The relaxation of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole after excitation in the 290-239 nm range, which covers the weak absorption of the S1 (1)A2 ??* state, dissociative along the N-H bond, and the stronger band mostly attributed to the (1)B2 ??* state, has been investigated by time-resolved ion and photoelectron techniques. The measurements yield an invariant lifetime of ?55 fs for the (1)??* state, after preparation in its Franck-Condon region with increasing vibrational content. This ultrafast rate indicates that, contrary to the observations made in pyrrole (Roberts et al. Faraday Discuss. 2013, 163, 95-116), the molecule reaches the dissociative part of the potential without any barrier effect, although calculations predict the latter to be higher than in the pyrrole case. The results are rationalized in terms of a barrier free multidimensional pathway that very likely involves out-of-plane vibrations. Additionally, a lifetime of ?100 fs is found after excitation along the higher (1)B2 ??* ? S0 transition. The relaxation of this state by coupling to a very short living S1 (1)??* state, or by alternative routes, is discussed in the light of the collected photoelectron measurements. PMID:25781497
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xixiong; Zhong, Chengwen; Zhuo, Congshan; Cao, Jun
2014-04-01
As a fundamental subject in fluid mechanics, sophisticated cavity flow patterns due to the movement of multi-lids have been routinely analyzed by the computational fluid dynamics community. Unlike those reported computational studies that were conducted using more conventional numerical methods, this paper features employing the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to numerically investigate the two-dimensional cavity flows generated by the movements of two adjacent lids. The obtained MRT-LBM results reveal a number of important bifurcation flow features, such as the symmetry and steadiness of cavity flows at low Reynolds numbers, the multiplicity of stable cavity flow patterns when the Reynolds number exceeds its first critical value, as well as the periodicity of the cavity flow after the second critical Reynolds number is reached. Detailed flow characteristics are reported that include the critical Reynolds numbers, the locations of the vortex centers, and the values of stream function at the vortex centers. Through systematic comparison against the simulation results obtained elsewhere by using the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model and other numerical schemes, not only does the MRT-LBM approach exhibit fairly satisfactory accuracy, but also demonstrates its remarkable flexibility that renders the adjustment of its multiple relaxation factors fully manageable and, thus, particularly accommodates the need of effectively investigating the multiplicity of flow patterns with complex behaviors.
Oliveira, Patrícia D.; Michel, Ricardo C.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Moreira, Angelita S.; Lomba, Rosana F. T.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.
2013-01-01
The aim of this work was to evaluate the utilization of analysis of the distribution of relaxation time (DRT) using a dynamic light back-scattering technique as alternative method for the determination of the concentration regimes in aqueous solutions of biopolymers (xanthan, clairana and tara gums) by an analysis of the overlap (c*) and aggregation (c**) concentrations. The diffusion coefficients were obtained over a range of concentrations for each biopolymer using two methods. The first method analysed the behaviour of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the concentration of the gum solution. This method is based on the analysis of the diffusion coefficient versus the concentration curve. Using the slope of the curves, it was possible to determine the c* and c** for xanthan and tara gum. However, it was not possible to determine the concentration regimes for clairana using this method. The second method was based on an analysis of the DRTs, which showed different numbers of relaxation modes. It was observed that the concentrations at which the number of modes changed corresponded to the c* and c**. Thus, the DRT technique provided an alternative method for the determination of the critical concentrations of biopolymers. PMID:23671627
Time scales of supercooled water and implications for reversible polyamorphism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
2015-09-01
Deeply supercooled water exhibits complex dynamics with large density fluctuations, ice coarsening and characteristic time scales extending from picoseconds to milliseconds. Here, we discuss implications of these time scales as they pertain to two-phase coexistence and to molecular simulations of supercooled water. Specifically, we argue that it is possible to discount liquid-liquid criticality because the time scales imply that correlation lengths for such behavior would be bounded by no more than a few nanometers. Similarly, it is possible to discount two-liquid coexistence because the time scales imply a bounded interfacial free energy that cannot grow in proportion to a macroscopic surface area. From time scales alone, therefore, we see that coexisting domains of differing density in supercooled water can be no more than nano-scale transient fluctuations.
Dehghani, Mehdi; Sadeghipour, Hamed; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Honar, Hooman; Riazi, Kiarash; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad Reza; Hajrasouliha, Amir Reza; Tavakoli, Sina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza
2004-08-01
The endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and the roles of nitric oxide (NO) and arachidonic acid products of cyclooxygenase were investigated in non-operated, SHAM-operated, and bile duct-ligated rats. We further investigated the time-dependent alterations of corpus cavernosum relaxation in 2-, 7-, and 14-day bile duct-ligated animals. Acetylcholine produced concentration-dependent relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted strips of corpus cavernosum. A significant reduction in the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed 2 days after bile duct ligation, and a greater reduction was observed on subsequent days. Incubation with 20 microM indomethacin reduced the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the corpus cavernosum of unoperated rats while it had no effect in the corpus cavernosum of bile duct-ligated rats. Chronic treatment with Nomega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) reduced the relaxation responses in the unoperated group while it had no effect in the bile duct-ligated group. These results show that acetylcholine-induced corporal relaxation is impaired in cholestatic rats, and this may be related to deficient nitric oxide production by the endothelium. The involvement of prostaglandins in this impairment seems unlikely. PMID:15288589
Bridging the Time and Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Michael
1997-08-01
The field of nanomechanics clearly exemplifies many of the challenges commonly encountered in micromechanics. For instance, one of the main difficulties inherent to nanomechanics is the need to consider multiple length and temporal scales straddling the grey zone between atomistics and continuum behavior. A case in point is nanoindentation. While much of the material under the indentor can be idealized as a continuum to a good approximation---making it grossly inefficient to carry out direct atomistic simulations in such regions---the plasticity which ensues during the early stages of indentation is carried by a small number of discrete dislocations. Recent experimental observations of nanoindentation in Fe-3wt%Si single crystals by Gerberich et al. (1985) reveal that, when an indentor with a tip radius of 66 nm is driven to depths of 6 to 26 nm, roughly 15-70 dislocations can be impugned as the primary carriers of irreversible deformation. Evidently, such low dislocation numbers defy effective treatment by continuum theories, and demand an explicit consideration of the individual dislocations. From the standpoint of modeling, these issues pose competing resolution demands---and point to the need for---models that can effect a seamless transition from regions that are well described as continua to those requiring an explicit treatment of the lattice degrees of freedom. A second point as concerns the development of models is the desirability of ensuring that the constitutive description of the material is faithful to the underlying atomistics. Direct atomistic simulation, e. g., by molecular dynamics, trivially satisfies this requirement. There, each and every lattice degree of freedom is explicitly accounted for, and the deformation of the crystal follows directly from the atomic interactions. However, the trend toward simulating ever larger systems (with the present record somewhere in the neighborhood of 10^9 atoms) leaves us faced with a daunting bookkeeping task. Continuum models, by way of contrast, are often amenable to analytical treatment, at least for simple geometries. The analytical solutions are often instructive and effective at guiding physical intuition. Complex continuum models are routinely solved numerically with the aid of such powerful and versatile computational tools as the finite element method. Yet the Achilles heel of continuum theories resides in the constitutive description of the material, which is often mired in coarse phenomenology. Tadmor, Ortiz and Phillips (1996), and Shenoy, Ortiz and Phillips (1997), have recently advanced a quasicontinuum theory which seizes upon the strengths of both atomistic and continuum theories and allows for the simultaneous consideration of multiple length and temporal scales. The theory starts from an underlying conventional molecular dynamics model and strives to systematically elimate unnecessary degrees of freedom. This is accomplished by constraining large numbers of atoms to move in concert with a piecewise linear displacement field in regions where the fields vary slowly. This operation may be regarded as an orthogonal projection acting on the full atomistic phase space. The energy associated with the complementary projection, which defines the fluctuation fields, is regarded as heat. In this manner, molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics arise as particular limits of---and are seamlessly bridged by---the theory. It bears emphasis, however, that all mechanical and thermal properties of the system emanate directly from atomistics. It should also be emphasized that, by stressing heat over temperature and entropy, the theory does not make any a priori assumptions regarding the thermal equilibrium of the system. In particular, heat conduction is accounted for. We have demonstrated the soundness and versatility of the theory by way of selected applications including dynamic nanoindentation and dislocation emission from crack tips.
Assessment of Nanosecond Time Scale Motions in Native and Non-Native States of Ubiquitin.
Morozova, Olga B; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V
2015-10-01
The paramagnetic relaxation times of the aromatic and β protons of Tyr59 and His68 residues of the native ubiquitin and of Tyr59 residue of the non-native ubiquitin were determined from an analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) kinetics obtained during the photoreaction of the protein and 2,2'-dipyridyl excited in the triplet state. Using the paramagnetic relaxation times determined earlier for the radicals of free amino acids as an internal standard and assuming that the hyperfine interaction (HFI) anisotropy is very similar for the radicals of free amino acids and the corresponding radicals of amino acid residues in the proteins, we determined parameters that characterize the intramolecular mobility of different protons in native and two non-native states of ubiquitin. The latter are denatured at pH 2 and 57 °C, and the A-state at pH 2 in a 60%/40% methanol/water mixture. The determination of the two parameters of intramolecular mobility (i.e., the correlation time of internal motion, τ(e), and the order parameter, S(2)) was only possible by analyzing paramagnetic relaxation data obtained at two magnetic fields (4.7 and 9.4 T) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Intramolecular correlation times fall into the submicrosecond-microsecond time scale. Longer correlation times and higher order parameters were found for the less accessible Tyr59 residue than for the His68 residue, as well as for the more buried β protons than for the aromatic protons for both of the protein residues in the native state. For Tyr59, intramolecular mobility increases following the loss of the tertiary structure of ubiquitin. These findings strongly support the reliability of the obtained data. PMID:26367543
KUMAR, DEEPAK; SOUZA, RICHARD B.; SINGH, JUSTIN; CALIXTO, NATHANIEL E.; NARDO, LORENZO; LINK, THOMAS M.; LI, XIAOJUAN; MAJUMDAR, SHARMILA
2015-01-01
STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between knee loading–related osteoarthritis (OA) risk factors (obesity, malalignment, and physical activity) and medial knee laminar (superficial and deep) T1rho and T2 relaxation times. BACKGROUND The interaction of various modifiable loading-related knee risk factors and cartilage health in knee OA is currently not well known. METHODS Participants with and without knee OA (n = 151) underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T for superficial and deep cartilage T1rho and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times in the medial femur (MF) and medial tibia (MT). Other variables included radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade, alignment, pain and symptoms using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Individuals with a KL grade of 4 were excluded. Group differences were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance, adjusting for age and body mass index. Linear regression models were created with age, sex, body mass index, alignment, KL grade, and the IPAQ scores to predict the laminar T1rho and T2 times. RESULTS Total IPAQ scores were the only significant predictors among the loading-related variables for superficial MF T1rho (P = .005), deep MT T1rho (P = .026), and superficial MF T2 (P = .049). Additionally, the KL grade predicted the superficial MF T1rho (P = .023) and deep MT T1rho (P = .022). CONCLUSION Higher physical activity levels and worse radiographic severity of knee OA, but not obesity or alignment, were associated with worse cartilage composition. PMID:25353261
Thermal time scales in a color glass condensate
Parihar, V.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y.N.
2006-01-15
In a model of relativistic heavy-ion collisions wherein the unconfined quark-gluon plasma is condensed into glass, we derive the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann cooling law. This law is well known to hold true in condensed matter glasses. The high-energy plasma is initially created in a very hot negative temperature state and cools down to the Hagedorn glass temperature at an ever decreasing rate. The cooling rate is largely determined by the QCD string tension derived from hadronic Regge trajectories. The ultimately slow relaxation time is a defining characteristic of a color glass condensate.
Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations
Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-01-01
Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856
Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations.
Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-04-19
Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856
Pennsylvanian time scales and cycle periods
deV. Klein, G. )
1990-05-01
Geochronological results from central Europe indicate that the duration of Pennsylvanian time is only 19 m.y., compared to the Harland et al. and Palmer estimates of 34 m.y. Prior calculations of Pennsylvanian cycle periods from the midcontinent of North America suggesting a fit with Milankovitch orbital parameters may well be in errors; as a consequence, other mechanisms for possible eustatic sea-level changes represented in those cycles are needed. Calculation of cycle periods of 100 ka or less lack precision in stratigraphic intervals representing ages characterized by error margins of millions of years. Thus, cycle periods may be less reliable as an indicator of global process than previously considered, particularly in rocks of Paleozoic and early and middle Mesozoic age.
Critical time scale of coarse-graining entropy production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Jang-il
2016-04-01
We study coarse-grained entropy production in an asymmetric random walk system on a periodic one-dimensional lattice. In coarse-grained systems, the original dynamics are unavoidably destroyed, but the coarse-grained entropy production is not hidden below the critical time-scale separation. The hidden entropy production is rapidly increasing near the critical time-scale separation.
Larionov, A. V.; Il’in, A. I.
2013-12-15
The coherent spin dynamics of electrons localized in a plane of GaAs quantum wells is studied experimentally by the application of an electrically controlled potential. The localizing potential is produced with the use of a metal gate with submicrometer windows deposited onto the sample surface. The photoinduced spin Kerr effect is used to study the electron spin lifetime as a function of the temperature, applied bias, and magnetic field for gates with different sets of windows. It is shown that, with an electrically controlled laterally localizing potential, it is possible to gradually change the electron spin lifetime from several hundreds of picoseconds to several tens of nanoseconds. The dependence of the electron spin relaxation time on the sizes of the lateral localization region is in good qualitative agreement with theoretical prediction.
Single-particle and transport relaxation times in back-gated undoped AlGaAs/GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pettersen, E. K.; Williams, D. A.; Ahmed, H.
1996-08-01
The magnetotransport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas were studied at low temperatures in an inverted GaAs - AlGaAs heterostructure whose electron density could be changed between 0268-1242/11/8/005/img1 and 0268-1242/11/8/005/img2 by the application of a substrate bias. The epitaxial layers were grown undoped to reduce the influence of remote ionized impurity scattering and so a biased back-gate was needed to create the two-dimensional electron gas. The conductive back-gate required the use of a shallow Pd/AuGe/Ag/Au contact recipe. We present the magnetoresistance response for a range of back-gate biases (electron densities) and compare the mobilities, the transport scattering and the single-particle relaxation times with theory.
Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.
2013-07-22
We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.
Casu, M; Corongiu, F P; Dessì, M A; Frau, M; Lai, A
1986-02-13
Intracellular Na-23 NMR signals were analyzed to investigate the T1 nuclear magnetic relaxation times of sodium ions in rat tissues under physiological conditions in presence of the shift reagent Dy(PPPi)2(7-). The T1 values so measured showed a high degree of reproducibility (10%). The order of T1 values found for the investigated rat tissues was the following: liver, spleen less than kidney less than muscle, brain less than blood. Furthermore, livers of rats treated with the known hepatotoxic agent CCl4 were studied. This tissue showed a significative increase of T1 with respect to those of normal rats. The T1 lengthenings were discussed in terms of various cellular injuries induced in the liver by CCl4 intoxication and our results showed that T1 lengthening did not depend on liver necrosis. PMID:3947359
Effective masses, relaxation times, and carrier mobilities in some chloride intercalants of graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woollam, J. A.; Haugland, E.; Dowell, M. B.; Underhill, C.
1981-04-01
The effective masses, carrier scattering times and carrier mobilities have been measured in selected graphite intercalation compounds using the Shubnikov-de Haas effect at a series of temperatures between 4 and 50 K. Effective masses are less than or equal to 0.1 of the free-electron mass, scattering times are about 10 to the -13th/s and carrier mobilities are on the order of 10,000 sq cm/V s.
Imaging of relaxation times and microwave field strength in a microfabricated vapor cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsley, Andrew; Du, Guan-Xiang; Pellaton, Matthieu; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; Treutlein, Philipp
2013-12-01
We present a characterization technique for atomic vapor cells, combining time-domain measurements with absorption imaging to obtain spatially resolved information on decay times, atomic diffusion, and coherent dynamics. The technique is used to characterize a 5-mm-diameter, 2-mm-thick microfabricated Rb vapor cell, with N2 buffer gas, placed inside a microwave cavity. Time-domain Franzen and Ramsey measurements are used to produce high-resolution images of the population (T1) and coherence (T2) lifetimes in the cell, while Rabi measurements yield images of the ?-, ?, and ?+ components of the applied microwave magnetic field. For a cell temperature of 90?C, the T1 times across the cell center are found to be a roughly uniform 265?s, while the T2 times peak at around 350?s. We observe a skin of reduced T1 and T2 times around the edge of the cell due to the depolarization of Rb after collisions with the silicon cell walls. Our observations suggest that these collisions are far from being 100% depolarizing, consistent with earlier observations made with Na and glass walls. Images of the microwave magnetic field reveal regions of optimal field homogeneity, and thus coherence. Our technique is useful for vapor cell characterization in atomic clocks, atomic sensors, and quantum information experiments.
Stress Relaxation for Granular Materials near Jamming under Cyclic Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhadi, Somayeh; Zhu, Alex Z.; Behringer, Robert P.
2015-10-01
We have explored isotropically jammed states of semi-2D granular materials through cyclic compression. In each compression cycle, systems of either identical ellipses or bidisperse disks transition between jammed and unjammed states. We determine the evolution of the average pressure P and structure through consecutive jammed states. We observe a transition point ϕm above which P persists over many cycles; below ϕm, P relaxes slowly. The relaxation time scale associated with P increases with packing fraction, while the relaxation time scale for collective particle motion remains constant. The collective motion of the ellipses is hindered compared to disks because of the rotational constraints on elliptical particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yesinowski, James P.
2015-03-01
Measuring true spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of half-integral quadrupolar nuclei having non-zero nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) presents challenges due to the presence of satellite-transitions (STs) that may lie outside the excitation bandwidth of the central transition (CT). This leads to complications in establishing well-defined initial conditions for the population differences in these multi-level systems. In addition, experiments involving magic-angle spinning (MAS) can introduce spin exchange due to zero-crossings of the ST and CT (or possibly rotational resonance recoupling in the case of multiple sites) and greatly altered initial conditions as well. An extensive comparison of pulse sequences that have been previously used to measure T1 in such systems is reported, using the 71Ga (I = 3/2) NMR of a Ge-doped h-GaN n-type semiconductor sample as the test case. The T1 values were measured at the peak maximum of the Knight shift distribution. Analytical expressions for magnetization-recovery of the CT appropriate to the pulse sequences tested were used, involving contributions from both a magnetic relaxation mechanism (rate constant W) and a quadrupolar one (rate constants W1 and W2, approximately equal in this case). An asynchronous train of high-power saturating pulses under MAS that is able to completely saturate both CT and STs is found to be the most reliable and accurate method for obtaining the "true T1", defined here as (2W + 2W1,2)-1. All other methods studied yielded poor agreement with this "true T1" value or even resulted in gross errors, for reasons that are analyzed in detail. These methods involved a synchronous train of saturating pulses under MAS, an inversion-recovery sequence under MAS or static conditions, and a saturating comb of pulses on a static sample. Although the present results were obtained on a sample where the magnetic relaxation mechanism dominated the quadrupolar one, the asynchronous saturating pulse train approach is not limited to this situation. The extent to which W1 and W2 are unequal does affect the interpretability of the experiment however, particularly when the quadrupolar mechanism dominates. A numerically approximate solution for the I = 3/2 recovery case reveals the quantitative effects of any such inequality.
Yesinowski, James P
2015-03-01
Measuring true spin-lattice relaxation times T(1) of half-integral quadrupolar nuclei having non-zero nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) presents challenges due to the presence of satellite-transitions (STs) that may lie outside the excitation bandwidth of the central transition (CT). This leads to complications in establishing well-defined initial conditions for the population differences in these multi-level systems. In addition, experiments involving magic-angle spinning (MAS) can introduce spin exchange due to zero-crossings of the ST and CT (or possibly rotational resonance recoupling in the case of multiple sites) and greatly altered initial conditions as well. An extensive comparison of pulse sequences that have been previously used to measure T(1) in such systems is reported, using the (71)Ga (I=3/2) NMR of a Ge-doped h-GaN n-type semiconductor sample as the test case. The T(1) values were measured at the peak maximum of the Knight shift distribution. Analytical expressions for magnetization-recovery of the CT appropriate to the pulse sequences tested were used, involving contributions from both a magnetic relaxation mechanism (rate constant W) and a quadrupolar one (rate constants W(1) and W(2), approximately equal in this case). An asynchronous train of high-power saturating pulses under MAS that is able to completely saturate both CT and STs is found to be the most reliable and accurate method for obtaining the "true T(1)", defined here as (2W+2W1,2)(-)(1). All other methods studied yielded poor agreement with this "true T(1)" value or even resulted in gross errors, for reasons that are analyzed in detail. These methods involved a synchronous train of saturating pulses under MAS, an inversion-recovery sequence under MAS or static conditions, and a saturating comb of pulses on a static sample. Although the present results were obtained on a sample where the magnetic relaxation mechanism dominated the quadrupolar one, the asynchronous saturating pulse train approach is not limited to this situation. The extent to which W(1) and W(2) are unequal does affect the interpretability of the experiment however, particularly when the quadrupolar mechanism dominates. A numerically approximate solution for the I=3/2 recovery case reveals the quantitative effects of any such inequality. PMID:25700115
NMR Relaxation and Petrophysical Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleury, Marc
2011-03-01
NMR relaxation is routinely used in the field of geosciences to give basic petrophysical properties such as porosity, pore size distribution, saturation etc. In this tutorial, we focus on the pore size distribution deduced from NMR. We recall the basic principle used in the interpretation of the NMR signal and compare the results with other standard petrophysical techniques such as mercury pore size distribution, BET specific surface measurements, thin section visualizations. The NMR pore size distribution is a unique information available on water saturated porous media and can give similar results as MICP in certain situations. The scaling of NMR relaxation time distribution (s) into pore sizes (μm) requires the knowledge of the surface relaxivity (μm/s) and we recommend using specific surface measurements as an independent determination of solid surface areas. With usual surface relaxivities, the NMR technique can explore length-scales starting from nano-meters and ending around 100 μm. Finally, we will introduce briefly recent techniques sensitive to the pore to pore diffusional exchange, providing new information on the connectivity of the pore network, but showing another possibility of discrepancy in the determination of pore size distribution with standard techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Glotin, F.; Prazeres, R.; Ortega, J.-M.; Lematre, A.; Grard, J.-M.; Thierry-Flieg, V.
1998-12-01
We have observed the saturation of intraband absorption in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots. The investigated n-doped self-assembled quantum dots exhibit an intraband absorption within the conduction band, which is peaked at an 8 ?m wavelength. The saturation of the intraband absorption is achieved with an infrared pump delivered by a pulsed free-electron laser. The saturation of the transition is observed for an intensity around ?0.6 MW cm-2. The electron relaxation time under intraband excitation is measured by time-resolved pump-probe experiments. An electron relaxation time T1?3 ps is reported.
V?a?n, Peter
2015-08-01
The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes. PMID:26204556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki
2012-01-01
Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of the Fermi polyads in the CH stretching vibration of the benzene dimer (Bz2) and trimer (Bz3) has been investigated by picosecond (ps) time-resolved IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy in a supersonic beam. The vibrational bands in the 3000-3100 cm-1 region were excited by a ps IR pulse and the time evolutions at the pumped and redistributed (bath) levels were probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization with a ps UV pulse. For Bz2, a site-selective excitation in the T-shaped structure was achieved by using the isotope-substituted heterodimer hd, where h = C6H6 and d = C6D6, and its result was compared with that of hh homodimer. In the hd heterodimer, the two isomers, h(stem)d(top) and h(top)d(stem), show remarkable site-dependence of the lifetime of intracluster vibrational energy redistribution (IVR); the lifetime of the Stem site [h(stem)d(top), 140-170 ps] is ˜2.5 times shorter than that of the Top site [h(top)d(stem), 370-400 ps]. In the transient UV spectra, a broad electronic transition due to the bath modes emerges and gradually decays with a nanosecond time scale. The broad transition shows different time profile depending on UV frequency monitored. These time profiles are described by a three-step VER model involving IVR and vibrational predissociation: initial → bath1(intramolecular) → bath2(intermolecular) → fragments. This model also describes well the observed time profile of the Bz fragment. The hh homodimer shows the stepwise VER process with time constants similar to those of the hd dimer, suggesting that the excitation-exchange coupling of the vibrations between the two sites is very weak. Bz3 also exhibited the stepwise VER process, though each step is faster than Bz2.
Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Sai, Akihisa; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahasi, Masamitu; Fujikawa, Seiji
2010-07-26
Real-time three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping (3D-RSM) measurement during In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth has been performed to investigate anisotropy in relaxation processes along [110] and [110] directions caused by alpha and beta misfit dislocations (MDs). Anisotropies, strain relaxation, and crystal quality in both directions were simultaneously evaluated via the position and broadness of 022 diffraction in 3D-RSM. In the small-thickness region, strain relaxation caused by alpha-MDs is higher than that caused by beta-MDs, and therefore crystal quality along [110] is worse than that along [110]. Rapid relaxation along both [110] and [110] directions occurs at almost the same thickness. After rapid relaxation, anisotropy in strain relaxation gradually decreases, whereas crystal quality along [110] direction, presumably due to beta-MDs, becomes better that along [110] direction and the ratio does not decay with thickness.
Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation
Baker-Jarvis, James
2005-12-15
This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livingstone, Ruth A.; Thompson, James O. F.; Iljina, Marija; Donaldson, Ross J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave
2012-11-01
Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the dynamical evolution of the initially prepared S1 (ππ*) excited state of phenol (hydroxybenzene), catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), and hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) following excitation at 267 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster and CASSCF levels of theory. In all cases, we observe rapid (<1 ps) intramolecular vibrational redistribution on the S1 potential surface. In catechol, the overall S1 state lifetime was observed to be 12.1 ps, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than in the other three molecules studied. This may be attributed to differences in the H atom tunnelling rate under the barrier formed by a conical intersection between the S1 state and the close lying S2 (πσ*) state, which is dissociative along the O-H stretching coordinate. Further evidence of this S1/S2 interaction is also seen in the time-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distributions we have observed. Our data analysis was assisted by a matrix inversion method for processing photoelectron images that is significantly faster than most other previously reported approaches and is extremely quick and easy to implement.
A Relaxation-Matrix Analysis of Distance-Constraint Ranges for NOEs in Proteins at Long Mixing Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suri, A. K.; Levy, R. M.
Long-mixing-time data (τ m > 200 ms) from NOE spectra have largely been ignored as a source of protein structural information due to the effects of spin diffusion on calculated interproton distances when using the two-spin approximation. An effective approach for incorporating spin-diffusion effects in an average way into refinements is to choose distance bounds based on distributions of distances observed in NOE back calculations on homologous proteins from a protein structure database. We have determined distributions of interproton distances characteristic of newly observed NOE cross peaks for the proteins crambin, PTI, and echistatin at long mixing times. A relaxation-matrix analysis was used to model the effects of spin diffusion. Constraint ranges were constructed from the interproton distance distributions which can be used in standard protein-refinement programs based on the two-spin approximation. Back calculations are also used to analyze constraint ranges typically used for protein structure determinations based on NOE spectra at shorter mixing times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fantazzini, Paola; Galassi, Francesca; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J. S.; Vittur, Franco
2011-06-01
When inverting nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data in order to obtain quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times for fluids in porous media, it is common practice to impose a non-negative (NN) constraint on the distributions. While this approach can be useful in reducing the effects of data distortion and/or preventing wild oscillations in the distributions, it may give misleading results in the presence of real negative amplitude components. Here, some examples of valid negative components for articular cartilage and hydrated collagen are given. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen, proteoglycans and water, which can be considered, in many aspects, as a porous medium. Separate T1 relaxation data are obtained for low-mobility ('solid') macromolecular 1H and for higher-mobility ('liquid') 1H by the separation of these components in free induction decays, with α denoting the solid/liquid 1H ratio. When quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times (T1) of the solid and liquid signal components of cartilage or collagen are computed from experimental relaxation data without imposing the usual NN constraint, valid negative peaks may appear. The features of the distributions, in particular negative peaks, and the fact that peaks at longer times for macromolecular and water protons are at essentially the same T1, are interpreted as the result of a magnetization exchange between these two spin pools. For the only-slightly-hydrated collagen samples, with α>1, the exchange leads to small negative peaks at short T1 times for the macromolecular component. However, for the cartilage, with substantial hydration or for a strongly hydrated collagen sample, both with αLt1, the behavior is reversed, with a negative peak for water at short times. The validity of a negative peak may be accepted (dismissed) by a high (low) cost of NN in error of fit. Computed distributions for simulated data using observed signal-to-noise ratios also verify the need for some negative components. Observed relaxation times and signal ratios can be fitted formally by a simple two-site exchange model that gives the exchange times and the uncoupled relaxation times of the liquid and solid components, with significant trends of these parameters with increasing 1H ratio, α. The solid-to-liquid exchange times are found to be in the range from 10 ms to a few tens of ms at all hydration levels. The results may be of interest for the application of magnetization exchange contrast in the imaging of articular cartilage to determine changes associated with pathologies and ageing. Other important porous media exist where exchange phenomena and negative relaxation components cannot be disregarded.
Multiple Time Scale Complexity Analysis of Resting State FMRI
Smith, Robert X.; Yan, Lirong; Wang, Danny J.J.
2014-01-01
The present study explored multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis to investigate the entropy of resting state fMRI signals across multiple time scales. MSE analysis was developed to distinguish random noise from complex signals since the entropy of the former decreases with longer time scales while the latter signal maintains its entropy due to a self-resemblance” across time scales. A long resting state BOLD fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan with 1000 data points was performed on five healthy young volunteers to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of entropy across multiple time scales. A shorter rs-fMRI scan with 240 data points was performed on a cohort of subjects consisting of healthy young (age 23±2 years, n=8) and aged volunteers (age 66±3 years, n=8) to investigate the effect of healthy aging on the entropy of rs-fMRI. The results showed that MSE of gray matter, rather than white matter, resembles closely that of f−1 noise over multiple time scales. By filtering out high frequency random fluctuations, MSE analysis is able to reveal enhanced contrast in entropy between gray and white matter, as well as between age groups at longer time scales. Our data support the use of MSE analysis as a validation metric for quantifying the complexity of rs-fMRI signals. PMID:24242271
Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales
Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes
2014-01-01
This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918
The limit order book on different time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisler, Zoltán; Kertész, János; Lillo, Fabrizio
2007-06-01
Financial markets can be described on several time scales. We use data from the limit order book of the London Stock Exchange (LSE) to compare how the fluctuation dominated microstructure crosses over to a more systematic global behavior.
Modes and emergent time scales of embayed beach dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratliff, Katherine M.; Murray, A. Brad
2014-10-01
In this study, we use a simple numerical model (the Coastline Evolution Model) to explore alongshore transport-driven shoreline dynamics within generalized embayed beaches (neglecting cross-shore effects). Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identify two primary orthogonal modes of shoreline behavior that describe shoreline variation about its unchanging mean position: the rotation mode, which has been previously identified and describes changes in the mean shoreline orientation, and a newly identified breathing mode, which represents changes in shoreline curvature. Wavelet analysis of the PCA mode time series reveals characteristic time scales of these modes (typically years to decades) that emerge within even a statistically constant white-noise wave climate (without changes in external forcing), suggesting that these time scales can arise from internal system dynamics. The time scales of both modes increase linearly with shoreface depth, suggesting that the embayed beach sediment transport dynamics exhibit a diffusive scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Nam Lyong
2014-12-01
The electron spin relaxation times in a system of electrons interacting with piezoelectric phonons mediated through spin-orbit interactions were calculated using the formula derived from the projection-reduction method. The results showed that the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times in InSb and InAs were similar. The piezoelectric material constants obtained by a comparison with the reported experimental result were Ppe=4.0 ×1022 eV/m for InSb and Ppe=1.2 ×1023 eV/m for InAs. The result also showed that the relaxation of the electron spin by the Elliot-Yafet process is more relevant for InSb than InAs at a low density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desideri, J.-A.; Tannehill, J. C.
1977-01-01
An over-relaxation procedure is applied to the MacCormack finite-difference scheme in order to reduce the computation time required to obtain a steady-state solution. The implementation of this acceleration procedure to an existing computer program using the regular MacCormack method is extremely simple and does not require additional storage. The over-relaxation procedure does not alter the steady-state solution, which is second-order accurate. The method is first applied to Burgers' equation. A stability condition and an expression for the increase in the rate of convergence are derived. The method is then applied to the calculation of the hypersonic viscous flow over a flat plate, using the complete Navier-Stokes equations, and the inviscid flow over a wedge. Reductions in computing time by factors of 3 and 1.5, respectively, are obtained by over-relaxation.
Kang, Nam Lyong
2014-12-07
The electron spin relaxation times in a system of electrons interacting with piezoelectric phonons mediated through spin-orbit interactions were calculated using the formula derived from the projection-reduction method. The results showed that the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times in InSb and InAs were similar. The piezoelectric material constants obtained by a comparison with the reported experimental result were P{sub pe}=4.0×10{sup 22} eV/m for InSb and P{sub pe}=1.2×10{sup 23} eV/m for InAs. The result also showed that the relaxation of the electron spin by the Elliot-Yafet process is more relevant for InSb than InAs at a low density.
Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke
2001-01-01
Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.
Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays
Kushner, Harold J.
2010-12-15
We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.
Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsh, B. D.
2004-05-01
Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.
Scale-dependent intrinsic entropies of complex time series.
Yeh, Jia-Rong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E
2016-04-13
Multi-scale entropy (MSE) was developed as a measure of complexity for complex time series, and it has been applied widely in recent years. The MSE algorithm is based on the assumption that biological systems possess the ability to adapt and function in an ever-changing environment, and these systems need to operate across multiple temporal and spatial scales, such that their complexity is also multi-scale and hierarchical. Here, we present a systematic approach to apply the empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which can detrend time series on various time scales, prior to analysing a signal's complexity by measuring the irregularity of its dynamics on multiple time scales. Simulated time series of fractal Gaussian noise and human heartbeat time series were used to study the performance of this new approach. We show that our method can successfully quantify the fractal properties of the simulated time series and can accurately distinguish modulations in human heartbeat time series in health and disease. PMID:26953181
Scaling approach for the time-dependent Kondo model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaras, C.; Kehrein, S.
2011-02-01
We present a new non-perturbative method to deal with the time-dependent quantum many-body problem, which is an extension of Wegner's flow equations to time-dependent Hamiltonians. The formalism provides a scaling procedure for the set of time-dependent interaction constants. We apply these ideas to a Kondo model with a ferromagnetic exchange coupling switched on over a time scale τ. We show that the asymptotic expectation value of the impurity spin interpolates continuously between its quenched and adiabatic value.
Multiresolution schemes for time-scaled propagation of wave packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frapiccini, Ana Laura; Hamido, Aliou; Mota-Furtado, Francisca; O'Mahony, Patrick F.; Piraux, Bernard
2015-04-01
We present a detailed analysis of the time-scaled coordinate approach and its implementation for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation describing the interaction of atoms or molecules with radiation pulses. We investigate and discuss the performance of multiresolution schemes for the treatment of the squeezing around the origin of the bound part of the scaled wave packet. When the wave packet is expressed in terms of B splines, we consider two different types of breakpoint sequences: an exponential sequence with a constant density and an initially uniform sequence with a density of points around the origin that increases with time. These two multiresolution schemes are tested in the case of a one-dimensional Gaussian potential and for atomic hydrogen. In the latter case, we also use Sturmian functions to describe the scaled wave packet and discuss a multiresolution scheme which consists of working in a Sturmian basis characterized by a set of nonlinear parameters. Regarding the continuum part of the scaled wave packet, we show explicitly that, for large times, the group velocity of each ionized wave packet goes to zero while its dispersion is suppressed, thereby explaining why, eventually, the scaled wave packet associated with the ejected electrons becomes stationary. Finally, we show that only the lowest scaled bound states can be removed from the total scaled wave packet once the interaction with the pulse has ceased.
Russian national time scale long-term stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.
1994-01-01
The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kang; Saito, Shinji
2013-03-01
We report an extensive and systematic investigation of the multi-point and multi-time correlation functions to reveal the spatio-temporal structures of dynamic heterogeneities in glass-forming liquids. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for the supercooled states of various prototype models of glass-forming liquids such as binary Kob-Andersen, Wahnström, soft-sphere, and network-forming liquids. While the first three models act as fragile liquids exhibiting super-Arrhenius temperature dependence in their relaxation times, the last is a strong glass-former exhibiting Arrhenius behavior. First, we quantify the length scale of the dynamic heterogeneities utilizing the four-point correlation function. The growth of the dynamic length scale with decreasing temperature is characterized by various scaling relations that are analogous to the critical phenomena. We also examine how the growth of the length scale depends upon the model employed. Second, the four-point correlation function is extended to a three-time correlation function to characterize the temporal structures of the dynamic heterogeneities based on our previous studies [K. Kim and S. Saito, Phys. Rev. E 79, 060501-R (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.060501; K. Kim and S. Saito, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 044511 (2010), 10.1063/1.3464331]. We provide comprehensive numerical results obtained from the three-time correlation function for the above models. From these calculations, we examine the time scale of the dynamic heterogeneities and determine the associated lifetime in a consistent and systematic way. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the dynamical heterogeneities becomes much longer than the α-relaxation time determined from a two-point correlation function in fragile liquids. The decoupling between the two time scales is remarkable, particularly in supercooled states, and the time scales differ by more than an order of magnitude in a more fragile liquid. In contrast, the lifetime is shorter than the α-relaxation time in tetrahedral network-forming strong liquid, even at lower temperatures.
Li, S.; Swindle, S.L.; Smith, S.K.; Nieman, R.A.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. )
1995-03-09
Analysis of [sup 13]C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T[sub 1]) yields information concerning both overall tumbling of molecules in solution and internal rotations about single bonds. Relaxation time and nuclear Overhauser effect data have been obtained for [Beta]-carotene and two related molecules, squalane and squalene, for zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, and for a dyad consisting of a porphyrin covalently linked to a carotenoid polyene through a trimethylene bridge. Squalane and squalene, which lack conjugated double bonds, behave essentially as limp string, with internal rotations at least as rapid as overall isotropic tumbling motions. In contrast, [Beta]-carotene reorients as a rigid rod, with internal motions which are too slow to affect relaxation times. Modeling it as an anisotropic rotor yields a rotational diffusion coefficient for motion about the major axis which is 14 times larger than that for rotation about axes perpendicular to that axis. The porphyrin reorients more nearly isotropically and features internal librational motions about the single bonds to the phenyl groups. The relaxation time data for the carotenoporphyrin are consistent with internal motions similar to those of a medieval military flail. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Deelchand, Dinesh Kumar; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata
2014-01-01
Purpose To investigate the effect of Carr-Purcell (CP) pulse trains on transverse relaxation times, T2, of tissue water and metabolites (both non-coupled and J-coupled spins) in the rat brain at 9.4 T using LASER, CP-LASER and T2?-LASER sequences. Methods Proton NMR spectra were measured in rat brain in vivo at 9.4 T. Spectra were acquired at multiple echo times ranging from 18 to 402 ms. All spectra were analyzed using LCModel with simulated basis sets. Signals of metabolites as a function of echo time were fitted using a mono-exponential function to determine their T2 relaxation times. Results Measured T2s for tissue water and all metabolites were significantly longer with CP-LASER and T2?-LASER compared to LASER. The T2 increased by a factor of ~1.3 for non-coupled and weakly coupled spins (e.g., N-acetylaspartate and total creatine) and by a factor of ~2 (e.g., glutamine and taurine) to ~4 (e.g., glutamate and myo-inositol) for strongly coupled spins. Conclusion Application of a CP pulse train results in a larger increase in T2 relaxation times for strongly coupled spins than for non-coupled (singlet) and weakly coupled spins. This needs to be taken into account when correcting for T2 relaxation in CP-like sequences such as LASER. PMID:24436256
Temperature dependence of effective fluctuation time scales in spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenning, G. G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, P.; Rodriguez, G. F.
2010-01-01
Using a series of fast-cooling protocols we have probed aging effects in the spin-glass state as a function of temperature. Analyzing the logarithmic decay found at very long-time scales within a simple phenomenological barrier model leads to the extraction of an effective fluctuation time scale of the system at a particular temperature. This is the smallest dynamical time-scale defining a lower cutoff in a hierarchical description of the dynamics. We find that this fluctuation time scale, which is approximately equal to atomic spin-fluctuation time scales near the transition temperature, follows a generalized Arrhenius law. We discuss the hypothesis that, upon cooling to a measuring temperature within the spin-glass state, there is a range of dynamically inequivalent configurations in which the system can be trapped, and check within a numerical barrier model simulation, that this leads to subaging behavior in scaling aged thermoremanent magnetization decay curves, as recently discussed theoretically [P. Sibani and G. G. Kenning, Phys. Rev. E 81, 011108 (2010)].
Time scale construction from multiple sources of information (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinverno, A.
2013-12-01
Geological age estimates are provided by diverse chronometers, such as radiometric measurements, astrochronology, and the spacing of magnetic anomalies recorded on mid-ocean ridges by seafloor spreading. These age estimates are affected by errors that can be systematic (e.g., biased radiometric dates due to imperfect assumptions) or random (e.g., imprecise recording of astronomical cycles in sedimentary records). Whereas systematic errors can be reduced by improvements in technique and calibration, uncertainties due to random errors will always be present and need to be dealt with. A Bayesian framework can be used to construct an integrated time scale that is based on several uncertain sources of information. In this framework, each piece of data and the final time scale have an associated probability distribution that describes their uncertainty. The key calculation is to determine the uncertainty in the time scale from the uncertain data that constrain it. In practice, this calculation can be performed by Monte Carlo sampling. In Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, the time scale is iteratively perturbed and the perturbed time scale is accepted or rejected depending on how closely it fits the data. The final result is a large ensemble of possible time scales that are consistent with all the uncertain data; while the average of this ensemble defines a 'best' time scale, the ensemble variability quantifies the time scale uncertainty. An example of this approach is the M-sequence (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, ~160-120 Ma) MHTC12 geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of Malinverno et al. (2012, J. Geophys. Res., B06104, doi:10.1029/2012JB009260). Previous GPTSs were constructed by interpolating between dated marine magnetic anomalies while assuming constant or smoothly varying spreading rates. These GPTSs were typically based on magnetic lineations from one or a few selected spreading centers, and an undesirable result is that they imply larger spreading rate fluctuations on other ridges. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo algorithm used in MHTC12 makes it easy to sample GPTSs that result in small spreading rate variations over multiple spreading centers (in the Western Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Ocean NW of Australia). MHTC12 also accounts for the duration of five polarity chrons estimated from floating astrochronologies (CM0r through CM3r). A Bayesian framework and Monte Carlo sampling offer a useful strategy to construct time scales that incorporate different types of chronological information, have a quantified uncertainty, and can be easily updated with additional data that may become available in the future.
Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carson, George Amos, Jr.
Ultrathin (<40 A) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.
Shear relaxations of confined liquids
Carson, G.A. Jr.
1992-01-01
Ultrathin (<40 [angstrom]) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s[sup [minus]1] were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celcius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes ([approximately]80 nm[sup 3]) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long-time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7 nm[sup 3]) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10[sup 4] Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.
Song, Kyu-Ho; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Lee, Do-Wan; Choe, Bo-Young
2015-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance as compared to other lipid resonances. The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated with a repetition time (TR) of 6000ms and echo time (TE) of 40-550ms. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a normal-chow (NC) and another eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high-fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T2 measurements in the rats' livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000ms and TE of 40-220ms. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R(2)). Chemical analyses of the phantom and livers were not performed, but T2 decay curves were acquired. The T2 relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.1±4.3ms; HF rats, 31.4±1.8ms (p<0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). This study of (1)H MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio differences to characterize the T2 relaxation times of methylene resonance. (1)H MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. PMID:26200917
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramey, Kyle
2004-01-01
Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…
Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jun-xing; Jin, Kui-juan; Wang, Le; He, Xu; Guo, Hai-zhong; Wang, Can; He, Meng; Yang, Guo-zhen
2015-11-01
An intuitively persistent enhancement of the local surface potential of BiFeO3 layers in both heterostructures of BiFeO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3 and BiFeO3/Sr0.09Nb0.01TiO3 was observed by the Kelvin probe force microscopy technique after the illumination of 375 nm laser. This photo-induced enhanced surface potential can maintain as long as 15 h after the illumination. We attributed this super-long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence to a photo-induced depolarization in the BiFeO3 thin films, and our first-principles calculation of double-potential well further provides an instinct understanding on this depolarization process. Our findings provide a peculiar understanding into the photo-induced phenomena on the widely researched ferroelectric systems and offer an approach to tune their multifunctionality of the magnetization and polarization not only by applied magnetic and electric fields but also by optical filed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Alvarado, E. Maldonado; Ramirez, J. F. Sanchez; Ramón-Gallegos, E.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.
2008-11-01
In this work we have used the Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) to determine in vitro the non-radiative relaxation time (NRRT) of a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) standard solution and samples of PpIX(1), PpIX(2) and PpIX(3) with Au nanoparticle concentrations of 0.001008, 0.00504 and 0.01008 mmol in 25 mL of water respectively. We have used PpIX disodium salt (DS) solution of 25% HCl. The results show that the NRRT average values, obtained for each one of the solution were: τ = 29 ± 0.001, 84 ± 0.001 and 62 ± 0.009 ms for PpIX(1), PpIX(2) and PpIX(3), respectively. These values were compared with some NRRT of triplet states reported in the literature for molecules with tetrapyrrolic structure, increasing the NRRT considerably. From each solution it was obtained its PAS signal phase as a function of the light modulation frequency from 17 to 80 Hz. UV-vis spectrophotometer, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used in order to obtain the optical absorption spectra, the photoluminescence intensities, and the gold nanoparticle sizes respectively. Our investigations are devoted to improve the thermal treatments of drugs the porphyrins as photosensitizers used in image photodynamic therapy.
Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai-Qiong, Xie; Zhong, Zeng; Liang-Qi, Zhang
2016-01-01
We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572062), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. CDJZR13248801), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13043), and Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plumari, S.; Puglisi, A.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.
2012-11-01
The shear viscosity η has been calculated by using the Green-Kubo relation in the framework of a partonic transport approach solved at cascade level. We compare the numerical results for η obtained from the Green-Kubo correlator with the analytical formulas in both the relaxation time approximation (RTA) and the Chapman-Enskog (CE) approximation. We investigate and emphasize the differences between the isotropic and anisotropic cross sections and between the massless and massive particles. We show that in the range of temperature explored in a heavy ion collision and for perturbative-QCD-like cross section, the RTA significantly underestimates the viscosity by about a factor of 2-3, while a good agreement is found between the CE approximation and Gree-Kubo relation already at first-order of approximation. The agreement with the CE approximation supplies an analytical formula that allows us to develop a kinetic transport theory at fixed shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio, η/s. This opens the possibility of exploring dissipative nonequilibrium evolution of the distribution functions versus T-dependent η/s and particle momenta in the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Fraind, Alicia M; Ryzhkov, Lev R; Tovar, John D
2016-02-11
We present a study to probe the formation of localized aromatic sextets and their effects on the charge transport properties in polymers with acene cores. Bithiophene-acene copolymers containing benzene, naphthalene, or anthracene as acene cores were synthesized using Yamamoto polymerization. Drop-casted polymer films were chemically doped and analyzed using high frequency saturation transfer EPR (HF ST-EPR), a method which has proven useful in the study of conducting polymers. The spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined for these polymers at low temperatures (4 to 20 K) and used to obtain inter- and intrachain spin diffusion rates and conductivities. Similar interchain spin diffusion rates were seen across all polymer systems; however, anthracene containing polymer poly(hexylTTATT) was found to have the largest intrachain spin diffusion rate. The poly(hexylTTATT) intrachain spin diffusion rate may be artificially high if the anthracene ring restricts the diffusion of spin to the hexylated quaterthiophene segment in poly(hexylTTATT) whereas the spins diffuse through the acene cores in the benzene and naphthalene derivatives. Alternatively, as both the spin diffusion rates and conductivities vary unpredictably with temperature, it is possible that the π-electron localization previously seen in the anthracene core could be relieved at lower temperatures. PMID:26795133
Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, C.-K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.
Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, C. K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1998-01-01
We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
2011-06-01
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin
2014-06-07
The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation.
Atomic Time Scales for the 21st Century
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, E. F.
2014-06-01
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures, in coordination with international organizations and national institutes, maintains and disseminates Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Other timescales exist for different purposes. This article describes the state-of-the-art in the elaboration of these time scales.
Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong
2015-12-01
The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza Filho, N. E.; Nogueira, A. C.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Medina, A. N.; Siqueira, A. P. L.; Sampaio, J. A.; Vargas, H.; Bento, A. C.
2009-11-01
This paper discusses the use of photoacoustic models to obtain the nonradiative relaxation time (τ) and characteristic diffusion time (τβ) for a sample showing visible absorption bands from fluorescent ion-doped low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass. Two models allowing phase shift analyses, the thermal-expansion and thermal-diffusion models, are briefly reviewed. These models have limitations when the photoacoustic signal depends on both factors, in a coupling mechanism. An alternative model is proposed to take both thermal expansion and thermal diffusion into account with a single temperature solution for the heat-coupled differential equation. This model is simulated for absorbing samples near the thermally thick region. The model is applied to Eu-V codoped glass showing intermediate signal dependence from ω-1.0 to ω-3/2. The nonradiative time and characteristic diffusion time are derived with 33<τ(ms)<39, and τβ(ms)˜70 ms for the Eu-ion and 340<τβ(ms)<710 for the V-ion. Four absorption bands were analyzed (280, 350, 420, and 600 nm), which showed a signal dependence from ω-1.1 to ω-1.52. Absorption coefficients were derived from τβ in the range of 15<β(cm-1)<51, which agreed fairly well with spectrophotometer data for the same ions.
The development and relaxation of growth strains in thermally grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales.
Hou, P. Y.; Paulikas, A. P.; Veal, B. W.; LBNL
2009-01-01
The strains in alumina thin films growing on high-temperature alloys at 1,000-1,100 C and during cooling have been successfully measured in-situ using a novel x-ray technique, exploiting synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper summarizes results obtained from model alloys, with or without the presence of a reactive element, such as Zr, Hf, and Y, to show the importance of the dynamic nature of the stress evolution process and the effects of alloy composition on the generation and relaxation of these stresses.
Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects
Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.
2013-01-01
Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes. The remaining unexplained variation in development time likely reflects additional ecological and evolutionary differences among insect species. PMID:24391935
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Stress-relaxation behavior in gels with ionic and covalent crosslinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xuanhe; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.; Suo, Zhigang
2010-03-01
Long-chained polymers in alginate hydrogels can form networks by either ionic or covalent crosslinks. This paper shows that the type of crosslinks can markedly affect the stress-relaxation behavior of the gels. In gels with only ionic crosslinks, stress relaxes mainly through breaking and subsequent reforming of the ionic crosslinks, and the time scale of the relaxation is independent of the size of the sample. By contrast, in gels with only covalent crosslinks, stress relaxes mainly through migration of water, and the relaxation slows down as the size of the sample increases. Implications of these observations are discussed.
Common scaling patterns in intertrade times of U. S. stocks.
Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Yuen, Ainslie; Podobnik, Boris; Lee, Youngki
2004-05-01
We analyze the sequence of time intervals between consecutive stock trades of thirty companies representing eight sectors of the U.S. economy over a period of 4 yrs. For all companies we find that: (i) the probability density function of intertrade times may be fit by a Weibull distribution, (ii) when appropriately rescaled the probability densities of all companies collapse onto a single curve implying a universal functional form, (iii) the intertrade times exhibit power-law correlated behavior within a trading day and a consistently greater degree of correlation over larger time scales, in agreement with the correlation behavior of the absolute price returns for the corresponding company, and (iv) the magnitude series of intertrade time increments is characterized by long-range power-law correlations suggesting the presence of nonlinear features in the trading dynamics, while the sign series is anticorrelated at small scales. Our results suggest that independent of industry sector, market capitalization and average level of trading activity, the series of intertrade times exhibit possibly universal scaling patterns, which may relate to a common mechanism underlying the trading dynamics of diverse companies. Further, our observation of long-range power-law correlations and a parallel with the crossover in the scaling of absolute price returns for each individual stock, support the hypothesis that the dynamics of transaction times may play a role in the process of price formation. PMID:15244883
Deoni, Sean C.L.; Dean, Douglas C.; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Jerskey, Beth A.
2012-01-01
The elaboration of the myelinated white matter is essential for normal neurodevelopment, establishing and mediating rapid communication pathways throughout the brain. These pathways facilitate the synchronized communication required for higher order behavioral and cognitive functioning. Altered neural messaging (or ‘disconnectivity’) arising from abnormal white matter and myelin development may underlie a number of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Despite the vital role myelin plays, few imaging studies have specifically examined its maturation throughout early infancy and childhood. Thus, direct investigations of the relationship(s) between evolving behavioral and cognitive functions and the myelination of the supporting neural systems have been sparse. Further, without knowledge of the ‘normative’ developmental time-course, identification of early abnormalities associated with developmental disorders remains challenging. In this work, we examined the use of longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation time mapping, and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging to investigate white matter and myelin development in 153 healthy male and female children, 3 months through 60 months in age. Optimized age-specific acquisition protocols were developed using the DESPOT and mcDESPOT imaging techniques; and mean T1, T2 and MWF trajectories were determined for frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal and cerebellar white matter, and genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum. MWF results provided a spatio-temporal pattern in-line with prior histological studies of myelination. Comparison of T1, T2 and MWF measurements demonstrates dissimilar sensitivity to tissue changes associated with neurodevelopment, with each providing differential but complementary information. PMID:22884937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairbanks, Ethan Jefferson
1994-01-01
Off-resonance spin locking makes use of the novel relaxation time T_{1rho} ^{rm off}, which may be useful in characterizing breast disease. Knowledge of T _{rm 1rho}^{rm off} is essential for optimization of spin -locking imaging methods. The purpose of this work was to develop an optimal imaging technique for in vivo measurement of T_{rm 1rho}^ {rm off}. Measurement of T _{1rho}^{rm off } using conventional methods requires long exam times which are not suitable for patients. Exam time may be shortened by utilizing a one-shot method developed by Look and Locker, making in vivo measurements possible. The imaging method consisted of a 180^circ inversion pulse followed by a series of small-angle alpha pulses to tip a portion of the longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane for readout. During each relaxation interval (between alpha pulses), a spin-locking pulse was applied off-resonance to achieve T_ {1rho}^{rm off} relaxation. The value of T_{rm 1rho}^{rm off} was then determined using a three-parameter non-linear least-squares fitting procedure. Values of T_ {1rho}^{rm off} were measured for normal and pathologic breast tissues at several resonant offsets. These measurements revealed that image contrast can be manipulated by altering the resonant offset of the spin-locking pulse. Whereas T _1 relaxation times were nearly identical for normal and cancerous tissues, T_{1 rho}^{rm off} relaxation times differed significantly. These results may be useful in improving image contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.
Dielectric Relaxation of Hexadeutero Dimethylsulfoxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betting, H.; Stockhausen, M.
1999-11-01
The dielectric relaxation parameters of the title substance (DMSO-d6) in its pure liquid state are determined from meas-urements up to 72 GHz at 20°C in comparison to protonated DMSO. While the relaxation strengths do not differ, the relax-ation time of DMSO-d 6 is significantly longer (21.3 ps) than that of DMSO (19.5 ps).
Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry
Wales, David J.; Salamon, Peter
2014-01-01
When structures that interconvert on a given time scale are lumped together, the corresponding free-energy surface becomes a function of the observation time. This view is equivalent to grouping structures that are connected by free-energy barriers below a certain threshold. We illustrate this time dependence for some benchmark systems, namely atomic clusters and alanine dipeptide, highlighting the connections to broken ergodicity, local equilibrium, and “feasible” symmetry operations of the molecular Hamiltonian. PMID:24374625
Inferring synaptic structure in presence of neural interaction time scales.
Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo
2015-01-01
Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network's activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model's time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389
Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets at Climatic Time Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinker, Rachel T.; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao
2015-04-01
For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of the radiative balance at global scale, however, due to the frequent changes in the observing systems, the length of available satellite records is limited. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave, longwave and spectral surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updates on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records and from models.
Time Scales for Energy Release in Hall Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Rudakov, L. I.
2004-05-01
We present a study of the time scales for energy release in 2D Hall magnetic reconnection. We use the NRL Hall MHD code VooDoo for this study. We consider a 2D reversed field current layer with a magnetic perturbation that initiates the reconnection process. We use boundary conditions that allow inflow and outflow (i.e., not periodic) and let the system reach a steady state. We find that the system goes through three stages: a relatively long current layer thinning process, a fast reconnection phase, and a final steady state phase. We define the time scale for energy release as the fast reconnection period: from onset to steady state. Preliminary results indicate that the time for energy release scales as the initial thickness of the current layer. We apply these results to the magnetotail and magnetopause. Research supported by NASA and ONR.
An algorithm for the Italian atomic time scale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cordara, F.; Vizio, G.; Tavella, P.; Pettiti, V.
1994-01-01
During the past twenty years, the time scale at the IEN has been realized by a commercial cesium clock, selected from an ensemble of five, whose rate has been continuously steered towards UTC to maintain a long term agreement within 3 x 10(exp -13). A time scale algorithm, suitable for a small clock ensemble and capable of improving the medium and long term stability of the IEN time scale, has been recently designed taking care of reducing the effects of the seasonal variations and the sudden frequency anomalies of the single cesium clocks. The new time scale, TA(IEN), is obtained as a weighted average of the clock ensemble computed once a day from the time comparisons between the local reference UTC(IEN) and the single clocks. It is foreseen to include in the computation also ten cesium clocks maintained in other Italian laboratories to further improve its reliability and its long term stability. To implement this algorithm, a personal computer program in Quick Basic has been prepared and it has been tested at the IEN time and frequency laboratory. Results obtained using this algorithm on the real clocks data relative to a period of about two years are presented.
Improving the Geologic Time Scale (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gradstein, Felix M.
2010-05-01
The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) provides the framework for the physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth. The time scale is the tool "par excellence" of the geological trade, and insight in its construction, strength, and limitations enhances its function and its utility. Earth scientists should understand how time scales are constructed and its myriad of physical and abstract data are calibrated, rather than merely using ages plucked from a convenient chart or card. Calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components: (1) the standard stratigraphic divisions and their correlation in the global rock record, (2) the means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record, and (3) the methods of effectively joining the two scales, the stratigraphic one and the linear one. Under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the international stratigraphic divisions and their correlative events are now largely standardized, especially using the GSSP (Global Stratigraphic Section and Point) concept. The means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record are objectives in the EARTH TIME and GTS NEXT projects, that also are educating a new generation of GTS dedicated scientists. The U/Pb, Ar/Ar and orbital tuning methods are intercalibrated, and external error analysis improved. Existing Ar/Ar ages become almost 0.5% older, and U/Pb ages stratigraphically more realistic. The new Os/Re method has potential for directly dating more GSSP's and its correlative events. Such may reduce scaling uncertainty between the sedimentary levels of an age date and that of a stage boundary. Since 1981, six successive Phanerozoic GTS have been published, each new one achieving higher resolution and more users. The next GTS is scheduled for 2011/2012, with over 50 specialists taking part. New chapters include an expanded planetary time scale, sequence stratigraphy, Osmium, Carbon and Oxygen stratigraphy, the Cryogenian period, history of the plants, hominid prehistory, and last but not least the Anthropocene. The Cambrian Period is radically improved with 10 standard stages and detailed trilobite biochronology. Ordovician now has a stable international stages and graptolites scale. The integration of a refined 100 and 400 ka sedimentary cycles scale and a truly high-resolution U/Pb ages scale for the Mississippian is a major step towards the global Carboniferous GTS. The Devonian GTS leaves to be desired with lack of firm definitions for its upper boundary, and the long Emsian stage; it also lacks age dates. Its stages scaling is disputed. The Rhaetian and Norian stages in the Triassic and the Berriasian stage in the Cretaceous urgently require lower boundary definitions, and also boundary age dates. The single ~400 ka eccentricity component is very stable and can extend orbital tuning from the Cenozoic well into the Mesozoic portion of the GTS. Jurassic and Cretaceous now have long orbitally tuned segments. A completely astronomical-tuned Geological Time Scale (AGTS) for the Cenozoic is within reach showing unprecedented accuracy, precision and resolution. Burdigalian in the Miocene, and Lutetian, Bartonian and Priabonian stages in the Eocene still require formal definition. The K/T boundary will become about 0.5 ± 0.1 Ma older. After 25 years of research and authorship in the GTS it behoves me to especially thank my colleagues James Ogg, Frits Agterberg, John McArthur and Roger Cooper for longstanding collaboration. As a final note I urge construction of more regional time scales(like developed ‘down under') calibrated to the standard global GTS, to scale regional rock units.
Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series
Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping
2014-01-01
Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356
Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.
Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping
2014-01-01
Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2). Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03) and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356
Rousseaux, C.; Gremillet, L.; Casanova, M.; Loiseau, P.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Baton, S.D.; Amiranoff, F.; Adam, J. C.; Heron, A.
2006-07-07
The excitation and the relaxation of the plasma waves and ion acoustic waves (IAW), respectively, driven by stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) backscatterings have been experimentally investigated with short-pulse lasers. The spectra have been obtained with a 0.3 ps time resolution. It is shown that SRS develops before SBS and suddenly decays around the peak of the pump, as the IAW reaches saturation. On this short time scale, electron kinetic effects play a major role for SRS saturation, contrary to ion dynamics. These results are supported by particle-in-cell simulations.
Memory on multiple time-scales in an Abelian sandpile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Andrey; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien; Webster, Rachel
2015-06-01
We report results of a numerical analysis of the memory effects in two-dimensional Abelian sandpiles. It is found that a sandpile forgets its instantaneous configuration in two distinct stages: a fast stage and a slow stage, whose durations roughly scale as N and N2 respectively, where N is the linear size of the sandpile. We confirm the presence of the longer time-scale by an independent diagnostic based on analysing emission probabilities of a hidden Markov model applied to a time-averaged sequence of avalanche sizes. The application of hidden Markov modelling to the output of sandpiles is novel. It discriminates effectively between a sandpile time series and a shuffled control time series with the same time-averaged event statistics and hence deserves further development as a pattern-recognition tool for Abelian sandpiles.
Time scales of crystal mixing in magma mushes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleicher, Jillian M.; Bergantz, George W.; Breidenthal, Robert E.; Burgisser, Alain
2016-02-01
Magma mixing is widely recognized as a means of producing compositional diversity and preconditioning magmas for eruption. However, the processes and associated time scales that produce the commonly observed expressions of magma mixing are poorly understood, especially under crystal-rich conditions. Here we introduce and exemplify a parameterized method to predict the characteristic mixing time of crystals in a crystal-rich magma mush that is subject to open-system reintrusion events. Our approach includes novel numerical simulations that resolve multiphase particle-fluid interactions. It also quantifies the crystal mixing by calculating both the local and system-wide progressive loss of the spatial correlation of individual crystals throughout the mixing region. Both inertial and viscous time scales for bulk mixing are introduced. Estimated mixing times are compared to natural examples and the time for basaltic mush systems to become well mixed can be on the order of 10 days.
Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.
1976-01-01
Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.
Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales
Peng, Keke Luo, Yiping
2014-04-15
In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.
Relativistic fireballs - Energy conversion and time-scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.
1992-01-01
The expansion energy of a relativistic fireball can be reconverted into radiation when it interacts with an external medium. For expansion with Lorentz factors greater than or approximately equal to 1000 into a typical galactic environment, the corresponding time-scale in the frame of the observer is of the order of seconds. This mechanism would operate in any cosmological scenario of gamma-ray bursts involving initial energies of order a percent of a stellar rest mass, and implies photon energies and time-scales compatible with those observed in gamma-ray bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, David W.; Adelman, Steven A.
2002-08-01
The theoretical treatment in Paper I [D. W. Miller and S. A. Adelman, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2672, (2002), preceding paper] of the vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of low-frequency, large mass dihalogen solutes is extended to the VER of the high-frequency, small mass molecular hydrogen solutes H2 and D2 in a Lennard-Jones argon-like solvent. As in Paper I, values of the relaxation times T1 predicted by the theory are tested against molecular dynamics (MD) results and are found to be of semiquantitative accuracy. To start, it is noted that standard Lennard-Jones site-site potentials derived from macroscopic data can be very inaccurate in the steep repulsive slope region crucial for T1. Thus, the H-Ar Lennard-Jones diameter sigmaUV is not taken from literature values but rather is chosen as sigmaUV=1.39 A, the value needed to make the theory reproduce the experimental H2/Ar gas phase VER rate constant. Next, by MD simulation it is shown that the vibrational coordinate fluctuating force autocorrelation function
Stephens, N L; Jiang, H
1994-11-01
We have demonstrated that in dogs antigen sensitization results in alterations of contractile properties. These changes could account for the hyperresponsiveness reported in asthma. The failure of the muscle to relax could be another important factor responsible for maintaining high airway resistance. We therefore developed an index of isotonic relaxation, t1/2, CE (half time for relaxation that is independent of muscle load and initial contractile element length), for evaluation of the relaxation process. Because the maximum shortening velocity at 2 s but not at 10 s was greater in sensitized bronchial smooth muscle than that in controls, studies of relaxation were also undertaken at these two times. The mean half-relaxation time indicated by t1/2,CE showed no difference between sensitized and control muscles after 10 s of stimulation (8.38 +/- 0.92 vs. 7.78 +/- 0.93 s, means +/- SE); however, it was prolonged significantly in the sensitized muscle only stimulated for 1 s (12.74 +/- 2.5 s, mean +/- SE) compared with the control (6.98 +/- 1.01 s). During the late phase of isotonic relaxation, both groups showed an unexpected spontaneous increase in zero-load shortening velocity, which is an index of cross-bridge cycling rate. We conclude that (i) both contraction and relaxation properties of early normally cycling cross bridges are altered after sensitization and these changes may account for the hyperresponsiveness observed in asthmatics and (ii) the cross-bridge cycling rate increases spontaneously during isotonic relaxation, probably as a result of reactivation of the contractile mechanism. PMID:7767877
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Shuqi; Hong, Ning; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua
2016-04-01
In this paper, we will focus on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations (CDEs), and analyze the discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back (HBB) boundary condition (or sometimes called bounce-back boundary condition) of the MRT model where three different discrete velocity models are considered. We first present a theoretical analysis on the discrete effect of the HBB boundary condition for the simple problems with a parabolic distribution in the x or y direction, and a numerical slip proportional to the second-order of lattice spacing is observed at the boundary, which means that the MRT model has a second-order convergence rate in space. The theoretical analysis also shows that the numerical slip can be eliminated in the MRT model through tuning the free relaxation parameter corresponding to the second-order moment, while it cannot be removed in the single-relaxation-time model or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model unless the relaxation parameter related to the diffusion coefficient is set to be a special value. We then perform some simulations to confirm our theoretical results, and find that the numerical results are consistent with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we would also like to point out the present analysis can be extended to other boundary conditions of lattice Boltzmann models for CDEs.
Dyakin, Victor V.; Chen, Yuanxin; Branch, Craig A.; Veeranna; Yuan, Aidong; Rao, Mala; Kumar, Asok; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Nixon, Ralph. A
2010-01-01
White matter disorders can involve injury to myelin or axons but the respective contribution of each to clinical course is difficult to evaluate non-invasively. Here, to develop a paradigm for further investigations of axonal pathology by MRI, we compared two genetic mouse models exhibiting relatively selective axonal or myelin deficits using quantitative MRI relaxography of the transverse relaxation times (T2) in vivo and ultrastructural morphometry. In HM-DKO mice, which lack genes encoding the heavy (NF-H) and medium (NF-M) subunits of neurofilaments, neurofilament content of large myelinated axons of the central nervous system (CNS) is markedly reduced in the absence of changes in myelin thickness and volume. In shiverer mutant mice, which lack functional myelin basic protein, CNS myelin sheath formation is markedly reduced but neurofilament content is normal. We observed increases in T2 in nearly all white matter in Shiverer mice compared to their wild type, while more subtle increases in T2 were observed in HM-DKO in the corpus callosum. White matter T2 was generally greater in Shiverer mice than HM-DKO mice. Ultrastructural morphometry of the corpus callosum, which exhibited the greatest T2 differences, confirmed that total cross sectional area occupied by axons was similar in the two mouse models and that the major ultrastructural differences, determined by morphometry, were an absence of myelin and larger unmyelinated axons in shiverer mice and absence of neurofilaments in HM-DKO mice. Our findings indicate that T2 is strongly influenced by myelination state and axonal volume, while neurofilament structure within the intra-axonal compartment has a lesser effect upon single compartment T2 estimates. PMID:20226865
Scaling characteristics in ozone concentration time series (OCTS).
Lee, Chung-Kung; Juang, Lain-Chuen; Wang, Cheng-Cai; Liao, Yu-Ying; Yu, Chung-Chin; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Ho, Ding-Shun
2006-02-01
One-year series of hourly average ozone observations, which were obtained from urban and national park air monitoring stations at Taipei (Taiwan), were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and fractal methods to examine the scaling structures of ozone concentrations. It was found that all ozone measurements exhibited the characteristic right-skewed frequency distribution, cyclic pattern, and long-term memory. A mono-fractal analysis was performed by transferring the ozone concentration time series (OCTS) into a useful compact form, namely, the box-dimension (D(B))-threshold (T(h)) and critical scale (C(S))-threshold (T(h)) plots. Scale invariance was found in these time series and the box dimension was shown to be a decreasing function of the threshold ozone level, implying the existence of multifractal characteristics. To test this hypothesis, the OCTS were transferred into the multifractal spectra, namely, the tau(q)-q plots. The analysis confirmed the existence of multifractal characteristics in the investigated OCTS. A simple two-scale Cantor set with unequal scales and weights was then used to fit the calculated tau(q)-q plots. This model fitted remarkably well the entire spectrum of scaling exponents for the examined OCTS. Because the existence of chaos behavior in OCTS has been reported in the literature, the possibility of a chaotic multifractal approach for OCTS characterization was discussed. PMID:16081138
Appropriate time scales for nonlinear analyses of deterministic jump systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Tomoya
2011-06-01
In the real world, there are many phenomena that are derived from deterministic systems but which fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. This paper discusses the appropriate time scales that can be applied to such systems to analyze their properties. The financial markets are an example of such systems wherein price movements fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. However, it is common to apply uniform time scales such as 1-min data and 1-h data to study price movements. This paper examines the validity of such time scales by using surrogate data tests to ascertain whether the deterministic properties of the original system can be identified from uniform sampled data. The results show that uniform time samplings are often inappropriate for nonlinear analyses. However, for other systems such as neural spikes and Internet traffic packets, which produce similar outputs, uniform time samplings are quite effective in extracting the system properties. Nevertheless, uniform samplings often generate overlapping data, which can cause false rejections of surrogate data tests.
Scaling in Cyclical Surface Growth with Uniform and Random Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapir, Yonathan; Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Jorne, Jacob; Foster, David G.
2001-03-01
Cyclical surface growth (e.g. deposition/desorption) is described by dynamic scaling in terms of the number of cycles n and the system size L (Shapir et al., Phys. Rev. Letts. 84, 3029 (2000)). The roughness of surfaces grown by two primary processes shows a scaling behavior with asymptotic exponents identical to those of the dominant primary process. Non-linear primary processes are studied by a renormalization group procedure. Scaling exponents do not depend on the ratio of the time periods of the two primary processes. Cyclical processes with intermittent random durations of the primary processes are also investigated. Numerical simulations for several pairs of generic primary processes confirm the analytical results. Experimental measurements of the roughness in cyclical electrodeposition/dissolution of silver show a power-law increase with n, consistent with the scaling description. * Supported by grants from the NSF CMS-9872103 and the ONR N00014-00-1-0057. ** Supported by the Eastman Kodak Co.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, Hannes; Janke, Wolfhard
2016-05-01
Driven diffusive systems such as the zero-range process (ZRP) and the pair-factorized steady states (PFSS) stochastic transport process are versatile tools that lend themselves to the study of transport phenomena on a generic level. While their mathematical structure is simple enough to allow significant analytical treatment, they offer a variety of interesting phenomena. With appropriate dynamics, the ZRP and PFSS models feature a condensation transition where, for a supercritical density, the translational symmetry breaks spontaneously and excess particles form a single-site or spatially extended condensate, respectively. In this paper we numerically study the typical time scales of the two stages of this condensation process: Nucleation and coarsening. Nucleation is the first stage of condensation where the bulk system relaxes to its stationary distribution and droplet nuclei form in the system. These droplets then gradually grow or evaporate in the coarsening regime to coalesce in a single condensate when the system finally relaxes to the stationary state. We use the ZRP condensation model to discuss the choice of the estimation method for the nucleation time scale and present scaling exponents for the ZRP and PFSS condensation models with respect to the choice of the typical droplet nuclei mass. We then proceed to present scaling exponents in the coarsening regime of the ZRP for partially asymmetric dynamics and the PFSS model for symmetric and asymmetric dynamics.
SOUZA, RICHARD B.; BAUM, THOMAS; WU, SAMUEL; FEELEY, BRIAN T.; KADEL, NANCY; LI, XIAOJUAN; LINK, THOMAS M.; MAJUMDAR, SHARMILA
2013-01-01
STUDY DESIGN Case series. BACKGROUND It has been shown in rodent and canine models that cartilage composition is significantly altered in response to long-term unloading. To date, however, no in vivo human studies have investigated this topic. The objective of this case series was to determine the influence of unloading and reloading on T1rho and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage in healthy young joints. CASE DESCRIPTION Ten patients who required 6 to 8 weeks of non–weight bearing (NWB) for injuries affecting the distal lower extremity participated in the study. Quantitative T1rho and T2 imaging of the ipsilateral knee joint was performed at 3 time points: (1) prior to surgery (baseline), (2) immediately after a period of NWB (post-NWB), and (3) after 4 weeks of full weight bearing (post-FWB). Cartilage regions of interest were segmented and overlaid on T1rho and T2 relaxation time maps for quantification. Descriptive statistics are provided for all changes. OUTCOMES Increases of 5% to 10% in T1rho times of all femoral and tibial compartments were noted post-NWB. All values returned to near-baseline levels post-FWB. Increases in medial tibia T2 times were noted post-NWB and remained elevated post-FWB. The load-bearing regions showed the most significant changes in response to unloading, with increases of up to 12%. DISCUSSION The observation of a transient shift in relaxation times confirms that cartilage composition is subject to alterations based on loading conditions. These changes appear to be mostly related to proteoglycan content and more localized to the load-bearing regions. However, following 4 weeks of full weight bearing, relaxation times of nearly all regions had returned to baseline levels, demonstrating reversibility in compositional fluctuations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 4. PMID:22402583
Multiple-Time-Scale Concepts in Turbulent Transport Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanjalic, K.; Launder, B. E.; Schiestel, R.
1980-01-01
Progress in developing a turbulence closure employing two or more independently calculated time scales with which to characterize the rates of progress of different turbulent interactions is reported. The energy containing part of the spectrum is divided into two regions which respond at different rates and in different ways to changes in the environment. The scheme may be regarded as providing an intermediate level of approximation between the relatively simple, but fallible, single-point closures and the vastly more elaborate two-point closures which have so far been applied only to simulating homogeneous flows. The proposed approach requires only slightly more computational effort than single-scale schemes. Computational results are reported for several thin shear flows which show striking improvement in the level of agreement with experiment over that obtained with models employing only one time scale.
Satellite attitude prediction by multiple time scales method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Y. C.; Ramnath, R.
1975-01-01
An investigation is made of the problem of predicting the attitude of satellites under the influence of external disturbing torques. The attitude dynamics are first expressed in a perturbation formulation which is then solved by the multiple scales approach. The independent variable, time, is extended into new scales, fast, slow, etc., and the integration is carried out separately in the new variables. The theory is applied to two different satellite configurations, rigid body and dual spin, each of which may have an asymmetric mass distribution. The disturbing torques considered are gravity gradient and geomagnetic. Finally, as multiple time scales approach separates slow and fast behaviors of satellite attitude motion, this property is used for the design of an attitude control device. A nutation damping control loop, using the geomagnetic torque for an earth pointing dual spin satellite, is designed in terms of the slow equation.
RELAXATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.
2014-07-10
Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.
Separation of time scales in the HCA model for sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemunis, Andrzej; Wichtmann, Torsten
2014-10-01
Separation of time scales is used in a high cycle accumulation (HCA) model for sand. An important difficulty of the model is the limited applicability of the Miner's rule to multiaxial cyclic loadings applied simultaneously or in a combination with monotonic loading. Another problem is the lack of simplified objective HCA formulas for geotechnical settlement problems. Possible solutions of these problems are discussed.
Gott Time Machines, BTZ Black Hole Formation, and Choptuik Scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birmingham, Danny; Sen, Siddhartha
2000-02-01
We study the formation of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.
Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…
Time scale algorithm: Definition of ensemble time and possible uses of the Kalman filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tavella, Patrizia; Thomas, Claudine
1990-01-01
The comparative study of two time scale algorithms, devised to satisfy different but related requirements, is presented. They are ALGOS(BIPM), producing the international reference TAI at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, and AT1(NIST), generating the real-time time scale AT1 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In each case, the time scale is a weighted average of clock readings, but the weight determination and the frequency prediction are different because they are adapted to different purposes. The possibility of using a mathematical tool, such as the Kalman filter, together with the definition of the time scale as a weighted average, is also analyzed. Results obtained by simulation are presented.
THEORETICAL REVIEW The Hippocampus, Time, and Memory Across Scales
Howard, Marc W.; Eichenbaum, Howard
2014-01-01
A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of “time cells” that encode moments in time, much as the well-known “place cells” map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the “mental time travel” hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a “jump back in time” in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced—this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126
Relaxation of a one-dimensional gravitational system.
Valageas, P
2006-07-01
We study the relaxation towards thermodynamical equilibrium of a one-dimensional gravitational system. This model shows a series of critical energies E(cn) where different equilibria appear and we focus on the homogeneous (n=0), one-peak (n = +/-1), and two-peak (n=2) states. Using numerical simulations we investigate the relaxation to the stable equilibrium n = +/-1 of this N-body system starting from initial conditions defined by equilibria n=0 and n=2. We find that in a fashion similar to other long-range systems the relaxation involves a fast violent relaxation phase followed by a slow collisional phase as the system goes through a series of quasistationary states. Moreover, in cases where this slow second stage leads to a dynamically unstable configuration (two peaks with a high mass ratio) it is followed by a different sequence, "violent relaxation-slow collisional relaxation." We obtain an analytical estimate of the relaxation time t(2--> +/- 1)through the mean escape time of a particle from its potential well in a bistable system. We find that the diffusion and dissipation coefficients satisfy Einstein's relation and that the relaxation time scales as Ne(1/T) at low temperature, in agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:16907203
Characterization of a binary karst aquifer using process time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birk, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas
2013-04-01
Within "a theoretical framework for the interpretation of karst spring signals" (Covington, EGU2012-853-1) process length scales that characterize the travel distances required for damping pulses of physicochemical parameters of spring waters such as electrical conductivity and temperature were derived (Covington et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2012). These length scales can be converted to corresponding process time scales characterizing the travel times needed for damping the pulses. This is particularly convenient if the travel distance is unknown. In this case the time lag between the increase of spring discharge and subsequent physicochemical responses at the spring may provide an estimate of the travel time. In binary karst aquifers with localized recharge from a sinking stream, the recharge pulse can be directly observed and thus travel times are readily obtained from the time delay of the physicochemical spring responses. If the spring response is strongly damped travel times can be inferred from artificial tracer testing. In this work, time scales for carbonate dissolution and heat transport were used for characterizing the binary Lurbach-Tanneben karst aquifer (Austria). This aquifer receives allogenic recharge from the sinking stream Lurbach and is drained by two springs, namely the Hammerbach and the Schmelzbach. The two springs show different thermal responses to two recharge events in December 2008: Whereas the temperature of the Schmelzbach responds within one day after the flood pulse in the Lurbach, the temperature signal is strongly damped at the Hammerbach. The evaluation based on the thermal time scale thus suggests that the Schmelzbach spring is fed by conduits with hydraulic diameters at least in the order of decimetres. In contrast, the damping of the thermal responses at the Hammerbach may be due to lower hydraulic diameters and/or longer residence times. Interestingly, the Hammerbach did show thermal responses in the time before a flood event in August 2005. This suggests that this flood event may have caused a change of the properties of the Hammerbach aquifer such that temperature pulses are more strongly damped than before. As opposed to the thermal responses the electrical conductivity appears to be less affected by this change, which suggests that the hydraulic diameters are still sufficiently large to permit the propagation of chemical signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Yasunori; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Petković, Milena
2013-06-01
A comparative study of vibrational energy relaxation (VER) between the monohydrated complexes of phenol-d0 and phenol-d1 is investigated in a supersonic molecular beam. The direct time-resolved measurement of energy redistribution from the phenolic OH/OD stretching mode of the phenol-d0-H2O/phenol-d1-D2O is performed by picosecond IR-UV pump-probe spectroscopy. Two complexes follow the same relaxation process that begins with the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and the intermolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR), which is followed by the vibrational predissociation (VP). The difference in the relaxation lifetimes between them is discussed by anharmonic force field and RRKM calculations. Anharmonic analysis implies that intra- (IVR) and intermolecular (IVR) relaxations occur in parallel in the complexes. The RRKM-predicted dissociation (VP) lifetimes show qualitative agreement with the observed results, suggesting that VP takes place after the statistical energy distribution in the complexes.
Kawamura, Izuru; Ohmine, Masato; Tanabe, Junko; Tuzi, Satoru; Saitô, Hazime; Naito, Akira
2007-12-01
Local dynamics of interhelical loops in bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the extracellular BC, DE and FG, and cytoplasmic AB and CD loops, and helix B were determined on the basis of a variety of relaxation parameters for the resolved 13C and 15N signals of [1-13C]Tyr-, [15N]Pro- and [1-13C]Val-, [15N]Pro-labeled bR. Rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) filter experiments were used to assign [1-13C]Val-, [15N]Pro signals to the specific residues in bR. The previous assignments of [1-13C]Val-labeled peaks, 172.9 or 171.1 ppm, to Val69 were revised: the assignment of peak, 172.1 ppm, to Val69 was made in view of the additional information of conformation-dependent 15N chemical shifts of Pro bonded to Val in the presence of 13C-15N correlation, although no assignment of peak is feasible for 13C nuclei not bonded to Pro. 13C or 15N spin-lattice relaxation times (T1), spin-spin relaxation times under the condition of CP-MAS (T2), and cross relaxation times (TCH and TNH) for 13C and 15N nuclei and carbon or nitrogen-resolved, 1H spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating flame (1H T1 rho) for the assigned signals were measured in [1-13C]Val-, [15N]Pro-bR. It turned out that V69-P70 in the BC loop in the extracellular side has a rigid beta-sheet in spite of longer loop and possesses large amplitude motions as revealed from 13C and 15N conformation-dependent chemical shifts and T1, T2, 1H T1 rho and cross relaxation times. In addition, breakage of the beta-sheet structure in the BC loop was seen in bacterio-opsin (bO) in the absence of retinal. PMID:18036552
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and its time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Chunhao; Yang, Yuanxi; Cai, Zhiwu
2011-08-01
The development and current status of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System are briefly introduced. The definition and realization of the system time scales are described in detail. The BeiDou system time (BDT) is an internal and continuous time scale without leap seconds. It is maintained by the time and frequency system of the master station. The frequency accuracy of BDT is superior to 2 × 10-14 and its stability is better than 6 × 10-15/30 days. The satellite synchronization is realized by a two-way time transfer between the uplink stations and the satellite. The measurement uncertainty of satellite clock offsets is less than 2 ns. The BeiDou System has three modes of time services: radio determination satellite service (RDSS) one-way, RDSS two-way and radio navigation satellite service (RNSS) one-way. The uncertainty of the one-way time service is designed to be less than 50 ns, and that of the two-way time service is less than 10 ns. Finally, some coordinate tactics of UTC from the viewpoint of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are discussed. It would be helpful to stop the leap second, from our viewpoint, but to keep the UTC name, the continuity and the coordinate function unchanged.
Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Laskar, J.
2012-12-01
Timing is crucial to understanding the causes and consequences of events in Earth history. The calibration of geological time relies heavily on the accuracy of radioisotopic and astronomical dating. Uncertainties in the computations of Earth's orbital parameters and in radioisotopic dating have hampered the construction of a reliable astronomically calibrated time scale beyond 40 Ma. Attempts to construct a robust astronomically tuned time scale for the early Paleogene by integrating radioisotopic and astronomical dating are only partially consistent. Here, using the new La2010 and La2011 orbital solutions, we present the first accurate astronomically calibrated time scale for the early Paleogene (47-65 Ma) uniquely based on astronomical tuning and thus independent of the radioisotopic determination of the Fish Canyon standard. Comparison with geological data confirms the stability of the new La2011 solution back to 54 Ma. Subsequent anchoring of floating chronologies to the La2011 solution using the very long eccentricity nodes provides an absolute age of 55.530 ± 0.05 Ma for the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), 54.850 ± 0.05 Ma for the early Eocene ash -17, and 65.250 ± 0.06 Ma for the K/Pg boundary. The new astrochronology presented here indicates that the intercalibration and synchronization of U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic geochronology is much more challenging than previously thought.
The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.
2009-01-01
This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.…
Characterizing Complex Time Series from the Scaling of Prediction Error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinrichs, Brant Eric
This thesis concerns characterizing complex time series from the scaling of prediction error. We use the global modeling technique of radial basis function approximation to build models from a state-space reconstruction of a time series that otherwise appears complicated or random (i.e. aperiodic, irregular). Prediction error as a function of prediction horizon is obtained from the model using the direct method. The relationship between the underlying dynamics of the time series and the logarithmic scaling of prediction error as a function of prediction horizon is investigated. We use this relationship to characterize the dynamics of both a model chaotic system and physical data from the optic tectum of an attentive pigeon exhibiting the important phenomena of nonstationary neuronal oscillations in response to visual stimuli.
Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd
2016-01-01
Summary Background To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Material/Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. Results The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving. PMID:27026795
Constraints on the Heating Time Scale in Active Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, D. H.; Warren, H. P.
2012-08-01
Understanding the heating time scale is important for constraining models of active region emission. Hinode observations of moss at the bases of high temperature active region core loops are allowing us to study this problem in unprecedented detail. Here we discuss some of our recent results studying the variability of moss properties such as intensity, magnetic flux, Doppler and non-thermal velocity. We find that most of these quantities are relatively constant. One interpretation is that the heating is therefore effectively steady , i.e., heating events occur with a rapid repetition rate. Alternatively, the heating could be low frequency, but only if it occurs on sub-resolution spatial scales.
Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.
2010-05-01
The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (<40 interbeat intervals) and the decrease of the scaling exponent at longer scales (40-512 interbeat intervals). In certain cases, the scaling exponent during relaxing visualization indicates the breakdown of long-range correlations. These characteristics have been previously seen in the HRV dynamics during non-REM sleep.
Space and Time Scales in Ambient Ozone Data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, S. T.; Zurbenko, I. G.; Neagu, R.; Porter, P. S.; Ku, J. Y.; Henry, R. F.
1997-10-01
This paper describes the characteristic space and time scales in time series of ambient ozone data. The authors discuss the need and a methodology for cleanly separating the various scales of motion embedded in ozone time series data, namely, short-term (weather related) variations, seasonal (solar induced) variations, and long-term (climate-policy related) trends, in order to provide a better understanding of the underlying physical processes that affect ambient ozone levels. Spatial and temporal information in ozone time series data, obscure prior to separation, is clearly displayed by simple laws afterward. In addition, process changes due to policy or climate changes may be very small and invisible unless they are separated from weather and seasonality. Successful analysis of the ozone problem, therefore, requires a careful separation of seasonal and synoptic components.The authors show that baseline ozone retains global information on the scale of more than 2 months in time and about 300 km in space. The short-term ozone component, attributable to short-term weather and precursor emission fluctuations, is highly correlated in space, retaining 50% of the short-term information at distances ranging from 350 to 400 km; in time, short-term ozone resembles a Markov process with 1-day lag correlations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The correlation structure of short-term ozone permits highly accurate predictions of ozone concentrations up to distances of about 600 km from a given monitor. These results clearly demonstrate that ozone is a regional-scale problem.
Brownian motion at fast time scales and thermal noise imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rongxin
This dissertation presents experimental studies on Brownian motion at fast time scales, as well as our recent developments in Thermal Noise Imaging which uses thermal motions of microscopic particles for spatial imaging. As thermal motions become increasingly important in the studies of soft condensed matters, the study of Brownian motion is not only of fundamental scientific interest but also has practical applications. Optical tweezers with a fast position-sensitive detector provide high spatial and temporal resolution to study Brownian motion at fast time scales. A novel high bandwidth detector was developed with a temporal resolution of 30 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 A. With this high bandwidth detector, Brownian motion of a single particle confined in an optical trap was observed at the time scale of the ballistic regime. The hydrodynamic memory effect was fully studied with polystyrene particles of different sizes. We found that the mean square displacements of different sized polystyrene particles collapse into one master curve which is determined by the characteristic time scale of the fluid inertia effect. The particle's inertia effect was shown for particles of the same size but different densities. For the first time the velocity autocorrelation function for a single particle was shown. We found excellent agreement between our experiments and the hydrodynamic theories that take into account the fluid inertia effect. Brownian motion of a colloidal particle can be used to probe three-dimensional nano structures. This so-called thermal noise imaging (TNI) has been very successful in imaging polymer networks with a resolution of 10 nm. However, TNI is not efficient at micrometer scale scanning since a great portion of image acquisition time is wasted on large vacant volume within polymer networks. Therefore, we invented a method to improve the efficiency of large scale scanning by combining traditional point-to-point scanning to explore large vacant space with thermal noise imaging at the proximity of the object. This method increased the efficiency of thermal noise imaging by more than 40 times. This development should promote wider applications of thermal noise imaging in the studies of soft materials and biological systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephenson, Jack D.
1960-01-01
This report describes a technique which combines theory and experiments for determining relaxation times in gases. The technique is based on the measurement of shapes of the bow shock waves of low-fineness-ratio cones fired from high-velocity guns. The theory presented in the report provides a means by which shadowgraph data showing the bow waves can be analyzed so as to furnish effective relaxation times. Relaxation times in air were obtained by this technique and the results have been compared with values estimated from shock tube measurements in pure oxygen and nitrogen. The tests were made at velocities ranging from 4600 to 12,000 feet per second corresponding to equilibrium temperatures from 35900 R (19900 K) to 6200 R (34400 K), under which conditions, at all but the highest temperatures, the effective relaxation times were determined primarily by the relaxation time for oxygen and nitrogen vibrations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hites, Lacey S.; Lundervold, Duane A.
2013-01-01
Forty-four individuals, 18-47 (MN 21.8, SD 5.63) years of age, took part in a study examining the magnitude and direction of the relationship between self-report and direct observation measures of relaxation and mindfulness. The Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), a valid direct observation measure of relaxation, was used to assess relaxed behavior…
Richardson, P. M. Voice, A. M. Ward, I. M.
2013-12-07
Longitudinal relaxation (T{sub 1}) measurements of {sup 19}F, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 1}H in propylene carbonate/LiBF{sub 4} liquid electrolytes are reported. Comparison of T{sub 1} values with those for the transverse relaxation time (T{sub 2}) confirm that the measurements are in the high temperature (low correlation time) limit of the T{sub 1} minimum. Using data from pulsed field gradient measurements of self-diffusion coefficients and measurements of solution viscosity measured elsewhere, it is concluded that although in general there are contributions to T{sub 1} from both translational and rotational motions. For the lithium ions, this is mainly translational, and for the fluorine ions mainly rotational.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaumette, H.; Grandclaude, D.; Canet, D.
2003-08-01
NMR imaging by radio-frequency field gradients ( B1 gradients) is especially convenient for heterogeneous samples and/or in the case of relatively short transverse relaxation times. The method has been combined with the application of two spin-lock periods of different duration so as to produce rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1 ρ) images. In the case of natural rubber samples with different crosslink densities, such images are not only characteristic of the crosslink density but also reveal the way in which the material has been stressed. The strained parts can be visualized either directly or through histograms showing the T1 ρ distribution over the whole sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amatya, J. M.; Floro, J. A.
2015-12-01
Chemical ordering in semiconductor alloys could modify thermal and electronic transport, with potential benefits to thermoelectric properties. Here, metastable ordering that occurs during heteroepitaxial growth of Si1-xGex thin film alloys on Si(001) and Ge(001) substrates is investigated. A parametric study was performed to study how strain, surface roughness, and growth parameters affect the order parameter during the alloy growth. The order parameter for the alloy films was carefully quantified using x-ray diffraction, taking into account an often-overlooked issue associated with the presence of multiple spatial variants associated with ordering along equivalent <111> directions. Optimal ordering was observed in the films having the smoothest surfaces. Extended strain relaxation is suggested to reduce the apparent order through creation of anti-phase boundaries. Ordering surprisingly persists even when the film surface extensively roughens to form {105} facets. Growth on deliberately miscut Si(001) surfaces does not affect the volume-averaged order parameter but does impact the relative volume fractions of the equivalent ordered variants in a manner consistent with geometrically necessary changes in step populations. These results provide somewhat self-contradictory implications for the role of step edges in controlling the ordering process, indicating that our understanding is still incomplete.
The Importance of Rotational Time-scales in Accretion Variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costigan, Gráinne; Vink, Joirck; Scholz, Aleks; Testi, Leonardo; Ray, Tom
2013-07-01
For the first few million years, one of the dominant sources of emission from a low mass young stellar object is from accretion. This process regulates the flow of material and angular moments from the surroundings to the central object, and is thought to play an important role in the definition of the long term stellar properties. Variability is a well documented attribute of accretion, and has been observed on time-scales of from days to years. However, where these variations come from is not clear. Th current model for accretion is magnetospheric accretion, where the stellar magnetic field truncates the disc, allowing the matter to flow from the disc onto the surface of the star. This model allows for variations in the accretion rate to come from many different sources, such as the magnetic field, the circumstellar disc and the interaction of the different parts of the system. We have been studying unbiased samples of accretors in order to identify the dominant time-scales and typical magnitudes of variations. In this way different sources of variations can be excluded and any missing physics in these systems identified. Through our previous work with the Long-term Accretion Monitoring Program (LAMP), we found 10 accretors in the ChaI region, whose variability is dominated by short term variations of 2 weeks. This was the shortest time period between spectroscopic observations which spanned 15 months, and rules out large scale processes in the disk as origins of this variability. On the basis of this study we have gone further to study the accretion signature H-alpha, over the time-scales of minutes and days in a set of Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars. Using the same methods as we used in LAMP we found the dominant time-scales of variations to be days. These samples both point towards rotation period of these objects as being an important time-scale for accretion variations. This allows us to indicate which are the most likely sources of these variations.
Gao, Ying; Erokwu, Bernadette O; DeSantis, David A; Croniger, Colleen M; Schur, Rebecca M; Lu, Lan; Mariappuram, Jose; Dell, Katherine M; Flask, Chris A
2016-01-01
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a potentially lethal multi-organ disease affecting both the kidneys and the liver. Unfortunately, there are currently no non-invasive methods to monitor liver disease progression in ARPKD patients, limiting the study of potential therapeutic interventions. Herein, we perform an initial investigation of T1 relaxation time as a potential imaging biomarker to quantitatively assess the two primary pathologic hallmarks of ARPKD liver disease: biliary dilatation and periportal fibrosis in the PCK rat model of ARPKD. T1 relaxation time results were obtained for five PCK rats at 3 months of age using a Look-Locker acquisition on a Bruker BioSpec 7.0 T MRI scanner. Six three-month-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were also scanned as controls. All animals were euthanized after the three-month scans for histological and biochemical assessments of bile duct dilatation and hepatic fibrosis for comparison. PCK rats exhibited significantly increased liver T1 values (mean ± standard deviation = 935 ± 39 ms) compared with age-matched SD control rats (847 ± 26 ms, p = 0.01). One PCK rat exhibited severe cholangitis (mean T1 = 1413 ms), which occurs periodically in ARPKD patients. The observed increase in the in vivo liver T1 relaxation time correlated significantly with three histological and biochemical indicators of biliary dilatation and fibrosis: bile duct area percent (R = 0.85, p = 0.002), periportal fibrosis area percent (R = 0.82, p = 0.004), and hydroxyproline content (R = 0.76, p = 0.01). These results suggest that hepatic T1 relaxation time may provide a sensitive and non-invasive imaging biomarker to monitor ARPKD liver disease. PMID:26608869
Space-Time Scaling In The Atmospheric Boundary-Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel
2015-04-01
We study the (multi-) scaling properties of the velocity time-increments as function a height (between 50 and 150m) using wind measurements from the well known Growian experiment. The Growian wind turbine experiment was a German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology's project that took place over the years 1983 to 1987. The experiment provides vertical wind profiles of wind speed and direction at 2.5Hz at 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150m. Velocity vectors are computed from the wind speed and direction allowing us to analyse the vertical velocity profiles in the so-called 'mixing-layer'. Plotting the scaling exponents of the structure functions of the time-increments of the velocity as a function of height shows that the space and time scalings of the velocity increments can be easily related to each other through their corresponding space-time fractal and multi-fractal properties. These properties are then confirmed for other datasets. Since the fractal and multi-fractal properties of a field are directly related to the extremes of field we are able to propose a high-order statistical model for wind extremes in the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL). The same model can be used to generate synthetic ABL wind fields that can be useful for numerical model inflow conditions.
Surface charge measurements in barrier discharges on different time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wild, Robert; Volkhausen, Christian; Benduhn, Johannes; Stollenwerk, Lars
2015-09-01
The deposition of surface charge in barrier discharges is a process that influences the ongoing discharge significantly. This contribution presents the measurement of absolute surface charge densities and their dynamics in a laterally extended setup. An electro-optic BSO crystal is used as dielectric. The absolute charge density on its surface is deduced from the change of polarisation of light passing the crystal. Using different temporal resolutions, the behavior of charge is investigated on three different time scales. The highest temporal resolution of the technique is in the order of hundreds of nanoseconds. Therefore it is possible for the first time to observe the charge deposition process during an active discharge. On the time scale of the applied voltage period (several microseconds), the conservation mechanisms of a lateral discharge pattern is investigated. For this, the influence of surface charge and metastable species in the volume is estimated. Further, the behavior of the surface charge spots on a variation of the external voltage and gas pressure is studied. Measurements on a time scale in the magnitude of seconds reveal charge decay and transport phenomena. This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Kok Leng, Yeo
Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.
Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory
Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran
2015-01-21
A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.
Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.
2014-05-01
Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.
Tailored real-time scaling of heteronuclear couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-10-01
Heteronuclear couplings are a valuable source of molecular information, which is measured from the multiplet splittings of an NMR spectrum. Radiofrequency irradiation on one coupled nuclear spin allows to modify the effective coupling constant, scaling down the multiplet splittings in the spectrum observed at the resonance frequency of the other nuclear spin. Such decoupling sequences are often used to collapse a multiplet into a singlet and can therefore simplify NMR spectra significantly. Continuous-wave (cw) decoupling has an intrinsic non-linear offset dependence of the scaling of the effective J-coupling constant. Using optimal control pulse optimization, we show that virtually arbitrary off-resonance scaling of the J-coupling constant can be achieved. The new class of tailored decoupling pulses is named SHOT (Scaling of Heteronuclear couplings by Optimal Tracking). Complementing cw irradiation, SHOT pulses offer an alternative approach of encoding chemical shift information indirectly through off-resonance decoupling, which however makes it possible for the first time to achieve linear J scaling as a function of offset frequency. For a simple mixture of eight aromatic compounds, it is demonstrated experimentally that a 1D-SHOT {1H}-13C experiment yields comparable information to a 2D-HSQC and can give full assignment of all coupled spins.
Space and time scales in human-landscape systems.
Kondolf, G Mathias; Podolak, Kristen
2014-01-01
Exploring spatial and temporal scales provides a way to understand human alteration of landscape processes and human responses to these processes. We address three topics relevant to human-landscape systems: (1) scales of human impacts on geomorphic processes, (2) spatial and temporal scales in river restoration, and (3) time scales of natural disasters and behavioral and institutional responses. Studies showing dramatic recent change in sediment yields from uplands to the ocean via rivers illustrate the increasingly vast spatial extent and quick rate of human landscape change in the last two millennia, but especially in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent river restoration efforts are typically small in spatial and temporal scale compared to the historical human changes to ecosystem processes, but the cumulative effectiveness of multiple small restoration projects in achieving large ecosystem goals has yet to be demonstrated. The mismatch between infrequent natural disasters and individual risk perception, media coverage, and institutional response to natural disasters results in un-preparedness and unsustainable land use and building practices. PMID:23716006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.
Statistical Analysis of Sensor Network Time Series at Multiple Time Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granat, R. A.; Donnellan, A.
2013-12-01
Modern sensor networks often collect data at multiple time scales in order to observe physical phenomena that occur at different scales. Whether collected by heterogeneous or homogenous sensor networks, measurements at different time scales are usually subject to different dynamics, noise characteristics, and error sources. We explore the impact of these effects on the results of statistical time series analysis methods applied to multi-scale time series data. As a case study, we analyze results from GPS time series position data collected in Japan and the Western United States, which produce raw observations at 1Hz and orbit corrected observations at time resolutions of 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours. We utilize the GPS analysis package (GAP) software to perform three types of statistical analysis on these observations: hidden Markov modeling, probabilistic principle components analysis, and covariance distance analysis. We compare the results of these methods at the different time scales and discuss the impact on science understanding of earthquake fault systems generally and recent large seismic events specifically, including the Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan and El Mayor-Cucupah earthquake in Mexico.
Rejuvenation in scale-free optics and enhanced diffraction cancellation life-time.
Parravicini, J; Conti, C; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E
2012-11-19
We demonstrate rejuvenation in scale-free optical propagation. The phenomenon is caused by the non-ergodic relaxation of the dipolar glass that mediates the photorefractive nonlinearity in compositionally-disordered lithium-enriched potassium-tantalate-niobate (KTN:Li). We implement rejuvenation to halt aging in the dipolar glass and extend the duration of beam diffraction cancellation. PMID:23187594
HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.
2006-01-01
We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.
Sub-diffusive scaling with power-law trapping times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Liang; Tang, Lei-Han
2014-07-01
Thermally driven diffusive motion of a particle underlies many physical and biological processes. In the presence of traps and obstacles, the spread of the particle is substantially impeded, leading to subdiffusive scaling at long times. The statistical mechanical treatment of diffusion in a disordered environment is often quite involved. In this short review, we present a simple and unified view of the many quantitative results on anomalous diffusion in the literature, including the scaling of the diffusion front and the mean first-passage time. Various analytic calculations and physical arguments are examined to highlight the role of dimensionality, energy landscape, and rare events in affecting the particle trajectory statistics. The general understanding that emerges will aid the interpretation of relevant experimental and simulation results.
Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.
2001-05-01
The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.
Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)
1984-01-01
The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.
Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots
Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.
2014-12-04
We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.
Tracking Primary Thermalization Events in Graphene with Photoemission at Extreme Time Scales.
Gierz, I; Calegari, F; Aeschlimann, S; Chávez Cervantes, M; Cacho, C; Chapman, R T; Springate, E; Link, S; Starke, U; Ast, C R; Cavalleri, A
2015-08-21
Direct and inverse Auger scattering are amongst the primary processes that mediate the thermalization of hot carriers in semiconductors. These two processes involve the annihilation or generation of an electron-hole pair by exchanging energy with a third carrier, which is either accelerated or decelerated. Inverse Auger scattering is generally suppressed, as the decelerated carriers must have excess energies higher than the band gap itself. In graphene, which is gapless, inverse Auger scattering is, instead, predicted to be dominant at the earliest time delays. Here, <8 fs extreme-ultraviolet pulses are used to detect this imbalance, tracking both the number of excited electrons and their kinetic energy with time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Over a time window of approximately 25 fs after absorption of the pump pulse, we observe an increase in conduction band carrier density and a simultaneous decrease of the average carrier kinetic energy, revealing that relaxation is in fact dominated by inverse Auger scattering. Measurements of carrier scattering at extreme time scales by photoemission will serve as a guide to ultrafast control of electronic properties in solids for petahertz electronics. PMID:26340199
Tracking Primary Thermalization Events in Graphene with Photoemission at Extreme Time Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierz, I.; Calegari, F.; Aeschlimann, S.; Chávez Cervantes, M.; Cacho, C.; Chapman, R. T.; Springate, E.; Link, S.; Starke, U.; Ast, C. R.; Cavalleri, A.
2015-08-01
Direct and inverse Auger scattering are amongst the primary processes that mediate the thermalization of hot carriers in semiconductors. These two processes involve the annihilation or generation of an electron-hole pair by exchanging energy with a third carrier, which is either accelerated or decelerated. Inverse Auger scattering is generally suppressed, as the decelerated carriers must have excess energies higher than the band gap itself. In graphene, which is gapless, inverse Auger scattering is, instead, predicted to be dominant at the earliest time delays. Here, <8 fs extreme-ultraviolet pulses are used to detect this imbalance, tracking both the number of excited electrons and their kinetic energy with time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Over a time window of approximately 25 fs after absorption of the pump pulse, we observe an increase in conduction band carrier density and a simultaneous decrease of the average carrier kinetic energy, revealing that relaxation is in fact dominated by inverse Auger scattering. Measurements of carrier scattering at extreme time scales by photoemission will serve as a guide to ultrafast control of electronic properties in solids for petahertz electronics.
Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter
2015-09-01
We present a coevolutionary view of hydrologic systems, revolving around feedbacks between environmental and social processes operating across different time scales. This brings to the fore an emphasis on emergent phenomena in changing water systems, such as the levee effect, adaptation to change, system lock-in, and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system. Guidance is provided for the framing and modeling of these phenomena to test alternative hypotheses about how they arose. A plurality of coevolutionary models, from stylized to comprehensive system-of-system models, may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesize the observed dynamics in a wide range of case studies. Future research opportunities lie in exploring emergent phenomena arising from time scale interactions through historical, comparative, and process studies of human-water feedbacks.
Scaling Brain Size, Keeping Timing: Evolutionary Preservation of Brain Rhythms
Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf
2014-01-01
Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025
Scaling Laws, Shell Effects, and Transient Times in Fission Probabilities
Moretto, L.G.; Jing, K.X.; Gatti, R.; Wozniak, G.J.; Schmitt, R.P.
1995-12-04
The fission excitation functions for 14 compound nuclei covering a mass range from {ital A}=186 to 213 are shown to scale exactly according to the transition state prediction once shell effects are accounted for. The extracted shell effects correlate closely with those obtained from the ground state masses. No effects of transient times longer than 3{times}10{sup {minus}20} sec are visible. Pairing effects are noticeable at excitation energies at few MeV above the barrier. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.
Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.
2014-11-01
This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glover, Paul; Walker, Emile
2010-05-01
Four important models that describe the fluid permeability of geological porous media and that are derived from different physical approaches have been rewritten in a generic form that implies a characteristic scale length and scaling constant for each model. The four models have been compared theoretically and using experimental data from 22 bead packs and 188 rock cores from a sand-shale sequence in the UK sector of the North Sea. The Kozeny-Carman model did not perform well because it takes no account of the connectedness of the pore network, and should no longer be used. The other three models (Schwartz, Sen and Johnson (SSJ), Katz and Thompson (KT) and the so-called RGPZ) all performed well when used with their respective length scales and scaling constants. Surprisingly, we have found that the SSJ and KT models are extremely similar, such that their characteristic scale lengths and scaling constants are almost identical even though they are derived using extremely different approaches; the SSJ model by weighting the Kozeny-Carman model using the local electric field, the KT model using entry radii from fluid imbibition measurements. The experimentally determined scaling constants for each model were found to be cSSJ ≈ cKT ≈ 8/3 ≈ cRGPZ/3. Use of these models with AC electrokinetic theory has also allowed us to show that these scaling constants are also related to the a value in the RGPZ model and the m* value in time-dependent electrokinetic theory, and then derive a relationship between the electrokinetic transition frequency and the RGPZ scale length, which we have validated using experimental data. The practical implication of this work for permeability prediction is that the Katz and Thompson model should be used when fluid imbibition data is available, while the RGPZ model should be used when electrical data is available.
Unconstrained motions, dynamic heterogeneities, and relaxation in disordered solids.
de Souza, Vanessa K; Harrowell, Peter
2009-10-01
A disordered network of bonds with a fixed configuration can relax via a variety of unconstrained motions. These motions can be directly inferred from the topological arrangement of constraints without any geometrical information. We use the pebble game algorithm of Jacobs and Thorpe [D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4051 (1995)] to decompose the system into separate rigid clusters and identify the remaining degrees of freedom. Unconstrained motions can then be resolved in the form of translations and rotations of isolated groups of bonds and the internal motion within bond groups. We show that each motion can be assigned a characteristic thermal velocity and hence a relaxation time scale. We use this information to construct a relaxation function and also examine the spatial distribution of relaxation time scales. We investigate the sensitivity of the relaxation time scales and their spatial distribution when making individual bond changes in the system, and we consider the dependence of these time scales on the underlying structure. PMID:19905312
5nsec Dead time multichannel scaling system for Mssbauer spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verrastro, C.; Trombetta, G.; Pita, A.; Saragovi, C.; Duhalde, S.
1991-11-01
A PC programmable and fast multichannel scaling module has been designed to use a commercial Mssbauer spectrometer. This module is based on a 10 single chip 8 bits microcomputer (MC6805) and on a 35 fast ALU, which allows a high performance and low cost system. The module can operate in a stand-alone mode. Data analysis are performed in real time display, on XT/AT IBM PC or compatibles. The channels are ranged between 256 and 4096, the maximum number of counts is 232-1 per channel, the dwell time is 3 ?sec and the dead time between channels is 5 nsec. A friendly software display the real time spectrum and offers menues with different options at each state.
Two-time-scale population evolution on a singular landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Song; Jiao, Shuyun; Jiang, Pengyao; Ao, Ping
2014-01-01
Under the effect of strong genetic drift, it is highly probable to observe gene fixation or gene loss in a population, shown by singular peaks on a potential landscape. The genetic drift-induced noise gives rise to two-time-scale diffusion dynamics on the bipeaked landscape. We find that the logarithmically divergent (singular) peaks do not necessarily imply infinite escape times or biological fixations by iterating the Wright-Fisher model and approximating the average escape time. Our analytical results under weak mutation and weak selection extend Kramers's escape time formula to models with B (Beta) function-like equilibrium distributions and overcome constraints in previous methods. The constructed landscape provides a coherent description for the bistable system, supports the quantitative analysis of bipeaked dynamics, and generates mathematical insights for understanding the boundary behaviors of the diffusion model.
Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.
1998-01-01
The main objective of the Joint-Research Interchange NCC2-5149 was to develop computer codes for accurate simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers [I]. The code should take into account all relevant processes such as the interband and intraband carrier relaxation mechanisms and the many-body effects arising from the Coulomb interaction among charge carriers [2]. This objective was fully accomplished. We made use of a previously developed algorithm developed at NASA Ames [3]-[5]. The new algorithm was tested on several problems of practical importance. One such problem was related to the amplification of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductors. These results were presented in several international conferences over a period of three years. With the help of a postdoctoral fellow, we also investigated the origin of instabilities that can lead to the formation of femtosecond pulses in different kinds of lasers. We analyzed the occurrence of absolute instabilities in lasers that contain a dispersive host material with third-order nonlinearities. Starting from the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derived general multimode equations to distinguish between convective and absolute instabilities. We find that both self-phase modulation and intensity-dependent absorption can dramatically affect the absolute stability of such lasers. In particular, the self-pulsing threshold (the so-called second laser threshold) can occur at few times the first laser threshold even in good-cavity lasers for which no self-pulsing occurs in the absence of intensity-dependent absorption. These results were presented in an international conference and published in the form of two papers.
Lee, Hyojin; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Soo Park, Young
2014-05-12
We examined the electrooptical properties of a nematic liquid crystal (LC) sample whose substrates were coated with a mixture of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polyimide (PI). The relaxation time of the sample coated with 1.5 wt. % CNT mixture was about 35% reduced compared to the pure polyimide sample. The elastic constant and the order parameter of the CNT-mixture sample were increased and the fast relaxation of LC could be approximated to the mean-field theory. We found the CNT-mixed polyimide formed more smooth surface than the pure PI from atomic force microscopy images, indicating the increased order parameter is related to the smooth surface topology of the CNT-polyimide mixture.
Is there a break in scaling on centennial time scale in Holocene temperature records?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nilsen, Tine; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate
2015-04-01
A variety of paleoclimatic records have been used to study scaling properties of past climate, including ice core paleotemperature records and multi-proxy reconstructions. Records extending further back in time than the Holocene are divided into glacial/interglacial segments before analysis. The methods used to infer the scaling include the power spectral density (Lomb-Scargle periodogram and standard periodogram), detrended fluctuation analysis, wavelet variance analysis and the Haar fluctuation function. All the methods have individual strengths, weaknesses, uncertainties and biases, and for this reason it is useful to compare results from different methods when possible. Proxy-based reconstructions have limited spatial and temporal coverage, and must be used and interpreted with great care due to uncertainties. By elaborating on physical mechanisms for the actual climate fluctuations seen in the paleoclimatic temperature records as well as uncertainties in both data and methods, we demonstrate the possible pitfalls that may lead to the conclusion that the variability in temperature time series can be separated into different scaling regimes. Categorizing the Earth's surface temperature variability into a «macroweather» and "climate" regime has little or no practical meaning since the different components in the climate system are connected and interact on all time scales. Our most important result is that a break between two different scaling regimes at time scales around one century cannot be identified in Holocene climate. We do, however, observe departures from scaling, which can be attributed to variability such as a single internal quasi-periodic oscillation, an externally forced trend, or a combination of factors. If two scaling regimes are claimed to be present in one single time series, both regimes must be persistent. We show that the limited temporal resolution/length of the records significantly lowers the confidence for such persistence. A total of six Holocene ice core paleotemperature records were studied, (GRIP, GISP2 and NGRIP from Greenland, EPICA, Vostok and Taylor Dome from Antarctica). For all time series the estimated scaling exponent β is between 0.1 and 0.3 up to millennial time scales, where a deviation is observed and a seemingly higher value of β is inferred on longer time scales. The Holocene ice core records have by Lovejoy et al. (2012) been claimed to be exceptionally stable, compared to other proxy records such as marine sediment cores. Such a statement should be followed by a discussion about different types of proxy reconstructions and climate conditions. This presentation highlights that care should be taken when comparing the climate of continental land covered by ice, with a marine sediment record representing an oceanographically dynamic area. Different proxies are representative of different environmental variables, and the reconstructions are created to give a general paleoclimatic overview of a certain area, and are in that manner only blurred snapshots of the past climate.
Thermopeaking in alpine streams: event characterization and time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolezzi, Guido; Siviglia, Annunziato; Toffolon, Marco; Maiolini, Bruno
2010-05-01
The present study provides a detailed quantification of the "thermopeaking" phenomenon, which consists of sharp intermittent alterations of stream thermal regime associated with hydropeaking releases from hydroelectricity plants. The study refers to the Noce River (Northern Italy), a typical hydropower-regulated Alpine stream, where water stored in highaltitude reservoirs often has a different temperature compared to the receiving bodies. The analysis is based on a river water temperature dataset that has been continuously collected for one year at 30' intervals in four different sections along the Noce River. A suitable threshold-based procedure is developed to quantify the main characteristics of thermopeaking, which is responsible for thermal alterations at different scales. The application of Wavelet Transform allows to separately investigate thermal regime alterations at sub-daily, daily and weekly scales. Moreover, at a seasonal scale, patterns of "warm" and "cold" thermopeaking can be clearly detected and quantified. The study highlights the relevance of investigating a variety of short-term alterations at multiple time scales for a better quantitative understanding of the complexity that characterises the river thermal regime. The outcomes of the analysis raise important interdisciplinary research questions concerning the effects of thermopeaking and of the related short- and medium-term effects on biological communities, which have been rather poorly investigated in ecological studies.
Time Scale Hierarchies in the Functional Organization of Complex Behaviors
Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.
2011-01-01
Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of ‘discrete’ states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent’s disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278
Wang, Nian; Xia, Yang
2013-10-01
A number of experimental issues in the measurement of multi-component T2 and T1ρ relaxations in native and enzymatically digested articular cartilage were investigated by microscopic MRI (μMRI). The issues included the bath solutions (physiological saline and phosphate buffered saline (PBS)), the imaging resolution (35-140 μm), the specimen orientations (0° and 55°), and the strength of spin-lock frequencies (0.5-2 kHz) in the T1ρ experiments. In addition to cartilage, the samples of agar gel and doped water solution were also used in the investigation. Two imaging sequences were used: CPMG-SE and MSME. All raw data were analyzed by the non-negative least square (NNLS) method. The MSME sequence was shown to result in the observation of multi-component T2, even in the gel and liquid samples, demonstrating the artificial uncleanness of this sequence in the multi-component measurements. The soaking of cartilage in PBS reduced the observable T2 components to one at both 0° and 55°, suggesting the effect of phosphate ions on proton exchange between different pools of water molecules. The cartilage orientation with respect to the external magnetic field and the spin-lock strengths in the T1ρ experiment both affected the quantification of the multi-component relaxation. The transitions between a mono-component and multi-components in cartilage under various experimental conditions call for the extra caution in interpreting the relaxation results. PMID:23916991
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinov, D.; Lopatik, D.; Guaitella, O.; Hübner, M.; Ionikh, Y.; Röpcke, J.; Rousseau, A.
2012-05-01
A new method for determination of the wall de-excitation probability \\gamma _{N_2 } of vibrationally excited N2 on different surfaces exposed to low-pressure plasmas has been developed. A short dc discharge pulse of only a few milliseconds was applied to a mixture containing 0.05-1% of CO2 in N2 at a pressure of 133 Pa. Due to a nearly resonant fast vibrational transfer between N2(v) and the asymmetric ν3 mode of CO2 the vibrational excitation of these titrating molecules is an image of the degree of vibrational excitation of N2. In the afterglow, the vibrational relaxation of CO2 was monitored in situ using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of a numerical model of non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics in CO2-N2 mixtures. Heterogeneous relaxation was the main quenching process of N2(v) under the conditions of this study, which allowed determination of the value of \\gamma _{N_2 } from the best agreement between the experiment and the model. The new method is suitable for \\gamma _{N_2 } determination in a single plasma pulse with the discharge tube surface pretreated by a low-pressure plasma. The relaxation probability of the first vibrational level of nitrogen γ1 = (1.1 ± 0.15) × 10-3 found for Pyrex and silica is in reasonable agreement with the literature data. Using the new technique the N2(v = 1) quenching probability was measured on TiO2 surface, γ1 = (9 ± 1) × 10-3. A linear enhancement of the N2(v) wall deactivation probability with an increase in the admixture of CO2 was observed for all studied materials. In order to explain this effect, a vibrational energy transfer mechanism between N2(v) and adsorbed CO2 is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Nian; Xia, Yang
2013-10-01
A number of experimental issues in the measurement of multi-component T2 and T1ρ relaxations in native and enzymatically digested articular cartilage were investigated by microscopic MRI (μMRI). The issues included the bath solutions (physiological saline and phosphate buffered saline (PBS)), the imaging resolution (35-140 μm), the specimen orientations (0° and 55°), and the strength of spin-lock frequencies (0.5-2 kHz) in the T1ρ experiments. In addition to cartilage, the samples of agar gel and doped water solution were also used in the investigation. Two imaging sequences were used: CPMG-SE and MSME. All raw data were analyzed by the non-negative least square (NNLS) method. The MSME sequence was shown to result in the observation of multi-component T2, even in the gel and liquid samples, demonstrating the artificial uncleanness of this sequence in the multi-component measurements. The soaking of cartilage in PBS reduced the observable T2 components to one at both 0° and 55°, suggesting the effect of phosphate ions on proton exchange between different pools of water molecules. The cartilage orientation with respect to the external magnetic field and the spin-lock strengths in the T1ρ experiment both affected the quantification of the multi-component relaxation. The transitions between a mono-component and multi-components in cartilage under various experimental conditions call for the extra caution in interpreting the relaxation results.
Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.
2011-01-01
On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.
IAU resolutions on reference systems and time scales in practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brumberg, V. A.; Groten, E.
2001-03-01
To be consistent with IAU/IUGG (1991) resolutions ICRS and ITRS should be treated as four-dimensional reference systems with TCB and TCG time scales, respectively, interrelated by a four-dimensional general relativistic transformation. This two-way transformation is given in the form adapted for actual application. The use of TB and TT instead of TCB and TCG, respectively, involves scaling factors complicating the use of this transformation in practice. New IAU B1 (2000) resolution is commented taking in mind some points of possible confusion in its practical application. The problem of the relationship of the theory of reference systems with the parameters of common relevance to astronomy, geodesy and geodynamics is briefly outlined.
Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.
2012-01-01
Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.
Multiple-Time Scaling and Universal Behavior of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution
Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de
2010-04-16
The interevent time distribution characterizes the temporal occurrence in seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for entire catalogs and seismic sequences. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised. We investigate the existence of universal scaling properties by analyzing a Californian catalog and by means of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model. We show that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that fixes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law.
Geometric structure of multiple time-scale nonlinear dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bharadwaj, Sanjay
A new methodology to analyze time-scale structure of smooth finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems is developed. This approach does not assume apriori knowledge of slow and fast variables for special coordinates that simplify the form of the nonlinear dynamics. Conventional approaches to analyze time-scale structure of nonlinear dynamics such as singular perturbation theory proceed from such specialized apriori knowledge which is often not obtainable. Our approach proceeds from spectral analysis of the linear variational dynamics associated with the nonlinear system. The variational dynamics govern the flow on the tangent bundle to the state-space. We decompose the tangent space at each point into spectral subspaces which separate tangent vectors that evolve at different spectral rates. The existence of such measures of spectral rates and corresponding subspaces is established by Sacker and Sell. We have developed a scheme to computationally determine these spectral measures using finite-time Lyapunov exponents and associated direction fields. In the asymptotic limit, the infinite-time Lyapunov direction fields are shown to satisfy useful invariance properties. As a consequence they are shown to uniquely define an invariant spectral filtration, i.e., a collection of nested distributions which are invariant under the nonlinear flow. Using these results, we establish the consistency of these spectral measures with well known results in special cases such as linear time-invariant systems and periodic linear time-varying systems. Differential equations that govern the propagation of Lyapunov directions along orbits of the nonlinear flow are derived using the invariance properties. Methods to apply these spectral analysis tools to construct coordinate transformations that decompose the variational flow are developed. When the Frobenius theorem is applicable, we also show methods to construct a nonlinear transformation of coordinates from the Lyapunov direction fields to decompose the nonlinear dynamics into slow and fast subsystems. In fact, this procedure can be used to transform the two time-scale nonlinear dynamics into a singularly perturbed standard form. Application of these methods for reducing the order of nonlinear dynamics, locating the slow manifold in the state-space and solving boundary value problems arising from hypersensitive optimal control problems is discussed. Several simple examples are used to demonstrate the methods and elucidate the main concepts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furman, Gregory B.; Goren, Shaul D.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.
2016-02-01
Spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxations in liquid or gas entrapped in nanosized ellipsoidal cavities with different orientation ordering are theoretically investigated. The model is flexible in order to be applied to explain experimental results in cavities with various forms, from very prolate up to oblate ones, and different degree of ordering of nanocavities. In the framework of the considered model, the dipole-dipole interaction is determined by a single coupling constant, which depends on the form, size, and orientation of the cavity and number of nuclear spins in the cavity. It was shown that the transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates differently depend on the angle between the external magnetic field and cavity main axis. The calculation results for the local dipolar field, transverse and longitudinal relaxation times explain the angular dependencies observed in MRI experiments with biological objects: cartilage and tendon. Microstructure of these tissues can be characterized by the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of fibril orientations. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental results shows that the value of the standard deviation obtained at the matching of the calculation to experimental results can be used as a parameter characterizing the disorder in the biological sample.
Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.
1993-01-01
Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.
Time scales in the context of general relativity.
Guinot, Bernard
2011-10-28
Towards 1967, the accuracy of caesium frequency standards reached such a level that the relativistic effect could not be ignored anymore. Corrections began to be applied for the gravitational frequency shift and for distant time comparisons. However, these corrections were not applied to an explicit theoretical framework. Only in 1991 did the International Astronomical Union provide metrics (then improved in 2000) for a definition of space-time coordinates in reference systems centred at the barycentre of the Solar System and at the centre of mass of the Earth. In these systems, the temporal coordinates (coordinate times) can be realized on the basis of one of them, the International Atomic Time (TAI), which is itself a realized time scale. The definition and the role of TAI in this context will be recalled. There remain controversies regarding the name to be given to the unit of coordinate times and to other quantities appearing in the theory. However, the idea that astrometry and celestial mechanics should adopt the usual metrological rules is progressing, together with the use of the International System of Units, among astronomers. PMID:21930569
Units of Relativistic Time Scales and Associated Quantities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klioner, Sergei; Capitaine, N.; Folkner, W.; Guinot, B.; Huang, T. Y.; Kopeikin, S.; Petit, G.; Pitjeva, E.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Soffel, M.
2009-05-01
This note suggests nomenclature for dealing with the units of various astronomical quantities that are used with the relativistic time scales TT, TDB, TCB and TCG. It is suggested to avoid wordings like "TDB units" and "TT units" and avoid contrasting them to "SI units." The quantities indended for use with TCG, TCB, TT or TDB should be called "TCG-compatible," "TCB-compatible," "TT-compatible" or "TDB-compatible," respectively. The names of the units second and meter for numerical values of all these quantities should be used with out any adjectives. This suggestion comes from a special discussion forum created within IAU Commission 52 "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy."
Short time-scale variability in bright Seyfert galaxies
Xanthopoulos, E.; De robertis, M.M. )
1991-04-01
High-quality, long-slit CCD spectroscopic data were obtained to search for short time-scale (hour-day) variability in a sample of five Seyfert galaxies. The equivalent widths of all of the emission lines and the relative intensities of the Balmer lines were measured for each galaxy. No significant profile or flux variations were observed for any galaxy within errors, except for NGC 4151. The broad-line flux variation in NGC 4151 is attributed to continuum fluctuations. 21 refs.
Scaling in a Continuous Time Model for Biological Aging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Almeida, R. M. C.; Thomas, G. L.
In this paper, we consider a generalization to the asexual version of Penna model for biological aging, where we take a continuous time limit. The genotype associated to each individual is an interval of real numbers over which Dirac δ-functions are defined, representing genetically programmed diseases to be switched on at defined ages of the individual life. We discuss two different continuous limits for the evolution equation and two different mutation protocols, to be implemented during reproduction. Exact stationary solutions are obtained and scaling properties are discussed.