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Sample records for relaxor ferroelectric behavior

  1. Electromechanical behavior of relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tieqi

    Relaxor ferroelectric PZN-xPT and PMN-xPT single crystals exhibit extraordinary electromechanical properties. They are under development for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. The polarization switching and phase transition behavior of PZN-4.5%PT and PMN-32%PT single crystals under external loading has been investigated. Experimental investigation elucidates the polarization switching and phase transition behavior of relaxor ferroelectric crystals at different orientation cuts under combined temperature, electric field and stress loading. These crystals exhibit strong orientation dependence of electromechanical properties, and the applied fields all affect the poling and phase states of the crystals. Based on experimental investigation, crystal variant modeling was developed to compute the piezoelectric properties of multi-domain crystals at different orientation cuts from a set of properties for the single domain. Thermodynamics and work-energy analysis of field induced phase transitions in these single crystals sheds light on the phase transition mechanism of ferroelectric crystals. Fracture behavior of relaxor single crystals under non-uniform electric fields at a partial electrode edge has also been measured and analyzed.

  2. Magnetic glassy behavior in ferroelectric relaxor type solid solutions: Magnetoelectric relaxor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z. X.; Wang, X. L.; Alvarez, G.; Dou, S. X.; Zhang, S. J.; Shrout, T. R.

    2009-04-01

    Perovskite solid solution ceramics with compositions of 0.9Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-0.1PbTiO3, 0.6Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.4PbTiO3, and 0.6Pb(Co1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.4PbTiO3 were synthesized by the traditional solid state reaction method. Ferroelectric measurements revealed that these samples have well saturated polarization-electrical field loops. Dielectric measurements showed that abnormal dielectric peaks at their Curie temperature were frequency dependent. Both characteristics indicate that these samples are relaxor type ferroelectric materials. Field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization measurements revealed that the 0.6Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.4PbTiO3 and 0.6Pb(Co1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.4PbTiO3 samples are paramagnetic down to 5K, while the 0.9Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-0.1PbTiO3 sample shows an antiferromagnetic-like ordering starting from around 40K. Furthermore, a weak ferromagnetism is observed in the 0.9Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-0.1PbTiO3 sample, as evidenced by the magnetic hysteresis loop measured at 10K. The ac susceptibility measurement of this sample showed that the peak position around 40K is strongly dependent on frequency, indicating a glassy or relaxor type bahavior below that temperature. Therefore, relaxor type ferroelectric and magnetic 0.9Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-0.1PbTiO3 is a magnetoelectric relaxor.

  3. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements: Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Baris Okatan, M.; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-01

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. Here, we use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. These studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.

  4. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-19

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias themore »average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.« less

  5. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-19

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.

  6. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Multiscale dynamics in relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Toulouse, J.; Cai, L; Pattnaik, R. K.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    The multiscale dynamics of complex oxides is illustrated by pairs of mechanical resonances that are excited in the relaxor ferroelectric K1 xLixTaO3 (KLT). These macroscopic resonances are shown to originate in the collective dynamics of piezoelectric polar nanodomains (PND) interacting with the surrounding lattice. Their characteristic Fano lineshapes and rapid evolution with temperature reveal the coherent interplay between the piezoelectric oscillations and orientational relaxations of the PNDs at higher temperature and the contribution of heterophase oscillations near the phase transition. A theoretical model is presented, that describes the evolution of the resonances over the entire temperature range. Similar resonances are observed in other relaxors and must therefore be a common characteristics of these systems.

  8. Diffuse phase transition in BaTi1-xSnxO3 ceramics: An intermediate state between ferroelectric and relaxor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, V. V.; Kleemann, W.; Dec, J.; Xu, Z. K.; Lu, S. G.

    2006-06-01

    Dielectric relaxation and polar structures of BaTi1-xSnxO3 ceramics, x=0.10-0.20, are investigated by means of dielectric spectroscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy. A transition regime between ``normal'' ferroelectric and relaxor behaviors is encountered. In the compositions with x=0.10, a complex domain pattern confirming the ferroelectric state is observed. Strong dielectric relaxation around Tm is attributed to domain wall motion. On the other hand, the dielectric spectra in the sample with x=0.20 are very similar to those observed in relaxor ferroelectrics. Analysis of the relaxation spectra at the intermediate concentration, x=0.15, reveals both domain wall response and an additional contribution related to mesoscale polar structures. The appearance of relaxor behavior in BaTi1-xSnxO3 is discussed within the framework of the random field model.

  9. A Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectric Compounds

    E-print Network

    A Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectric Compounds Julie K. Raye- ature-dependent hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to relaxor ferroelectric materials characterizing the de- crease in hysteresis and saturation polarization polarization as temperatures

  10. Effects of composition and temperature on the large field behavior of [011]{sub C} relaxor ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, John A.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Tian, Jian

    2014-08-04

    The large field behavior of [011]{sub C} cut relaxor ferroelectric lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate, xPb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-yPbTiO{sub 3}, single crystals was experimentally characterized in the piezoelectric d{sub 322}-mode configuration under combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading. Increasing the concentration of lead indium niobate and decreasing the concentration of lead titanate in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary resulted in a decrease of mechanical compliance, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficients as well as a shift from a continuous to a discontinuous transformation.

  11. Structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Varma, C. M.

    2015-04-01

    We study a minimal model for a relaxor ferroelectric including dipolar interactions and short-range harmonic and anharmonic forces for the critical modes as in the theory of pure ferroelectrics together with quenched disorder coupled linearly to the critical modes. We present the simplest approximate solution of the model necessary to obtain the principal features of the correlation functions. Specifically, we calculate and compare the structure factor measured by neutron scattering in different characteristic regimes of temperature in the relaxor Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3 .

  12. Dielectric and optical behaviors in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)1KxTixO3 crystal

    E-print Network

    Dielectric and optical behaviors in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)1KxTixO3 crystal C.-S. Tu a%) single crystal grown by the modified Bridgman method with Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.71Ti0.29O3 (PMNT29%) seed crystal. A diffused phase transition was observed in the temperature region of w430­460 K with strong

  13. Phonon localization drives polar nanoregions in a relaxor ferroelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Michael E; Lynn, Jeffrey; Specht, Eliot D; Delaire, Olivier A; Bishop, Alan; Sahul, Raffi; Budai, John D

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics1, which are utilized as actuators and sensors2-4, exemplify a class of poorly understood materials where interplay between disorder and phase instability results in inhomogeneous nanoregions. There is no definitive explanation for the onset of relaxor behavior (Burns temperature5, Td) or the origin of polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here we show a vibrational mode that localizes on cooling to Td, remains localized as PNRs form, and then delocalizes as PNRs grow using neutron scattering on relaxor (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.69-(PbTiO3)0.31 (PMN-31%PT). Although initially appearing like intrinsic local modes (ILMs)6-10, these modes differ below Td as they form a resonance with the ferroelectric phonon. At the resonance, nanoregions of standing ferroelectric phonons develop with a coherence length matching the PNRs. The size, shape, distribution, and temporal fluctuations of PNRs, and our observations, are explained by ferroelectric phonons trapped by disordered resonance modes via Anderson localization11-13. Our results show the size and shape of PNRs are not dictated by complex structural details, as always assumed, but by a phonon resonance wavevector. This simplification could guide the design of next generation relaxors.

  14. Vogel-Fulcher freezing in relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Pirc, R.; Blinc, R.

    2007-07-01

    A physical mechanism for the freezing of polar nanoregions (PNRs) in relaxor ferroelectrics is presented. Assuming that the activation energy for the reorientation of a cluster of PNRs scales with the mean volume of the cluster, the characteristic relaxation time {tau} is found to diverge as the cluster volume reaches the percolation limit. Applying the mean field theory of continuum percolation, the familiar Vogel-Fulcher equation for the temperature dependence of {tau} is derived.

  15. Phonon localization drives polar nanoregions in a relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, M. E.; Lynn, J. W.; Abernathy, D. L.; Specht, E. D.; Delaire, O.; Bishop, A. R.; Sahul, R.; Budai, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics exemplify a class of functional materials where interplay between disorder and phase instability results in inhomogeneous nanoregions. Although known for about 30 years, there is no definitive explanation for polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here we show that ferroelectric phonon localization drives PNRs in relaxor ferroelectric PMN-30%PT using neutron scattering. At the frequency of a preexisting resonance mode, nanoregions of standing ferroelectric phonons develop with a coherence length equal to one wavelength and the PNR size. Anderson localization of ferroelectric phonons by resonance modes explains our observations and, with nonlinear slowing, the PNRs and relaxor properties. Phonon localization at additional resonances near the zone edges explains competing antiferroelectric distortions known to occur at the zone edges. Our results indicate the size and shape of PNRs that are not dictated by complex structural details, as commonly assumed, but by phonon resonance wave vectors. This discovery could guide the design of next generation relaxor ferroelectrics.

  16. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu; Wang, Hai-yan; Frank Zhang, X.; Fu, Jun

    2014-02-07

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-x%PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN???x%PT) with 0???x???20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN???x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN???x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T{sub c}. A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed.

  17. Development of "fragility" in relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Chen, Lan; Wang, Hai-yan; Frank Zhang, X.; Fu, Jun; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu

    2014-02-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the "Super-Arrhenius (SA)" relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the "fragility" property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-x%PbTiO3 (PMN - x%PT) with 0 ? x ? 20.0, we in-depth study the "fragility" properties of the SA relaxation in PMN - x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the "fragility" at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between "fragility" and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the "fragility" of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN - x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature Tc. A reasonable physical scenario, based on our "configurational-entropy-loss" theory and Nowick's "stress-induced-ordering" theory, was proposed.

  18. Direct observation of intrinsic localized modes as precursors to polar nanoregions in a relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, Michael; Delaire, Olivier; Lynn, Jeffrey; Bishop, Alan; Sahul, Raffi; Budai, John

    2013-03-01

    Displacive ferroelectric phase transitions can be understood in terms of a soft zone center phonon tending towards zero frequency as the material is cooled towards the transition. Relaxor ferroelectrics are less well understood but there is a growing consensus that dispersed polar nanoregions (PNRs), pinned by chemical inhomogeneities, are responsible for the behavior. Furthermore, it has been argued that PNRs form via soft localized phonon modes, modeled as intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), tending towards zero frequency as the material is cooled into the relaxor region, but these modes have never been observed directly. In this talk, neutron scattering measurements will be presented that reveal the existence of a dispersionless (localized) mode appearing near the Burns temperature in PMN-PT. The local mode softens and diminishes in intensity on cooling towards the relaxor region, ultimately vanishing as the PNRs form.

  19. Tunability and relaxor properties of ferroelectric barium stannate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Xu, Z. K.; Chen, Haydn

    2004-11-01

    Barium stannate titanate [Ba(SnxTi1-x)O3, x =0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4] ceramics were prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction process. Their dielectric properties were measured under direct current bias fields ranging from 0to2.5kV/cm. A transformation from normal to relaxor ferroelectrics was observed when x ?0.3. Broken long-range order or "dirty" ferroelectric domains and nanodomains were observed in Ba(Sn0.1Ti0.9)O3 and Ba(Sn0.4Ti0.6)O3 by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Voltage driven tunability was found to decrease with increasing Sn content. The change from normal ferroelectric into relaxor ferroelectric had a negative impact on the tunability value of the materials.

  20. A TemperatureDependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    E-print Network

    A Temperature­Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectrics Ralph C. Smith 1 and Craig L polarization and distribution of regions as a function of temperature. Hysteresis below the freezing point and hysteresis exhibited by the materials through a wide range of temperatures and input drive levels

  1. Relationship between Local Structure and Relaxor Behavior in Perovskite Oxides Ilya Grinberg,1

    E-print Network

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    Relationship between Local Structure and Relaxor Behavior in Perovskite Oxides Ilya Grinberg,1 intensive investigations over the past five decades, the microscopic origins of the fascinating dielectric of relaxors is their tempera- ture- and frequency-dependent dielectric response. While normal ferroelectrics

  2. Relaxor or classical ferroelectric behavior in A-site substituted perovskite type Ba 1- x(Sm 0.5Na 0.5) xTiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, N.; Chaabane, H.; Khemakhem, H.; Von der Mühll, R.; Simon, A.

    2006-08-01

    New ferroelectric ceramics of ABO 3 perovskite type were synthetized in the Ba 1- x(Sm 0.5Na 0.5) xTiO 3 system by solid state reaction technique. The effect of the replacement of barium by samarium and sodium in the A cationic site on structural and physical properties was investigated. These compounds crystallize with tetragonal or cubic symmetry. The material is classical ferroelectric for 0?x?0.1 and x?0.5, and present a relaxor behavior for 0.2?x<0.4. The dielectric behavior depends upon the cationic disorder in the A-site and the cell size. Small rate substitution allows a ferroelectric-paraelectric transition. For higher rate of substitution the possible random position of the Sm-Na cations brings to a relaxor state and when the substitution rate x becomes higher than 0.5, the material comes back to a ferroelectric state due to the reduced cell size. Some of these new compositions are of interest for applications due to their physical properties and environmentally friendly character.

  3. Computational Study of Local Structure and Dynamics in a Relaxor Ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit a stronger piezoelectric effect, diffuse phase transitions with high permittivity, and unique dielectric response with strong frequency dispersion which are exploited for technological applications and give rise to scientific interest. The diffuse phase transitions have been explained by widely accepted model of polar nanoregions inside a non-polar matrix. Recent experimental and theoretical results, however, suggest requirements of alternate interpretations of the origin of the relaxor behavior. Macroscopic elucidations of structure and dynamics in relaxors are still one of challenging topics in solid-state physics. We analyzed local structure and dynamics with dynamic pair distribution function and diffuse scattering techniques for 0.75PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.25PbTiO3, a prototypical relaxor, performing molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis showed phase transition temperatures in good agreement with experimental values. From inspections of in-phase motion correlations for Pb pairs, we found analogy between the phase transition from the paraelectric phase to the relaxor phase in the relaxor and the behavior of the couplings from high temperature to room temperature in water. We, therefore, propose alternate model. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-07ER46431.

  4. Mesoscopic harmonic mapping of electromechanical response in a relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Ding, Jilai; Okatan, M. Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-06-01

    Relaxor-ferroelectrics are renowned for very large electrostrictive response, enabling applications in transducers, actuators, and energy harvesters. However, insight into the dissimilar contributions (polarization rotation, wall motion) to the electromechanical response from electrostrictive strain, and separation of such contributions from linear piezoelectric response are largely ignored at the mesoscale. Here, we employ a band-excitation piezoresponse force microscopy (BE-PFM) technique to explore the first and second harmonics of the piezoelectric response in prototypical relaxor-ferroelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-0.28PT) single crystals. Third order polynomial fitting of the second harmonic reveals considerable correlation between the cubic coefficient map and the first harmonic piezoresponse amplitude. These results are interpreted under a modified Rayleigh framework, as evidence for domain wall contributions to enhanced electromechanical response. These studies highlight the contribution of domain wall motion in the electromechanical response of relaxor ferroelectrics, and further show the utility of harmonic BE-PFM measurements in spatially mapping the mesoscopic variability inherent in disordered systems.

  5. Relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices: high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, N.; Kumar, A.; Scott, J. F.; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Tomazawa, M.; Kumari, Shalini; Diestra, D. G. B.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2012-11-01

    We report the breakdown electric field and energy density of laser ablated BaTiO3/Ba(1-x)SrxTiO3 (x = 0.7) (BT/BST) relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices (SLs) grown on (100) MgO single crystal substrates. The dielectric constant shows a frequency dispersion below the dielectric maximum temperature (Tm) with a merger above Tm behaving similarly to relaxors. It also follows the basic criteria of relaxor ferroelectrics such as low dielectric loss over wide temperature and frequency, and 50 K shift in Tm with change in probe frequency; the loss peaks follow a similar trend to the dielectric constant except that they increase with increase in frequency (˜40 kHz), and satisfy the nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher relation. Well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis and 50-80% dielectric saturation are observed under high electric field (˜1.65 MV cm-1). The superlattices demonstrate an ‘in-built’ field in as grown samples at low probe frequency (<1 kHz), whereas it becomes more symmetric and centered with increase in the probe frequency system (>1 kHz) which rules out the effect of any space charge and interfacial polarization. The P-E loops show around 12.24 J cm-3 energy density within the experimental limit, but extrapolation of this data suggests that the potential energy density could reach 46 J cm-3. The current density versus applied electric field indicates an exceptionally high breakdown field (5.8-6.0 MV cm-1) and low current density (˜10-25 mA cm-2) near the breakdown voltage. The current-voltage characteristics reveal that the space charge limited conduction mechanism prevails at very high voltage.

  6. Electrostrictive and relaxor ferroelectric behavior in BiAlO3-modified BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shaoying; Odendo, Erika; Liu, Laijun; Shi, Danping; Huang, Yanming; Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Fang, Liang; Elouadi, Brahim

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of (1-x)BaTiO3-xBiAlO3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.1) ceramics was determined using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature, which revealed a phase transition from tetragonal to rhombohedral with increasing x. The dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies, which indicated that the phase transition temperature (Tm) decreased with increasing x. The relaxor behavior was observed by frequency and temperature dependent dielectric permittivity. The Lorenz-type quadratic law was used to characterize the dielectric permittivity peaks near Tm of high-temperature slopes at 1 MHz. The temperatures Tm of dielectric permittivity peaks fit very well with the Vogel-Fulcher law in x = 0.05 and x = 0.1. The polarization hysteresis loops and electrostrictive were displayed at room temperature. The sample for x = 0.1 exhibits a slim loop with negligible hysteresis and a subtle linear feature, which is a promising transducer material for use as an active element.

  7. Temperature-dependent reversible and irreversible processes in Nb-doped PbZrO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Huang, Haitao; Li, Tao; Ke, Shanming; Lin, Peng; Peng, Biaolin; Mai, Manfang; Sun, Qiu; Peng, Xiang; Zeng, Xierong

    2015-11-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric nonlinearity of Nb-doped PbZrO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films was investigated. The ac field dependence of the permittivity of relaxor ferroelectric thin films is demonstrated to be described by a Rayleigh type relation. Both reversible and irreversible components of dielectric permittivity decrease linearly with the logarithm of the frequency of the ac field. The irreversible Rayleigh coefficient ?'(T) shows a peak around the "freezing temperature" Tf, which is probably according to the transition from polar nano-regions (PNRs) to dipole-glass state in relaxor ferroelectrics. The results demonstrate that the models describing the interaction of domain walls and randomly distributed pinning centers in ferroelectric materials can be extended to the displacement of nanoscale walls in relaxors.

  8. Ferroelectric to relaxor crossover and dielectric phase diagram in the BaTiO3-BaSnO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, C.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2007-04-01

    The (1-x)BaTiO3-xBaSnO3 (0?x?0.30) perovskite solid solution ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction and studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The complex dielectric permittivity was measured as a function of frequency (0.1Hz-100kHz) in the temperature (T) range of 123-573K. The transition from the high-temperature paraelectric state where the dielectric constant obeys the Curie-Weiss law to the ergodic cluster state is found to occur at the same temperature of 485K in all the compositions of x ?0.04 and at lower temperatures in those with a smaller x. For 0?x?xc=0.19, the temperature of the dielectric peak Tm, corresponding to the diffuse transition from the ergodic polar cluster state to the ferroelectric state, decreases with increasing x and does not depend on frequency. The diffuseness of the peak gradually increases. For x >xc, the permittivity exhibits relaxor behavior with the frequency-dependent Tm satisfying the Vogel-Fulcher law. The temperature variation of the permittivity on the high-temperature slope of the peak (T>Tm) is characterized by the characteristic Lorenz-type quadratic law for relaxors, with the diffuseness increasing with the increase of x. The mechanisms of the dielectric response in different parts of the phase diagram are discussed. In particular, the crossover from diffuse ferroelectric phase transition to relaxor ferroelectric behavior is attributed to the appearance at x >xc of the additional dielectric contribution arising from the flipping of the local polarization of the polar clusters. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the Ba(Ti1-xSnx)O3 system has been established, which delimits the paraelectric, ergodic polar cluster, nonergodic ferroelectric, and relaxor phases (states) and indicates the crossover from ferroelectric to relaxor behavior at x =xc.

  9. Polarization Rotation and Monoclinic Phase in Relaxor Ferroelectric PMN-PT Crystal

    E-print Network

    Polarization Rotation and Monoclinic Phase in Relaxor Ferroelectric PMN-PT Crystal V. Hugo Schmidt. A monoclinic phase is evidenced between rhombohedral and cubic phases in a -cut single crystal PMN-33%PT#-type). However, the present -cut crystal seems to disfavor the tetragonal phase and persists

  10. Development of phonon-polarization THz spectroscopy, and the investigation of relaxor ferroelectrics

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Benjamin John

    2006-01-01

    This thesis develops phonon-polariton based THz spectroscopy and uses this technique to make the first THz frequency dielectric measurements of a relaxor ferroelectric crystal, in particular KTao0.982Nb0.018O3 (KTN 1.8). ...

  11. Spontaneous ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions and giant electro-mechanical energy conversion in [011] cut relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Peter; Amin, Ahmed; Dong, Wen

    2013-03-01

    We report on giant electro-mechanical energy conversion is demonstrated under a ferroelectric/ferroelectric phase transformation in [011] cut and poled lead titanate-based relaxor perovskite morphotropic Pb(In1/2Nb1/2) O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT). single crystals. It is found that under mechanical pre-stress, a relatively small oscillatory stress drives the material reversibly between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases with a remarkably high polarization and strain jumps induced at zero bias electric field and room temperature. The measured electrical output per cycle is more than an order of magnitude larger than that reported for linear piezoelectric materials. Ideal thermodynamic cycles are presented for this electro-mechanical energy conversion followed by a presentation and discussion of the experimental data. The stress dependence of thermally driven polarization change is reported for a ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation in [011] cut and poled. A giant jump in polarization and strain is associated with the phase transformation of the ferroelectric material. The phase transition temperature can be tuned, over a broad temperature range, through the application of bias stress. This phenomenon results in a new approach to applications in the field of energy harvesting

  12. Evaluation of field enforced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition dielectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics for pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, B.D.; Tuttle, B.A.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.; Brooks, R.A.; King, C.F.

    1997-09-01

    Discharge capacitors were designed based on materials with antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) field enforced transitions that had 10 times the capacitance of relaxor ferroelectric or state of the art BaTiO{sub 3} materials in the voltage range of interest. Nonlinear RLC circuit analysis was used to show that the AFE to FE materials have potentially more than 2 times the peak discharge current density capability of the BaTiO{sub 3} or lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials. Both lead lanthanum zirconium tin titanate (PLZST) AFE to FE field enforced phase transition materials and PMN based relaxor materials were fabricated and characterized for Sandia`s pulse discharge capacitor applications. An outstanding feature of the PLZST materials is that there are high field regimes where the dielectric constant increases substantially, by a factor of 20 or more, with applied field. Specifically, these materials have a low field dielectric constant of 1,000, but an effective dielectric constant of 23,000 in the electric field range corresponding to the FE to AFE transition during discharge. Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials were also investigated in this project because of their high dielectric constants. While the PMN based ceramics had a low field dielectric constant of 25,000, at a field corresponding to half the charging voltage, approximately 13 kV/cm, the dielectric constant decreases to approximately 7,500.

  13. Order parameter and scaling behavior in BaZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 3} (0.3 < x < 0.6) relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, Muhammad; Mumtaz, Arif Raoof, Sobia; Hasanain, S. K.

    2013-12-23

    We report the relaxor behavior of the zirconium doped barium titanate BaZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 3} solid solutions and discuss the temperature, frequency, and concentration dependence in terms of correlations among the polar nanoregions. The relaxor behavior is analyzed within the mean field theory by estimating the Edward-Anderson order parameter q{sub EA}. Additionally, we find that q{sub EA} calculated for the different concentrations obeys a scaling behavior q{sub EA}=1?(T/T{sub m}){sup n}, where T{sub m} are the respective dielectric maxima temperatures and n?=?2.0?±?0.1. The frequency dependence of the q{sub EA} also shows results consistent with the above mentioned picture.

  14. Direct evidence of mesoscopic dynamic heterogeneities at the surfaces of ergodic ferroelectric relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, S. V.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Budai, J. D.; Jesse, S.; Morozovska, A. N.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2010-02-01

    Spatial variability of polarization relaxation kinetics in the relaxor ferroelectric 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 is studied using time-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy at room temperature. Both the statistical principal component and correlation function analysis and the stretched exponent fits of relaxation curves illustrate the presence of mesoscopic “fast” and “slow” 100-200 nm regions. The spatial distribution of activation energies is reconstructed using a neural-network-based inversion of the relaxation data. The results directly prove the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneities associated with static and dynamic components of the order parameter on the surfaces of ferroelectric relaxors in the ergodic phase.

  15. Polar nanodomains and local ferroelectric phenomena in relaxor lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsman, V.V.; Kholkin, A.L.; Orlova, A.; Kiselev, D.; Bogomolov, A.A.; Sternberg, A.

    2005-05-16

    Transparent Pb{sub 0.9125}La{sub 0.0975}(Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}){sub 0.976}O{sub 3} ceramics (conventionally abbreviated as PLZT 9.75/65/35) is a typical relaxor characterized by the absence of the ferroelectric order at the macroscopic scale. In this letter, we report on the observation of complex polar structures on the surface of this material via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The irregular polarization patterns are associated with the formation of a glassy state, where random electric fields destroy the long-range ferroelectric order. The measure of the disorder, the correlation length of {approx}50 nm, was directly deduced from the PFM images. Local poling of relaxor ceramics resulted in the formation of a stable micron-size domain that could be continuously switched under varying dc bias (local relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition). Fractal analysis was applied to analyze the origin of local order in PLZT.

  16. Giant Electro-Mechanical Energy Conversion in [011] cut Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Peter; Dong, Wen; Lynch, Chris; Amin, Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Giant electro-mechanical energy conversion is demonstrated under a ferroelectric/ferroelectric phase transformation in [011] cut and poled lead titanate-based relaxor perovskite morphotropic single crystals. It is found that under mechanical pre-stress, a relatively small oscillatory stress drives the material reversibly between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases with a remarkably high polarization and strain jumps induced at zero bias electric field and room temperature. The measured electrical output per cycle is more than an order of magnitude larger than that reported for linear piezoelectric materials. Ideal thermodynamic cycles are presented for this electro-mechanical energy conversion followed by a presentation and discussion of the experimental data.

  17. Resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy of KTa1-xNbxO3 ferroelectric relaxor crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Svitelskiy, O.; Headley, S.; Suslov, A. V.; Migliori, A.; Yong, G.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2008-08-01

    The influence of the development of a ferroelectric state on the elastic properties of KTa1-xNbxO3 relaxor crystals is explored. The high sensitivity of all elements of the elastic stiffness tensor to the polar distortions and their reorientational dynamics is, however, individual for each particular element: c11 and c44 are pimarily influenced by the reorientational motion of these distortions between neighboring (111) directions; the c12 mostly depends on the reorientations between cubic face diagonal (111) directions. Consequently, the temperature behavior of c12 demonstrates different dependence on the Nb concentration than that of c11 and c44. While in the 1.2% Nb crystal all three elastic constants clearly show their softening with the appearance of the dynamic polar distortions; in the 16% crystal this effect is strong for c11 and c44, but negligible for c12. The curves of slowness and Young's modulus within (100) crystallographic plane are presented. The linear compressibility modulus is estimated. The value of the Debye temperature is estimated to be approximately 592 K.

  18. Direct evidence of correlations between relaxor behavior and polar nano-regions in relaxor ferroelectrics: A case study of lead-free piezoelectrics Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei Luo, Chengtao; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Luo, Haosu; Ren, Yang

    2013-12-09

    Diffuse scattering and relaxor behavior in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) and NBT-5.6 at.?%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-5.6%BT) were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed two types of diffuse scattering in NBT: (i) broad and (ii) asymmetric L-shaped. After modification with 5.6%BT, the broad diffuse scattering patterns became narrow, and the asymmetric L-shaped ones were replaced by symmetric ones. The symmetric diffuse scattering in NBT-5.6%BT disappeared with increasing dc electric field (E) for E???9.5?kV/cm where the frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant disappeared. These results demonstrate that the relaxor characteristics are directly correlated with the diffuse scattering and the presence polar nano-regions.

  19. Phase transition of chemically doped uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Chillal, S; Koulialias, D; Gvasaliya, S N; Cowley, R A; Ivleva, L I; Lushnikov, S G; Zheludev, A

    2015-11-01

    We report a neutron scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in Sr0.585Ce0.025Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN-61:Ce). We find no evidence for a soft transverse optic phonon. We do, however, observe anisotropic diffuse scattering. This scattering has inelastic and elastic contributions. In the paraelectric phase the susceptibility associated with the elastic diffuse scattering from SBN-61:Ce increases on approaching the transition temperature. In the ferroelectric phase the lineshape of the elastic scattering is consistent with the form expected for the ferroelectric domain walls. In contrast to the macroscopic observations, the scattering properties of Ce-doped crystal do not exhibit important changes with respect to those of pure Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6. PMID:26445278

  20. Phase transition of chemically doped uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillal, S.; Koulialias, D.; Gvasaliya, S. N.; Cowley, R. A.; Ivleva, L. I.; Lushnikov, S. G.; Zheludev, A.

    2015-11-01

    We report a neutron scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in Sr0.585Ce0.025Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN-61:Ce). We find no evidence for a soft transverse optic phonon. We do, however, observe anisotropic diffuse scattering. This scattering has inelastic and elastic contributions. In the paraelectric phase the susceptibility associated with the elastic diffuse scattering from SBN-61:Ce increases on approaching the transition temperature. In the ferroelectric phase the lineshape of the elastic scattering is consistent with the form expected for the ferroelectric domain walls. In contrast to the macroscopic observations, the scattering properties of Ce-doped crystal do not exhibit important changes with respect to those of pure Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6.

  1. Optical anisotropy near the relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition in lanthanum lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathan W.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Brennecka, Geoff L.

    2013-08-01

    We examine the optical activity, birefringence, and transparency of Lanthanum-doped, lead zirconate titanate (PLZT 7/65/35) bulk ceramic wafer sections over visible and near-IR spectra and on heating. Optical transitions are compared to both crystallographic (rhombohedral-cubic) and domain (relaxor-ferroelectric) transitions identified with x-ray diffraction, dielectric, and calorimetry measurements. Optical activity and birefringence are shown to be enhanced for disordered domains near room temperature, to attenuate above the relaxor-ferroelectric transition and to gradually decay above the Curie point regardless of the initial poling state. The results are interpreted in light of the change of crystallographic symmetry due to the local strains induced by ferroelectric architecture. The heterogeneous local strains more strongly influence the optical properties than the macro-scale structure of the polycrystalline PLZT ceramic. This mechanism is significant for understanding optical rotation and birefringence in polycrystalline systems. Finally, the specific rotation (up to 350°/mm) lies among the highest reported for crystalline materials. Along with strong poling contrast and comparatively small dispersion for the unpoled state, these properties are promising for electro-optics applications.

  2. Pressure as a probe of the physics of ABO{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    SAMARA,GEORGE A.

    2000-02-14

    Results on a variety of mixed ABO{sub 3} oxides have revealed a pressure-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor crossover and the continuous evolution of the energetics and dynamics of the relaxation process with increasing pressure. These common features have suggested a mechanism for the crossover phenomenon in terms of a large decrease in the correlation length for dipolar interactions with pressure--a unique property of soft mode or highly polarizable host lattices. The pressure effects as well as the interplay between pressure and dc biasing fields are illustrated for some recent results on PZN-9.5 PT,PMN and PLZT 6/65/35.

  3. A high-k ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer as a gate dielectric for orgnaic thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shan; Shao, Ming; Burlingame, Quinn; Chen, Xiangzhong; Lin, Minren; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) is a ferroelectric terpolymer relaxor with a static dielectric constant of 50, which was developed using defect modification to eliminate remnant polarization in the normal ferroelectric PVDF. In this work, this solution processable terpolymer was used as the gate insulator in bottom gated organic thin-film transistors with a pentacene semiconductor layer. Due to the high dielectric constant of P(VDF-TrFE- CFE), a large capacitive coupling between the gate and channel can be achieved which causes a high charge concentration at the interface of the semiconductor and dielectric layers. In this device, an on/ off ratio of 104 and a low minimum operation gate voltage (5-10 V) were attained

  4. High performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  5. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L. W.; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33?2000 pC/N, kt?60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  6. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-08-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-x Ti x O3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe "PureWave". The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth techniques, domain engineering concept, and full-matrix property characterization all the way to device innovations. It outlines a truly encouraging story in materials science in the modern era. All key references are provided and 30 complete sets of material parameters for different types of relaxor-PT single crystals are listed in the Appendix. It is the intension of this review article to serve as a resource for those who are interested in basic research and practical applications of these relaxor-PT single crystals. In addition, possible mechanisms of giant piezoelectric properties in these domain-engineered relaxor-PT systems will be discussed based on contributions from polarization rotation and charged domain walls. PMID:25061239

  7. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth techniques, domain engineering concept, and full-matrix property characterization all the way to device innovations. It outlines a truly encouraging story in materials science in the modern era. All key references are provided and 30 complete sets of material parameters for different types of relaxor-PT single crystals are listed in the Appendix. It is the intension of this review article to serve as a resource for those who are interested in basic research and practical applications of these relaxor-PT single crystals. In addition, possible mechanisms of giant piezoelectric properties in these domain-engineered relaxor-PT systems will be discussed based on contributions from polarization rotation and charged domain walls. PMID:25061239

  8. Relaxor ferroelectric-based electrocaloric polymer nanocomposites with a broad operating temperature range and high cooling energy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Guangzu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Shenglin; Zeng, Yike; Wang, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Electrocaloric nanocomposites simultaneously derive high electrocaloric strength from inorganic inclusions and high dielectric strength from the polymer matrix to display a pronounced electrocaloric effect (ECE). By designing the inorganic filler and polymer matrix, which are both relaxor ferroelectrics with the ambient-temperature phase transition and minimized hysteresis, a large ECE becomes accessible with high cooling efficiency over a broad temperature range at and near room temperature. PMID:25704400

  9. Dilatometric approach for the determination of the solid state reaction-onset of the lead based relaxor ferroelectric system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, V.V.; Radhika Rao, M.V.; Umarji, A.M

    2003-05-26

    Dilatometer based thermal expansion studies have been carried out on the starting oxide mixtures of some of the important relaxor ferroelectric compositions including lead iron niobate, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-barium titanate. An anomalous thermal expansion behavior is observed between 550 and 650 deg. C corresponding to the onset of the solid state reaction. Further heating of the reaction mixture resulted in a decrease in the dimension of the sample. From the complementary evidence of DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it is shown that the initiation of solid state reaction results in the restructuring of the reacting grains to form the agglomerates of fine particles of reaction intermediates. This phenomenon is shown to be absent in the barium zinc niobate system where the pyrochlore intermediates do not exist. This novel dilatometric approach has been projected as a possible technique to identify optimum calcination temperatures to produce sinter-active powders in the above oxide system, thereby help in reducing the sintering temperatures.

  10. Two-stage processes of electrically induced-ferroelectric to relaxor transition in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wook; Daniels, John; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kleemann, Wolfgang; Rödel, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    The stability of electrically induced long-range ferroelectric order in a relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramic material has been investigated by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and electrical property measurements. The depolarization and ferroelectric-to-relaxor transition are identified as separate and discrete processes. It is observed that the induced ferroelectric domains first lose their ferroelectric/ferroelastic texture coincident with a peak signal in the thermally induced depolarization current. With further increase in temperature, the detextured ferroelectric domains are dissociated into nanoscale entities. This fragmentation marks the ferroelectric-to-relaxor transition. It is suggested that the ferroelectric-to-relaxor transition has features of a second order phase transition.

  11. High temperature lead-free relaxor ferroelectric: Intergrowth Aurivillius phase BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hongtao; Yan Haixue; Reece, Michael J.

    2010-05-15

    Intergrowth BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BaBi{sub 6}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 21}) Aurivillius phase ceramic has been found to be a relaxor ferroelectric (RFE) with the highest reported temperature of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity (T{sub m}) of all of the known RFE systems. Dielectric characterization revealed that it has two dielectric anomalies. The first one is a frequency independent broad dielectric constant peak at {approx}280 deg. C, while the second anomaly shows relaxor behavior at 636 deg. C (100 kHz). There is obvious frequency dispersion of dielectric response at room temperature, which is in agreement with dielectric properties of a typical relaxor. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops and a measurable value of piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} confirmed the ferroelectric nature of BaBi{sub 6}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 21} ceramics. The piezoelectric response remained even after annealing at temperatures above 636 deg. C.

  12. Compositional disorder, polar nanoregions and dipole dynamics in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-based relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, Alexei A.; Rodriguez, Brian; Zhao, X; Ko, JH; Jesse, Stephen; Long, X; Qu, W; Kim, TH; Budai, John D; Morozovska, A. N.; Kojima, S; Tan, X; Kalinin, Sergei V; Ye, Z.-G.

    2011-01-01

    The complex structure of relaxor ferroelectrics comprises polar nanoregions (PNRs) which appear upon cooling below the Burns temperature and quenched compositional (chemical) disorder. The relation between the polar nanostructure and compositionally ordered regions (CORs) often observed in relaxors has been the subject of extensive theoretical investigations; however, the experimental data, especially concerning Pb(B0 1=3B00 2=3)O3-type complex perovskite relaxors, are rather limited. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the results of our recent investigations of the morphology of CORs and the dynamics of PNRs in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-based solid solutions in which the degree of compositional disorder was varied by means of changing the composition and/or by means of high-temperature annealing. The samples were characterised using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, piezoresponse force microscopy, Brillouin light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, as well as by measuring pyroelectric effect and ferroelectric hysteresis loops. No influence of the size of CORs on the PNRs relaxation in the ergodic relaxor phase is found. Instead, the CORs size influences significantly the diffuseness of the transition from the field-induced ferroelectric phase to the ergodic relaxor state. The results are interpreted in the framework of a model suggesting the coexistence of static and dynamic PNRs in the ergodic relaxor phase.

  13. Novel Polymer Ferroelectric Behavior via Crystal Isomorphism and Nanoconfinement Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Despite comprehensive understanding of novel ferroelectric [i.e., relaxor ferroelectric (RFE) and antiferroelectric (AFE)] behaviors for ceramics, RFE and double hysteresis loop (DHL) behaviors have just emerged for ferroelectric crystalline polymers since the past 15 years. A number of applications such as electrostriction, electric energy storage, and electrocaloric cooling have been realized by utilizing these novel ferroelectric properties. However, the fundamental understanding is still lacking. In this invited talk, we intend to unravel the basic physics behind these novel ferroelectric behaviors via systematic studies of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)]-based terpolymers and e-beam irradiated copolymers. It is found that both crystal internal structure and crystal-amorphous interaction are important for achieving the RFE and DHL behaviors. For the crystal internal structure effect, friction-free dipole switching and nanodomain formation by pinning the polymer chains are essential, and they can be achieved via the mechanism of crystal repeating unit isomorphism. Physical pinning [e.g., in P(VDF-TrFE)-based terpolymers] induces a reversible RFE <-->FE phase transition and thus the DHL behavior, whereas chemical pinning [e.g., in e-beam irradiated P(VDF-TrFE)] results in the RFE behavior. Finally, the crystal-amorphous interaction (or the nanoconfinement effect) results in a competition between the polarization and depolarization local fields. When the depolarization field becomes stronger than the polarization field, a DHL behavior can also be observed. Obviously, the physics is different from ceramics and can be largely attributed to the long chain nature of semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers. This understanding will help us design new ferroelectric polymers with improved electroactive properties and/or better applications. This work is supported by NSF DMR-0907580.

  14. Origin of the crossover between a freezing and a structural transition at low concentration in the relaxor ferroelectric K1 -xLixTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Harriger, Leland; Downing, R. Gregory; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of the relaxor behavior in K1 -xLixTaO3(KLT ) and other disordered perovskites is now recognized to be due to the reorientation of the polar nanodomains formed by the correlated dipoles of off-center ions. The collective dynamics of these systems evolve through several temperature stages. On decreasing temperature below the so-called Burns temperature TB, individual dipoles become correlated within nanosized regions. On further cooling, the slow dynamics of these polar regions allows local lattice distortions to take place and the formation of polar nanodomains at T*relaxors undergo a phase transition while others do not. In KLT, there is a critical Li concentration xc=0.022 above which the system undergoes a structural transition at Tc, and below which it freezes in a dipole glass state at Tf. To better understand the nature of this critical concentration, the changes that occur upon crossing it and the nature of the dipole glass state, the collective dynamics of KLT have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy and neutron diffraction for two Li concentrations (x =0.026 and 0.018 ) , close to but straddling the critical concentration xc. Two very different transitional behaviors are observed. Just below this critical concentration, KLT displays critical slowing down and the onset of freezing as seen in hydrogen-bonded molecular ferroelectrics, while just above this concentration, KLT undergoes a first-order structural transition.

  15. Anomalous phase in the relaxor ferroelectric Pb ( Zn1/3 Nb2/3 ) O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangyong; Zhong, Z.; Bing, Y.; Ye, Z.-G.; Stock, C.; Shirane, G.

    2004-08-01

    X-ray diffraction studies on a Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZN) single-crystal sample show the presence of two different structures. An outer layer exists in the outer most ˜10 to 50?m of the crystal, and undergoes a structural phase transition at the Curie temperature TC?410K . The inside phase is, however, very different. The lattice inside the crystal maintains a cubic unit cell, while ferroelectric polarization develops below TC . The lattice parameter of the cubic unit cell remains virtually a constant, i.e., much less variations compared to that of a typical relaxor ferroelectric, in a wide temperature range of 15 to 750K . On the other hand, broadening of Bragg peaks and change of Bragg profile line shapes in both longitudinal and transverse directions at TC clearly indicate a structural phase transition occurring.

  16. Correlations between nano-scale chemical-and polar-order in relaxor ferroelectrics and the length scale for polar nano-regions

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin P.

    Correlations between nano-scale chemical- and polar-order in relaxor ferroelectrics and the length scale for polar nano-regions B.P. Burton and Eric Cockayne1 and U. V. Waghmare2 1 Ceramics Division3, were used to determine the nature of correlations between short- range chemical- and polar nano

  17. Phase transitions, relaxor behavior, and large strain response in LiNbO3-modified Bi0.5(Na0.80K0.20)0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jigong; Bai, Wangfeng; Li, Wei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2013-07-01

    The effect of LiNbO3 (LN) addition on the ferroelectric behavior and piezoelectric properties of Bi0.5(Na0.80K0.20)0.5TiO3 (BNKT20) lead-free piezoceramics were systematically investigated. Results showed that the LN substitution into BNKT20 induced a transition from coexistence of ferroelectric tetragonal and rhombohedral phases to relaxor pseudocubic phases, which is accompanied by the significant disruption of ferroelectric order and with the shift of the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature TF-R down to room temperature. Accordingly, a large accompanying normalized strain of ˜0.38% (corresponding to a large signal d33* of ˜475 pm/V) were obtained in BNKT20 with 2.5 mol. %LN addition near the phase boundary. Temperature-dependent measurements of both polarization and strain from room temperature to 120 °C suggested that the origin of the large strain is due to a reversible field-induced ergodic relaxor-to-ferroelectric phase transformation. Moreover, an attractive property for application as high-temperature dielectrics was obtained in this system modified with 8 mol. %LN with a high permittivity of 1760 ± 15% from room temperature up to 500 °C, spanning a range of about 450 °C.

  18. Temperature-dependent dielectric nonlinearity of relaxor ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Beihai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Liu, Shanshan; Tong, Sheng; Narayanan, Manoj; Koritala, Rachel E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2013-05-01

    Rayleigh analysis has been used to investigate the temperature dependence of the dielectric response of relaxor ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 films grown on platinized silicon substrates by chemical solution deposition. The irreversible contribution to dielectric permittivity maximizes at 50 °C and decreases with further temperature increase; while the intrinsic/reversible contribution is weakly dependent on temperature. The relaxor ferroelectric transition temperature Tm increases from 160 °C to 172 °C when the frequency increases from 1 kHz to 100 kHz. The dielectric nonlinearity decreases with temperature: falling from 0.012 cm/kV at room temperature to 0.005 cm/kV at 225 °C in tests at 1 kHz.

  19. Phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} lead-free solid solution for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Du Hongliang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin

    2009-06-15

    The (1-x)(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (KNN-BST) solid solution has been synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering in order to search for the new lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics for high temperature applications. The phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution are systematically investigated. The phase structure of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution gradually changes from pure perovskite phase with an orthorhombic symmetry to the tetragonal symmetry, then to the pseudocubic phase, and to the cubic phase with increasing addition of BST. The 0.90KNN-0.10BST solid solution shows a broad dielectric peak with permittivity maximum near 2500 and low dielectric loss (<4%) in the temperature range of 100-250 deg. C. The result indicates that this material may have great potential for a variety of high temperature applications. The diffuse phase transition and the temperature of the maximum dielectric permittivity shifting toward higher temperature with increasing frequency, which are two typical characteristics for relaxor ferroelectrics, are observed in the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution. The dielectric relaxor behavior obeys a modified Curie-Weiss law and a Vogel-Fulcher relationship. The relaxor nature is attributed to the appearance of polar nanoregions owing to the formation of randon fields including local electric fields and elastic fields. These results confirm that the KNN-based relaxor ferroelectrics can be regarded as an alternative direction for the development of high temperature lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics.

  20. Elasticity of high coupling relaxor-ferroelectric lead zinc niobate-lead titanate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ahmed; Cross, Leslie E.

    2005-11-01

    The elastic response of a [001]-oriented and -poled ferroelectric rhombohedral lead zinc niobate-lead titanate single crystal close to the morphotropic phase region is examined under thermal, electrical, and mechanical boundaries similar to those used in sound projectors. Resonance measurements yielded a monotonically decreasing Young's modulus as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric rhombohedral state with a sudden stiffening near the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric tetragonal (FT) transition. The quasistatic, zero-field stress-strain response revealed a FR instability under uniaxial compression. A dc bias field stabilized the FR state under compressive stress. Young's modulus derived from the linear elastic response below instability agrees well with resonance data for FR. A larger modulus than expected for FT was observed above instabilities. The elastic response is analyzed in terms of ferroelectric-ferroelectric transitions as predicted by a high-order Devonshire theory. Implications for sound projectors are discussed.

  1. Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dittmer, Robert; Stark, Robert W; Dietz, Christian

    2015-07-21

    Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 -x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) -x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped. PMID:26106953

  2. Enhanced dielectric constant and relaxor behavior realized by dual stage sintering of Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Rathore, Satyapal S. Vitta, Satish

    2014-04-24

    The relaxor ferroelectric compound, Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN50) was synthesized by solid state reaction followed by sintering under two different conditions: single and dual stage sintering. The impact of sintering process on structural and dielectric properties has been studied in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The crystal structure determined by performing Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffractogram was found to be identical in both cases. SBN50 crystallizes in the ferroelectric tetragonal tungsten bronze, P4bm structure. It was observed that uniform grain growth can be controlled by dual stage sintering and relatively narrow distribution of grains can be achieved with an average grain size of ?15 ?m. The dielectric studies show that SBN50 exhibits a relaxor ferroelectric behavior with the transformation taking place at ? 380 K due to formation of polar nano regions. Although both single and dual stage sintered SBN50 exhibits relaxor behaviour, the maximum dielectric constant of dual stage sintered SBN50 is found to be 1550 compare to 1440 for single stage sintering.

  3. Relaxation and phase-transition characteristics of relaxor ferroelectric potassium lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byeong-Eog; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Choi, Byung Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2015-06-01

    The electric modulus relaxations were considered to be coupled phenomena between the polarization fluctuations < P 2 > due to local symmetry breaking and ionic hopping through nearest neighbor sites. The Nb-rich potassium lithium niobate (K5.595Li3.125Nb11.28O30) crystals exhibited a ferroelectric diffused phase transition around the dielectric maximum temperature T max = 350. The electric modulus relaxations were characterized by using the Cole-Davidson distribution of the electric modulus relaxation times at frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Although the lattice constants along the a-axes and the c-axes and the tetragonal unit cell volume showed linear expansions with increasing temperature T, the axial ratio c/a decreased with increasing T at temperatures below the Burn's temperature TB. The dielectric relaxation accompanied the high ionic conduction in the temperature range above T. The ac conductivity ?'( ?) was analyzed by using the formulae, where ? O is the crossover frequency. It was considered that a double-Arrhenius behavior of the dc conductivity ? dc at temperatures around the Burn's temperature T B was suspected of thermally activated motions in the random distribution of oxygen vacancies and lithium ions. The ac universality could result in a disordered configuration of the mobile ions, i.e., the dc conductivity at temperatures above T B . The slow relaxations of the nano-sized polar regions may contribute to the dc conductivity ? dc at temperatures below T B . The characteristic relaxation time ? CD showed a change in activation energy from 1.08 eV to 0.80 eV at temperatures around T B . The scaling factor increased in proportion to ( T B - T) at T T B , but was almost constant at T >T B , where ?'? is the high frequency dielectric constant and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

  4. Relaxor Behavior and Dielectric Properties of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3-Modified BaTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuli; Chen, Jie; Huang, Guisheng; Ma, Dandan; Fang, Lang; Zhou, Huanfu

    2015-12-01

    (1 - x)BaTiO3- xBi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 [(1 - x)BT- xBZN, 0 ? x ? 0.2] ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra analysis show that the ceramics are tetragonal phase when x ? 0.02, and transform to pseudocubic phase as x ? 0.06. The temperature and frequency dependences of relative permittivity indicate a gradual crossover from a classic ferroelectric to relaxor ferroelectric. The dielectric relaxor behavior follows a modified Curie-Weiss law. The degree of the phase transition diffuseness ( ?) and the deviation from the Curie-Weiss law (? T_{{d}} ) increase to the maximum at x = 0.08, and subsequently decrease with further increasing x values, which associated with the appearance of polar nanoregions on account of the formation of random fields included local electric fields and elastic fields. Nevertheless, the random fields may decrease by reason of the interaction between the local electric fields and elastic fields.

  5. The ferroelectric and relaxor properties of Pb(Sc0.5Nb0.5)O3 : influence of pressure and biasing electric field.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Samara, George A.; Bing, Y.; Venturini, Eugene Leo; Ye, Z. -G.

    2005-08-01

    The influences of hydrostatic pressure and biasing electric field on the dielectric properties and phase behavior of a single crystal of the perovskite compound Pb(Sc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, (PSN) have been investigated. On cooling from high temperatures, the crystal first enters a relaxor (R) state and then spontaneously transforms to a ferroelectric (FE) phase at a temperature, T{sub c}, substantially below the peak temperature, T{sub m}, in the dielectric susceptibility. Based on earlier work on ceramic samples, this behavior suggests substantial chemical (Sc and Nb) disorder at the B sites. Pressure enhances the R state with strong indications that the FE phase should vanish at a pressure somewhat higher than the highest pressure reached in the experiments, making the R state the ground state of the crystal at reduced volume. A significant feature of the temperature (T)-pressure (P) phase diagram is the finding that the T{sub c}(P) phase line should terminate at a pressure between 10 and 15 kbar in a manner akin to a critical point; however, in the case of PSN this feature represents a FE-to-R crossover. Such behavior suggests that a path can be defined that takes the crystal from the FE phase to the R state without crossing a phase boundary. A biasing electric field favors the FE phase over the R state, and the results indicate that the R state vanishes at 5 kV/cm. The magnitudes of both the high T Curie-Weiss constant, C, and the change in entropy (or latent heat) at T{sub c} are found to be comparable to those of simple displacive perovskite oxides such as BaTiO{sub 3} and PbTiO{sub 3}.

  6. Effect of dead layer and strain on diffuse phase transition of PLZT relaxor thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.; Narayanan, M.; Ma, B.; Koritala, R. E.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.; Shi, D.

    2011-02-01

    Bulk relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit excellent permittivity compared to their thin film counterpart, although both show diffuse phase transition (DPT) behavior unlike normal ferroelectrics. To better understand the effect of dead layer and strain on the observed anomaly in the dielectric properties, we have developed relaxor PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) thin films with different thicknesses and measured their dielectric properties as a function of temperature and frequency. The effect of dead layer on thin film permittivity has been found to be independent of temperature and frequency, and is governed by the Schottky barrier between the platinum electrode and PLZT. The total strain (thermal and intrinsic) in the film majorly determines the broadening, dielectric peak and temperature shift in the relaxor ferroelectric. The Curie-Weiss type law for relaxors has been further modified to incorporate these two effects to accurately predict the DPT behavior of thin film and bulk relaxor ferroelectrics. The dielectric behavior of thin film is predicted by using the bulk dielectric data from literature in the proposed equation, which agree well with the measured dielectric behavior.

  7. First-Principles Based Simulations of Relaxor Ferroelectrics B.P. Burton,1

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin P.

    preprint; in press Phase Transitions November 1, 2005. The phenomenology of Pb(B,B )O3 perovskite based in chemical disorder, broadens the dielectric peak, and reduces the ferroelectric transition temperature are obtained by using the PSN dielectric model with a distribution of local fields that is appropriate for Pb

  8. Molecular Dynamics Study of Dielectric Response in a Relaxor Ferroelectric Ilya Grinberg, Young-Han Shin, and Andrew M. Rappe

    E-print Network

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    dispersion and deviation from the Curie-Weiss law typical of relaxor materials. Analysis of the time of the inverse dielectric constant (1=) from the Curie-Weiss law [Fig. 1(a)] [10] as well a strong depen- dence and the relaxor phase in general on an atomistic level remain poorly understood. In this Letter, we report

  9. Effect of electric field on uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The effects of an electric field and the temperature dependence on the elastic properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 were studied by micro-Brillouin scattering. In the ferroelectric phase, a dramatic increase in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) velocity, which is related to the elastic constant c33, was observed upon the application of a static electric field along the ferroelectric c-axis. A marked thermal hysteresis was observed below the Curie temperature, TC = 72 °C, between field heating (FH) and zero field (ZFC) cooling. The effect of an electric field on the static polar nanoregions (PNRs) was examined by the temporal application of a static electric field at 140 °C between TC and the intermediate temperature T* = 190 °C. After turning off the applied field at 140 °C, the LA velocity during ZFC was measured, and it is found that, below TC, the temperature dependence is similar to that during FH. This fact indicates that the alignment of local polarization in static PNRs between TC and T* is possible using an external electric field.

  10. Anharmonic atomic vibrations in the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Ahart, Muhtar; Nakamoto, Yuki; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Gramsch, Stephen A.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2012-11-01

    Structural analyses of the relaxor ferroelectric material Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) with single-crystal x-ray diffraction under pressure in a diamond anvil cell indicate static atomic displacement and chemical disorder. A difference Fourier analysis within the framework of a harmonic oscillator model for the atomic vibrations reveals residual electron density on both the Pb and Nb(Mg) sites. Pb atoms in the A site of the ABO3 perovskite structure exhibit a greater displacement than the Nb(Mg) atoms in the B site, despite the fact that Pb is a much heavier atom. The displacement is interpreted in terms of an anharmonic statistical atomic motion. At pressures above 2.5 GPa the displacement disappears, consistent with previous observations. The difference Fourier maps reveal no residual electron densities greater than 1 e/Å3 at any atomic position, and these appear to be induced by the violation of local electrical neutrality arising from both Mg2+ and Nb5+ ions located at the octahedral site. Similar electron densities are observed at all experimental pressures and in refinements based on both harmonic and anharmonic models. The anharmonic parameters taken into account are the higher-order tensors of atomic elastic motion. At high pressure, where the relaxor transforms to a paraelectric phase, the residual electron densities disappear.

  11. Chemical order and local structure of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Groeting, Melanie; Hayn, Silke; Albe, Karsten

    2011-08-15

    The A-site mixed perovskite sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by means of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. By studying different geometries with varying occupations of the A-site, the influence of chemical order on the thermodynamic stability and local structure is explored. We find that the hybridization of Bi 6sp with O 2p-states leads to stereochemically active Bi{sup 3+} lone pairs and increases the stability of structures with high Bi concentrations in {l_brace}001{r_brace}-planes. This goes along with displacive disorder on the oxygen sublattice, which up to now has been neglected in experimental studies. The calculated ordering energies are, however, small as compared to the thermal energy and therefore only short-range chemical order can be expected in experiments. Thus, it is conceivable that chemically ordered local areas can act as nucleation sites for polar nano-regions, which would explain the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: First-principles calculations give relative stabilities of different chemically ordered structures. The results suggest a new model for the local structure of Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} with 001-ordered nano-regions embedded in a chemically disordered matrix. Chemical order/disorder additionally induces displacive disorder within the oxygen sublattice. Highlights: > Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} is studied by ab initio-calculations. > Structural relaxations in the oxygen sublattice are decisive for relative stabilities. > Chemical environment of oxygen determines relaxation ability. > Bi 6s{sup 2} lone pair formation is the driving force for relaxation. > New structure model: Chemically 001-ordered nano-regions embedded in disordered matrix.

  12. Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Dittmer, Robert; Stark, Robert W.; Dietz, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 - x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) - x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped.Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 - x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) - x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01326g

  13. Detection of the critical end point in PbSc0.5Ta0.36Nb0.14O3 relaxor ferroelectrics crystals via acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul'kin, E.; Mihailova, B.; Gospodinov, M.; Roth, M.

    2014-09-01

    PbSc0.5Ta0.36Nb0.14O3 relaxor-ferroelectric crystals were studied by the means of dielectric and acoustic emission (AE) methods in the temperature range of 180-300 K. In zero dc electric field (E) no AE was detected at the smeared dielectric maximum Tm ? 260 K characteristic for canonical relaxor ferroelectrics. Under the E a phase transition appears at TC = 217 K for E ˜ 1 kV cm-1. The TC(E) dependence is linear with an anomaly point at E ˜ 1.3 kV cm-1, at which dTC/dE abruptly changes. At this E value the AE rate exhibits a maximum. The anomalous E point is assigned to be the critical end point for this solid solution.

  14. Optical interband transitions in relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.93Pb,,Zn1/3Nb2/3...O30.07PbTiO3 single crystal

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    Optical interband transitions in relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.93Pb,,Zn1/3Nb2/3...O3­0.07PbTiO3 the rhombohedral-tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary MPB, x 0.09 possess superior dielectric and pi- ezoelectric in silicone oil at room temperature with an electric field of 4 kV/cm. The 11¯0 faces of the sample were

  15. Relaxor ferro- and paraelectricity in anisotropically strained SrTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wördenweber, R.; Schubert, J.; Ehlig, T.; Hollmann, E.

    2013-04-01

    The ferroelectric properties of anisotropically strained SrTiO3 films are analyzed by detailed measurements of the complex dielectric constant as function of temperature, frequency, bias voltage, and electric field direction. At low temperatures, strain induces a relaxor-ferroelectric phase that persists up to room temperature. The transition temperature and characteristic parameters (e.g., Curie temperature, static freezing temperature, degree of diffuseness of the phase transition, activation energy) of the relaxor phase depend strongly on the orientation of the electric field and, therefore, on the amount of structural strain in the given electric field direction. Also above the ferroelectric transition temperature, a relaxation of the permittivity is visible, i.e., the strain causes a relaxor-paraelectric behavior. Only at high enough temperatures, the relaxation time constant tends to zero and the "classical" dielectric state is obtained. Frequency and time dependent relaxation experiments demonstrate an extremely large distribution of the relaxation rates in both relaxor states (ferroelectric and paraelectric), which is indicative for the large distribution in the mobility of polar SrTiO3 regions with randomly distributed directions of dipole moments in the film. The large distribution might be taken as an indication for a large distribution in size and orientation of nanosize domains in the anisotropically strained SrTiO3 film.

  16. Critical Property in Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals --- Shear Piezoelectric Response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    The shear piezoelectric behavior in relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) single crystals is investigated in regard to crystal phase. High levels of shear piezoelectric activity, d15 or d24 >2000 pC N?1, has been observed for single domain rhombohedral (R), orthorhombic (O) and tetragonal (T) relaxor-PT crystals. The high piezoelectric response is attributed to a flattening of the Gibbs free energy at compositions proximate to the morphotropic phase boundaries, where the polarization rotation is easy with applying perpendicular electric field. The shear piezoelectric behavior of pervoskite ferroelectric crystals was discussed with respect to ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions and dc bias field using phenomenological approach. The relationship between single domain shear piezoelectric response and piezoelectric activities in domain engineered configurations were given in this paper. From an application viewpoint, the temperature and ac field drive stability for shear piezoelectric responses are investigated. A temperature independent shear piezoelectric response (d24, in the range of ?50°C to O-T phase transition temperature) is thermodynamically expected and experimentally confirmed in orthorhombic relaxor-PT crystals; relatively high ac field drive stability (5 kV cm?1) is obtained in manganese modified relaxor-PT crystals. For all thickness shear vibration modes, the mechanical quality factor Qs are less than 50, corresponding to the facilitated polarization rotation. PMID:21960942

  17. Role of random electric fields in relaxors.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Daniel; Stock, Christopher; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A; Chi, Songxue; Leão, Juscelino; Long, Xifa; Xie, Yujuan; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Gehring, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 (PZT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(1-x)Ti(x)O3 (PMN-xPT) are complex lead-oxide perovskites that display exceptional piezoelectric properties for pseudorhombohedral compositions near a tetragonal phase boundary. In PZT these compositions are ferroelectrics, but in PMN-xPT they are relaxors because the dielectric permittivity is frequency dependent and exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior. We show that the nanoscale structure unique to PMN-xPT and other lead-oxide perovskite relaxors is absent in PZT and correlates with a greater than 100% enhancement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient in PMN-xPT relative to that in PZT. By comparing dielectric, structural, lattice dynamical, and piezoelectric measurements on PZT and PMN-xPT, two nearly identical compounds that represent weak and strong random electric field limits, we show that quenched (static) random fields establish the relaxor phase and identify the order parameter. PMID:24449912

  18. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao

    2015-06-24

    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range. PMID:25996244

  19. Ferroelectric precursor behavior in PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 detected by field-induced resonant piezoelectric spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Aktas, Oktay; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Crossley, Sam; Lampronti, Giulio I.; Whatmore, Roger W.; Mathur, Neil D.; Carpenter, Michael D.

    2013-11-25

    behavior, such as occurs in PST with a lower degree of B-site order. 2 I. INTRODUCTION Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure are expected to play a ma- jor role as device materials, taking advantage of their outstanding dielectric... as being due to polar nano regions (PNR’s), which exhibit life times on the microsecond scale at temperatures near the dielectric permit- tivity maximum Tm. Two additional important temperatures characterize the temperature evolution of PNR’s, namely Td...

  20. Local structure of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ( Kx Na1-x )0.5 Bi0.5 Ti O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvaeva, V. A.; Zekria, D.; Glazer, A. M.; Jiang, Q.; Weber, S. M.; Bhattacharya, P.; Thomas, P. A.

    2005-05-01

    The local environment of Bi and Ti atoms in the lead-free relaxor ferroelectric solid-solution (KxNa1-x)0.5Bi0.5TiO3 has been studied as a function of K concentration and as a function of temperature for the x=0 end member by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). It is found that the local environment of Bi is much more distorted than that determined from conventional diffraction experiments. The shortest Bi-O distances are determined to be 2.22Å , and are 0.3Å shorter than those calculated from the crystallographic data. Several possible models of the Bi coordination environment, which are consistent with the XAFS data and provide bond-valence sums for Bi that are closer to the theoretical values, are proposed. The Ti displacement from the center of the oxygen octahedron increases with K concentration while the shortest Bi-O distance shows no compositional dependence. In K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 the value of the Ti displacement is determined to be 0.18Å . The changes of the macroscopic symmetry at the phase transition points in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 do not lead to changes of the radial atomic distribution around Ti, which is well off-center over the whole temperature range up to and including the paraelectric cubic phase. The results can be explained by assuming the presence of structural disorder.

  1. Relaxor-like ferroelectric behaviour favoured by short-range B-site ordering in 10% Ba{sup 2+} substituted MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Chithra Lekha, P.; Ramesh, G.; Revathi, V.; Subramanian, V.

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mechanism driving polarization in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the Maxwell–Wagner polarization. • But Raman studies confirm the existence of local P4{sub 1}22/P4{sub 3}22 symmetry in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Ba{sup 2+} substitution increases ferroelectric ordering, ?T{sub m} span, and masks electronic contribution. - Abstract: Using the molten salt method, pristine and Ba{sup 2+} substituted MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are prepared. The relaxor-like behaviour observed in the dielectric dispersion indicates the existence of B-site short-range ordering with the local P4{sub 1}22/P4{sub 3}22 symmetry which is confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. The paper further analyses the origin of polarization using Maxwell–Wagner fit and Nyquist plot. This work suggests a possible way to increase the relaxor-like ferroelectric ordering, larger span of relaxation temperature (?T{sub m}) and the effective masking of electronic contribution by the substitution of Ba{sup 2+} ion.

  2. Phase diagram of (1-x%)(0.89Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.05K0.5Na0.5NbO3)-x%MnO2 lead-free anti-ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Dong, Xianlin; Mao, Chaoliang; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui

    2012-09-01

    A phase diagram for the lead-free ceramics in the (1-x%)(0.89Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.05K0.5Na0.5NbO3)-x%MnO2 (BNBKN-x%Mn) binary system is constructed for the first time based on the ferroelectric and dielectric measurements. The ferroelectric behaviors under different temperatures suggest that the ceramics are basically of relaxor anti-ferroelectric nature near room temperature. The temperature dependent dielectric properties show that when the addition of MnO2 increases, the relaxor anti-ferroelectric phase can be stabilized to be close to the Curie point, which corresponds to a relaxor anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition.

  3. Study of the Electrocaloric Effect in the Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramic 0.75PMN-0.25PT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, I.; Abdelmoula, N.; Maalej, A.; Khemakhem, H.

    2015-12-01

    Electrocaloric (EC) cooling based on the ability of materials to change temperature by applying an electric field under adiabatic conditions is a relatively new and challenging direction in ferroelectrics research. Analytical and simulation data for the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in 0.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbTiO3 (0.75PMN-0.25PT) bulk ceramic samples are reported. The adiabatic temperature change (? T) due to a change of the external electric field has been calculated indirectly from the entropy change. The temperature change increases with an increase in the applied electric field and reaches a maximum of 2.1 K in 25 kV/cm electric field shift near the Curie temperature of 398 K; that is, the cooling ? T per unit field (MV/m) is 0.896 × 10-6 m K/V. This value is significantly large for bulk ceramics and makes the compound promising for room-temperature electric cooling applications.

  4. Local Polarization Dynamics and Bias-Induced Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Relaxors: Time-resolved Spectroscopy and Ergodic Gap Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, S. V.; Rodriguez, B.; Nikiforov, M. P.; Balke, N.; Jesse, S.; Ovchinnikov, O. S.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2009-03-01

    Mesoscopic domain structure and dynamics in PMN-PT solis solutions is studied using spatially resolved time- and voltage spectroscopic imaging modes. For compositions close to the MPB, we observe the formation of classical ferroelectric domains with rough self-affine boundaries. In the ergodic phase (PMN and PMN-10PT), the formation of non-classical labyrinthine domain patterns characterized by a single characteristic length scale is observed. The (a) persistence of these patterns well above Tc and (b) the fact that cannot be switched by tip bias suggest that they can be attributed to the frozen polarization component. Spatial variability of polarization relaxation dynamics in PMN-10PT is studied. Local relaxation attributed to the reorientation of polar nanoregions was found to follow stretched exponential dependence, with ? 0.4, much larger than the macroscopic value determined from dielectric spectra (? 0.09). The spatial inhomogeneity of relaxation time distribution with the presence of 100-200 nm ``fast'' and ``slow'' regions is observed. The results are analyzed to map the Vogel-Fulcher temperatures on the nanoscale. The applicability of this technique to map ``ergodic gap'' distribution on the surface is discussed. Research supported by the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC.

  5. Ferroelectric switching behavior in morphology controlled ferroelectric-semiconductor polymer blends for organic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eunhee; Su, Gregory; Kramer, Edward; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Memory is a fundamental component of all modern electronic systems. Organic ferroelectric memories are advantageous because they are thin and lightweight devices that can be made printable, foldable, and stretchable. Organic ferroelectric memories comprise a physical blend of an organic semiconducting polymer and an insulating ferroelectric polymer as the active layer in a thin film diode. Controlling the thin film morphology in these blends is important for electrical properties of the resulting device. We have found that when a semiconducting thiophene polymer with polar alkanoate side chains (P3EPT) is blended with well-studied ferroelectric polymer poly [(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene] P (VDF-TrFE), the resulting film has low surface roughness and more controllable domain sizes compared to the widely used poly (3-hexylthiophene). This difference allows more reliable study of the ferroelectric switching behavior in devices with domain size of about 100nm. The influence of the 3D composition measured by a combination of methods, including soft x-ray microscopy, on the electrical characteristics will be presented.

  6. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO?-xBaTiO? piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO?-xBaTiO? doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  7. Electric-field-induced local structural phenomena in relaxor ferroelectric PbSc(0.5)Nb(0.5)O3 near the intermediate temperature T* studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steilmann, T; Maier, B J; Gospodinov, M; Bismayer, U; Mihailova, B

    2014-04-30

    Raman spectroscopy at different temperatures and under an external electric field E was applied to PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 single crystals in order to gain further insights into the mesoscopic-scale coupling processes in perovskite-type (ABO3) relaxor ferroelectrics. Parallel and cross-polarized Raman spectra were collected between 800-80?K with E applied along the cubic [1?0?0], [1?1?0] or [1?1?1] crystallographic directions. The analysis was focused on the field-induced changes in the temperature evolution of three low-energy phonon modes: the Pb-localized mode near 50?cm(-1), the Pb-BO3 translation mode near 150?cm(-1), and the B-cation-localized mode near 250?cm(-1). The results show that competitive ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) coupling exists within the system of off-centred Pb(2+) cations, within the system of off-centred B-site cations as well as between off-centred Pb(2+) and B-site cations. The strong AFE-type coupling between Pb(2+) cations along the cubic body diagonal significantly influences the coupling between the B-site cations via the Pb-BO3 mode and results in AFE-type behaviour of the 'microscopic' T* determined from the B-cation-localized mode near 250?cm(-1), which explains the previously reported non-trivial field dependence of the 'macroscopic' characteristic temperatures: the temperature of the dielectric-permittivity maximum Tm, T*, and the Burns temperature TB. The comparative analysis between PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 and PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 indicates that two major displacive order parameters couple to form a relaxor state in B-site complex perovskites: the FE order associated with polar shifts of B-site cations and the AFE order associated with polar shifts of A-site cations. The latter penetrates through both polar and non-polar regions, but it is highly frustrated due to the high density of translation-symmetry faults in the chemical NaCl-type B-site order. The frustrated AFE order of off-centred A-site cations might be the key factor for the existence of a relaxor state. PMID:24722533

  8. Switching behavior of ferroelectric thin films with deadlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yifan; Wang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Domain switching in ferroelectric thin films with deadlayers subjected to external electric fields is investigated by a phase field model. The simulation results show that the deadlayers of ferroelectric thin films induce a strong inhomogeneous depolarization field which makes polarizations deflect from the normal direction of thin films. The locations with larger depolarization fields are nucleation centers for new domains during the polarization switching and the switching process includes two sequential 90° polarization switchings, which decrease the coercive field significantly. It is found that the thickness of the deadlayer has a significant influence on the switching behavior of the ferroelectric thin films. Both the coercive field and remanent polarization are dependent on the thickness of the deadlayer.

  9. Relaxor ferroelectrics for electrostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrout, Thomas R.; Jang, Sei-Joo

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate the potential of electrostrictive actuator materials for use in NAVY-type sonar. The anticipated performance requirements for such materials is summarized in the following: Operating temperature range 0-30 C; High sensitivity; Large E-field induced strain; Minimal hysteresis and low loss; Frequency of operation; and Mechanically stiff (low compliance). Additional requirements include operational E-field strain under prestress, and duty cycles.

  10. Low temperature anomalous field effect in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric seen via acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul'kin, E.; Kojima, S.; Roth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 [100]-oriented uniaxial tungsten bronze relaxor crystals have been studied by means of dedicated acoustic emission during their thermal cycling in 150-300 K temperature range under dc electric field (E). A 1st order transition in a modulated incommensurate tetragonal phase has been successfully detected at Tmi = 198 K on heating and Tmi = 184 K on cooling, respectively. As field E enhances, a thermal hysteresis gradually narrows and vanishes in the critical point at Eth = 0.31 kV/cm, above which a phase transition becomes to 2nd order. The Tmi(E) dependence looks as a V-shape dip, not similar that previously has been looked as a smeared minimum between both the two polar and nonpolar tetragonal phases near Tm = 220 ÷ 230 K in the same crystals (Dul'kin et al., J Appl. Phys. 110, 044106 (2011)). Due to such a V-shape dip is characteristic for Pb-based multiaxial perovskite relaxor, a rhombohedral phase is waited to be induced by a field E in the critical point temperature range. The emergence of this rhombohedral phase as a crucial evidence of an orthorhombic phase presumably existing within the modulated incommensurate tetragonal phase in tungsten bronze SrxBa1-xNb2O6 relaxor is discussed.

  11. Unconventional resistive switching behavior in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Mao, H J; Song, C; Xiao, L R; Gao, S; Cui, B; Peng, J J; Li, F; Pan, F

    2015-04-21

    We investigate an unconventional resistive switching (RS) behavior in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3/metal (LSMO/BTO) ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs), which is dominated by the variation of the barrier potential profile modulated by the migration of oxygen vacancies in the p-LSMO/n-BTO junction. The LSMO/BTO/Co junction exhibits a remarkable self-rectifying effect ascribed to the high-density interface state at the BTO/Co interface, in contrast to the symmetric conductivity when the top metal electrode is inert Pt. The effects of ferroelectric polarization on the RS behavior are also emphasized. Our work builds a bridge between FTJs and resistive random access memory devices. PMID:25789877

  12. Composition dependence of the diffuse scattering in the relaxor ferroelectric compound (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.40)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.; Gehring, P. M.; Ye, Z.-G.; Chen, W.; Shirane, G.

    2006-10-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to characterize the diffuse scattering in five single crystals of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-xPT) with x=0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. The addition of ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3} modifies the well-known 'butterfly' and 'ellipsoidal' diffuse scattering patterns observed in pure PMN (x=0), which are believed to be associated with the presence of randomly oriented polar nanoregions. In particular, the anisotropy of the diffuse scattering diminishes as the PT content increases. The spatial correlation length {xi} along the [110] direction derived from the width of the diffuse scattering at room temperature increases from 12.6 A for PMN to 350 A for PMN-20%PT. In addition, the diffuse scattering intensity at q=0 grows and reaches a maximum value around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), which suggests that it is proportional to the dielectric susceptibility. Beyond x=30%, a concentration very close to the MPB, no diffuse scattering is observed below T{sub C}, and well-defined critical behavior appears near T{sub C}. By contrast, the diffuse scattering for x{<=}20% persists down to low temperatures, where the system retains an average cubic structure (T{sub C}=0). Finally, the anisotropic soft transverse optic (TO) modes observed in PMN are found to be isotropic for PMN-30%PT, which strongly suggests a connection between the anisotropic diffuse scattering and the TO modes.

  13. Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor Phase Transitions by

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor 2009 WILLIAMSBURG WORKSHOP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF FERROELECTRICS #12;Introduction Strontium Barium ferroelectrics Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions SBN ­ SrxBa1-xNb2O6

  14. Feature article Novel polymer ferroelectric behavior via crystal isomorphism and the

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Philip L.

    ] behavior in ceramics, RFE and double-hysteresis-loop (DHL) behavior in crystalline ferroelectric polymers and DHL behaviors. For the crystal internal structure effect, dipole switching with reduced friction(VDF-TrFE)-based terpolymers] induces a reversible, electric field-induced RFE4FE phase transition and thus the DHL behavior

  15. Relaxor behavior of (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 ceramics derived from molten salt synthesized single-crystalline nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Hou, Yudong; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2007-07-01

    Single-crystalline K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 nanowires have been fabricated by a large scale and facile molten salt synthetic method in a KCl medium. Pristine nanowires have diameters of about 40nm and lengths exceeding 4?m, and they possess tetragonal perovskite structure. The K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramics with a relative density above 98% can be fabricated from high quality nanowires. A broad dielectric peak with frequency dependent dielectric maximum temperature was observed, which can be well fitted by a modified Curie-Weiss law and a Vogel-Fulcher relationship. The suggested relaxor behavior in K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 composition is possibly due to the A-site compositional fluctuations at the nanolevel.

  16. A-site doping-induced renormalization of structural transformations in the PbSc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectric under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, B. J.; Welsch, A.-M.; Mihailova, B.; Paulmann, C.; Bismayer, U.; Angel, R. J.; Zhao, J.; Engel, J. M.; Schmitt, L. A.; Gospodinov, M.; Friedrich, A.

    2010-05-01

    The effect of A-site incorporated Ba{sup 2+} and Bi{sup 3+} on the pressure-driven structural transformations in Pb-based perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectrics has been studied with in situ x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering of PbSc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, Pb{sub 0.93}Ba{sub 0.07}Sc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, and Pb{sub 0.98}Bi{sub 0.02}Sc{sub 0.51}Nb{sub 0.49}O{sub 3} in the range from ambient pressure to 9.8 GPa. The substitution of Ba{sup 2+} for Pb{sup 2+} represents the case in which A-site divalent cations with stereochemically active lone-pair electrons are replaced by isovalent cations with a larger ionic radius and no active lone pairs, leading to formation of strong local elastic fields. In contrast, substitution of Bi{sup 3+} for Pb{sup 2+} involves the replacement of divalent A-site cations with active lone-pair electrons by aliovalent cations with nearly the same ionic radius and active lone pairs so it induces local electric fields but not strong elastic fields. The two types of dopants have rather distinct effects on the changes in the atomic structure under pressure. The embedding of Ba{sup 2+} and associated elastic fields hinders the development of pressure-induced ferroic ordering and thus smears out the phase transition. The addition of Bi{sup 3+} enlarges the fraction of spatial regions with a pressure-induced ferroic distortion, resulting in a more pronounced phase transition of the average structure, i.e., the preserved lone-pair order and the absence of strong local elastic fields enhances the development of the ferroic phase at high pressure. For all compounds studied, the high-pressure structure exhibits glide-plane pseudosymmetry associated with a specific octahedral tilt configuration.

  17. Targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Barsch, G. R.; Biggers, J. V.

    1983-03-01

    The work reported covers the fifth and final year of the program of targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications. Major achievements include: the development of a physical approach to understanding active composites, leading to the development of several new families of PZT, polymer piezoelectric composites for hydrophone application. These are new advances in the phenomenology and microscopic theory of electrostriction, and the evolution of a new family of high strain ferroelectric relaxor materials for practical application. New basic understanding of the polarization mechanisms in ferroelectric relaxors has been aided by the study of order disorder of the cation arrangement in lead scandium tantalate, and the results correlate well with studies of relaxor behavior, and of shape memory effects in PLZT ceramics. Low temperature studies on pure and doped PZTs have given the first clear indication of the intrinsic (averaged) single domain in response and correlate exceedingly well with earlier phenomenological theory. Crystal growth and ceramic processing studies have developed hand in hand with program needs providing new forms of conventional materials, new grain oriented structures and single crystals.

  18. Fano resonance and dipolar relaxation in lead-free relaxors.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Hlinka, J; Bokov, A A; Ye, Z-G; Ondrejkovic, P; Petzelt, J; Bellaiche, L

    2014-01-01

    Fano resonance is a phenomenon in which a discrete state interferes with a continuum of states and has been observed in many areas of science. Here, we report on the prediction of a Fano resonance in ferroelectric relaxors, whose properties are poorly understood: an ab initio molecular dynamic scheme reveals such resonance between the bare optical phonon mode of the Zr sublattice (the discrete state) and the bare optical phonon mode of the Ti sublattice (the continuum of states) in disordered lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3. The microscopic origins of the discrete state and continuum of states are discussed in the context of relaxor properties. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that the T* characteristic temperature of relaxor is related to a hardening of the vibrational frequencies associated with fluctuation of the Ti sublattice. Finally, a terahertz relaxation mode reflecting reorientations of Ti dipoles and showing a thermally activated behaviour is predicted, in agreement with previous experiments. PMID:25369904

  19. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 modified (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 relaxor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitish; Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P.

    2014-04-01

    Lead-free Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 106 cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  20. The intermediate temperature T* revealed in relaxor polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. L.; Tian, B. B.; Geiger, S.; Hu, Z. G.; Zhao, X. L.; Zou, Y. H.; Wang, J. L.; Sun, J. L.; Sun, S.; Dkhil, B.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric and optical properties, crystal structure, and infrared spectra of the relaxor poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer films obtained from Langmuir-Blodgett method have been comprehensively investigated. All the results suggest that there exists a peculiar point at ˜370 K, which is attributed to the intermediate temperature T* recently discovered in inorganic relaxors. Here, T* results from the change in the growth rate of the trans gauche T3GT3G' chain conformations with temperature, which is similar to the transformation from dynamic to static behavior of the so-called polar nano-regions in inorganic relaxors.

  1. The extrinsic nature of nonlinear behavior observed in lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramic

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    to include the nonlinear contributions. With only 90" wall vibration being considered, the theory leadsThe extrinsic nature of nonlinear behavior observed in lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric February 1991) The nonlinear electric and electromechanical responses of lead zirconate titanate Pb

  2. Effect of Reoriented Nanodomains on Crystal Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiaolan; Zeng, Weidong; Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yuan, Changlai; Xiao, Jianrong; Ma, Jiafeng

    2015-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that electric fields induce a reversible structural phase transition and thus yield giant piezoelectric responses in ferroelectric ceramics. Based on detailed measurements of polycrystalline (Li0.5Nd0.5)2+-modified 0.95Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 ceramics, we demonstrate in this study that coherent diffraction from nanodomains in ferroelectric ceramics masks the real crystal structure. The observed electric-field-induced phase transformation behavior is a consequence of relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformation caused by changes in the coherence length of the nanodomains. A driving mechanism of the structure-property relationship in which high piezoelectric properties originate from correlated ordering of nanodomains during poling is proposed.

  3. Targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Barsch, G. R.; Biggers, J. V.

    1983-03-01

    The report delineates the new progress made in the fifth and final year and discusses the major accomplishments of the full five year program both in the basic science and in the spin off to practical transducer applications. Possible new areas of study which are suggested by the present studies are briefly reported. Major achievements include the development of a physical approach to understanding active composites, leading to the development of several new families of PZT:polymer piezoelectric composites for hydrophone application. New advances in the phenomenology and microscopic theory of electrostriction, and the evolution of a new family of high strain ferroelectric relaxor materials for practical application. New basic understanding of the polarization mechanisms in ferroelectric relaxors has been aided by the study of order-disorder of the cation arrangement in lead scandium tantalate, and the results correlate well with studies of relaxor behavior, and of shape memory effects in PLZT ceramics. Low temperature studies on pure and doped PZTs have given the first clear indication of the intrinsic (averaged) single domain response and correlate exceedingly well with earlier phenomenological theory. Crystal growth and ceramic processing studies have developed hand-in-hand with program needs providing new forms of conventional materials, new grain oriented structures and single crystals.

  4. Electrostrictive effect in ferroelectrics: An alternative approach to improve piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Jin, Li; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2014-03-01

    Electrostriction plays an important role in the electromechanical behavior of ferroelectrics and describes a phenomenon in dielectrics where the strain varies proportional to the square of the electric field/polarization. Perovskite ferroelectrics demonstrating high piezoelectric performance, including BaTiO3, Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3, and relaxor-PbTiO3 materials, have been widely used in various electromechanical devices. To improve the piezoelectric activity of these materials, efforts have been focused on the ferroelectric phase transition regions, including shift the composition to the morphotropic phase boundary or shift polymorphic phase transition to room temperature. However, there is not much room left to further enhance the piezoelectric response in perovskite solid solutions using this approach. With the purpose of exploring alternative approaches, the electrostrictive effect is systematically surveyed in this paper. Initially, the techniques for measuring the electrostrictive effect are given and compared. Second, the origin of electrostriction is discussed. Then, the relationship between the electrostriction and the microstructure and macroscopic properties is surveyed. The electrostrictive properties of ferroelectric materials are investigated with respect to temperature, composition, phase, and orientation. The relationship between electrostriction and piezoelectric activity is discussed in detail for perovskite ferroelectrics to achieve new possibilities for piezoelectric enhancement. Finally, future perspectives for electrostriction studies are proposed.

  5. Piezo-/dielectric properties of perovskite-structure high-temperature relaxor ferroelectrics: The Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ternary ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Long, Xifa

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-based ternary ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by solid-state synthesis method. • Morphotropic phase boundary region has been determined by XRD, di-/piezoelectric properties. • The compositions near MPB region exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. - Abstract: A new compositional system of relaxor ferroelectrics was investigated based on the high piezoelectricity Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric perovskite family. Compositions were fabricated near an estimated morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (PLZNT) ternary system by a two-step synthetic process. Their structures have been analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction technique. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction, the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region for the ternary system was obtained. The Curie temperature T{sub C} of ternary system varied from 240 °C to 330 °C and the coercive fields E{sub c}s > 10 kV/cm. The values of piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} vary in the range of 260–450 pC/N with different PZN contents. It is worth noting that the optimum compositions were located at MPB region but near the tetragonal phase. The new PLZNT ceramics exhibit wider range of T{sub C}s and E{sub c}s, making it a promising material for high-powder ultrasound transducers using in a large temperature range.

  6. A phase-field study on the hysteresis behaviors and domain patterns of nanocrystalline ferroelectric polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Su, Yu; Weng, George J.

    2013-05-01

    The overall hysteresis behavior of nanocrystalline ferroelectric polycrystals demonstrates unique characteristics against conventional ferroelectric ceramics. The existence of low-permittivity paraelectric grain boundary and its influence to the microstructure of grains can be a key factor leading to such characteristics, especially the grain size-dependent properties. A two dimensional (2D) polycrystalline phase-field model, which distinguishes the grain boundary from the ferroelectric grain, has been developed to investigate the microstructural evolution and hysteresis behavior of nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) polycrystals. The results show apparent grain-size dependence on the hysteresis and noticeable vortex polarization structure that dominates the grains as the grain size reduces to tens of nanometers. By studying the hysteresis and domain patterns, it is observed that the grain size-dependent properties are significantly attributed to the grain boundary in two ways: the "dilution effect" due to its low permittivity and paraelectric property that are intensified with increased volume concentration, and the extrinsic effect due to the existence of depolarization field, leading to the superparaelectric domain structure. We conclude that this grain-size dependent microstructural mechanism can well explain various experimentally observed properties of nano-grained ferroelectric polycrystals.

  7. Role of substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior of epitaxial lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor thin films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Role of substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior of epitaxial lead magnesium niobate piezoelectric coefficients (d33) lead magnesium niobate Pb Mg1/3Nb2/3 O3 PMN and lead magnesium niobate

  8. Stability of glassy and ferroelectric states in the relaxors PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 and PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-12% PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Eugene V.; Vigil, Derek; Timmerwilke, John; Weissman, M. B.; Viehland, D. D.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2007-06-01

    The stability of the disordered glassy phase in the relaxors PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 and (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.88(PbTiO3)0.12 , called PMN and PMN-PT, was investigated by preparing partially polarized samples and allowing them to age at zero field in the temperature range for which the phase is history dependent. The PMN-PT polarization would spontaneously increase until long-range order formed, first appearing as giant polarization noise. Thus, the thermodynamically stable phase in PMN-PT appears to be ferroelectric. In contrast, a PMN sample lacking the sharp first-order field-driven transition found in some other samples spontaneously depolarized, consistent with its glassy state being thermodynamically stable. Detailed thermal depolarization results in PMN showing two distinct broad peaks, as well as a small fraction of material with a distribution of abrupt melting transitions.

  9. Temperature-dependent Raman scattering and multiple phase coexistence in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. J.; Jiang, K.; Xu, G. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Li, Y. W.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-10-01

    We report direct observation for the structural transformations of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals with the aid of temperature-dependent polarized Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction. The cubic to tetragonal phase transition is observed at 460 K and tetragonal to rhombohedral structural transformation takes place at 390 K, which are consistent with the results determined by dielectric spectroscopy. In addition to two well-known phase transitions above room temperature, anomalous structure deformations involving octahedral rotations and tilting angle of polarization can be found around 200 K. A comparison of experimental results with the Devonshire expansion of the free energy by Vanderbilt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 63, 094108 (2001)] allows us to elucidate the peculiar characteristic as the variation of volume fractions among coexistence of three phases, including a first-order phase transition between the orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases and a second-order phase transition between the monoclinic and orthorhombic ones at low temperature.

  10. Confinement effect on coercive field in relaxor terpolymer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. L.; Tian, B. B.; Sun, J. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J. L.; Sun, Sh.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2015-11-01

    The confinement effect on the coercive field in relaxor ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)[P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] terpolymer nanowires with different diameters ranging from 30 to 170 nm was studied using piezoelectric force microscope. It was found that the coercive field increases significantly as the diameter of terpolymer nanowires decreases. The results can be explained by the conversion of molecule conformation from T3G to Tm>4 in the terpolymer nanowires, which is supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope.

  11. Origin of the relaxor state in Pb(BxB1-x)O3 perovskites Silvia Tinte, B. P. Burton, and Eric Cockayne

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin P.

    Origin of the relaxor state in Pb(BxB1-x)O3 perovskites Silvia Tinte, B. P. Burton, and Eric.84.Dy, 64.70.Kb, 61.46.-w Perovskite-based A(B1/2B1/2)O3 and A(B1/3B2/3)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics (RFE trans- ducer/actuator materials with extraordinary dielectric and electromechanical properties. Unlike

  12. Finite-temperature properties of the relaxor PbMg1 /3Nb2 /3O3 from atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Barakaty, A.; Prosandeev, Sergey; Wang, Dawei; Dkhil, B.; Bellaiche, L.

    2015-06-01

    An atomistic numerical scheme is developed and used to study the prototype of relaxor ferroelectrics, that is PbMg1 /3Nb2 /3O3 (PMN), at finite temperatures. This scheme not only reproduces known complex macroscopic properties of PMN, but also provides a deep microscopic insight into this puzzling system. In particular, relaxor properties of PMN are found to originate from the competition between (1) random electric fields arising from the alloying of Mg and Nb ions belonging to different columns of the Periodic Table within the same sublattice; (2) the simultaneous condensation of several off-center k points as a result of a specific short-range, antiferroelectriclike interaction between lead-centered dipoles; and (3) ferroelectriclike interactions. Such origins contrast with those recently proposed for the homovalent Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 solid solution, despite the fact that these two materials have similar macroscopic properties—which therefore leads to a comprehensive understanding of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  13. Memristive behaviors in Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Zheng; Wu, Di Li, Aidong

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate memristive behaviors in Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor ferroelectric tunnel junctions, in which the semiconductor electrode can be switched between the accumulated and the depleted states by polarization reversal in the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier via the ferroelectric field effect. An extra barrier, against electron tunneling, forms in the depleted region of the Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} electrode surface, which together with the ferroelectric barrier itself modulate the tunneling resistance with the change of effective polarization. Continuous resistance modulation over four orders of magnitude is hence achieved by application of programmed voltage pulses with different polarity, amplitude, and repetition numbers, as a result of the development of the extra barrier.

  14. Dielectric properties of PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric ceramics at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J. de los S; Venet, M.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Guerrero, F.

    2007-08-06

    Complex dielectric permittivity measurements in PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramics were performed in a frequency and temperature range of 1 kHz-1 MHz and from 15 to 900 K, respectively. The results revealed two dielectric anomalies showing typical characteristics of relaxor ferroelectric materials at cryogenic temperatures. Comparison with other tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure-type materials suggests the existence of successive phase transitions, which until now were not reported. The observed low temperature dielectric behaviors seem to be due to intrinsic physical characteristics related to the TTB structure.

  15. Experimental studies on physical deterioration and electrical fatigue behavior in ferroelectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiangtong

    Ferroelectric materials are widely used in various electronic applications based upon their excellent electrical bi-stabilities and dielectric performance in response to the applied electric field. They have been utilized to make nonvolatile electronic memories by exploiting the hysteretic behavior and high energy density capacitors in regard to the high capability of electrical energy storage. One critical issue is that the ferroelectrics are required to endure a large number of electrical cycles. A large body of scientific efforts has been devoted to high fatigue failure resistance of ferroelectric-based electronic devices. Fatigue failure of ferroelectric materials still needs to be solved. It is the objective of this work to explore the intrinsic origin of fatigue failure mechanisms. In this study, it was found that electric-field-induced stress relaxation in ?-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films can be well described by using the Kohlraush function groups, also known as the stretched exponential relaxation function. The electric strength of the dielectric is strongly dependent on its elastic properties due to the electromechanical coupling effect. Our fitting result of the stretched exponent is in accordance with a Weibull cumulative distribution function. This indicates that the elastic properties of insulating polymers are crucial to the capability of electrical energy storage. In ferroelectric materials, the electromechanical coupling may be indicative of the microscopic origin of polarization fatigue. Further experiments were focused on the polarization fatigue in semi-crystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymers films, whose ferroelectric response is superior to PVDF homopolymer films. Fatigue resistance of normal virgin P(VDF-TrFE) films was compared to that of P(VDF-TrFE) films modulated by using magnetic field. It was shown that normal P(VDF-TrFE) films exhibit a higher fatigue resistance. The artificially introduced lattice reorientation in magnetic-field-modulated P(VDF-TrFE) films would be closely related to the fatigue resistance. Under an ac electric field, the correspondingly microstructures may also influence the electrically induced lattice defects. Polarization fatigue data in P(VDF-TrFE) films was also analyzed by a dynamic Coffin-Manson law, wherein the corresponding coefficients and the exponent of the function can be estimated via different Weibull distribution function. The smallest scale found to be significant in electrical fatigue is the irreversible atomic movements. Studies on electrical failure behavior were also performed in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films. Experiment results consistently show that the measured electric polarization near the breakdown limit with respect to the failure life cycles obeys the Coffin-Manson law that is the most widely used to describe the mechanical fatigue failure behavior. The corresponding Coffin-Manson exponents remain constant. Our experimental evidence indicates that accumulation of the disordered structure at the atomic level is closely related to the physical origin of the fatigue in dielectric materials. It is the intrinsic atomic movement that constitutes the major finding in this work.

  16. The role of tetragonal side morphotropic phase boundary in modified relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for high power transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingping; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Liu, Haozhe

    2013-10-01

    Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in ferroelectric materials leads to improved properties due to the structural instability. The manganese modified Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 crystals with MPB composition were investigated, the structure/property relationship was established. The tetragonal side MPB (coexistence of 91% tetragonal and 9% monoclinic phases) was confirmed by X-ray synchrotron data, while relaxor behavior was detected by Raman characterization and dielectric measurement. Crystals with such MPB composition possess high "figure of merit" (d33.Q33 ˜ 106 pC/N), being one order higher when compared with their pure rhombohedral counterparts. Together with high Curie temperature (˜229 °C) and temperature stability of properties, demonstrating a promising candidate for high power transducer applications.

  17. Evolution of multiple dielectric responses and relaxor-like behaviors in pure and nitrogen-ion-implanted (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. H.; Yang, J.; Shen, H.; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Multiple dielectric responses are comparatively investigated in the pure and nitrogen-ion-implanted (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) films. Larger diffusive degree of phase transition and more relaxor-like features than those of pure BST films are observed in implanted ones, where the long-range-dipolar-correlated-orders were further segregated into local polar orders after the implantation. Moreover, the implanted films possess a transition from local reorientations of groups of dipoles induced nearly constant-loss (NCL) type to oxygen vacancies (Vo) hopping type conduction at high temperature. Whereas, pure films behave as NCL type conduction along with a dielectric relaxation, which arises from the motions of defect complexes Vo2+-Ti3+.

  18. Evolution of multiple dielectric responses and relaxor-like behaviors in pure and nitrogen-ion-implanted (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Gao, Yanhong; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Duan, Chungang; Tang, Xiaodong; Chu, Junhao; meng xiangjian Team; chu junhao Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiple dielectric responses are comparatively investigated in the pure and nitrogen-ion-implanted (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) films. Larger diffusive degree of phase transition and more relaxor-like features than those of pure BST films are observed in implanted ones, where the long-range-dipolar-correlated-orders were further segregated into local polar orders after the implantation. Moreover, the implanted films possess a transition from local reorientations of groups of dipoles induced nearly-constant-loss (NCL) type to oxygen vacancies (Vo) hopping type conduction at high temperature. Whereas, pure films behave as NCL type conduction along with a dielectric relaxation, which arises from the motions of defect complexes Vo2+ -Ti3+.

  19. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO? thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-21

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO? (x=0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O?-0.35Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 1/2})O?-0.34PbTiO? (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(?R/R){sub strain}] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La?.?Ba?.?MnO? film and 150 K for the La?.?Ba?.?MnO? film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  20. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La1-xBaxMnO3 thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2014-09-01

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La1-xBaxMnO3 (x = 0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb1/2)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(?R/R)strain] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La0.8Ba0.2MnO3 film and 150 K for the La0.6Ba0.4MnO3 film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  1. Pressure as a probe of the glassy state of ferroelectrics with random site disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.; Hansen, L.V.

    1998-03-10

    Results on lanthanum-modified lead zirconate-titanates (PLZTs) have revealed a pressure-induced crossover from a normal ferroelectric to a relaxor state and the continuous evolution of the dynamics and energetics of the relaxation process. This crossover appears to be a general feature of soft mode ferroelectrics with random site dipolar impurities or polar nanodomains and results from a large decrease in the correlation radius among polar nanodomains -- a unique property of soft mode ferroelectrics.

  2. Abstract: Six different behavioral models for ferroelectric capacitors are surveyed with an emphasis on their usefulness in the transient circuit simulation of integrated nonvolatile memories. These models can be

    E-print Network

    Sheikholeslami, Ali

    Abstract: Six different behavioral models for ferroelectric capacitors are surveyed and those that rely on the switching current of a ferroelectric capacitor. The former often involves a continuous cycling of a ferroelectric capacitor with a sinusoidal waveform. The latter employs a pulse

  3. Fluctuating defects in the incipient relaxor K1 -xLixTaO3 (x =0.02 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Xu, G.; Lamago, D.; Reznik, D.; Russina, M.; Wen, J.; Boatner, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We report neutron scattering measurements of the structural correlations associated with the apparent relaxor transition in K1 -xLixTaO3 for x =0.02 [KLT(0.02)]. This compound displays a broad and frequency-dependent peak in the dielectric permittivity, which is the accepted hallmark of all relaxors. However, no evidence of elastic diffuse scattering or any soft-mode anomaly is observed in KLT(0.02) [J. Wen et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 144202 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.144202], a situation that diverges from that in other relaxors such as PbMg1 /3Nb2 /3O3 . We resolve this dichotomy by showing that the structural correlations associated with the transition in KLT(0.02) are purely dynamic at all temperatures, having a time scale on the order of ˜ THz. These fluctuations are overdamped, nonpropagating, and spatially uncorrelated. Identical measurements made on pure KTaO3 show that they are absent (within experimental error) in the undoped parent material. They exhibit a temperature dependence that correlates well with the dielectric response, which suggests that they are associated with local ferroelectric regions induced by the Li+ doping. The ferroelectric transition that is induced by the introduction of Li+ cations is therefore characterized by quasistatic fluctuations, which represents a stark contrast to the soft-harmonic-mode-driven transition observed in conventional perovskite ferroelectrics such as PbTiO3. The dynamic, glasslike structural correlations in KLT(0.02) are much faster than those measured in random-field-based lead-based relaxors, which exhibit a frequency scale of order ˜ GHz and are comparatively better correlated spatially. Our results support the view that static random fields give rise to the relaxor phenomena, and that the glasslike dynamics observed here characterize a nascent response.

  4. Piezoresponse force microscopic study of ferroelectric (1 - x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 - xPbTiO3 and Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Y.; Bing, Y. H.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2012-09-01

    The microscopic piezoelectric response and ferroelectric domain switching in the (001)-oriented rhombohedral piezo-/ferroelectric (1 - x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PSN-PT) and relaxor Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PSN) single crystals were studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. PSN-PT shows clear domain structures while the domain contrast of PSN is very weak. For PSN-PT, after being fully poled vertically, its lateral domain structure is still composed of a multi-domain state. Both PSN-PT and PSN crystals respond to positive and negative DC field drives through piezoelectricity. However, their poling behaviors are different. For PSN-PT, during successive applications of a positive external electric field, the areas with piezoresponse in phase with the electric field grow at the expense of domains of opposite piezoresponse, implying a domain switching process via sideway motion of domain walls. On the other hand, in the PSN single crystal, the piezoresponse contrast of the alternatively poled area shows a uniformly fading and enhancing pattern, depending on the direction of the polarization component of the domains relative to the external field. While the domain pattern of PSN-PT and its evolution under an external field behave like a normal ferroelectric material, the domain structure and domain evolution process of PSN appear to be abnormal for a ferroelectric, but consistent with the character of a relaxor.

  5. Raman spectroscopy study of ferroelectric modes in 001-oriented 0.67Pb,,Mg1/3Nb2/3...O30.33PbTiO3 single crystals

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    - sitions near the morphotropic phase boundary MPB x =0.33­0.34 have piezoelectric constant d33 2400 p on both relaxor ferroelectrics and relaxor-based ferroelectrics showed that, even in the high-temperature of micro-Raman spectra of a 001 -oriented 0.67Pb Mg1/3Nb2/3 O3­0.33PbTiO3 single crystal in the temperature

  6. Frequency-dependent ferroelectric behavior of BaMn3Ti4O14.25 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Muhammad E.; Liu, Shuangyi; O'Brien, Stephen; Li, Jackie

    2015-07-01

    We report the activation field and selective frequency-dependent ferroelectric behavior of BaMn3Ti4O14.25 (BMT-134) at room temperature. BMT-134, a recently discovered multiferroic complex oxide, exhibits antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior and belongs to the hollandite crystal class. The microstructure can be manipulated through processing conditions to prepare a nanocrystalline textured tablet. We measured polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops and strain-electric field butterfly loops as a function of frequency in order to investigate the AC dynamics of domain switching and strain behavior. Under an electric field loading condition, a clear hysteresis loop of the electric field-displacement curve is obtained at 50 Hz, indicating that room temperature ferroelectricity is attainable under the right processing conditions. When the frequency is increased to 500 Hz, the coercive field also increases, until the frequency reaches 5 kHz, at which point the electric field versus electric displacement becomes linear indicating the limit of domain switching at high frequency.

  7. Structural change in polar nanoregion in alkali niobate added Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.95Ti0.05O3 single crystal and its effect on ferroelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Sung; Jung, Youngsoo; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.95Ti0.05O3 (PZNT) single crystals with 5 mol. % alkali niobate such as LiNbO3 (LN), NaNbO3 (NN), and KNbO3 (KN) were fabricated by using a flux method to investigate the effect of A-site cation radius on the structure and ferroelectric properties of PZNT under electric field (E-field). Their structure and properties showed different electric field dependence. Polarization versus electric field and strain versus electric field curves of PZNT-0.05LN showed E-field induced phase transition from a relaxor state to a normal ferroelectric state. However, only relaxor behavior was observed in PZNT-0.05NN and PZNT-0.05KN. The effect of A-site ion doping is attributed to the change in local lattice distortion and polar nano-region. When smaller cation such as Li ion substitutes Pb ion, the off-center displacement of Nb ion stabilizes rhombohedral lattice distortion. They, in turn, facilitate the development of macro-domains under electric field (E-field) in PZNT-0.05LN. In contrast, the substitution of Pb with larger cations such as Ni and K decreases the rhombohedral distortion of PZNT, which leads to the disappearance of unique E-field induced phase transition from rhombohedral to tetragonal phase in PZNT. Therefore, non-linear electrostrictive behavior of relaxor ferroelectrics is found in PZNT-0.05NN and PZNT-0.05KN.

  8. Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of grain-orientated Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing; Shen Zhijian; Yan Haixue; Reece, Michael J.; Kan Yanmei; Wang Peiling

    2007-11-15

    By dynamic forging during Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), grain-orientated ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT) ceramics were prepared. Their ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are anisotropic. The textured ceramics parallel and perpendicular to the shear flow directions have similar thermal depoling behaviors. The d{sub 33} piezoelectric coefficient of BLT ceramics gradually reduces up to 350 deg. C; it then drops rapidly. The broadness of the dielectric constant and loss peaks and the existence of d{sub 33} above the permittivity peak, T{sub m}, show that the BLT ceramic has relaxor-like behavior.

  9. Temperature dependences of ferroelectricity and resistive switching behavior of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeng-Xing; Song, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Na; Li, Zhong-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Bin; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Lu, Xu-Bing; Wu, Su-Juan; Gao, Xing-Sen; Yan, Zhi-Bo; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the resistive switching and ferroelectric polarization properties of high-quality epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films in various temperature ranges. The room temperature current-voltage (I-V) curve exhibits a well-established polarization-modulated memristor behavior. At low temperatures (< 253 K), the I-V curve shows an open circuit voltage (OCV), which possibly originates from the dielectric relaxation effects, accompanied with a current hump due to the polarization reversal displacement current. While at relative higher temperatures (> 253 K), the I-V behaviors are governed by both space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Ohmic behavior. The polarization reversal is able to trigger the conduction switching from Ohmic to SCLC behavior, leading to the observed ferroelectric resistive switching. At a temperature of > 298 K, there occurs a new resistive switching hysteresis at high bias voltages, which may be related to defect-mediated effects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272078 and 51332007), the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No 2015CB921202), the Guangdong Provincial Universities and Colleges Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme, China (2014), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Platform Program of Guangzhou, China (Grant No. 2014J4500016), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of China (Grant No. IRT1243).

  10. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the transversal (x–y) direction, and the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  11. Growth and characterization of piezo-/ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 ternary single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Reagan A.; Tailor, Hamel N.; Long, Xifa; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2011-03-01

    In order to develop new piezo-/ferroelectric materials, single crystals of the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 [PMN-PT-BZT] ternary complex perovskite system has been grown by a high temperature solution method using the mixture of PbO and H3BO3 as flux (in a molar ratio of 4:2) with an optimum flux:charge molar ratio of 6:1. It is found that the addition of BZT into the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT system reduces the number of spontaneous nucleations, resulting in large single crystals (5 mm×5 mm×14 mm) of good quality. The grown crystals exhibit a pseudo-cubic morphology and show evidence of two-dimensional growth mechanism. Examination by polarized light microscopy (PLM) reveals the formation of striation, which can be reduced by changing the growth conditions. The domain structure and phase transition of the PMN-PT-BZT crystals are investigated by PLM. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric permittivity of the grown crystals show typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior, with the frequency dependence of the temperature of maximum permittivity (Tmax) following the Vogel-Fulcher law. The ferroelectric property is displayed in the crystals with a remnant polarization, Pr=21 ?C/cm2 and a coercive field, EC=3.5 kV/cm. The piezoelectric coefficient, d33, is found to be 825 pC/N, a value much higher than that of the ternary ceramics.

  12. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 80 [6] 146268 (1997) Domain-Related Phase Transitionlike Behavior in Lead Zinc Niobate

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    1997-01-01

    Niobate Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals Maureen L. Mulvihill,* L. Eric Cross,* Wenwu Cao,* and Kenji observed by severalThe relaxor ferroelectric lead zinc niobate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3) methods, such as optical LEAD zinc niobate, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZN), single crystals Single crystals of PZN were grown using

  13. Compositional engineering of BaTiO3/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 ferroelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Resto, Oscar; Maslova, O. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2013-09-01

    Epitaxial strain is one of the major factors influencing physical properties of artificial superlattice (SL) structures. One way to control the local stress in epitaxial films is altering the lattice parameters by doping. Superlattices of BT/Ba(1-x)SrxTiO3 (BT/BST) with x = (0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 1) with a modulation period of about 80-90 Å were grown on La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 coated (100) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The modulated structure of the thin films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The increase in Sr concentration in BST layers of the SLs results in an increase in in-plane (a) and out-plane (c) compressive/tensile misfit strains in the BT/BST layers, respectively. The highest value of the dielectric constant was obtained for BT/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BT/BST3070) and BT/Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BT/BST7030) SLs. Slim, asymmetric, but well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in all SLs. Additionally, BT/BST SLs exhibited exceptionally high electric field stress sustainability over a wide range of frequency (10 kHz) and temperature (80-350 K). Temperature-dependent dielectric and ferroelectric properties show a ferroelectric relaxor behavior when the Sr content is increased in the BST layer of the SLs. Analysis of polarization versus temperature data using Landau-Devonshire theory suggests a second-order ferroelectric phase transition in these SLs. This structure can therefore be attractive in the design of a new kind of dielectric device capable in both high power and high energy density applications.

  14. Piezoelectric activity in Perovskite ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Wang, Linghang; Jin, Li; Lin, Dabin; Li, Jinglei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite ferroelectrics (PFs) have been the dominant piezoelectric materials for various electromechanical applications, such as ultrasonic transducers, sensors, and actuators, to name a few. In this review article, the development of PF crystals is introduced, focusing on the crystal growth and piezoelectric activity. The critical factors responsible for the high piezoelectric activity of PFs (i.e., phase transition, monoclinic phase, domain size, relaxor component, dopants, and piezoelectric anisotropy) are surveyed and discussed. A general picture of the present understanding on the high piezoelectricity of PFs is described. At the end of this review, potential approaches to further improve the piezoelectricity of PFs are proposed. PMID:25585387

  15. Enhanced piezoelectric response in the artificial ferroelectric polymer multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X. L.; Wang, J. L. E-mail: lin-tie@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Tian, B. B.; Liu, B. L.; Wang, X. D.; Sun, S.; Zou, Y. H.; Lin, T. E-mail: lin-tie@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    An actuator with a high piezoelectric response, the ferroelectric polymer multilayer actuator, is described. The ferroelectric polymer multilayers consisting of alternative ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer and relaxor poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofloroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) terpolymer with different periodicities and fixed total thickness are prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements indicate that the structure of the multilayer with thin alternating layer is similar to that of the ferroelectric copolymer. Compared with that of the copolymer, it is found that the piezoelectric coefficient of the multilayer could be improved by 57%. We attributed the enhanced piezoelectric response of the multilayers to the internal electric fields that arises from the electrostatic couplings between different layers.

  16. Second-harmonic generation and x-ray diffraction studies of the pretransitional region and polar phase in relaxor K(1-x)LixTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hiroko; Uesu, Yoshiaki; Malibert, Charlotte; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2007-05-01

    Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) observations and precise x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on quantum paraelectrics KTaO3 (KTO) and relaxors K(1-x)LixTaO3 with x=3% (KLT-3) and 7% (KLT-7). It is found in KLT-3 and KLT-7 that a pretransitional region exists between two characteristic temperatures TB and Tp(behavior of dielectric constant. These facts strongly suggest that polar nanoregions (PNRs) nucleate around TB and grow toward Tp . Below Tp , a larger deformation and a field-induced SH intensity start to develop, while no significant SHG appears in the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) process because of macroscopic inversion symmetry of the polydomain structure. The field-cooling (FC) process breaks the macroscopic inversion symmetry and the temperature dependence of SH intensity in field heating after FC coincides well with that of the tetragonality determined by x-ray diffraction experiments. The Landau-Devonshire phenomenological approach suggests that the ferroelectric phase transition at Tp is of first order and that it approaches the second-order transition with a decrease in the Li concentration. A marked increase of neutron-diffraction intensities below Tp , together with the disappearance of SHG intensity in a ZFC run, indicates that PNRs are transformed to ferroelectric microdomains at Tp . The microdomains become macroscopic below Tp in the FC process. In the lower-temperature region, nonergodic behavior was observed: The ZFC state cannot approach the thermodynamically equilibrium state under the electric field within finite time.

  17. Unusual Strong Incommensurate Modulation in a Tungsten-Bronze-Type Relaxor PbBiNb5O15.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Zhou, Zhengyang; Liu, Laijun; Ma, Hongqiang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Sun, Junliang; You, Li; Kasai, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Xing, Xianran

    2015-10-28

    Pb- or Bi-based perovskite oxides have been widely studied and used because of their large ferroelectric polarization features induced by stereochemically active 6s(2) lone pair electrons. It is intriguing whether this effect could exist in other related systems. Herein, we designed and synthesized a mixed Pb and Bi A site polar compound, PbBiNb5O15, with the TTB framework. The as-synthesized material turns out to be a relaxor with weak macroscopic ferroelectricity but adopts strong local polarizations. What's more, unusual five orders of incommensurate satellite reflections with strong intensities were observed under the electron diffraction, suggesting that the modulation is highly developed with large amplitudes. The structural modulation was solved with a (3 + 1)D superspace group using high-resolution synchrotron radiation combined with anomalous dispersion X-ray diffraction technique to distinguish Pb from Bi. We show that the strong modulation mainly originates from lone-pair driven Pb(2+)-Bi(3+) ordering in the large pentagonal caves, which can suppress the local polarization in x-y plane in long ranges. Moreover, the as-synthesized ceramics display strong relaxor ferroelectric feature with transition temperature near room temperature and moderate dielectric properties, which could be functionalized to be electromechanical device materials. PMID:26474121

  18. SISGR -- Domain Microstructures and Mechanisms for Large, Reversible and Anhysteretic Strain Behaviors in Phase Transforming Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu U.

    2013-12-06

    This four-year project (including one-year no-cost extension) aimed to advance fundamental understanding of field-induced strain behaviors of phase transforming ferroelectrics. We performed meso-scale phase field modeling and computer simulation to study domain evolutions, mechanisms and engineering techniques, and developed computational techniques for nanodomain diffraction analysis; to further support above originally planned tasks, we also carried out preliminary first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defects and domain walls to complement meso-scale computations as well as performed in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments to guide theoretical development (both without extra cost to the project thanks to XSEDE supercomputers and DOE user facility Advanced Photon Source).

  19. Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate in the ferroelectric phase

    E-print Network

    below Tc1 as well. Elastic properties of NBT are well described in terms of cubic symmetry [7.L. Ivchenko Abstract This paper describes studies of relaxor ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) by inelastic

  20. Ferroelectric barium titanate nanocubes as capacitive building blocks for energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Mellinger, Axel; Caruntu, Gabriel

    2014-10-22

    Highly uniform polymer-ceramic nanocomposite films with high energy density values were fabricated by exploiting the unique ability of monodomain, nonaggregated BaTiO3 colloidal nanocrystals to function as capacitive building blocks when dispersed into a weakly interacting dielectric matrix. Monodisperse, surface-functionalized ferroelectric 15 nm BaTiO3 nanoparticles have been selectively incorporated with a high packing density into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VDF-HFP)) leading to the formation of biphasic BaTiO3-P(VDF-HFP) nanocomposite films. A systematic investigation of the electrical properties of the nanocomposites by electrostatic force microscopy and conventional dielectric measurements reveals that polymer-ceramic film capacitor structures exhibit a ferroelectric relaxor-type behavior with an increased intrinsic energy density. The composite containing 7% BaTiO3 nanocrystals displays a high permittivity (? = 21) and a relatively high energy density (E = 4.66 J/cm(3)) at 150 MV/m, which is 166% higher than that of the neat polymer and exceeds the values reported in the literature for polymer-ceramic nanocomposites containing a similar amount of nanoparticle fillers. The easy processing and electrical properties of the polymer-ceramic nanocomposites make them suitable for implementation in pulse power capacitors, high power systems and other energy storage applications. PMID:25255863

  1. Pressure-induced changes in the dielectric response of polymer relaxors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilczer, B.; Szafranski, M.; Hilczer, A.

    2012-01-30

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the dielectric response of P(VDF/TrFE)(50/50) irradiated with fast electrons has been studied. A non-linear upward shift of the glass transition temperature T{sub g} and the Curie temperature T{sub C} of the polymer relaxors was observed under pressure with the initial slope dT{sub g}/dp being considerably smaller than dT{sub C}/dp. Moreover, pressure was found to reduce the contribution to the low-frequency dielectric absorption originating from segmental motions in the amorphous phase whereas the contribution related to ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and that of polar nanoclusters in the crystalline phase were found to be enhanced.

  2. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Behavior of Bismuth-Doped Barium Titanate Ceramic Prepared by Microwave Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, A.; Parida, S.; Sarangi, S.; Badapanda, T.

    2015-08-01

    Bismuth-doped barium titanate ceramics with the general formula Ba1- x Bi2 x/3TiO3 ( x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05) have been prepared by the solid state reaction technique. The phase formation and structural property of all compositions have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Rietveld refinement. XRD pattern reports the single phase tetragonal crystal system with space group of P4mm. All compositions have been sintered at 1100°C in a microwave furnace for 30 min. The variation of dielectric constant with respect to temperature and frequency was studied and it was found that the dielectric constant decreases whereas transition temperature increased with the increase in Bi content. The diffusivity parameter was calculated by the modified Curie-Weiss law and the diffusivity increased with the increase in Bi content. The ferroelectric property was studied by the P-E hysteresis loop and it was observed that the saturation polarization decreased, but the coercive field increased with Bi content. The optical band gap was calculated from UV-Visible spectroscopy and found to decrease with Bi content.

  3. Supramolecular ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayi, Alok S.; Kaeser, Adrien; Matsumoto, Michio; Aida, Takuzo; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-04-01

    Supramolecular chemistry uses non-covalent interactions to coax molecules into forming ordered assemblies. The construction of ordered materials with these reversible bonds has led to dramatic innovations in organic electronics, polymer science and biomaterials. Here, we review how supramolecular strategies can advance the burgeoning field of organic ferroelectricity. Ferroelectrics -- materials with a spontaneous and electrically reversible polarization -- are touted for use in non-volatile computer memories, sensors and optics. Historically, this physical phenomenon has been studied in inorganic materials, although some organic examples are known and strong interest exists to extend the search for ferroelectric molecular systems. Other undiscovered applications outside this regime could also emerge. We describe the key features necessary for molecular and supramolecular dipoles in organic ferroelectrics and their incorporation into ordered systems, such as porous frameworks and liquid crystals. The goal of this Review is to motivate the development of innovative supramolecular ferroelectrics that exceed the performance and usefulness of known systems.

  4. Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whatmore, Roger

    Ferroelectric materials offer a wide range of useful properties. These include ferroelectric hysteresis (used in nonvolatile memories), high permittivities (used in capacitors), high piezoelectric effects (used in sensors, actuators and resonant wave devices such as radio-frequency filters), high pyroelectric coefficients (used in infra-red detectors), strong electro-optic effects (used in optical switches) and anomalous temperature coefficients of resistivity (used in electric-motor overload-protection circuits). In addition, ferroelectrics can be made in a wide variety of forms, including ceramics, single crystals, polymers and thin films - increasing their exploitability. This chapter gives an account of the basic theories behind the ferroelectric effect and the main ferroelectric material classes, discussing how their properties are related to their composition and the different ways they are made. Finally, it reviews the major applications for this class of materials, relating the ways in which their key functional properties affect those of the devices in which they are exploited.

  5. Large electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric polymers near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Neese, Bret; Chu, Baojin; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Wang, Yong; Furman, E; Zhang, Q M

    2008-08-01

    Applying an electrical field to a polar polymer may induce a large change in the dipolar ordering, and if the associated entropy changes are large, they can be explored in cooling applications. With the use of the Maxwell relation between the pyroelectric coefficient and the electrocaloric effect (ECE), it was determined that a large ECE can be realized in the ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer at temperatures above the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition (above 70 degrees C), where an isothermal entropy change of more than 55 joules per kilogram per kelvin degree and adiabatic temperature change of more than 12 degrees C were observed. We further showed that a similar level of ECE near room temperature can be achieved by working with the relaxor ferroelectric polymer of P(VDF-TrFE-chlorofluoroethylene). PMID:18687960

  6. Polarization behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ferroelectric thin film capacitors for nonvolatile memory application in flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Mejia, I.; Stiegler, H.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-11-01

    The time domain and electric field dependence of the polarization switching kinetics of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer based thin film metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors have been characterized. At room temperature, the time required for complete switching polarization decreases from >1 s to <50 ?s as the voltage is increased from 6 to 12 V, while low nonswitching polarization is maintained. In the time domain, the ferroelectric switching polarization reversal behavior for devices biased above the coercive field follows the nucleation-limited-switching model. The exponential relationship between switching time and applied electric field indicates nucleation dominated switching kinetics. Switching behavior as a function of temperature was also characterized from -60 to 100 °C in the voltage range of 6-12 V. Higher temperatures induce larger dc conductance leakage at low frequencies and increases nonswitching polarization for all the voltages studied. It is demonstrated that for certain frequencies, by controlling the switching voltage, our optimized ferroelectric thin film capacitor shows stable switching polarization in a temperature range compatible with flexible electronics applications.

  7. Nonlinear-optic and ferroelectric behavior of lithium borate{endash}strontium bismuth tantalate glass{endash}ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil Murugan, G.; Varma, K. B. R.; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2001-06-18

    Transparent glasses in the system (100{endash}x) Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{endash}xSrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (0{le}x{le}20) were fabricated via a splat-quenching technique. The glassy nature of the as-quenched samples was established by differential thermal analyses. X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the as-quenched and crystallinity (40 nm) in the heat-treated (glass{endash}ceramic) samples. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) of the glass{endash}ceramic composite (x=20, heat treated at 773 K/8 h) was in between that of the parent host glass (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) and strontium bismuth tantalate ceramics in the frequency range 100 Hz{endash}40 MHz at 300 K. These exhibited intense second-harmonic generation and a ferroelectric hysteritic behavior (P vs E loops) at 300 K. The coercive field (E{sub c}) and the remnant polarization (P{sub r}) were 1053 V/cm and 0.483 {mu}C/cm2, respectively. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural origins for the electric field-induced phenomena in ferroelectric perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng

    Ferroelectrics are important materials due to their extensive technological applications, such as non-volatile memories, field-effect transistors, ferroelectric tunneling junctions, dielectric capacitors, piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. As is well known, the outstanding dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of these functional oxides originate from their ferroelectric domain arrangements and the corresponding evolution under external stimuli (e.g. electric field, stress, and temperature). Electric field has been known as the most efficient stimulus to manipulate the ferroelectric domains through polarization switching and alignment. Therefore, direct observation of the dynamic process of electric field-induced domain evolution and crystal structure transformation is of significant importance to understand the microstructural mechanisms for the functional properties of ferroelectrics. In this dissertation, electric field in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was employed to monitor the real-time evolution of the domain morphology and crystal structure during various electrical processes: (1) the initial poling process, (2) the electric field reversal process, and (3) the electrical cycling process. Two types of perovskite-structured ceramics, normal ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics, were used for this investigation. In addition to providing the microscopic insight for some well-accepted phase transformation rules, discoveries of some new or even unexpected physical phenomena were also demonstrated. For the initial poling process, microstructural origins for the piezoelectricity development in the three most promising lead-free piezoceramic systems were investigated. For the non-ergodic relaxor ferroelectric compositions ( x = 6% - 9%) in the (1-x)(Bi1/2Na 1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 system, well-developed piezoelectricity was realized at poling fields far below the coercive field and phase transition field. Such an unusual behavior is attributed to the electric field-induced irreversible P4bm nanodomains coalescence into thin lamellar domains prior to the phase transition. In the (K0.5 Na0.5)NbO3-based ceramics, as demonstrated by an archetypical polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) composition of 0.948(K 0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.052LiSbO3, the origin of the excellent piezoelectric performance is due to a tilted monoclinic phase that emerges from the tetragonal and orthorhombic PPB at the poling fields beyond 14 kV/cm. This monoclinic phase, as manifested by the appearance of blotchy domains and 1/2{oeo} superlattice diffraction spots, was determined to possess a Pm symmetry with a 0b+c0 oxygen octahedra tilting and antiparallel cation displacements. For the PPB composition of x = 0.5 in the (1-x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8 )O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO 3 solid solution system, the original multi-domain state was found to transform into a unique single-domain state with orthorhombic symmetry at very moderate poling fields of 3 6 kV/cm. This single-domain state is suggested to be primarily responsible for the observed large piezoelectricity due to its significant elastic softening. In the electrical reversal process, a highly unusual phenomenon of electric field-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition was directly observed in a lead-free composition of [(Bi1/2Na1/2)0.95 Ba0.05]0.98La0.02TiO3. It is manifested by the disruption of large ferroelectric domains with long range polar order into polar nanodomains with short range orders when the polarity of electric field is reversed. This observation was further rationalized by a phenomenological model that takes the large difference in kinetics between the phase transition and the polarization reversal processes into account. During the electrical cycling process, the microstructural mechanisms for electric fatigue behaviors of two ceramics were investigated. In 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3, the frozen domain configuration after 103 cycles is responsible for the pronounced functionality degradation. Both seed inhibition and domain wall pinning mech

  9. Large strain response based on relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-SrTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Laijun; Shi, Danping; Knapp, Michael; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) addition on the ferroelectric and dielectric behavior of 90Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-10SrTiO3 (BNT-ST) lead-free piezoceramics was investigated. Polarization and strain hysteresis loops indicate that a relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence will be produced with the addition of KNN as a replacement for ST up to 5% and the destabilization of the phase coherence is accompanied by an enhancement of the bipolar strain with the increase of temperature, which is ˜0.37% (corresponding to a large signal d33* of ˜530 pm/V at 90 °C) at 5 mol. % KNN content. This strain was analyzed as derived from an electrostrictive effect at lower electric fields and a field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition at higher electric fields. The large polar strain response would be of great interest for environmental friendly high-temperature actuators.

  10. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-07-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.

  11. Resistive switching via the converse magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic multilayers on ferroelectric substrates.

    PubMed

    Pertsev, N A; Kohlstedt, H

    2010-11-26

    A voltage-controlled resistive switching is predicted for ferromagnetic multilayers and spin valves mechanically coupled to a ferroelectric substrate. The switching between low- and high-resistance states results from the strain-driven magnetization reorientations by about 90°, which are shown to occur in ferromagnetic layers with a high magnetostriction and weak cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Such reorientations, not requiring external magnetic fields, can be realized experimentally by applying moderate electric field to a thick substrate (bulk or membrane type) made of a relaxor ferroelectric having ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients. The proposed multiferroic hybrids exhibiting giant magnetoresistance may be employed as electric-write nonvolatile magnetic memory cells with nondestructive readout. PMID:21030777

  12. Giant electro-mechanical energy conversion in [011] cut ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wen D.; Finkel, Peter; Amin, Ahmed; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Giant electro-mechanical energy conversion is demonstrated under a ferroelectric/ferroelectric phase transformation in [011] cut and poled lead titanate-based relaxor perovskite morphotropic single crystals. It is found that under mechanical pre-stress, a relatively small oscillatory stress drives the material reversibly between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases with a remarkably high polarization and strain jump induced at zero bias electric field and room temperature. The measured electrical output per cycle is more than an order of magnitude larger than that reported for linear piezoelectric materials. Ideal thermodynamic cycles are presented for this electro-mechanical energy conversion followed by a presentation and discussion of the experimental data.

  13. Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium niobate M of the photorefractive light-induced scattering (beam fanning) in Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (strontium barium niobate) doped

  14. Size effects in a relaxor: further insights into PMN.

    PubMed

    Grigalaitis, R; Ivanov, M; Macutkevic, J; Banys, J; Carreaud, J; Kiat, J M; Laguta, V V; Zalar, B

    2014-07-01

    Dielectric measurements of PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) powder and dense ceramics with grain sizes between 15?nm and two microns were carried out in a broad frequency range (20?Hz-1?GHz). Clear grain size dependence of relaxor behavior was evidenced. A progressive transformation from Vogel-Fulcher behavior towards the Arrhenius process in the PMN with reduction of grain size in both ceramics and powder was observed. In the case of ceramics we were able to extract deeper information from the distributions of relaxation times and an analysis using the Vogel-Fulcher law, revealing two main contributions: a fast part of distribution of relaxation times with a maximum close to 10(-11)?s, which is almost grain-size independent and has a non-polar origin; whereas, a process with long relaxation times (in the time range of 10(-8)?to 10(-5)?s) is associated with the dynamics of the polar nanoregions and is strongly suppressed with reduction of grain size. The results of dielectric investigations are confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments. PMID:24925462

  15. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device, the need to fully understand how size and morphology affect domain behaviour in small scale ferroelectrics is obvious. In this talk, observations from a programme of study examining domains in meso and nano-scale BaTiO3 shapes, that have been cut directly from bulk single crystal using focused ion beam milling, will be presented. In general, the equilibrium static domain configurations that occur appear to be the result of a simultaneous desire to minimize both the macroscopic strain and depolarizing fields developed on cooling through the Curie Temperature. While such governing factors might be obvious, the specific patterns that result as a function of morphology are often non-intuitive, and a series of images of domains in nanodots, rods and wires will be presented and rationalised. In addition, the nature in which morphological factors influence domain dynamics during switching will be discussed, with particular focus on axial switching in nanowires, and the manner in which local surface perturbations (such as notches and antinotches) affect domain wall propagation. In collaboration with Alina Schilling, Li-Wu Chang, Mark McMillen, Raymond McQuaid, and Leo McGilly, Queen's University Belfast; Gustau Catalan, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona; and James Scott, University of Cambridge.

  16. Ferroelectric behaviors and charge carriers in Nd-doped Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, X.S.; Xue, J.M.; Wang, J.

    2005-02-01

    Nd-doped Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films (Bi{sub 3.25}Nd{sub 0.85}){sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}, of layered perovskite structure were synthesized by rf sputtering, followed by postannealing at 600-700 deg. C. They show enhanced ferroelectricity with rising postannealing temperature in the range of 650-750 deg. C. When annealed at 700 deg. C, a remanent polarization 2P{sub r} of 25.2 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field E{sub c} of 87.2 kV/cm were measured at 9 V, together with an almost fatigue-free behavior up to 1.4x10{sup 10} switching cycles. Their ferroelectric, dielectric, and ac conductivity properties over the temperature range from 25 to 300 deg. C were studied over the frequency range of 0.1-1 MHz. Space-charge relaxation by oxygen vacancies was shown to play an important role in determining the dielectric and conductivity behaviors of Nd-doped Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films.

  17. Optical interband transitions in [111] poled relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–(0.76 ? x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Sun, Enwei; Wang, Zhu; Yin, Yongqi; Pei, Yanbo; Yang, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    Optical transmission spectra of single crystal 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–(0.76 ? x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (x = 0.27, 0.33) were measured in the pseudo-cubic crystallographic directions [111] and [112?]. Ferroelectric domain structures were observed in order to explain the difference of transmittance for the two composition crystals. Wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficients was measured and the optical energy band gaps were calculated for both direct and indirect transitions, which are Egd = 3.09–3.18 eV and Egi = 2.89–2.96 eV, respectively, and the phonon energy is Ep = 0.07–0.08 eV. The transmission spectra were explained by the refractive indices and extinction coefficients measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. PMID:25170190

  18. Unusual behavior of the ferroelectric polarization in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices.

    PubMed

    Dawber, M; Lichtensteiger, C; Cantoni, M; Veithen, M; Ghosez, P; Johnston, K; Rabe, K M; Triscone, J-M

    2005-10-21

    Artificial PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices were constructed using off-axis rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction and piezoelectric atomic force microscopy were used to study the evolution of the ferroelectric polarization as the ratio of PbTiO3 to SrTiO3 was changed. For PbTiO3 layer thicknesses larger than the 3-unit cell SrTiO3 thickness used in the structure, the polarization is found to be reduced as the thickness is decreased. This observation confirms the primary role of the depolarization field in the polarization reduction in thin films. For the samples with ratios of PbTiO3 to SrTiO3 of less than one, a surprising recovery of ferroelectricity that cannot be explained by electrostatic considerations was observed. PMID:16383870

  19. Thermal diffusivity and 3D-XY critical behavior of ferroelectric semiconductors (PbxSn1-x)2P2Se6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A. A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    An ac photopyroelectric calorimeter has been used to study the thermal diffusivity of the ferroelectric semiconductors family (PbxSn1-x)2P2Se6 (x=0-1) from 30 K to room temperature. Phase transitions have been found for x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.47 but not for x=1 in the full temperature range. A continuous phase transition has been found for x=0, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.47 which corresponds to the paraelectric commensurate to incommensurate phase. It has been possible to study the critical behavior of this transition for x=0, 0.05 and the critical parameters obtained have been ?=-0.019, A+/A-=1.00 and ?=-0.026, A+/A-=1.03, respectively, having fitted at the same time both the low and high temperature branches of the transition as rigorous critical theory indicates; these results agree with the theoretical prediction from renormalization group theory that this kind of transition complies with the 3D-XY universality class (?theor=-0.014, A+/A-=1.06), which has been experimentally confirmed only in a few materials. A first order incommensurate to ferroelectric phase transition has been characterized in x=0, 0.05 at lower temperature.

  20. Electrical Properties of Barium and Zirconium Modified NBT Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Sambasiva; Tilak, B.; Swathi, A.; Workineh, Haileeyesus; Rajulu, K. Ch. Varada

    2011-11-22

    Recently a new wave of interest has risen on relaxor ferroelectrics with complex perovskite structure due to their wide use in fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors, electrostrictive actuators, and electromechanical transducers. The polycrystalline 0.93(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})Ba{sub 0.07}Z{sub 0.04}T{sub 0.96}O{sub 3}(0.07BNBZT) ceramic material, which is in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been prepared by using high temperature solid state reaction method. The tolerance factor has been estimated and found to be 0.815. XRD analysis revealed a rhombohedral perovskite type structure. SEM micrographs showed highly dense grains with rectangular shape. The average grain size is found to be 1.51{mu}m. Dielectric studies in the material ha indicated relaxor behaviour with diffuse phase transition. High value of {epsilon}{sub m}>1958 is found at 1kHz, Tm (phase transition temperature) 335 deg. C, The diffuseness parameter was established to be 1.60 revealing the relaxor behaviour. Further, to confirm the relaxor behaviour in the material, Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) relation has been used. Estimated V-F parameters are found to be T{sub f} = 138 deg. C, E{sub a} = 0.080 eV and {nu}{sub o} = 2.32x10{sup 8} Hz. Cole-Cole analysis has shown a non-Debye type relaxation in the system. Conductivity studies in the material obeyed the Jonscher's power law in frequency range of (45Hz-5MHz) and temperature range of (35 deg. C - 600 deg. C). The electric conduction in the system may be due to hopping/mobility/ transportation of charge carriers.

  1. Relaxor in KF-doped BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramics by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jun; Akishige, Yukikuni

    2008-02-04

    Dense BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramics with KF doping up to 5 at. % were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The SPS method enabled us to overcome the densifying difficulty in conventional sintering which is caused by the limit of the decomposing temperature of this metastable phase. We observed drastic KF-doping effect on the ferroelectric (FE) properties of BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Although there is only very small change in lattice parameters upon KF doping, the peak temperature in dielectric constant strongly decreases in an exponential way. The diffuseness of phase transition increases and FE relaxor state sets in for KF content as low as 1 at. %. Possible structural reasons for the effect and the implication for the nature of FE phase transition in BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} are discussed.

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 174112 (2013) Ferroelectric precursor behavior in PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 detected by field-induced resonant

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    2013-01-01

    with the perovskite struc- ture are expected to play a major role as device materials, taking advantage of their outstanding dielectric, electro-optic, pyroelectric1 and piezoelectric properties.2 They are described as relaxors because their dielectric anomaly in the transition region is frequency dependent.3,4 The physical

  3. Ferroelastic Behavior in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3--46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--30PbTiO3 under Shear Stresses along [001] Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Naohiko; Hidayah, Nur; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Hlinka, Ing. Jiri; Iwata, Makoto; Terauchi, Hikaru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-01

    The ferroelastic behavior of relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3--46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--30PbTiO3 (PIN--PMN--PT) solid-solution single crystals was investigated under shear stresses using polarization light microscopy (PLM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical strain patterns along the \\{110\\}cub directions from the orthoscope images under crossed Nicol, induced by shear stresses applied along the [001]cub direction, making use of a Vickers microindenter with a square-base diagonal line oriented along the \\{100\\}cub directions of the crystal were observed on its (001)cub plate for the first time. These patterns at a diagonal position reveal a flowerlike pattern for ferroelastic transition from a square (S) lattice to a rectangular (R) lattice in a two-dimensional model system. A change in the interference color from yellow to blue through red toward the center in their flower leaves, according to the Michel--Levy birefringence chart, was observed. The patterns at the extinction position reveal starlike patterns coupled with lobes also due to orthorhombic and/or tetragonal twin domain structures. A blue shift (corresponding to addition in retardation) and a yellow shift (corresponding to subtraction in retardation) in color at each flower leaf in the [110]cub and [1\\bar{1}0]cub directions were respectively observed using a sensitive color plate. Such shifts in color correspond to oxygen octahedra being rotated in a staggered sense about the perovskite axis. The patterns appearing strongly along the \\{110\\}cub directions in spite of slip lines along the [100]cub, [010]cub, and [110]cub directions indicate the existence of a rotational preferred orientation in twin domain structures based on a pretransitional tweed domain structure due to platelets observed by SEM, leading to their superior piezoelectric properties due to large shear modes.

  4. Ferroelectricity in Strain-Free SrTiO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, J H; Kumar, Amit; Denev, Sava; Biegalski, Michael D; Maksymovych, Petro; Bark, C; Nelson, Craig T; Folkman, C H; Baek, Seung Hyub; Balke, Nina; Brooks, Charles M.; Tenne, Demetri A.; Schlom, Darrell; Chen, Long-Qing; Pan, X Q; Kalinin, Sergei V; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Eom, Professor Chang-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Biaxial strain is known to induce ferroelectricity in thin films of nominally nonferroelectric materials such as SrTiO3. However, even strain-free SrTiO3 films and the paraelectric phase of strained films exhibit bulk frequency-dependent polarization hysteresis loops on the nanoscale at room temperature, and stable switchable domains at 50 K. By a direct comparison of the strained and strain-free SrTiO3 films using dielectric, ferroelectric, Raman, nonlinear optical and nanoscale piezoelectric property measurements, we conclude that SrTiO3 films and bulk crystals are relaxor ferroelectrics, and the role of strain is to stabilize longer-range correlation of preexisting nanopolar regions, likely originating from minute amounts of unintentional Sr-deficiency in nominally stoichiometric samples. These findings highlight the sensitive role of stoichiometry when exploring strain and epitaxy-induced electronic phenomena in oxidefilms, heterostructures and interfaces.

  5. Field-induced strain behavior for potassium sodium bismuth titanate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James F; Payne, David A; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2007-12-01

    Data are reported for the dielectric, piezoelectric, electrostrictive, and ferroelectric properties of potassium-substituted sodium bismuth titanate, [(K(x)Na(1-x))(0.5)Bi(0.5)]TiO3. For the morphotropic phase boundary composition x = 0.2, relaxor-type behavior was observed at room temperature with piezoelectric (effective d(333) = 325 x 10(-12) m/V) and ferroelectric properties (P(R) = 25 microC/cm(2), E(C) = 30 kV/cm). A transition to a relatively frequency-independent, diffuse phase transformation region occurred with increasing temperature, with no remanent strain or coercive field. Above the transition temperature, the field-induced strain was consistent with contributions from electrostriction and field induced piezoelectricity (M(3333) = 1.9 x 10(-16) m2/V2 and d333 = 81 x 10(-12) m/V at 100 degrees C). Information is given for the temperature dependence of properties, e.g., 0.14% strain induced at 50 kV/cm at 200 degrees C. Higher potassium content x = 0.6 stabilized the ferroelectric piezoelectric region to temperatures above 200 degrees C, with a relatively stable d(333) = 150-145 x 10-12 m/V between 25 degrees C and 200 degrees C. Pb-free KNBT ceramics appear competitive with PZT, especially for higher temperature electromechanical applications. PMID:18276548

  6. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Martinez, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J.F.; Cavendish Laboratory, Dept. Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB0 3HE ; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie-Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/{epsilon} - 1/{epsilon}{sub m}) as function of log (T - T{sub m}) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-E loops with good saturation polarization (P{sub s} {approx} 30.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with {gamma} estimated is {approx}1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) + 0.25 (PbF{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) - (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature {approx}261 K and other above {approx}410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm-3 {mu}m. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P{sub s} {approx} 30.68 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/{epsilon} versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The compositional variation on the phase transition temperature, dielectric constant, and ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions are discussed.

  7. Perovskite formation, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3 Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics via a columbite precursor synthetic route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittayakorn, Naratip; Wirunchit, Supamas

    2007-06-01

    Perovskite structures in the PZ-PNN system with formula (1-x)PbZrO3-xPb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 with x = 0.0-0.5 are synthesized via the columbite precursor technique. The formation of the perovskite phase in the calcined powders has been investigated as a function of calcination conditions by using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The complete solid solutions of the perovskite phase of PZ-PNN ceramics were obtained over a wide compositional range. It was observed that for the binary system (1-x)PbZrO3-xPb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3, the change in the calcination temperature is approximately linear with respect to the PNN content in the range x = 0.0-0.5. With increasing x, the calcination temperature shifts forward to high temperatures. It is seen that optimization of the calcination conditions can lead to a 100% yield of PZ-PNN in a pseudo-cubic phase. The P-E hysteresis loop measurements demonstrated that the ferroelectric properties of the ceramics in the PZ-PNN system changed gradually from normal ferroelectric behavior to relaxor ferroelectric behavior with increasing PNN concentration. In addition, the squareness of the hysteresis loop (Rsq) decreased quasi-linearly as the molar fraction of PNN increased. The maximum spontaneous polarization (Ps) and remanent polarization (Pr) for the x = 0.1 composition were 31.6 µC cm-2 and 27.8 µC cm-2, respectively. These results clearly show the significance of PNN in controlling the electrical responses of the PZ-PNN system.

  8. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  9. Hierarchical Domain Structures in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 near a Morphotropic Phase Boundary Composition Grown by Bridgman Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Naohiko; Fuwa, Tomohiro; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Makoto; Terauchi, Hikaru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    2011-09-01

    The domain structures of the lead-based relaxor ferroelectric solid solution single crystal, 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN)-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN)-30PbTiO3 (PT), near a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition grown by the Bridgeman method were studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change in domain structures with poling from rhombohedral spindlelike domains of 3-5 µm width to orthorhombic domains of ˜20 µm width with rectangular cells with a size of 3-5 µm, characterized with an antiferroelectic double hysteresis loop in the electric field-induced strain behavior, was found. Such domain structures were microscopically identified from SEM images as small circular tetragonal defects, planar monoclinic defects such as edge and screw dislocations with Burgers vector b along <110>cub and/or <100>cub directions and their agglomerate rectangular orthorhombic defects, also characterized by PFM. Hierarchical domain structures are discussed from the viewpoints of domain structures due to defects such as edge and screw dislocations originating in the chemical order region (COR) and the piezoelectric responses and dielectric properties.

  10. Failure behavior of Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 ferroelectric ceramics under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuping; He, Hongliang; Liu, Gaomin; Liu, Yusheng; Yu, Yin; Wang, Yonggang

    2013-05-01

    PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics have been used in shock-driven pulsed-power supplies for many years; their mechanical failure under shock compression plays an important role in dielectric breakdown. Shock experiments have been conducted to understand such failure by measuring the velocity of the free surface or the PZT/sapphire interface. Results confirm that delayed failure exists in PZT 95/5 before dynamic yielding at 2.4 GPa; multipoint measurements indicate that the failure layer in PZT 95/5 was not a plane but a rough front. The delay time and velocity of this layer had been determined by measuring samples of varying thicknesses at fixed pressure; results indicate that this velocity is the same as the shock-wave speed and the delay time decreases with increasing shock stress. At a shock stress of 4.9 GPa, the delay time falls to zero and a ramp wave is observed. This kind of failure is a new phenomenon in electric breakdown of PZT 95/5 under shock compression.

  11. FERROELECTRICS Electrothermal properties of perovskite ferroelectric films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    FERROELECTRICS Electrothermal properties of perovskite ferroelectric films J. Zhang Æ A. A of the perovskite oxides barium titanate (BTO), lead titanate (PTO), and strontium titanate (STO) are computed near of a dielectric solid wherein an adiabatic change in temperature (DT) is produced in response to a change

  12. Electronic transitions and dielectric functions of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In{sub 1?2}Nb{sub 1?2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1?3}Nb{sub 2?3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals: Temperature dependent spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J. J.; Zhang, J. Z.; Chu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Hu, Z. G.

    2014-03-31

    Optical properties and phase transitions of Pb(In{sub 1?2}Nb{sub 1?2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1?3}Nb{sub 2?3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been investigated by temperature dependent transmittance and reflectance spectra. Three critical point energies E{sub g}?=?3.17–3.18?eV, E{sub a}?=?3.41–3.61?eV, and E{sub b}?=?4.74–4.81?eV can be assigned to the transitions from oxygen 2p to titanium d, niobium d, and lead 6p states, respectively. They show narrowing trends with increasing temperature, which can be caused by thermal expansion of the lattice and electron-phonon interaction. Deviation from the linear behaviors can be observed from E{sub a} and E{sub b} versus PT concentration, indicating a complex multiphase structure near MPB region.

  13. Temporal effect of low-temperature ferroelectric behaviors in Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.60Sn0.30Ti0.10)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai-Hung; Chen, Haydn; Colla, Eugene V.

    2003-04-01

    Kinetic behaviors of unusual low-temperature ferroelectric properties of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.60Sn0.30Ti0.10)O3 ceramic were studied. In a wide temperature range it reveals the antiferroelectric properties with pronounced polarization versus electrical field hysteresis double loops resulting from the field-induced antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric switching. The reverse switching time is temperature dependent, and below 210 K this time overcomes the reasonable laboratory time scale. Kinetic data were analyzed to yield the activation energy. At as low as 100 K all experimental results suggest that the ground state of the system remains antiferroelectric, thus the time-dependent dielectric properties owe their origin to the kinetic effects.

  14. Scaling Behavior of Amplitude-Dependent Ferroelectric Hysteresis Loops in an Epitaxial PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sang Mo; Jang, S. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Kim, Hun-Ho; Lee, Ho Nyung; Yoon, J. -G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scaling behavior of ferroelectric (FE) hysteresis loops as a function of the applied field amplitude (E{sub 0}) in a high-quality epitaxial PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film. We observed that the areas of the polarization-electric field hysteresis loops (A) followed the scaling law A {proportional_to} E{sub 0}{sup {alpha}}, with the exponent {alpha} = 0.45 {+-} 0.01. This result is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction of {alpha} by the two-dimensional Ising model. In addition, we found that the coercive field (E{sub C}) showed E{sub C} {proportional_to} E{sub 0}{sup {gamma}} with the exponent {gamma} = 0.28 {+-} 0.01. We attribute this relationship to the difference in the sweep rate of the field amplitude E{sub 0}. From the obtained {gamma} value, the growth dimension of FE domains is found to be about 1.68 in our epitaxial PZT thin film.

  15. Fatigue and ferroelectric behavior of La and Zn comodified BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiagang; Wang, John

    2010-07-15

    Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.95}Zn{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (BLFZO) thin films were grown directly on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates without any buffer layer by off-axis radio frequency sputtering. The BLFZO thin film deposited at 580 deg. C possesses a single-phase purity, while those deposited at other temperatures exhibit a varying amount of second phases, indicating that the deposition temperature plays a critical role in the phase development of BLFZO thin films. Although La and Zn cosubstitutions lower the Curie temperature (T{sub c}) of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films, the resulting T{sub c} value ({approx}630 deg. C) is still much higher as compared to other lead-based or lead-free ferroelectric thin films. The BLFZO thin film exhibits a remanent polarization of 2P{sub r{approx}}131.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field of 2E{sub c{approx}}496 kV/cm, in association with the improvement in electrical resistance. On the basis of the studies for frequency (1 kHz{approx}1 MHz) and driving field (0.8E{sub c{approx}}2.0E{sub c}) dependences, the BLFZO thin film demonstrates the desired fatigue endurance and weak frequency and driving field dependence. La and Zn cosubstitutions are shown to contribute toward the high remanent polarization and fatigue endurance.

  16. Poling and Depoling Effects on Dielectric Properties and Domain Structures in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 near a Morphotropic Phase Boundary Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, Nur; Yasuda, Naohiko; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Iwata, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the complex relative permittivity in a relaxor ferroelectric solid solution 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystal poled and depoled was measured from room temperature to 200 °C at various frequencies. The poled sample exhibits transitions from the ferroelectric (FE) phase to the relaxor (RE) phase on heating, and after that, the depoled one exhibits those from the RE phase to the glassy freezing phase on cooling. An RE-type dielectric dispersion with a weak frequency (f) dependence was observed. Such a dielectric dispersion in the RE state was found to be based on tweed domain structures observed by polarization light microscopy (PLM) and piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) due to the competition between the antiferroelectric (AFE) and FE coupling in the RE state. The temperature dependence of complex permittivity with resonance- and relaxor-type dielectric dispersions in the poled and depoled samples was characterized by hierarchical domain structures.

  17. Simultaneous Stress and Field Control of Sustainable Switching of Ferroelectric Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Amin, A.; Ahart, M.; Lofland, S. E.

    2015-09-01

    In ferroelectrics, manifestation of a strong electromechanical coupling is attributed to both engineered domain morphology and phase transformations. However, realization of large sustainable and reversible strains and polarization rotation has been limited by fatigue, nonlinearity and hysteresis losses. Here, we demonstrate that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40?×?106 cycles with little fatigue by realization of a reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. Direct tuning of this effect through combination of stress and applied electric field, confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically with x-ray and Raman scattering, reveals the local symmetry while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field (<0.2?MV/m) under mechanical stress. The observed change in local symmetry as determined by x-ray scattering confirms a proposed polarization rotation mechanism corresponding to a transition between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. These results shed more light onto the nature of this reversible transformation between two ferroelectric phases and advance towards the development of a wide range of ferroic and multiferroic devices.

  18. Simultaneous Stress and Field Control of Sustainable Switching of Ferroelectric Phases

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Amin, A.; Ahart, M.; Lofland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    In ferroelectrics, manifestation of a strong electromechanical coupling is attributed to both engineered domain morphology and phase transformations. However, realization of large sustainable and reversible strains and polarization rotation has been limited by fatigue, nonlinearity and hysteresis losses. Here, we demonstrate that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40?×?106 cycles with little fatigue by realization of a reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. Direct tuning of this effect through combination of stress and applied electric field, confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically with x-ray and Raman scattering, reveals the local symmetry while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field (<0.2?MV/m) under mechanical stress. The observed change in local symmetry as determined by x-ray scattering confirms a proposed polarization rotation mechanism corresponding to a transition between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. These results shed more light onto the nature of this reversible transformation between two ferroelectric phases and advance towards the development of a wide range of ferroic and multiferroic devices. PMID:26345729

  19. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed; Finkel, Peter; Rossetti, George A.

    2015-10-01

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]C-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  20. Possible ferroelectricity in perovskite oxynitride SrTaO2N epitaxial thin films

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Daichi; Hirose, Yasushi; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Sasa, Kimikazu; Ishii, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yukio; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Compressively strained SrTaO2N thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates using nitrogen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements revealed small domains (101–102?nm) that exhibited classical ferroelectricity, a behaviour not previously observed in perovskite oxynitrides. The surrounding matrix region exhibited relaxor ferroelectric-like behaviour, with remanent polarisation invoked by domain poling. First-principles calculations suggested that the small domains and the surrounding matrix had trans-type and a cis-type anion arrangements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the promise of tailoring the functionality of perovskite oxynitrides by modifying the anion arrangements by using epitaxial strain.

  1. Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    , 42.70.Nq I. INTRODUCTION Propagation of laser beams in crystals with a high photo- refractive of mutually incoherent beams,3 etc. Because of its photorefrac- tive origin, light-induced scattering contains. The spatial geom- etry of the scattering pattern is defined by the phase- matching conditions

  2. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    PubMed Central

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly. PMID:26079628

  3. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Lu, S G; Chen, X; Levard, T; Diglio, P J; Gorny, L J; Rahn, C D; Zhang, Q M

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly. PMID:26079628

  4. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  5. Effects of the sintering temperature on the diffused phase transition and the spin-glassy behavior in Pb{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05}(Fe{sub 2/3}W{sub 1/3}){sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Cheng-Shong; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, the effect of the sintering temperature on the low-field dielectric behavior of nonstoichiometric Pb{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05}(Fe{sub 2/3}W{sub 1/3}){sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}O{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectrics is investigated. The x-ray patterns and the scanning electron microscope images are used to detect the pyrochlore phase and the perovskite structure. The electric properties of the resistivity, the space charge polarization, the temperature-dependent dielectric constant and dielectric loss are discussed. The diffused phase transition and the ordering state are fitted and discussed by using the empirical law and two ordering models. Furthermore, the glassy behavior is determined by using the Curie-Weiss law and the spin-glass model. According to the experimental data and fitting results, the dielectric picture is changed from the short range order relaxorlike behavior to the long range order normal ferroelectric state as increasing the sintering temperature and the glassy behavior is weakened at the lowest and highest sintering temperature at which the pyrochlore phase PWO{sub 4} is induced. Therefore, it is suggested that the 1:1 ordered domain is enhanced by increasing the sintering temperature and the glassy behavior is related to not only the ordering degree also the polar defect pairs. For more ordering degree and polar defect pairs, the glassy is weakened and the correlation of neighboring polar microregions is enhanced.

  6. Electric field and humidity effects on adsorbed water behavior on BaTiO3 ferroelectric domains studied by scanning probe microscopy

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    under sustained stress in humid air and water can occur, called stress corrosion cracking (SCC).1- term stress or electric field exposure, cracks may nucleate and propagate. Cracks in ferroelectrics can) 1 Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University

  7. Soft mode behavior in SrTiO3/DyScO3 thin films: Evidence of ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive phase transitions

    E-print Network

    Ku?el, Petr

    transition temperatures and phase diagrams of ferroelectric and related perovskite films, are extremely sensitive to epitaxial strain. This enables extensive tailoring of their dielectric properties by choosing parameter of 3.946 Å Ref. 9 compared with that of 3.905 Å for bulk STO. As in other perovskite

  8. Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Gated Graphene/Hexagonal-BN/Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-11-24

    The effect of a ferroelectric polarization field on the charge transport in a two-dimensional (2D) material was examined using a graphene monolayer on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) field-effect transistor (FET) fabricated using a ferroelectric single-crystal substrate, (1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT). In this configuration, the intrinsic properties of graphene were preserved with the use of an hBN flake, and the influence of the polarization field from PMN-PT could be distinguished. During a wide-range gate-voltage (VG) sweep, a sharp inversion of the spontaneous polarization affected the graphene channel conductance asymmetrically as well as an antihysteretic behavior. Additionally, a transition from antihysteresis to normal ferroelectric hysteresis occurred, depending on the VG sweep range relative to the ferroelectric coercive field. We developed a model to interpret the complex coupling among antihysteresis, current saturation, and sudden conductance variation in relation with the ferroelectric switching and the polarization-assisted charge trapping, which can be generalized to explain the combination of 2D structured materials with ferroelectrics. PMID:26487348

  9. Effects of Interface Layers and Domain Walls on the Ferroelectric-Resistive Switching Behavior of Au/BiFeO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yang, Shengwei; Lin, Yue; Zhang, Dalong; Huang, Weichuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Yin, Yuewei; Dong, Sining; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    The electric field effects on the electric and magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures are important for not only understanding the mechanisms of certain novel physical phenomena occurring at heterointerfaces but also offering a route for promising spintronic applications. Using the Au/BiFeO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (Au/BFO/LSMO) multiferroic heterostructure as a model system, we investigated the ferroelectric-resistive switching (RS) behaviors of the heterostructure. Via the manipulation of the BFO ferroelectric polarizations, the nonvolatile tristate of RS is observed, which is closely related to the Au/BFO and BFO/LSMO interface layers and the highly conducting BFO domain walls (DWs). More interestingly, according to the magnetic field dependence of the RS behavior, the negative magnetoresistance effect of the third resistance state, corresponding to the abnormal current peak in current-pulse voltage hysteresis near the electric coercive field, is also observed at room temperature, which mainly arises from the possible oxygen vacancy accumulation and Fe ion valence variation in the DWs. PMID:26554671

  10. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  11. Ferroelectric switching of elastin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-07-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm(2), whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  12. Influence of seed nano-crystals on electrical properties and phase transition behaviors of Ba0.85Sr0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ceramics prepared by seed-induced method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjarittangtham, Krit; Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum

    2015-05-01

    This work studied the effects of seed nano-crystal on the electrical properties and the phase transition behaviors of Ba0.85Sr0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 (BSZT) ceramics. The BSZT ceramics were prepared by the seed-induced method. The seed nano-crystal were prepared by the molten salt technique, and NaCl-KCl (1:1 by mole) eutectic mixtures were used as the flux.[1] The ceramic powders were prepared by using a conventional method which added seed nano-crystals at various ratios. Results indicated that seed nano-crystals enhanced the electrical properties of ceramics. The sample with a 20 wt. % seed nano crystals has excellent value of dielectric constant ( µ r ) of 34698 at maximum temperature. The phase transition temperature was observed at 60°C. The morphology was found that the grain size increasing significantly with an increased of seed nano crystals. The relaxor ferroelectric phase transition behavior was shown by a diffuseness parameter ( ³). An increase in the BSZT-seed showed a decreased in ³ value from 1.61 to 1.44. Thus the ferroelectric of the BSZT ceramics can be confirmed by hysteresis loop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF FERROELECTRICITY AND PIEZOELECTRICITY IN FERROELECTRIC THIN FILM CAPACITORS

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul G.

    INVESTIGATION OF FERROELECTRICITY AND PIEZOELECTRICITY IN FERROELECTRIC THIN FILM CAPACITORS USING that the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) in Pb(Zr0.45Ti0.55)O3 thin film capacitors was 53 pm V-1 . However

  14. Continuously-tuned tunneling behaviors of ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Xin; Xu, Bo Yin, Qiaonan; Xia, Yidong; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Gong, Changjie; Lan, Xuexin

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we fabricate BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (BTO/LSMO) ferroelectric tunnel junction on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Combining piezoresponse force and conductive-tip atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate robust and reproducible polarization-controlled tunneling behaviors with the resulting tunneling electroresistance value reaching about 10{sup 2} in ultrathin BTO films (?1.2 nm) at room temperature. Moreover, local poling areas with different conductivity are finally achieved by controlling the relative proportion of upward and downward domains, and different poling areas exhibit stable transport properties.

  15. Ferroelectric behavior of epitaxial Bi2VO5.5 thin films on Si(100) formed by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, M.; Lee, H. Y.; Tabata, H.; Kawai, T.

    2000-07-01

    Thin films of Bi2VO5.5 have been prepared epitaxially using a pulsed-laser deposition method on a Si(100) substrate using TiN as a buffer layer and SrTiO3 as a seed layer. The films have smooth surface morphology with atomically flat terraces and steps of 4 Å in height. The ferroelectric characterization shows a spontaneous polarization of 2.2 ?C/cm2 and a coercive field (Ec) of 22 kV/cm. The leakage current obtained is about 5×10-6 A/cm2 at a drive voltage of ±2 V.

  16. Phase Transition Behaviors in [011]-Oriented Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals Studied by Dielectric and Micro-Brillouin Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Phase transition behaviors of unpoled and [011]-poled relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals were investigated over a wide temperature range by dielectric and Brillouin scattering spectroscopies. The [011]-poled crystal exhibited two discontinuous dielectric and acoustic anomalies at ˜119 and ˜126 °C, which were attributed to two poling-induced structural phase transitions from rhombohedral to orthorhombic, and then to tetragonal symmetry. However, this poled crystal maintained the diffused phase transition behaviors of the unpoled one at higher temperatures above ˜126 °C. The disappearance of the poling effect upon the diffuse phase transition near the TC suggests that the macroscopic ferroelectric domains formed by poling are decomposed into mesoscopic and nano size polar regions at ˜126 °C. These polarization fluctuations and the coupling of these dynamic polar regions to the acoustic waves play the dominant role in the dielectric and acoustic anomalies, respectively. Therefore, a diffusive nature was commonly observed in both unpoled and poled single crystals near TC.

  17. Large magnetocapacitance in electronic ferroelectric manganite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Ujjal; Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Midya, Arindam; Mandal, P.; Das, Pintu; Mukovskii, Ya. M.

    2013-11-21

    We have observed a sizable positive magnetocapacitance (?5%–90%) in perovskite Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} and bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system under 5?T magnetic field across 20–100?K below the magnetic transition point T{sub N}. The magnetodielectric effect, on the other hand, exhibits a crossover: (a) from positive to negative for the perovskite system and (b) from negative to positive for the bilayer system over the same temperature range. The bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system exhibits a sizable anisotropy as well. We have also noticed the influence of magnetic field on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of these systems. These systems belong to a class of improper ferroelectrics and are expected to exhibit charge/orbital order driven ferroelectric polarization below the transition point T{sub CO}. Large magnetocapacitance in these systems shows a typical multiferroic behavior even though the ferroelectric polarization is small in comparison to that of other ferroelectrics.

  18. Polarization fatigue of organic ferroelectric capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong; Katsouras, Ilias; Li, Mengyuan; Asadi, Kamal; Tsurumi, Junto; Glasser, Gunnar; Takeya, Jun; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) decreases upon prolonged cycling. Understanding of this fatigue behavior is of great technological importance for the implementation of P(VDF-TrFE) in random-access memories. However, the origin of fatigue is still ambiguous. Here we investigate fatigue in thin-film capacitors by systematically varying the frequency and amplitude of the driving waveform. We show that the fatigue is due to delamination of the top electrode. The origin is accumulation of gases, expelled from the capacitor, under the impermeable top electrode. The gases are formed by electron-induced phase decomposition of P(VDF-TrFE), similar as reported for inorganic ferroelectric materials. When the gas barrier is removed and the waveform is adapted, a fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) is realized. The capacitor can be cycled for more than 108 times, approaching the programming cycle endurance of its inorganic ferroelectric counterparts. PMID:24861542

  19. Giant Electroresistive Ferroelectric Diode on 2DEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Ik; Jin Gwon, Hyo; Kim, Dai-Hong; Keun Kim, Seong; Choi, Ji-Won; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Jung Chang, Hye; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kwon, Beomjin; Bark, Chung-Wung; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Sang; Baek, Seung-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of electrons in a solid through transmitting, storing, and switching is the fundamental basis for the microelectronic devices. Recently, the electroresistance effect in the ferroelectric capacitors has provided a novel way to modulate the electron transport by polarization reversal. Here, we demonstrate a giant electroresistive ferroelectric diode integrating a ferroelectric capacitor into two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interface. As a model system, we fabricate an epitaxial Au/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, where 2DEG is formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. This device functions as a two-terminal, non-volatile memory of 1 diode-1 resistor with a large I+/I? ratio (>108 at ±6?V) and Ion/Ioff ratio (>107). This is attributed to not only Schottky barrier modulation at metal/ferroelectric interface by polarization reversal but also the field-effect metal-insulator transition of 2DEG. Moreover, using this heterostructure, we can demonstrate a memristive behavior for an artificial synapse memory, where the resistance can be continuously tuned by partial polarization switching, and the electrons are only unidirectionally transmitted. Beyond non-volatile memory and logic devices, our results will provide new opportunities to emerging electronic devices such as multifunctional nanoelectronics and neuromorphic electronics. PMID:26014446

  20. Giant Electroresistive Ferroelectric Diode on 2DEG.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Ik; Jin Gwon, Hyo; Kim, Dai-Hong; Keun Kim, Seong; Choi, Ji-Won; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Jung Chang, Hye; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kwon, Beomjin; Bark, Chung-Wung; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Sang; Baek, Seung-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of electrons in a solid through transmitting, storing, and switching is the fundamental basis for the microelectronic devices. Recently, the electroresistance effect in the ferroelectric capacitors has provided a novel way to modulate the electron transport by polarization reversal. Here, we demonstrate a giant electroresistive ferroelectric diode integrating a ferroelectric capacitor into two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interface. As a model system, we fabricate an epitaxial Au/Pb(Zr(0.2)Ti(0.8))O3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, where 2DEG is formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. This device functions as a two-terminal, non-volatile memory of 1 diode-1 resistor with a large I+/I- ratio (>10(8) at ± 6 V) and I(on)/I(off) ratio (>10(7)). This is attributed to not only Schottky barrier modulation at metal/ferroelectric interface by polarization reversal but also the field-effect metal-insulator transition of 2DEG. Moreover, using this heterostructure, we can demonstrate a memristive behavior for an artificial synapse memory, where the resistance can be continuously tuned by partial polarization switching, and the electrons are only unidirectionally transmitted. Beyond non-volatile memory and logic devices, our results will provide new opportunities to emerging electronic devices such as multifunctional nanoelectronics and neuromorphic electronics. PMID:26014446

  1. Nanostructured ferroelectrics: fabrication and structure-property relations.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee; Kim, Yunseok; Alexe, Marin; Hesse, Dietrich; Lee, Woo

    2011-10-25

    With the continued demand for ultrahigh density ferroelectric data storage applications, it is becoming increasingly important to scale the dimension of ferroelectrics down to the nanometer-scale region and to thoroughly understand the effects of miniaturization on the materials properties. Upon reduction of the physical dimension of the material, the change in physical properties associated with size reduction becomes extremely difficult to characterize and to understand because of a complicated interplay between structures, surface properties, strain effects from substrates, domain nucleation, and wall motions. In this Review, the recent progress in fabrication and structure-property relations of nanostructured ferroelectric oxides is summarized. Various fabrication approaches are reviewed, with special emphasis on a newly developed stencil-based method for fabricating ferroelectric nanocapacitors, and advantages and limitations of the processes are discussed. Stress-induced evolutions of domain structures upon reduction of the dimension of the material and their implications on the electrical properties are discussed in detail. Distinct domain nucleation, growth, and propagation behaviors in nanometer-scale ferroelectric capacitors are discussed and compared to those of micrometer-scale counterparts. The structural effect of ferroelectric nanocapacitors on the domain switching behavior and cross-talk between neighboring capacitors under external electric field is reviewed. PMID:21919083

  2. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  3. Time-Resolved, Electric-Field-Induced Domain Switching and Strain in Ferroelectric Ceramics and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jacob L.; Nino, Juan C.; Pramanick, Abhijit; Daniels, John E.

    Ferroelectric materials are used in a variety of applications including diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, sonar, vibration and displacement sensors, and non-volatile random access memory. The electromechanical response in ferroelectric materials is comprised of both intrinsic (piezoelectric lattice strain) and extrinsic (e.g., domain wall motion) components that are expressed as characteristic changes in the diffraction pattern. By applying slow, step-wise changes in the electric field, prior quasi-dynamic diffraction measurements have demonstrated both lattice strains and non-180 ? domain switching at fields exceeding the macroscopically defined coercive field. However, the loading conditions which most replicate real device operation involve dynamic actuation with sub-coercive, cyclic electric fields. At these operating conditions, extrinsic irreversibilities lead to hysteresis, frequency dispersion and nonlinearity of macroscopic properties. Observation of strain and domain switching at these cyclic loading conditions is an area in which we have reported recent advances using stroboscopic techniques. This chapter highlights the electric-field-induced lattice strain and kinetics of domain switching in a number of materials including technologically-relevant lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and relaxor single crystals. An outlook on the continuing use of time-resolved diffraction techniques in the characterization of ferroelectric materials is also discussed.

  4. Depolarization field effect on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of particulate ferroelectric ceramic-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fengde D.; Wang, Yu U.

    2015-03-01

    The effects of depolarization field on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric ceramic particle-filled polymer-matrix composites are investigated at the underlying domain level. Phase field modeling and simulation reveals that the macroscopic properties of the composites are dominated by depolarization field effect, which depends on the arrangement and alignment rather than the size or internal grain structure of the ferroelectric particulates. It is found that 0-3 particulate composites with random dispersion of ferroelectric particles behave essentially like linear dielectric rather than ferroelectric materials, and domain-level analysis reveals the physical mechanism for lack of domain switching or hysteresis as attributed to strong depolarization effect. Thus, without effective reduction or elimination of the depolarization field, the composites cannot benefit from the functional fillers regardless of their superior properties. In order to exhibit the desired ferroelectric behaviors, it necessitates continuous ferroelectric phase connectivity in the composites.

  5. A ferroelectric memristor.

    PubMed

    Chanthbouala, André; Garcia, Vincent; Cherifi, Ryan O; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fusil, Stéphane; Moya, Xavier; Xavier, Stéphane; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Deranlot, Cyrile; Mathur, Neil D; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Grollier, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Memristors are continuously tunable resistors that emulate biological synapses. Conceptualized in the 1970s, they traditionally operate by voltage-induced displacements of matter, although the details of the mechanism remain under debate. Purely electronic memristors based on well-established physical phenomena with albeit modest resistance changes have also emerged. Here we demonstrate that voltage-controlled domain configurations in ferroelectric tunnel barriers yield memristive behaviour with resistance variations exceeding two orders of magnitude and a 10?ns operation speed. Using models of ferroelectric-domain nucleation and growth, we explain the quasi-continuous resistance variations and derive a simple analytical expression for the memristive effect. Our results suggest new opportunities for ferroelectrics as the hardware basis of future neuromorphic computational architectures. PMID:22983431

  6. ARTICLES--Outstanding Meeting Papers Domain switch toughening in polycrystalline ferroelectrics

    E-print Network

    ARTICLES--Outstanding Meeting Papers Domain switch toughening in polycrystalline ferroelectrics the material behavior of the ferroelectric ceramic. The constitutive law is then implemented within the finite constitutive law that is used to represent the electromechanical material response. This constitutive model

  7. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    GEHRING,P.M.; VAKRUSHEV,S.B.; SHIRANE,G.

    2000-03-09

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.92}Ti{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 {angstrom}{sub {minus}1}, measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T{sub d}, which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons.

  8. Lead-free and lead-based ABO3 perovskite relaxors with mixed-valence A-site and B-site disorder: A comparative neutron scattering structural study of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher; Phelan, Daniel; Zhang, Qinjui; Muhtar, Aheart; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Boatner, Lynn A; Viehland, Dwight; Gehring, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of neutron elastic scattering measurements between -250oC and 620oC on the lead-free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT). Strong, anisotropic, elastic diffuse scattering intensity decorates the (100), (110), (111), (200), (220), and (210) Bragg peaks at room temperature. The wavevector dependence of this diffuse scattering is compared to that in the lead-based relaxor PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) to determine if any features might be common to relaxors. Prominent ridges in the elastic diffuse scattering intensity contours that extend along <110> are seen that exhibit the same zone dependence as those observed in PMN and other lead-based relaxors. These ridges disappear gradually on heating above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature TCT = 523oC, which is also near the temperature at which the dielectric permittivity begins to deviate from Curie-Weiss behavior. We thus identify the <110>-oriented ridges as a relaxor-specific property. The diffuse scattering contours also display narrower ridges oriented along <100> that are consistent with the x-ray results of Kreisel et al. (2003); these vanish below 320oC indicating that they have a different physical origin. The <100>-oriented ridges are not observed in PMN. We observe no equivalent relaxor-specific elastic diffuse scattering from the homovalent relaxor analogues K0.95Li0.05TiO3 (A-site disordered) and KTa0.95Nb0.05O3 (B-site disordered). This suggests that the <110>-oriented diffuse scattering ridges are correlated with the presence of strong random electric fields and invites a reassessment of what defines the relaxor phase. We find that doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary with enhanced piezoelectric properties, increases the room temperature correlation length along [1 1 0] from 40 to 60 while doubling the associated integrated diffuse scattering. Similar behavior was reported by Matsuura et al. (2006) for compositions of PMN doped with PbTiO3. Finally, we comment on the recent observation of monoclinicity in NBT at room temperature by placing a strict bound on the strength of the ( ) superlattice reflection associated with the Cc space group based on the atomic coordinates published in the x-ray study by Aksel et al. (2011) for NBT. We argue that a skin effect, analogous to that reported in the relaxors PZN and PMN-10%PT, can reconcile our single-crystal data with the powder data of Aksel et al. We believe this represents the first evidence of the relaxor skin effect in a lead-free relaxor.

  9. Study of physical properties of integrated ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.; Kumar, A.; Palai, R.; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.

    2010-06-15

    Superlattices (SLs) with different periodicity of ferromagnetic La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) and ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} as constitutive layers were fabricated on conducting LaNiO{sub 3} coated (001) oriented MgO substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The crystallinity, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of the SLs were studied over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The structure exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K and ferroelectric behavior over a range of temperatures between 100 and 300 K. A frequency-dependent change in dielectric constant and tangent loss were observed above the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic temperature. The frequency-dependent dielectric anomalies are attributed to the change in metallic and magnetic nature of LSMO and also the interfacial effect of two different phases that are connected alternatively in series. The effect of ferromagnetic LSMO layers on ferroelectric properties of the SLs indicated strong influence of the interfaces. The asymmetric behavior of ferroelectric loop and the capacitance-voltage relationship suggest development of a built field in the SLs due to high strain across the interfaces.

  10. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by overview on the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. Latest development in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also noted. PMID:24018952

  11. Structures, electrical properties, and leakage current behaviors of un-doped and Mn-doped lead-free ferroelectric K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingyan E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-21

    Lead-free ferroelectric un-doped and doped K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (KNN) films with different amounts of manganese (Mn) were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The thicknesses of all films are about 1.6??m. Their phase, microstructure, leakage current behavior, and electrical properties were investigated. With increasing the amounts of Mn, the crystallinity became worse. Fortunately, the electrical properties were improved due to the decreased leakage current density after Mn-doping. The study on leakage behaviors shows that the dominant conduction mechanism at low electric field in the un-doped KNN film is ohmic mode and that at high electric field is space-charge-limited and Pool-Frenkel emission. After Mn doping, the dominant conduction mechanism at high electric field of KNN films changed single space-charge-limited. However, the introduction of higher amount of Mn into the KNN film would lead to a changed conduction mechanism from space-charge-limited to ohmic mode. Consequently, there exists an optimal amount of Mn doping of 2.0?mol.?%. The 2.0?mol.?% Mn doped KNN film shows the lowest leakage current density and the best electrical properties. With the secondary ion mass spectroscopies and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the homogeneous distribution in the KNN films and entrance of Mn element in the lattice of KNN perovskite structure were also confirmed.

  12. Temperature dependence of the capacitance of a ferroelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Deng, Yi; Zylberberg, Joel; Lei, Chao; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2007-11-01

    We present an alternate version of the undergraduate laboratory experiment developed by Dixon [Am. J. Phys. 75, 1038-1045 (2007)] that is suitable for second-year students. We study the temperature variation of the capacitance of a ferroelectric ceramic derived from barium titanate, the Ba(Ti0.9Sn0.1)O3 solid solution. The ratio of tin to titanium is chosen to provide a convenient Curie temperature near 50°C. Using careful temperature control and real-time capacitance measurements, we track the time evolution of the capacitance in response to temperature changes at 5Hz for runs that last up to a day. At temperatures well above the Curie temperature, TC, the capacitance relaxation is well-described by a single exponential decay. Near TC, the relaxation is linear in the logarithm of time over more than three decades. For T >TC, the permittivity deviates from the Curie-Weiss law and follows another phenomenological form commonly used to describe relaxor perovskite-ceramic capacitors.

  13. Entropy-Suppressed Ferroelectricity in Hybrid Lead-Iodide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Filippetti, Alessio; Delugas, Pietro; Saba, Maria Ilenia; Mattoni, Alessandro

    2015-12-17

    The actual nature of the electric polarization in hybrid lead-iodide perovskites is unveiled on the basis of ab initio and model results. A finite, albeit small electric polarization of few ?C/cm(2) is found to be pervasive in this system, due to the polar-uncompensated alignment of methylammonium dimers, at least for temperature lower than the activation energy of dimer rotations; however, the presence of a large number of structural local minima corresponding to differently oriented polarization directions counteracts the stabilization of an ordered ferroelectric phase at the macroscale. According to our estimate, only for temperatures lower than 40-50 K a clear ferroelectric behavior is displayed. At higher temperature the polarization is progressively suppressed and the ferroelectric ordering hindered by the large configurational entropy, giving rise to a superparaelectric-like behavior at the macroscale. PMID:26589809

  14. Quantification of Hysteresis and Nonlinear Effects on the Frequency Response of Ferroelectric and

    E-print Network

    Quantification of Hysteresis and Nonlinear Effects on the Frequency Response of Ferroelectric. However, these materials also exhibit hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities at all drive levels of hysteresis and nonlinearities on the frequency behavior of devices that employ these compounds. Whereas

  15. Lead-free and lead-based ABO3 perovskite relaxors with mixed-valence A-site and B-site disorder: Comparative neutron scattering structural study of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Phelan, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Ahart, Muhtar; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Boatner, Lynn A.; Viehland, Dwight; Gehring, Peter M.

    2013-11-01

    We report the results of neutron elastic-scattering measurements made between -250 °C and 620 °C on the lead-free relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT). Strong, anisotropic, elastic diffuse scattering intensity decorates the (100), (110), (111), (200), (210), and (220) Bragg peaks at room temperature. The wave-vector dependence of this diffuse scattering is compared to that in the lead-based relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) to determine if any features might be common to relaxors. Prominent ridges in the elastic diffuse scattering intensity contours that extend along ?110? are seen that exhibit the same zone dependence as those observed in PMN and other lead-based relaxors. These ridges disappear gradually on heating above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature TCT = 523 °C, which is also near the temperature at which the dielectric permittivity begins to deviate from Curie-Weiss behavior. We thus identify the ?110?-oriented ridges as a relaxor-specific property. The diffuse scattering contours also display narrower ridges oriented along ?100? that are consistent with the x-ray results of Kreisel [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.68.014113 68, 014113 (2003)]; these vanish near 320 °C, indicating that they have a different physical origin. The ?100?-oriented ridges are not observed in PMN. We observe no equivalent relaxor-specific elastic diffuse scattering from the homovalent relaxor analogues K0.95Li0.05TiO3 (A-site disordered) and KTa0.95Nb0.05O3 (B-site disordered). This suggests that the ?110?-oriented diffuse scattering ridges are correlated with the presence of strong random electric fields and invites a reassessment of what defines the relaxor phase. We find that doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary with enhanced piezoelectric properties, increases the room-temperature correlation length along [11¯0] from 40 to 60 Å while doubling the associated integrated diffuse scattering. Similar behavior was reported by Matsuura [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.144107 74, 144107 (2006)] for morphotropic compositions of PMN doped with PbTiO3. Finally, we comment on the recent observation of monoclinicity in NBT at room temperature by placing a strict bound on the strength of the (½½½) superlattice reflection associated with the Cc space group based on the atomic coordinates published in the x-ray study by Aksel [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3573826 98, 152901 (2011)] for NBT. We show that a skin effect, analogous to that reported in the relaxors PZN-xPT and PMN-xPT, can reconcile our neutron single-crystal data with the x-ray powder data of Aksel [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3573826 98, 152901 (2011)]. Our finding of a skin effect in a lead-free, A-site disordered, heterovalent relaxor supports the idea that it arises in the presence of strong random electric fields.

  16. Ferroelectric and dielectric properties of ferrite-ferroelectric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Elena Ciomaga, Cristina; Maria Neagu, Alexandra; Valentin Pop, Mihai; Mitoseriu, Liliana; Airimioaei, Mirela; Tascu, Sorin; Schileo, Giorgio; Galassi, Carmen

    2013-02-21

    Particulate composites of ferrite and ferroelectric phases with xNiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NF) and (1 - x)Pb{sub 0.988}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.976}Nb{sub 0.024}O{sub 3} (where x = 2, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100 wt. %) were prepared in situ by sol-gel method. The presence of a diphase composition was confirmed by X-ray diffraction while the microstructure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy revealing a good mixing of the two phases and a good densification of the bulk ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows usual dielectric dispersion behavior with increasing frequency due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. AC conductivity measurements made in frequency range 1 Hz-1 MHz suggest that the conduction process is due to mixed polaron hopping. The effect of NF phase concentration on the P-E and M-H hysteresis behavior and dielectric properties of the composites was investigated. At low NF concentration a sharp ferro-paraelectric transition peak can be observed at around 360 Degree-Sign C while for higher NF concentrations a trend to a diffuse phase transition occurs. All the composite samples exhibit typical ferromagnetic hysteresis loops, indicating the presence of ordered magnetic structure.

  17. Semiconductor/relaxor 0-3 type composites without thermal depolarization in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Pan, Zhao; Guo, Fei-Fei; Liu, Wen-Chao; Ning, Huanpo; Chen, Y. B.; Lu, Ming-Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Xing, Xianran; Rödel, Jürgen; Cao, Wenwu; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Commercial lead-based piezoelectric materials raised worldwide environmental concerns in the past decade. Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based solid solution is among the most promising lead-free piezoelectric candidates; however, depolarization of these solid solutions is a longstanding obstacle for their practical applications. Here we use a strategy to defer the thermal depolarization, even render depolarization-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based 0-3-type composites. This is achieved by introducing semiconducting ZnO particles into the relaxor ferroelectric 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 matrix. The depolarization temperature increases with increasing ZnO concentration until depolarization disappears at 30 mol% ZnO. The semiconducting nature of ZnO provides charges to partially compensate the ferroelectric depolarization field. These results not only pave the way for applications of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoceramics, but also have great impact on the understanding of the mechanism of depolarization so as to provide a new design to optimize the performance of lead-free piezoelectrics.

  18. 1. INTRODUCTION Ferroelectric (FE) capacitors have long been

    E-print Network

    Sheikholeslami, Ali

    1. INTRODUCTION Ferroelectric (FE) capacitors have long been recognized as suitable storage characteristics of the FE capacitor. In fact, the best modeling techniques used presently in memory circuit proposed [4]. The complex behavior of an FE capacitor in response to arbitrary voltage patterns is perhaps

  19. Polarization and interface charge coupling in ferroelectric/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Kong, Yuechan; Zhou, Jianjun; Xue, Fangshi; Li, Liang; Jiang, Wenhai; Hao, Lanzhong; Luo, Wenbo; Zeng, Huizhong

    2012-03-01

    Asymmetrical shift behaviors of capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve with opposite direction are observed in two AlGaN/GaN metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) heterostructures with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and LiNbO3 gate dielectrics. By incorporating the switchable polar nature of the ferroelectric into a self-consistent calculation, the coupling effect between the ferroelectric and the interface charges is disclosed. The opposite initial orientation of ferroelectric dipoles determined by the interface charges is essentially responsible for the different C-V characteristics. A critical fixed charge density of -1.27 × 1013cm-2 is obtained, which plays a key role in the dependence of the C-V characteristic on the ferroelectric polarization. The results pave the way for design of memory devices based on MFS structure with heteropolar interface.

  20. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  1. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore »one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  2. Tuning of dielectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 ceramic by internal clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Kundu, Swarup; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Vaish, Rahul; Varma, K. B. R.

    2015-08-01

    This study systematically investigates the phenomenon of internal clamping in ferroelectric materials through the formation of glass-ceramic composites. Lead-free 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 (BNT-BT-ST) bulk ferroelectric ceramic was selected for the course of investigation. 3BaO - 3TiO2 - B2O3 (BTBO) glass was then incorporated systematically to create sintered samples containing 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% glass (by weight). Upon glass induction features like remnant polarization, saturation polarization, hysteresis losses and coercive field could be varied as a function of glass content. Such effects were observed to benefit derived applications like enhanced energy storage density ˜174 kJ/m3 to ˜203 kJ/m3 and pyroelectric coefficient 5.7x10-4 Cm-2K-1 to 6.8x10-4 Cm-2K-1 by incorporation of 4% glass. Additionally, BNT-BT-ST depolarization temperature decreased from 457K to 431K by addition of 4% glass content. Glass incorporation could systematically increases diffuse phase transition and relaxor behavior temperature range from 70 K to 81K and 20K to 34 K, respectively when 6% and 4% glass content is added which indicates addition of glass provides better temperature stability. The most promising feature was observed to be that of dielectric response tuning. It can be also used to control (to an extent) the dielectric behavior of the host ceramic. Dielectric permittivity and losses decreased from 1278 to 705 and 0.109 to 0.107 for 6% glass, at room temperature. However this reduction in dielectric constant and loss increases pyroelectric figures of merit (FOMs) for high voltage responsivity (Fv) high detectivity (Fd) and energy harvesting (Fe) from 0.018 to 0.037 m2C-1, 5.89 to 8.85 ?Pa-1/2 and 28.71 to 61.55 Jm-3K-2, respectively for 4% added ceramic-glass at room temperature. Such findings can have huge implications in the field of tailoring ferroelectric response for application specific requirements.

  3. Examining graphene field effect sensors for ferroelectric thin film studies.

    PubMed

    Rajapitamahuni, A; Hoffman, J; Ahn, C H; Hong, X

    2013-09-11

    We examine a prototype graphene field effect sensor for the study of the dielectric constant, pyroelectric coefficient, and ferroelectric polarization of 100-300 nm epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films. Ferroelectric switching induces hysteresis in the resistivity and carrier density of n-layer graphene (n = 1-5) below 100 K, which competes with an antihysteresis behavior activated by the combined effects of electric field and temperature. We also discuss how the polarization asymmetry and interface charge dynamics affect the electronic properties of graphene. PMID:23924380

  4. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  5. Long-term retention in organic ferroelectric-graphene memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Stolichnov, Igor; Setter, Nava; Heron, Jean-Savin; Tosun, Mahmut; Kis, Andras

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of high- and low-resistance states in full-organic ferroelectrically gated graphene transistors is an essential prerequisite for memory applications. Here, we demonstrate high retention performance for both memory states with fully saturated time-dependence of the graphene channel resistance. This behavior is in contrast with ferroelectric-polymer-gated silicon field-effect-transistors, where the gap between the two memory states continuously decreases with time. Before reaching saturation, the current decays exponentially as predicted by the retention model based on the charge injection into the interface-adjacent layer. The drain current saturation attests to a high quality of the graphene/ferroelectric interface with low density of charge traps.

  6. Piezoelectric properties of rhombohedral ferroelectric materials with phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Soh, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of domain structure and its piezoelectric behavior of ferroelectric material BaTiO3 during the transition process from rhombohedral to tetragonal phase under an applied electric field have been studied by employing Landau-Ginzburg theory and the phase-field method. The results obtained show that, during the transformation process, the intermediate phase was monoclinic MA phase, and several peak values of piezoelectric coefficient appeared at the stage where obvious change of domain pattern occurred. In addition, by comparing the cases of applied electric field with different frequencies, it was found that the maximum piezoelectric coefficient obtained decreased with increasing frequency value. These results are of great significance in tuning the properties of engineering domains in ferroelectrics, and could provide more fundamentals to the design of ferroelectric devices.

  7. Ferroelectric domain structure of anisotropically strained NaNbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, J. Braun, D.; Schmidbauer, M.; Duk, A.; Wördenweber, R.

    2014-05-28

    NaNbO{sub 3} thin films have been grown under anisotropic biaxial strain on several oxide substrates by liquid-delivery spin metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Compressive lattice strain of different magnitude, induced by the deposition of NaNbO{sub 3} films with varying film thickness on NdGaO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates, leads to modifications of film orientation and phase symmetry, which are similar to the phase transitions in Pb-containing oxides near the morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements exhibit large out-of-plane polarization components, but no distinctive domain structure, while C-V measurements indicate relaxor properties in these films. When tensile strain is provoked by the epitaxial growth on DyScO{sub 3}, TbScO{sub 3}, and GdScO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates, NaNbO{sub 3} films behave rather like a normal ferroelectric. The application of these rare-earth scandate substrates yields well-ordered ferroelectric stripe domains of the type a{sub 1}/a{sub 2} with coherent domain walls aligned along the [001] substrate direction as long as the films are fully strained. With increasing plastic lattice relaxation, initially, a 2D domain pattern with still exclusively in-plane electric polarization, and finally, domains with in-plane and out-of-plane polar components evolve.

  8. Ergodicity and nonergodicity in La-doped Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thi Hinh; Han, Hyoung-Su; Lee, Jae-Shin; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Ill-Won; Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-04-01

    The phase transition of La-doped [Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2]TiO3 (BNKT) ceramics was investigated by using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent dielectric measurements. Undoped BNKT was found to be a nonergodic relaxor, which was evidenced by the presence of a depolarization temperature below which polar nanoregions were frozen. However, La-doped BNKT ceramics are believed to be composites consisting of ergodic and nonergodic relaxors. The results suggest that a nonergodic relaxor with tetragonal symmetry might be distributed in an ergodic relaxor matrix with pseudocubic symmetry.

  9. Pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting using relaxor ferroelectric 8/65/35 PLZT and the Olsen cycle

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    December 2011 Published 26 January 2012 Online at stacks.iop.org/SMS/21/025021 Abstract Waste heat can, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA E-mail: pilon@seas.ucla.edu Received 20 October 2011, in final form 9 in the online journal) 1. Introduction Waste heat is rejected as a by-product of power, refrigeration or heat

  10. CHIN. PHYS. LETT. Vol. 29, No. 2 (2012) 024302 Surface Acoustic Wave Propagation in Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    2012-01-01

    /2/024302 In recent years, perovskite relaxorbased ferroelec- tric single crystal (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB, x 0.09) composition, PZN-xPT single crystals pos- sess superior dielectric

  11. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  12. Real-time study of domain dynamics in ferroelectric Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 L. Tian, David A. Scrymgeour, and Venkatraman Gopalana

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    been dem- onstrated. Classical relaxor behavior, such as phase transition from nonpolar to polar state over a temperature range, and frequency dependence of the temperature Tmax at which the dielectric water elec- trodes at room temperature. The domain nucleation and do- main growth are observed in situ

  13. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya. Zelenovskiy, P. S.

    2014-08-14

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  14. Ferroelectric Based Technologies for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Jing, C.; Nenasheva, E.; Kazakov, S.; Tagantsev, A.; Yakovlev, V.

    2009-01-22

    Ferroelectrics have unique intrinsic properties that make them extremely attractive for high-energy accelerator applications. Low loss ferroelectric materials can be used as key elements in RF tuning and phase shifting components to provide fast, electronic control. These devices are under development for different accelerator applications for the X, Ka and L-frequency bands. The exact design of these devices depends on the electrical parameters of the particular ferroelectric material to be used--its dielectric constant, loss tangent and tunability. BST based ferroelectric-oxide compounds have been found to be suitable materials for a fast electrically-controlled tuners. We present recent results on the development of BST based ferroelectric compositions synthesized for use in high power technology components. The BST(M) ferroelectrics have been tested using both transverse and parallel dc bias fields to control the permittivity. Fast switching of a newly developed material has been shown and the feasibility of using of ferroelectric-based accelerator components in vacuum and in air has been demonstrated.

  15. Ferroelectric domain formation in discotic liquid crystals : Monte Carlo study on the influence of boundary conditions

    E-print Network

    Tushar Kanti Bose; Jayashree Saha

    2015-03-06

    The realization of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in fluids of anisotropic mesogens is a topic of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we demonstrated that a system of dipolar achiral disklike ellipsoids can exhibit long-searched ferroelectric liquid crystalline phases of dipolar origin. In the present work, extensive off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of the system under the influences of the electrostatic boundary conditions that restrict any global polarization. We find that the system develops strongly ferroelectric slablike domains periodically arranged in an antiferroelectric fashion. Exploring the phase behavior at different dipole strengths, we find existence of the ferroelectric nematic and ferroelectric columnar order inside the domains. For higher dipole strengths, a biaxial phase is also obtained with a similar periodic array of ferroelectric slabs of antiparallel polarizations. We have studied the depolarizing effects by using both the Ewald summation and the spherical cut-off techniques. We present and compare the results of the two different approaches of considering the depolarizing effects in this anisotropic system. It is explicitly shown that the domain size increases with the system size as a result of considering longer range of dipolar interactions. The system exhibits pronounced system size effects for stronger dipolar interactions. The results provide strong evidence to the novel understanding that the dipolar interactions are indeed sufficient to produce long range ferroelectric order in anisotropic fluids.

  16. Ferroelectric domain formation in discotic liquid crystals: Monte Carlo study on the influence of boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2015-10-01

    The realization of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in fluids of anisotropic mesogens is a topic of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently we demonstrated that a system of dipolar achiral disklike ellipsoids can exhibit long-searched ferroelectric liquid crystalline phases of dipolar origin. In the present work, extensive off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of the system under the influences of the electrostatic boundary conditions that restrict any global polarization. We find that the system develops strongly ferroelectric slablike domains periodically arranged in an antiferroelectric fashion. Exploring the phase behavior at different dipole strengths, we find existence of the ferroelectric nematic and ferroelectric columnar order inside the domains. For higher dipole strengths, a biaxial phase is also obtained with a similar periodic array of ferroelectric slabs of antiparallel polarizations. We have studied the depolarizing effects by using both the Ewald summation and the spherical cutoff techniques. We present and compare the results of the two different approaches of considering the depolarizing effects in this anisotropic system. It is explicitly shown that the domain size increases with the system size as a result of considering a longer range of dipolar interactions. The system exhibits pronounced system size effects for stronger dipolar interactions. The results provide strong evidence to the novel understanding that the dipolar interactions are indeed sufficient to produce long-range ferroelectric order in anisotropic fluids.

  17. Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals for Various Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Luo, Jun; Sahul, Raffi; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials lie at the heart of electromechanical devices. Applications include actuators, ultrasonic imaging, high intensity focused ultrasound, underwater ultrasound, nondestructive evaluation transducer, pressure sensors, and accelerometers, to name a few. In this work, the advantages and disadvantages of relaxor-PbTiO3-based single crystals are discussed, based on the requirements (figure of merit) of various applications, with emphasis on recent developments of the shear properties of single crystals as a function of temperature and applied fields. PMID:25004527

  18. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  19. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  20. Coupled ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in superlattices of non-ferroelectric antiferromagnetic manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. D.; Rogdakis, K.; Seo, J. W.; Viskadourakis, Z.; Wang, Y.; Ah Qune, L.; Choi, E.; Tsymbal, E.; Lee, J.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2013-03-01

    Complex oxide heterostructures present a promising avenue for the design of multifunctional properties which may find application in a variety of technological systems. In heterostructures composed of transition metal oxides the disruption introduced by an interface can affect the balance of the competing interactions among spins, charges and orbitals. This has led to the emergence of properties absent in the original building blocks of a heterostructure. We will report on the discovery of magnetically tunable ferroelectricity in artificial tri-layer superlattices consisting of non-ferroelectric and non-ferromagnetic components: NdMnO3/SrMnO3/LaMnO3. Ferroelectricity was observed below 40 K exhibiting strong tunability by superlattice periodicity. Furthermore, magnetoelectric coupling resulted in 150% magnetic modulation of the polarization. First-principles calculations indicate that broken space inversion symmetry and mixed valency give rise to the observed behavior. This discovery highlights the importance of tri-layered systems for the engineering of emergent properties in oxide heterostructures. 1 University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, Heraklion, Greece, 3 Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore, 4 Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

  1. Correlated nucleation and self-accommodating kinetic pathway of ferroelectric phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie E.; Cheng, Tian-Le; Wang, Yu U.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of nucleation and growth of domains during ferroelectric phase transformation are investigated by using theoretical and computational approaches. It is shown that ferroelectric phase transformation exhibits some peculiar behaviors due to strong long-range dipole-dipole-like interactions involved in the system. Incorporation of electrostatic and elastostatic energies into the classical Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory effectively modifies the coefficients of the polynomial free energy function and introduces extra energy barrier for ferroelectric phase transformation. It is found that independent nucleation of ferroelectric phase in the context of classical nucleation theory is prohibited, because electrostatic interaction generates an insurmountable energy barrier to isolated nucleus. Phase field modeling and computer simulation reveals that, in order to circumvent such an energy barrier, ferroelectric nucleation exhibits strong spatial correlation and self-organization behaviors from the very beginning, and ferroelectric phase transformation proceeds via spatial and temporal evolution of self-accommodating domains that provide a low-energy kinetic pathway throughout the phase transformation process. Theoretical analysis of the critical wavelength of correlated nucleation agrees with the computer simulation. Heterogeneous nucleation as induced by externally applied local electric field and subsequent polarization evolution process is also simulated to further demonstrate such self-organized pattern formation behaviors.

  2. Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Pusenkova, Anastasiia S.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Strikha, Maxym V.

    2015-06-01

    The origin and influence of finite-size effects on the nonlinear dynamics of space charge stored by multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric and resistivity of graphene channel were analyzed. Here, we develop a self-consistent approach combining the solution of electrostatic problems with the nonlinear Landau-Khalatnikov equations for a ferroelectric. The size-dependent behaviors are governed by the relations between the thicknesses of multilayer graphene, ferroelectric film, and the dielectric layer. The appearance of charge and electroresistance hysteresis loops and their versatility stem from the interplay of polarization reversal dynamics and its incomplete screening in an alternating electric field. These features are mostly determined by the dielectric layer thickness. The derived analytical expressions for electric fields and space-charge-density distribution in a multilayer system enable knowledge-driven design of graphene-on-ferroelectric heterostructures with advanced performance. We further investigate the effects of spatially nonuniform ferroelectric domain structures on the graphene layers' conductivity and predict its dramatic increase under the transition from multi- to single-domain state in a ferroelectric. This intriguing effect can open possibilities for the graphene-based sensors and explore the underlying physical mechanisms in the operation of graphene field-effect transistor with ferroelectric gating.

  3. First-principles theory, coarse-grained models, and simulations of ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Umesh V

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: A ferroelectric crystal exhibits macroscopic electric dipole or polarization arising from spontaneous ordering of its atomic-scale dipoles that breaks inversion symmetry. Changes in applied pressure or electric field generate changes in electric polarization in a ferroelectric, defining its piezoelectric and dielectric properties, respectively, which make it useful as an electromechanical sensor and actuator in a number of applications. In addition, a characteristic of a ferroelectric is the presence of domains or states with different symmetry equivalent orientations of spontaneous polarization that are switchable with large enough applied electric field, a nonlinear property that makes it useful for applications in nonvolatile memory devices. Central to these properties of a ferroelectric are the phase transitions it undergoes as a function of temperature that involve lowering of the symmetry of its high temperature centrosymmetric paraelectric phase. Ferroelectricity arises from a delicate balance between short and long-range interatomic interactions, and hence the resulting properties are quite sensitive to chemistry, strains, and electric charges associated with its interface with substrate and electrodes. First-principles density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been very effective in capturing this and predicting material and environment specific properties of ferroelectrics, leading to fundamental insights into origins of ferroelectricity in oxides and chalcogenides uncovering a precise picture of electronic hybridization, topology, and mechanisms. However, use of DFT in molecular dynamics for detailed prediction of ferroelectric phase transitions and associated temperature dependent properties has been limited due to large length and time scales of the processes involved. To this end, it is quite appealing to start with input from DFT calculations and construct material-specific models that are realistic yet simple for use in large-scale simulations while capturing the relevant microscopic interactions quantitatively. In this Account, we first summarize the insights obtained into chemical mechanisms of ferroelectricity using first-principles DFT calculations. We then discuss the principles of construction of first-principles model Hamiltonians for ferroelectric phase transitions in perovskite oxides, which involve coarse-graining in time domain by integrating out high frequency phonons. Molecular dynamics simulations of the resulting model are shown to give quantitative predictions of material-specific ferroelectric transition behavior in bulk as well as nanoscale ferroelectric structures. A free energy landscape obtained through coarse-graining in real-space provides deeper understanding of ferroelectric transitions, domains, and states with inhomogeneous order and points out the key role of microscopic coupling between phonons and strain. We conclude with a discussion of the multiscale modeling strategy elucidated here and its application to other materials such as shape memory alloys. PMID:25361389

  4. Grain size effect on phase transition behavior and electrical properties of (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2015-10-01

    Dense and phase-pure (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (BKT) ceramics with various grain sizes from 0.18 to 1.01 µm were prepared by conventional sintering of a hydrothermally synthesized fine powder. The decrease in grain size resulted in the reductions in tetragonality, remanent polarization, and the piezoelectric d33 coefficient, whereas the room-temperature dielectric permittivity slightly increased with decreasing grain size. The measurement of the temperature dependence of permittivity revealed that BKT exhibited the spontaneous relaxor-to-normal ferroelectric (R-nFE) phase transition. It was also found that the maximum permittivity was decreased and the R-nFE transition was inhibited by the reduction in grain size. In this paper, on the basis of the observed grain-size-dependent phase transition behaviors, microstructural models are proposed for both coarse- and fine-grained BKT ceramics, and the mechanism underlying the grain size effect on the electrical properties is discussed.

  5. CuInP?S? Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Belianinov, A; He, Q; Dziaugys, A; Maksymovych, P; Eliseev, E; Borisevich, A; Morozovska, A; Banys, J; Vysochanskii, Y; Kalinin, S V

    2015-06-10

    We explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V-likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. The existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing "graphene family". PMID:25932503

  6. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-08

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20?nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P{sub r} of up to 10??C?cm{sup ?2} as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6?×?10{sup 5} cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  7. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4-20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization Pr of up to 10 ?C cm-2 as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 105 cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  8. The Soft Mode Driven Dynamics in Ferroelectric Perovskites at the Nanoscale: An Atomistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCash, Kevin

    The discovery of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale has incited a lot of interest in perovskite ferroelectrics not only for their potential in device application but also for their potential to expand fundamental understanding of complex phenomena at very small size scales. Unfortunately, not much is known about the dynamics of ferroelectrics at this scale. Many of the widely held theories for ferroelectric materials are based on bulk dynamics which break down when applied to smaller scales. In an effort to increase understanding of nanoscale ferroelectric materials we use atomistic resolution computational simulations to investigate the dynamics of polar perovskites. Within the framework of a well validated effective Hamiltonian model we are able to accurately predict many of the properties of ferroelectric materials at the nanoscale including the response of the soft mode to mechanical boundary conditions and the polarization reversal dynamics of ferroelectric nanowires. Given that the focus of our study is the dynamics of ferroelectric perovskites we begin by developing an effective Hamiltonian based model that could simultaneously describe both static and dynamic properties of such materials. Our study reveals that for ferroelectric perovskites that undergo a sequence of phase transitions, such as BaTiO3. for example, the minimal parameter effective Hamiltonian model is unable to reproduce both static and dynamical properties simultaneously. Nevertheless we developed two sets of parameters that accurately describes the static properties and dynamic properties of BaTiO3 independently. By creating a tool that accurately models the dynamical properties of perovskite ferroelectrics we are able to investigate the frequencies of the soft modes in the perovskite crystal. The lowest energy transverse optical soft modes in perovskite ferroelectrics are known to be cause of the ferroelectric phase transition in these materials and affect a number of electrical properties. The performance of a ferroelectric device is therefore directly influenced by the dynamics of the soft mode. Interestingly, however, little study has been done on the effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the soft modes of perovskites. Understanding the effect of mechanical forces on the soft modes is critical to device applications as complicated growth structures often are the cause of pressures, stresses and strains. Using classical molecular dynamics we study the effect of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain on the soft modes of the ferroelectric PbTiO 3. The results of this study indicate the existence of Curie-Weiss laws for not only hydrostatic pressure, which is well known, but also for uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain. The mode frequencies are also seen to respond very differently to these mechanical forces and lead to a more complete picture of the behavior of nanoscale ferroelectrics. One nanoscale geometry of perovskite ferroelectrics is the pseudo one-dimensional nanowire. These structures have very unique properties that are highly attractive for use as interconnects, nanoscale sensors or more directly in computer memory devices. Perovskite nanowires have only recently been synthesized and the techniques are not well developed. While progress has been made towards consistently fabricating uniform, high quality nanowires experimental investigation of their properties is prohibitively difficult. Of immediate interest is the polarization reversal dynamics of ferroelectric nanowires. The reading and writing of bits of information stored in a wire's polarization state is done by switching the polarization. Again using classical molecular dynamics we study the polarization reversal dynamics in ferroelectric nanowires made of Pb(Ti1-xZrx)O 3 disordered alloy. We find that there are two competing mechanisms for polarization reversal and that the interplay of these mechanisms is dependent on electric field strength. The dynamics in nanowires also sheds light on long standing theories about polar

  9. RF gun with ferroelectric cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodak, Igor V.; Kushnir, Volodymyr A.

    2006-06-01

    RF guns generate bunched electron beams with pulse current Ip˜10 -1-10 3 A and current pulse duration ?p˜10 -6-10 -12 s. The parameters are defined by the type of a cathode used mainly. We propose to apply a ferroelectric cathode in RF gun for the generation of electron beams with Ip more than few amperes, ?p˜10 -8 s and current density of electron emission in a ferroelectric cathode jcfe may be ˜10 3 A/cm 2. We consider results of experimental study of S-band RF gun with ferroelectric plasma cathode. Obtained maximum Ip at RF gun output is 9 A with ?p?40-90 ns and electron energy We?500 keV.

  10. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  11. Polarization relaxation kinetics in ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors A. Stamm, D. J. Kim, H. Lu, C. W. Bark, C. B. Eom et al.

    E-print Network

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Polarization relaxation kinetics in ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors A. Stamm, D. J. Kim, H. Lu density nanocomposite capacitors using non-ferroelectric nanowires Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 063901 (2013) Insulation degradation behavior of multilayer ceramic capacitors clarified by Kelvin probe force microscopy

  12. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  13. Relaxor-like dielectric response of spin liquid CuCrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, N. Roy, R.; Ghorai, U. K.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Broadband dielectric analysis (10{sup ?2}-10{sup 7} Hz) of layered triangular lattice CuCrO{sub 2} is performed (123 K - 473 K) and analyzed in connection with recently observed spin frustration in this multiferroic [M. Poienar et al. Phys. Rev. B 81, 104411, (2010); M. Frontzek et al. Phys. Rev. B 84, 094448, (2011)]. Most unexpectedly, this well known delafossite has found to have nontrivial charge degrees of freedom, being characterized by a relaxor-like dielectric relaxation around 375 K with FWHM of ?100K. The result strongly suggests the existence of intermolecular Coulomb interaction between charge disproportionation induced electric dipoles.

  14. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, Saif Ullah E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com; Hasanain, S. K.; Anjum, D. H.; Awan, M. S.; Shah, Saqlain A.

    2014-10-28

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1?y}Li{sub y}O(0.00?y?0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4?×?10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5?kV/cm (0.11 ?C/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8?kV/cm (0.15 ?C/cm{sup 2}) for y?=?0.08 and y?=?0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ?5.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  15. Quantum breathers in lithium tantalate ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Arindam; Adhikar, Sutapa; Choudhary, Kamal; Basu, Reshmi; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Mandal, D.

    2013-08-01

    Lithium tantalate is technologically one of the most important ferroelectric materials with a low poling field that has several applications in the field of photonics and memory switching devices. In a Hamiltonian system, such as dipolar system, the polarization behavior of such ferroelectrics can be well-modeled by Klein-Gordon (K-G) equation. Due to strong localization coupled with discreteness in a nonlinear K-G lattice, there is a formation of breathers and multi-breathers that manifest in the localization peaks across the domains in polarization-space-time plot. Due to the presence of nonlinearity and also impurities (as antisite tantalum defects) in the structure, dissipative effects are observed and hence dissipative breathers are studied here. To probe the quantum states related to discrete breathers, the same K-G lattice is quantized to give rise to quantum breathers (QBs) that are explained by a periodic boundary condition. The gap between the localized and delocalized phonon-band is a function of impurity content that is again related to the effect of pinning of domains due to antisite tantalum defects in the system, i.e., a point of easier switching within the limited amount of data on poling field, which is related to Landau coefficient (read, nonlinearity). Secondly, in a non-periodic boundary condition, the temporal evolution of quanta shows interesting behavior in terms of `critical' time of redistribution of quanta that is proportional to QB's lifetime in femtosecond having a possibility for THz applications. Hence, the importance of both the methods for characterizing quantum breathers is shown in these perspectives.

  16. 2004 IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jian-yu

    2004 IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 50th Anniversary, Canada Sponsored by the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics & Frequency Control Society Call for Papers Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society marks the 50th anniversary of the Society

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures – In-situ TEM Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-30

    The goal of this project was to explore the structure and dynamic behaviors of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field modeling. The experimental techniques used include aberration-corrected sub-Å resolution TEM and in-situ TEM using a novel scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) - TEM holder that allows the direct observation of nucleation and dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domains under applied electric field. Specifically, this project was aimed to (1) to study the roles of static electrical boundary conditions and electrical charge in controlling the equilibrium domain structures of BiFeO3 thin films with controlled substrate constraints, (2) to explore the fundamental mechanisms of ferroelectric domain nucleation, growth, and switching under an applied electric field in both uniform thin films and nanostructures, and to understand the roles of crystal defects such as dislocations and interfaces in these processes, (3) to understand the physics of ferroelectric domain walls and the influence of defects on the electrical switching of ferroelectric domains.

  18. Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

  19. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivry, Yachin; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm

    2014-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  20. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Ivry, Yachin E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk

    2014-03-31

    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8?GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  1. Coupling of electrical and mechanical switching in nanoscale ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Li, Qian; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-11-01

    While electric field induced ferroelectric switching has been extensively studied and broadly utilized, pure mechanical switching via flexoelectric effect has recently opened up an alternative method for domain writing due to their highly localized, electrically erasable and electric damage free characteristics. Thus far, few studies have been made on the coupling effect of electro-mechanical switching in ferroelectric materials, likely due to the experimental difficulty in the accurate definition of the tip-surface contact area and in the identification of mechanical contribution from electrical effect. Here, we employed self-consistent phase-field modeling to investigate the bi-polar switching behavior of (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film under concurrent electric and strain field created via a piezoresponse force microscope probe. By separating the effects from electric field, homogeneous strain and strain gradient, we revealed that the homogeneous strain suppresses the spontaneous polarization and accordingly increases the coercive field, and the strain gradient favors unipolar switching and inhibit it in the reverse direction, thus causing lateral offset of the hysteresis loop. The uncertainty of flexoelectric coefficients and the influence of flexocoupling coefficients on switching have also been discussed. Our study could necessitate further understanding of the electric, piezoelectric, and flexoelectric contribution to the switching behavior in nanoscale ferroelectric oxides.

  2. New Ferroelectrics for Naval SONAR and Modeling of Nanoscale Ferroelectric Nonvolatile Memory Materials

    E-print Network

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    New Ferroelectrics for Naval SONAR and Modeling of Nanoscale Ferroelectric Nonvolatile Memory Navigation and Ranging (SONAR). At the nanoscale, our quantum-mechanical studies show that ferroelectricity with high piezoelectric response are of particular interest as they may be employed as sensors in SONAR

  3. Ferroelectric studies of excessive Sm{sup 3+} containing perovskite PZT and pyrochlore biphase ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, T. Anil; Sastry, D. L.; Ramesh, K. V.; Reddy, V. Raghavendra

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline samples of Sm{sup 3+} modified Pb{sub 1?x} Sm{sub 2x/3} (Zr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}) O{sub 3} (PSZT) ceramics (where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) have been prepared by a high energy ball milling technique, followed by calcination at 950°C and sintering at 1150°C. As x is increased more than 0.1 mole%, considerable secondary phase has been formed. This phase has been identified as pyrochlore Sm{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} from its X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks. The XRD studies also indicate that the perovskte phases of the present systems undergo a dopant induced phase transformation from rhombohedral to tetragonal strucure. All the samples exhibit diffuse but non-relaxor type ferroelectric phase transition. The results of dielectric and hysteresis studies of these materials are presented.

  4. Structural, Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Characterization of NBT-BT Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuga Sundari, S.; Kumar, Binay; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2013-05-01

    Lead free piezoelectric 0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics were synthesized in MPB composition by conventional solid state reaction method. The crystalline nature of NBT-BT ceramic was studied by XRD and the size of the grains are determined by SEM. The X- ray diffraction results reveal that Ba2+ diffuse into the Na0.5 Bi0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics exhibit high piezoelectric properties: d33 = 206 pC/N. Td (depolarization temperature) and Tm (temperature at with the dielectric constant epsilonr reaches a maximum) were observed through the phase transition in dielectric studies. In addition, the prepared ceramic exhibits relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12fold coordination sites. Pr and Ec of the prepared ceramics were determined from the P-E hysteresis loop.

  5. Importance of damping on nanoswitching in LiNbO3-type ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, P.; Ghosh, S.; Choudhary, K.; Alam, Md; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Ray, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous dynamic study of some ferroelectric materials showing memory switching behavior, a Hamiltonian was developed that gave rise to a nonlinear Duffing oscillator equation involving the Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional as a potential formulation (Bandyopadhyay et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 100 114106). A high level of oscillations was observed in polarization waves against non-dimensional time that was quenched by increasing damping, which is a decay constant related to the loss of polarization due to damping during its motion in a ferroelectric material, such as lithium niobate. From the computer simulation of the damped oscillation curves, a critical time for switching, say, in a nanoswitch, was found that varies with the damping coefficient. This damping was also found to show an increasing behavior with the coercive field or the amount of impurities in a quadratic manner in such ferroelectrics.

  6. Ferroelectric Transitions at Ferroelectric Domain Walls Found from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojde?, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    We present a first-principles study of model domain walls (DWs) in prototypic ferroelectric PbTiO3. At high temperature the DW structure is somewhat trivial, with atoms occupying high-symmetry positions. However, upon cooling the DW undergoes a symmetry-breaking transition characterized by a giant dielectric anomaly and the onset of a large and switchable polarization. Our results thus corroborate previous arguments for the occurrence of ferroic orders at structural DWs, providing a detailed atomistic picture of a temperature-driven DW-confined transformation. Beyond its relevance to the field of ferroelectrics, our results highlight the interest of these DWs in the broader areas of low-dimensional physics and phase transitions in strongly fluctuating systems.

  7. Ogranic-Assisted Solid-State Reaction Method for Fabrication of PNN-PT Ceramics with Superior Ferroelectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yin

    Relaxor ferroelectric ceramic materials have attracted considerable attentions due to their high dielectric constants and superior piezoelectric properties. Since such properties are associated with single perovskite phase, the synthesis process is of utmost importance. The traditional solid-state reaction encounters difficulties in eliminating pyrochlore phases. To synthesize pyrochlore-free Pb-based relaxors, other methods have been proposed including the columbite route, the chemical method and the mechanochemical reaction approach. However, they involve complicated processing procedures, high fabrication cost and inevitable contamination. To tackle these problems, this study aims to develop a simple and economical method for synthesis of Pb-based relaxors that can attain single perovskite phase, excellent electrical properties and high electric fatigue resistance while accommodating the demand of mass production. The key idea is to introduce organic materials into the ball-milling process of the conventional solid-state reaction so that the oxygen in the organics could assist the formation of the perovskite phase. In this work, 0.64Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O 3-0.36PbTiO3 powders and ceramics with single perovskite structure have been successfully fabricated using a polyethylene glycol(PEG)-assisted method. The details of studies on the improvements of material properties like phase structure, microstructure, electrical properties and electric fatigue resistance have been presented. The major contributions can be highlighted in three aspects: (1) the successful demonstration of organic-assisted solid-state reaction method by synthesizing pyrochlore-free Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.36PbTiO 3 powders via a PEG-assisted method, which yields drastically improved properties of ceramics in density, dielectrics and piezoelectrics as compared to those derived without PEG; (2) the study of chemical functional groups by comparing the assisting effects of polyalcohol and polyether, which finds that the hydroxyl oxygen is more effective in assisting the formation of the perovskite phase than the ether oxygen; and (3) the characterization of the Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.36PbTiO3 ceramics fabricated by the organic-assisted method, which show superior performance as compared to those fabricated without the organic, particularly for electrical properties and electric fatigue characteristics. In summary, the organic-assisted method has shown its great potential in fabricating single-phase perovskite i1/3Nb2/3)O 3-PbTiO3 ceramics with superior electrical performance, high electric fatigue resistance and mass productability, making it suitable for wide industrial applications such as capacitors, actuators and transducers, etc.

  8. Switchable diode effect in ferroelectric thin film: High dependence on poling process and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Liu, X. L.; Chen, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Xiong, W. M.; Zheng, Yue

    2014-12-01

    Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) thin film was fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Our results show a very great switchable ferroelectric diode effect (SFDE) in Pt-PZT-Au structure, which is more obvious and controllable than that in other ferroelectric thin films. The electrical conduction exhibits high rectifying behavior after pre-poling and the polarity of ferroelectric diode can be switched by changing the orientation of polarization in ferroelectric thin film. Our results also indicate that the SFDE in PZT film is highly dependent on remanent polarization and temperature. With the increase of remanent polarization, the forward current of bistable rectifying behavior observably reduces. Therefore, our measurement indicated that the biggest rectification ratio can reach about 220, which is found in 250K after +10V poling. By analyzing the conduction data, it is found that the dominant conduction mechanism of the SFDE in this sample is due to the space-charge-limited bulk conduction (SCLC), and Schottky emission (SE) may play subordinate role in forward bias voltage. Our observation demonstrates that SFDE may be general characteristic in ferroelectrics as long as proper electrodes chosen.

  9. Ferroelectric Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator has a three-pump configuration and pumping sequence, in which one pump serves as a compressor. one pump serves as an expander, and one pump serves as a displacer. The pumps are ferroelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps which are coordinated by synchronizing the ferroelectric-actuator voltages in such a way that the net effect of the displacer is to reduce the deleterious effect of dead space; that is, to circulate a greater fraction of the working fluid through the heat exchangers than would be possible by use of the compressor and expander alone. In addition. the displacer can be controlled separately to make the flow of working fluid in the heat exchangers turbulent (to increase the rate of transfer of heat at the cost of greater resistance to flow) or laminar (to decrease the resistance to flow at the cost of a lower heat-transfer rate).

  10. Artificial ferroelectricity in perovskite superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Harigai, Takakiyo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Nam, Song-Min; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Wada, Satoshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2004-11-22

    Artificial superlattices of SrZrO{sub 3}(SZO)/SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy. Lattice parameters showed that the lattice distortion (c/a ratio) attained a maximum value in the [(SZO){sub 10}/(STO){sub 10}]{sub 4} superlattice. Dielectric relaxation was observed in the [(SZO){sub 1}/(STO){sub 1}]{sub 40} and [(SZO){sub 10}/(STO){sub 10}]{sub 4} superlattices in the low frequency domain. Dielectric permittivity of the SZO/STO superlattices was over 10 000 at 110 MHz. The SZO/STO superlattices showed clear Q-V hysteresis curves, which indicated that ferroelectricity was induced artificially in the superlattices in spite of the paraelectric nature of SZO and STO. The origin of the ferroelectricity was related to the anisotropic lattice distortion in the superlattice structure.

  11. Domain dynamics during ferroelectric switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoqing; Gao, Peng; Nelson, Christopher; Jokisaari, Jacob; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Bark, Chung-Wung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Schlom, Darrell

    2012-02-01

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by a spontaneous polarization that can be reoriented by an applied electric field. The ability to form and manipulate domains at the nanometer scale is key to device applications such as nonvolatile memories. The ferroelectric switching is mediated by defects and interfaces. Thus, it is critical to understand how the domain forms, grows, and interacts with defects. Here we show the nanoscale switching of a tetragonal PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin film under an applied electric field using in situ transmission electron microscopy. We found that the intrinsic electric fields formed at ferroelectric/electrode interfaces determine the nucleation sites and growth rates of domains and the orientation and mobility of domain walls, while dislocations exert a weak pinning force on domain wall motion. We also show that localized 180 polarization switching initially form domain walls along unstable planes. After removal of the external field, they tend to relax to low energy orientations. In sufficiently small domains this process results in complete backswitching. Our results suggest that even thermodynamically favored domains are still subject to retention loss, which must be mitigated by overcoming a critical domain size.

  12. High Temperature Ferroelectrics for Actuators: Recent Developments and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Kowalski, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A variety of piezoelectric applications have been driving the research in development of new high temperature ferroelectrics; ranging from broader markets such as fuel and gas modulation and deep well oil drilling to very specific applications such as thermoacoustic engines and ultrasonic drilling on the surface of Venus. The focus has been mostly on increasing the Curie temperature. However, greater challenges for high temperature ferroelectrics limit the operating temperature to levels much below the Curie temperature. These include enhanced loss tangent and dc conductivity at high fields as well as depoling due to thermally activated domain rotation. The initial work by Eitel et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 40 [10, Part 1] 59996002 (2001)] increased interest in investigation of Bismuth containing perovskites in solid solution with lead titanate. Issues that arise vary from solubility limits to increased tetragonality; the former one prohibits processing of morphotropic phase boundary, while the latter one impedes thorough poling of the polycrystalline ceramics. This talk will summarize recent advances in development of high temperature piezoelectrics and provide information about challenges encountered as well as the approaches taken to improve the high temperature behavior of ferroelectrics with a focus on applications that employ the converse piezoelectric effect.

  13. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in displacive-type organic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, L. J.; Zhong, Y.; Fan, S. W.; Zhu, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    We explore the intrinsic feature of electrocaloric effect (ECE) accompanied by ferroelectric (FE)-paraelectric (PE) transition for displacive-type organic ferroelectrics using Green's function theory. It is demonstrated that decreasing elastic constant K or increasing spin-lattice coupling ? can enhance the ECE, as well as polarization P and transition temperature TC. Indeed, one expects that the optimal operating temperature for solid-state refrigeration is around room temperature, at which the ECE achieves its maximum. As TC is tuned to ˜310 K, it presents larger ECE response and remanent polarization with lower coercive field for smaller K value, suggesting that well flexible displacive-type organic ferroelectrics are excellent candidates both for electric cooling and data storage in the design of nonvolatile FE random-access memories. Furthermore, in an electric field, it provides a bridge between a Widom line that denotes FE-PE crossover above TC and a metaelectric transition line below TC that demonstrates an FE switching behavior with an antiparallel field.

  14. Polyimide thin-film dielectrics on ferroelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galiardi, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Conducting layers of multi-layered thin-film ferroelectric device, such as is used in liquid crystal/ferroelectric display, can be electrically isolated using thin-film layer of polyimide. Ease of application and high electrical-breakdown strength allow dependable and economical means of providing dielectric for other thin-film microelectronic devices.

  15. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites Xinchang Pang,a Yanjie He,a Beibei Jiang and Zhiqun Lin*a Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor

  16. Ferroelectric switching of elastin Yuanming Liua,1

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Pradeep

    is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite- ical significance and pathological implications. Ferroelectricity was first discovered in synthetic

  17. Atomistic simulations of the incipient ferroelectric KTaO3 A. R. Akbarzadeh,1

    E-print Network

    Vanderbilt, David

    anomalous dielectric response of this incipient ferroelectric is well reproduced by this approach, once transition; it is unnecessary to introduce defects to explain the dielectric behavior. The resulting quantum out on the perovskite KTaO3 over the last 40 years (see, e.g., Refs. 1­12, and references therein

  18. Anomaly in the conductivity relaxation parameters at the phase transition of ferroelectric materials: A time domain study

    SciTech Connect

    Leyet, Y.; Guerrero, F.; Amorin, H.; Guerra, J. de Los S.; Eiras, J. A.

    2010-10-18

    The influence of the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition on the relaxation parameters of conductive processes in ferroelectric materials is studied in the time domain. Three well-known ferroelectric systems were chosen with transition temperatures in different regions, these are, high-temperature PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}-based ceramics; nanostructured Pb(Zr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4})O{sub 3} ceramics; and submicron BaTiO{sub 3}. The thermal evolution of relaxation parameters shows clear anomalies in their typical behavior when conductivity processes arise in the temperature range where the ferroelectric transition takes place. The method here described allows obtaining information about the correlation between charge transport and the motion of the off-center ions at the phase transition.

  19. Surface atomic and chemical structure of relaxor Sr0.63Ba0.37Nb2O6(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Vilquin, B.; Gautier, B.; Dezanneau, G.; Barrett, N.

    2015-06-01

    The surface atomic and chemical structures of a Sr0.63Ba0.37Nb2O6(001) single crystal are studied using the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sharp, well-defined LEED patterns are observed, consisting of the superposition of two surface reconstructions, ( ?{ 5 } × ?{ 5 } )R26.6° and ( 5 ?{ 2 } × ?{ 2 } )R45°, probably due to long-range ordering of the alkaline earth metal vacancies in A1 or A2 sites. The Sr/Ba stoichiometry is determined by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Sr 3d core level has 2 components corresponding to the 12- and 15-fold coordinated A1 and A2 sites. The Ba 3d core level has only one component, consistent with the A2 site occupancy. The long-range order of the cation vacancies implies that it is rather the Sr/Ba occupancy of the A2 sites which is responsible for the local random fields at the origin of the relaxor behavior.

  20. Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  1. Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helbaum, Richard F. (inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (inventor); Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  2. Thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Jr., Antony (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  3. Structural studies on ferroelectric and ferrodistortive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mingqin

    The structure of the piezoelectric material 0.68PbMg1/3Nb 2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 have been studied by single crystal, powder x-ray diffraction techniques over the temperature range from 25°C to 200°C. The existence of twinned structures or coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases has been shown by the peak distortion of Bragg reflections. Superlattice structure was observed for all experimental PMN-PT crystals. Refinement results showed that the 2 x 2 x 2 superlattice resulted from anti-parallel displacement of oxygen in the adjacent conventional perovskite unit cells. No cation displacement in the paraelectric phase and little in the ferroelectric phase were shown by the refinement results. This unique feature associated with the ferroelectric mechanism of the material was explained by comparison with PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3. The crystals were extensively characterized by using powder x-ray diffraction, Laue back-reflection and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The detailed orientation information such as misorientation of grains, location of grain boundaries and the orientation distribution was obtained from the automatic orientation mapping with the EBSD technique. The uniform orientation was confirmed for crystals with a "cellular-like" structure. A crystal growth model, the two-dimensional layer mechanism, was proposed by orientation analysis. Based on the model, some important comments were made on orientation problems under general growth conditions. The ferrodistortive phase transitions of tertramethylphosphonium tetrabromozincate [P(CH3)4]2ZnBr4 and tertramethylphosphonium tetraiodonzincate [P(CH3)4]2ZnI4 were thoroughly studied by a single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. An order parameter analysis by application of Landau theory showed that the two compounds undergo first-order phase transitions near a tricritical Lifshitz point. Transitions for both compounds appear to be first order, but with the iodo salt the transition is nearly second order. The driving force for the transitions was found to be the uniaxial anion displacement with respect to the mirror plane in Pmcn phase, coupled with the rotation of the cation and anions. The abnormal thermal behaviors, such as thermal contraction of a-axis, non-linear behavior of thermal parameters versus temperature in both compounds and superheating of [P(CH3)4]2ZnBr4 , were explained by observing the Lifshitz point. The results from theoretical analysis of the free energy are consistent with all features of the phase transitions.

  4. Ferroelectric modulation of terahertz waves with graphene/ultrathin-Si:HfO2/Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ran; Han, Zuyin; Sun, Weideng; Du, Xianghao; Wu, Zhengran; Jung, Hyung-Suk

    2015-10-01

    Ferroelectric-field-effect-tunable modulation of terahertz waves in graphene/Si:HfO2/Si stack structure was observed. The modulation shows distinct behaviors when the samples under different gate polarities. At a negative voltage, a transmission modulation depth up to ˜74% was present without depending on the photo illumination power, whereas, at a positive voltage, the modulation of Thz wave shows dependence on the illumination power, which is ascribed to the creation/elimination of an extra barrier in Si layer in response to the polarization in the ferroelectric Si:HfO2 layer. Considering the good compatibility of HfO2 on Si-based semiconductor process, the ferroelectricity layer of Si:HfO2 may open up an avenue for the tunable modulation of Thz wave.

  5. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Karapetian, Edgar; Mirman, B; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  6. Universal Ferroelectric Switching Dynamics of Vinylidene Fluoride-trifluoroethylene Copolymer Films

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei Jin; Juo, Deng-Ming; You, Lu; Wang, Junling; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao; Wu, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50?MV/m and 180° domain wall energy of 60?mJ/m2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications. PMID:24759786

  7. Enhancing electrical energy storage density in anti-ferroelectric ceramics using ferroelastic domain switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-12-01

    Capacitors form an indispensable part of many modern electrical and electronic devices. An ideal capacitor is expected to possess high power and energy density along with enhanced energy recovery characteristics. Anti-ferroelectric materials form a suitable candidate for ceramic-based capacitor applications, owing to their low loss and high energy density. However, these materials show ample room for improvement through physical means. In this regard, the present work deals with mechanical tuning of the energy storage density and recoverable efficiency in known anti-ferroelectric materials. For this study, various configurations of (Pb1-xLax)(Zr0.90Ti0.10)1-x/4O3 (PLZTx) ceramics have been investigated. Both mechanical confinement and temperature applications have been shown to improve the performance characteristics of all selected compositions. This behavior has been explained on the basis of competing ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain rotations. The application of suitable stress/temperature reduces hysteresis losses and delays anti-ferroelectric ? ferroelectric phase transformation, which increases the electrical energy storage capacity of these materials. Mechanical confinement was observed to provide an increase in energy storage density and efficiency by approximately 38% and 25%, respectively, for the PLZT4 composition. The highest recoverable energy density of 698 m J cm-3 was achieved under compressive stress of a 100 MPa and 60 kV cm-1 applied electric field.

  8. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  9. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  10. Ferroelectric Plasma Cathodes for Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2002-11-01

    During last decade the phenomenon of strong ferroelectric emission was studied widely in many laboratories all around the world. It was shown that the application of a kilovolt-range driving pulse between solid rear and patterned front electrodes which cover a sample of a ferroelectric ceramics results in electron emission from the side of the front electrode. The current density of this electron emission varies from hundreds of mA to hundreds of A per cm^2. The duration of the current pulse is several hundreds of nanoseconds with the repetition rate up to several MHz. Recent investigations showed that the strong electron emission occurs from surface discharge plasma formed on the ceramic surface near the edges of the front electrode pattern. The surface plasma has a density of 10^11 - 10^13 cm-3, an electron temperature of 2-3 eV, and consists mostly from ions of ferroelectric ceramic material and the front electrode. Ferroelectric Plasma Cathodes (FPC) are used widely in electron guns, microwave sources, and high current switches. It was recently showed that a strong ferroelectric-gas discharge occurs at a background pressure about of 1 Torr. Dense plasma formed in the ferroelectric-gas discharge can be used either as a powerful cathodes-neutralizer or as a plasma source for an ion thruster. Ferroelectric segmented electrodes are also very promising for Hall thrusters in both emissive and nonemissive modes.

  11. Implementation of Ferroelectric Memories for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpy, Stephen C.; Derbenwick, Gary F.; Kamp, David A.; Isaacson, Alan F.

    2000-01-01

    Ferroelectric random access semiconductor memories (FeRAMs) are an ideal nonvolatile solution for space applications. These memories have low power performance, high endurance and fast write times. By combining commercial ferroelectric memory technology with radiation hardened CMOS technology, nonvolatile semiconductor memories for space applications can be attained. Of the few radiation hardened semiconductor manufacturers, none have embraced the development of radiation hardened FeRAMs, due a limited commercial space market and funding limitations. Government funding may be necessary to assure the development of radiation hardened ferroelectric memories for space applications.

  12. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-02-15

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  13. 23 GHz ferroelectric electron gun based gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Moshe, R.; Einat, M.

    2011-04-01

    Ferroelectric cathodes have been explored as an alternative electron source for microwave tubes. Past experiments have demonstrated operation at frequencies of 2-10 GHz. Since the ferroelectric cathode is based on surface plasma, the relatively high energy spread limits the tube operation frequency. Hence, the possibility to obtain higher frequencies remained questionable. In this experimental work a gyrotron oscillator was designed with the operation frequency increased toward that of millimeter waves. A cylindrical tube with a cutoff frequency of ˜22 GHz was integrated to a ferroelectric electron gun. Pulses of ˜0.5 ?s duration with a frequency of 23 GHz were obtained.

  14. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  15. Ferroelectric potassium niobate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Lamppa, D.L.; Tissot, R.G.; Yio, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report on the first ferroelectric measurements of chemically prepared KNbO/sub 3/ thin films. Polycrystalline KNbO/sub 3/ thin films were fabricated by dip coating substrates with methanolic solutions of potassium hydroxide and niobium ethoxide. Perovskite KNbO/sub 3/ was obtained for both bulk gels and films by using 800/degree/C firing treatments. For films, the intermediate temperature processing schedule was critical for the complete conversion of low temperature phases to perovskite KNbO/sub 3/. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that properly processed films possessed the orthorhombic distortion of the perovskite structure at room temperature. In response to a 1 kHz, sinusoidal field of 300 kV/cm amplitude, we measured the following ferroelectric properties: (1) a remanent polarization of 4.5 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/, (2) a spontaneous polarization of 8.3 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/, and (3) a coercive field of 55 kV/cm.

  16. The problem of determining elastic constants of thin ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Shakhovoy, R. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2015-08-01

    A method of determining the constants of the linear equations of the piezoelectric effect dependent on the external conditions is proposed for thin ferroelectric films on the basis of the Landau potential of the phenomenological theory of phase transitions. By the example of single-crystalline barium—titanate thin films, the behavior of material constants is investigated in dependence on the value of the misfit strain. The investigation of material equations is implemented on the basis of the Landau potential of the eighth degree at room temperature. The substantial difference in the elastic, electric, and piezoelectric properties of a thin film from those of a bulk material is shown; the anomalous behavior of constants on the phase boundaries and the extremal behavior inside the r-phase is revealed.

  17. Ca doping dependence of resistive switching characteristics in ferroelectric capacitors comprising Ca-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sawa, Akihito

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the transport and ferroelectric properties of ferroelectric capacitors comprising Ca-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) to elucidate the correlation between resistive switching and ferroelectricity. A capacitor consisting of Ca-doped (3.6 at. %) BFO film exhibited polarization-voltage hysteresis, indicating ferroelectricity of the film. As the Ca-doping ratio was increased, the leakage current increased, and zero-crossing hysteretic current-voltage characteristics, i.e., bipolar resistive switching, were observed in capacitors consisting of Ca-doped BFO films with doping ratios of 6.4-13 at. %. A capacitor consisting of a highly Ca-doped BFO (23 at. %) film showed neither resistive switching nor ferroelectric behavior. Distinct changes in the retention and pulsed-voltage-induced resistive switching characteristics were observed around a Ca-doping ratio of 9.0 at. %. The Ca-doping dependence of the resistive switching appeared to correlate with the ferroelectric phase diagram of the Ca-doped BFO films [Yang et al., Nat. Mater. 8, 485 (2009)].

  18. Field-induced phase transition and relaxor character in submicrometer-structured lead-free (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 piezoceramics at the morphotropic phase boundary.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Lorena; Mercadelli, Elisa; García, Alvaro; Brebøl, Klaus; Galassi, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Submicrometer-structured (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.94)Ba(0.06)TiO(3) ceramics ((G) < 720 nm) from nanopowders were studied. The real part of the optimum room temperature set of piezoelectric coefficients obtained from resonances of the BNBT6 dense ceramic disks and shear plates [d(31) = (-37 + 1.33i) pC·N(-1), d(15) = (158.3 - 8.31i) pC·N(-1), k(t) = 40.4%, k(p) = 26.8%, and k(15) = 40.2%] and d(33) (148 pC·N(-1)) can be compared with the reported properties for coarse-grained ceramics. Shear resonance of thickness-poled plates is observed at T = 140°C. Permittivity versus temperature curves of poled samples show relaxor character up to T(i) = 230°C on heating and T(i) = 210°C on cooling of the depoled samples. The phase transition from the room-temperature ferroelectric (FE) to a low-temperature non-polar at zero field (LTNPZF) phase can be observed as a sharp jump in ?(?)(33)'(T) curves or, as the degree of poling decreases, as a soft change of slope of the curves at T(FE-LTNPZF) = T(d) = 100°C. This dielectric anomaly is not observed on cooling of depoled samples, because the FE phase is field-induced. The observed macroscopic piezoelectric activity above T(d) is a consequence of the coexistence of nanoregions of the FE phase in the interval between T(FE-LTNPZF) and T(i). PMID:21937323

  19. Characterization, Modeling, and Energy Harvesting of Phase Transformations in Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenda

    Solid state phase transformations can be induced through mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading in ferroelectric materials that are compositionally close to morphotropic phase boundaries. Large changes in strain, polarization, compliance, permittivity, and coupling properties are typically observed across the phase transformation regions and are phenomena of interest for energy harvesting and transduction applications where increased coupling behavior is desired. This work characterized and modeled solid state phase transformations in ferroelectric materials and assessed the potential of phase transforming materials for energy harvesting applications. Two types of phase transformations were studied. The first type was ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic observed in lead indium niobate lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) and driven by deviatoric stress, temperature, and electric field. The second type of phase transformation is ferroelectric to antiferroelectric observed in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and driven by pressure, temperature, and electric field. Experimental characterizations of the phase transformations were conducted in both PIN-PMN-PT and PZT in order to understand the thermodynamic characteristics of the phase transformations and map out the phase stability of both materials. The ferroelectric materials were characterized under combinations of stress, electric field, and temperature. Material models of phase transforming materials were developed using a thermodynamic based variant switching technique and thermodynamic observations of the phase transformations. These models replicate the phase transformation behavior of PIN-PMN-PT and PZT under mechanical and electrical loading conditions. The switching model worked in conjunction with linear piezoelectric equations as ferroelectric/ferroelastic constitutive equations within a finite element framework that solved the mechanical and electrical field equations. This paves the way for future modeling work of devices that incorporate phase transforming ferroelectrics. Studies on the energy harvesting capabilities of PIN-PMN-PT were conducted to gauge its potential as an energy harvesting material. Using the phase stability data collected in the characterization studies, an ideal energy harvesting cycle was designed and explored to ascertain the maximum energy harvesting density per cycle. The energy harvesting characteristics under non-ideal sinusoidal stress and constant electric load impedance were also investigated. Energy harvesting performance due to changes in loading frequency and electrical load impedance was reported.

  20. Effect of co-substitution of nitrogen and fluorine in BaTiO3 on ferroelectricity and other properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Pan, Jaysree; Aysha, N; Waghmare, Umesh V; Sundaresan, A; Rao, C N R

    2013-08-28

    BaTiO3, with both nitrogen and fluorine substituted for oxygen, has been prepared and the properties of the doped material with the composition BaTiO2:8N0:1F0:1 have been studied. The color of the sample changes to light green on doping, accompanying a broad visible absorption band with its edge at 2.5 eV. The first-order ferroelectric transition changes to a broad transition on doping along with a decrease in the dielectric constant. We have examined the local structure, electronic structure and polar lattice dynamical properties of N and F co-substituted BaTiO3 using first-principles density functional theory-based calculations and derived the mechanism of the diffuse ferroelectric transition observed here with a broad peak in the temperature-dependent dielectric response. The calculated Born charges clearly reveal a strong disparity in the interaction of N, O and F with Ti: N being the most ferro-active, with a highly anomalous charge, and F being the least active, with an almost nominal charge. This originates from an electronic structure in which the top-most valence band is constituted of the 2p states of N, while the electronic states of F lie deep in the energy band, resulting in a local structure with short covalent Ti–N and long ionic Ti–F bonds. Disorder in these hetero ferro-active anions leads to a relaxor-like diffuse phase transition and a reduction in polarization. Calculations confirm the reduction of 0.65 eV in the bandgap of BaTiO3, which changes from indirect to direct type. PMID:23912943

  1. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P.; Luo, W.; Yi, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Rossell, M. D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G.; Yang, S. Y.; He, Q.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, S. J.; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to novel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we employ a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite underlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:22647612

  2. Structural transitions: 'Ferroelectricity' in a metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, Veerle

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of a ferroelectric-like structural transition in metallic LiOsO3 identifies a new class of materials with unconventional properties, providing an exotic playground for theorists and experimentalists.

  3. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    E-print Network

    Daranciang, Dan

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO[subscript 3] via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering ...

  4. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties in BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao Prater, John T.; Punugupati, Sandhyarani; Hunte, Frank; Narayan, Jagdish

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, we report on the epitaxial integration of room temperature lead-free ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} thin (?1050?nm) films on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique through a domain matching epitaxy paradigm. We employed MgO and TiN as buffer layers to create BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3}/MgO/TiN/Si (100) heterostructures. C-axis oriented and cube-on-cube epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} is formed on Si (100) as evidenced by the in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements show that Ti is in 4(+) state. Polarization hysteresis measurements together with Raman spectroscopy and temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction confirm the room temperature ferroelectric nature of BaTiO{sub 3}. Furthermore, laser irradiation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin film is found to induce ferromagnetic-like behavior but affects adversely the ferroelectric characteristics. Laser irradiation induced ferromagnetic properties seem to originate from the creation of oxygen vacancies, whereas the pristine BaTiO{sub 3} shows diamagnetic behavior, as expected. This work has opened up the route for the integration of room temperature lead-free ferroelectric functional oxides on a silicon platform.

  5. An epitaxial ferroelectric tunnel junction on silicon.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Guo, Xiao; Lu, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Zaoli; Song, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shaobo; Bosman, Michel; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Zhili; Zhu, Weiguang

    2014-11-12

    Epitaxially grown functional perovskites on silicon (001) and the ferroelectricity of a 3.2 nm thick BaTiO3 barrier layer are demonstrated. The polarization-switching-induced change in tunneling resistance is measured to be two orders of magnitude. The obtained results suggest the possibility of integrating ferroelectric tunnel junctions as binary data storage media in non-volatile memory cells on a silicon platform. PMID:25200550

  6. Ferroelectric memory evaluation and development system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondurant, David W.

    Attention is given to the Ramtron FEDS-1, an IBM PC/AT compatible single-board 16-b microcomputer with 8-kbyte program/data memory implemented with nonvolatile ferroelectric dynamic RAM. This is the first demonstration of a new type of solid state nonvolatile read/write memory, the ferroelectric RAM (FRAM). It is suggested that this memory technology will have a significant impact on avionics system performance and reliability.

  7. Ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multilayers: A magnetoelectric heterostructure with high output charge signal

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorenko, S.; Kohlstedt, H.; Pertsev, N. A.

    2014-09-21

    Multiferroic composites and heterostructures comprising ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit room-temperature magnetoelectric (ME) effects greatly exceeding those of single-phase magnetoelectrics known to date. Since these effects are mediated by the interfacial coupling between ferroic constituents, the ME responses may be enhanced by increasing the density of interfaces and improving their quality. A promising material system providing these features is a ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multilayer with epitaxial interfaces. In this paper, we describe theoretically the strain-mediated direct ME effect exhibited by free-standing multilayers composed of single-crystalline ferroelectric nanolayers interleaved by conducting ferromagnetic slabs. Using a nonlinear thermodynamic approach allowing for specific mechanical boundary conditions of the problem, we first calculate the polarization states and dielectric properties of ferroelectric nanolayers in dependence on the lattice mismatch between ferroic constituents and their volume fractions. In these calculations, the ferromagnetic component is described by a model which combines linear elastic behavior with magnetic-field-dependent lattice parameters. Then the quasistatic ME polarization and voltage coefficients are evaluated using the theoretical strain sensitivity of ferroelectric polarization and measured effective piezomagnetic coefficients of ferromagnets. For Pb(Zr?.?Ti?.?)O?-FeGaB and BaTiO?-FeGaB multilayers, the ME coefficients are calculated numerically as a function of the FeGaB volume fraction and used to evaluate the output charge and voltage signals. It is shown that the multilayer geometry of a ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanocomposite opens the way for a drastic enhancement of the output charge signal. This feature makes biferroic multilayers advantageous for the development of ultrasensitive magnetic-field sensors for technical and biomedical applications.

  8. Ferroelectricity induced by ordering of twisting motion in a molecular rotor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wen; Li, Shen-Hui; Ye, Qiong; Cai, Hong-Ling; Deng, Feng; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Huang, Songping D

    2012-07-01

    A novel mononuclear metal-organic compound, [Cu(Hdabco)(H(2)O)Cl(3)] (1, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) in which the Cu(II) cation adopts a slightly distorted bipyramidal geometry where the three Cl anions constitute the equatorial plane and the Hdabco cation and H(2)O molecule occupy the two axial positions, was synthesized. Its paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition at 235 K (T(c)) and dynamic behaviors were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal analysis, dielectric and ferroelectric measurements, second harmonic generation experiments, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Compound 1 behaves as a molecular rotor above room temperature in which the (Hdabco) part rotates around the N···N axis as a rotator and the [Cu(H(2)O)Cl(3)] part acts as a stator. In the temperature range 235-301 K, a twisting motion of the rotator is confirmed. Below the T(c), the motions of the rotor are frozen and the molecules become ordered, corresponding to a ferroelectric phase. Origin of the ferroelectricity was ascribed to relative movements of the anions and cations from the equilibrium position, which is induced by the order-disorder transformation of the twisting motion of the molecule between the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Study of the deuterated analogue [Cu(Ddabco)(D(2)O)Cl(3)] (2) excludes the possibility of proton ordering as the origin of the ferroelectricity in 1. PMID:22686453

  9. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and technologies for renewable and hydrogen energy, fuel cells, photovoltaics, LEDs, OLEDs. Based on these reports, 48 papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT is available at the homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making the RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successful. Sincerely, organizers of the event Andris Sternberg Liga Grinberga Anatolijs Sarakovskis Martins Rutkis

  10. Ferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors As Ultraviolet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1995-01-01

    Advantages include rapid response, solar blindness, and relative invulnerability to ionizing radiation. Ferroelectric capacitor made to function as photovoltaic detector of ultraviolet photons by making one of its electrodes semitransparent. Photovoltaic effect exploited more fully by making Schottky barrier at illuminated semitransparent-electrode/ferroelectric interface taller than Schottky barrier at other electrode/ferroelectric interface.

  11. Ferroelectric cathodes in transverse magnetic fields A. Dunaevsky,a)

    E-print Network

    differently affects the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ``bright'' and ``dark'' emission modes was applied at the location of the ferroelectric cathode in an electron gun for TWT amplifiers, whichFerroelectric cathodes in transverse magnetic fields A. Dunaevsky,a) Y. Raitses, and N. J. Fisch

  12. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin Yuanming Liu,1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Katherine Yanhang

    stage of the embryonic development [22], wherein blood pressure is notably higher, and ferroelectricGlucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin Yuanming Liu,1 Yunjie Wang,2 Ming biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic

  13. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of cellular polypropylene electrets films characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Hongchen; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei; Li, Faxin

    2014-08-14

    Cellular electrets polymer is a new ferroelectret material exhibiting large piezoelectricity and has attracted considerable attentions in researches and industries. Property characterization is very important for this material and current investigations are mostly on macroscopic properties. In this work, we conduct nanoscale piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterizations of cellular polypropylene (PP) films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). First, both the single-frequency PFM and dual-frequency resonance-tracking PFM testings were conducted on the cellular PP film. The localized piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is estimated to be 7–11pC/N by correcting the resonance magnification with quality factor and it is about one order lower than the macroscopic value. Next, using the switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM), we studied polarization switching behavior of the cellular PP films. Results show that it exhibits the typical ferroelectric-like phase hysteresis loops and butterfly-shaped amplitude loops, which is similar to that of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer film. However, both the phase and amplitude loops of the PP film are intensively asymmetric, which is thought to be caused by the nonzero remnant polarization after poling. Then, the D-E hysteresis loops of both the cellular PP film and PVDF film were measured by using the same wave form as that used in the SS-PFM, and the results show significant differences. Finally, we suggest that the ferroelectric-like behavior of cellular electrets films should be distinguished from that of typical ferroelectrics, both macroscopically and microscopically.

  14. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Fen; Tu, Chi-Shun; Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Sao; Hugo Schmidt, V.; Anthoniappen, J.

    2014-10-01

    This work reveals that 0.5 mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 (x = 0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (Td), piezoelectric coefficient (d33), and electromechanical coupling factor (kt). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.925Ba0.075TiO3 (BN7.5BT) and 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R - R + T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (?') follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ?' = C/(T - To), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d33) and electromechanical coupling factor (kt) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  15. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi?.?Na?.?){sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}TiO? relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sheng-Fen; Tu, Chi-Shun; Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Sao; Hugo Schmidt, V.; Anthoniappen, J.

    2014-10-21

    This work reveals that 0.5?mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi?.?Na?.?){sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}TiO? (x?=?0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (T{sub d}), piezoelectric coefficient (d??), and electromechanical coupling factor (k?). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi?.?Na?.?)?.???Ba?.???TiO? (BN7.5BT) and 0.5?mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi?.?Na?.?)TiO? (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R???R?+?T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5?mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (??) follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ???=?C/(T???T{sub o}), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d??) and electromechanical coupling factor (k?) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  16. Monoclinic Cc-phase stabilization in magnetically diluted lead free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3—Evolution of spin glass like behavior with enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Asthana, Saket

    2015-09-01

    The effect of magnetic cation substitution on the phase stabilization, ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties of a lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system prepared by O2 atmosphere solid state sintering were studied extensively. Cobalt (Co) was chosen as the magnetic cation to substitute at the Ti-site of NBT with optimized 2.5 mol%. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data favours the monoclinic Cc phase stabilization strongly rather than the parent R3c phase. FE-SEM micrograph supports the single phase characteristics without phase segregation at the grain boundaries. The stabilized Cc space group was explained based on the collective local distortion effects due to spin-orbit stabilization at Co3+ and Co2+ functional centres. The phonon mode changes as observed in the TiO6 octahedral modes also support the Cc phase stabilization. The major Co3+-ion presence was revealed from corresponding crystal field transitions observed through solid state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhanced spontaneous polarization (Ps) from ?38 ?C cm-2 to 45 ?C cm-2 could be due to the easy rotation of polarization vector along the {(1\\bar{1}0)}{{pc}} in Cc phase. An increase in static dielectric response (?) from ? ? 42 to 60 along with enhanced diffusivity from ? ? 1.53 to 1.75 was observed. Magneto-thermal irreversibility and their magnetic field dependent ZFC/FC curves suggest the possibility of a spin glass like behaviour below 50 K. The monoclinic Cc phase stabilization as confirmed from structural studies was well correlated with the observed ferroic properties in magnetically diluted NBT.

  17. Temperature- and Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived BaTiO3-NaNbO3 Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do-Kyun; Goh, Yumin; Son, Dongsu; Kim, Baek-Hyun; Bae, Hyunjeong; Perini, Steve; Lanagan, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A sol-gel-derived powder synthesis method has been used to prepare BaTiO3-NaNbO3 (BT-NN) solid-solution ceramic samples with various compositions. Fine and homogeneous complex perovskite ceramics were obtained at lower processing temperatures than used in conventional solid-state processing. The ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the sol-gel-synthesized (1 - x)BaTiO3-xNaNbO3 [(1 - x)BT-xNN] ceramics in the wide composition range of 0 < x ? 0.7 were extensively studied. Structural and dielectric characterization results revealed that a low level of NN addition (x = 0.04) to BT is sufficient to cause a continuous relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition, and the relaxor behavior was consistently observed at compositions with high NN content up to x = 0.7. A number of relaxor parameters including the Curie temperature, Burns temperature, freezing temperature, ?, diffuseness parameter (?), and activation energy were determined from the temperature and frequency dependency of the real part of the dielectric permittivity for various BT-NN compositions using the Curie-Weiss law and Vögel-Fulcher relationship. The systematic changes of these parameters with respect to composition indicate that a continuous crossover between BT-based relaxor and NN-based relaxor occurs at a composition near x = 0.4.

  18. Enhanced charge separation in organic photovoltaic films doped with ferroelectric dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Nalwa, Kanwar; Carr, John; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Kodali, Hari; Bose, Sayantan; Chen, Yuqing; Petrich, Jacob; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-02-23

    A key requirement for realizing efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells is the dissociation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs (singlet-excitons) in the donor polymer, and charge-transfer-excitons at the donor–acceptor interface. However, in modern OPVs, these excitons are typically not sufficiently harnessed due to their high binding energy. Here, we show that doping the OPV active-layers with a ferroelectric polymer leads to localized enhancements of electric field, which in turn leads to more efficient dissociation of singlet-excitons and charge-transfer-excitons. Bulk-heterojunction OPVs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester are fabricated. Upon incorporating a ferroelectric polymer as additive in the active-layer, power conversion efficiencies increase by nearly 50%, and internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% – indicating complete exciton dissociation at certain photon energies. Similar enhancements in bilayer-heterojunctions, and direct influence of ferroelectric poling on device behavior show that improved dissociation is due to ferroelectric dipoles rather than any morphological change. Enhanced singlet-exciton dissociation is also revealed by photoluminescence lifetime measurements, and predicted by simulations using a numerical device model.

  19. Retention of resistance states in ferroelectric tunnel memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. J.; Lu, H.; Ryu, S.; Lee, S.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Gruverman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Resistive properties of Co/BaTiO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions on (110) NdGaO3 substrates are investigated. A notable characteristic of these junctions is the memristive behavior—a dependence of resistance on amplitude and duration of a writing pulse, which is attributed to field-induced charge accumulation at the Co/BaTiO3 interface. It is found that retention of the resistance states depends on the thickness of the ferroelectric barrier: the junctions with the thinnest 4-unit-cell-thick BaTiO3 barrier exhibit significant relaxation of the low resistance state while the junctions with thicker barriers exhibit stable resistance. It is proposed that, in a thinner barrier, a larger depolarizing field triggers a faster dissipation of the accumulated charges, resulting in a recovery of interfacial tunnel barrier height and gradual transition from a low to a high resistance state.

  20. Complex Internal Bias Fields in Ferroelectric Hafnium Oxide.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Tony; Hoffmann, Michael; Ocker, Johannes; Peši?, Milan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-09-16

    For the rather new hafnia- and zirconia-based ferroelectrics, a lot of questions are still unsettled. Among them is the electric field cycling behavior consisting of (1) wake-up, (2) fatigue, and (3) the recently discovered subcycling-induced split-up/merging effect of transient current peaks in a hysteresis measurement. In the present work, first-order reversal curves (FORCs) are applied to study the evolution of the switching and backswitching field distribution within the frame of the Preisach model for three different phenomena: (1) The pristine film contains two oppositely biased regions. These internal bias fields vanish during the wake-up cycling. (2) Fatigue as a decrease in the number of switchable domains is accompanied by a slight increase in the mean absolute value of the switching field. (3) The split-up effect is shown to also be related to local bias fields in a complex situation resulting from both the field cycling treatment and the measurement procedure. Moreover, the role of the wake-up phenomenon is discussed with respect to optimizing low-voltage operation conditions of ferroelectric memories toward reasonably high and stable remanent polarization and highest possible endurance. PMID:26308500

  1. Lead-Free ?-La2WO6 Ferroelectric Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Thomas; Chambrier, Marie-Hélène; Ferri, Anthony; Estradé, Sonia; Blach, Jean-François; Martín, Gemma; Meziane, Belkacem; Peiró, Francesca; Roussel, Pascal; Ponchel, Freddy; Rèmiens, Denis; Cornet, Albert; Desfeux, Rachel

    2015-11-11

    (001)-Epitaxial La2WO6 (LWO) thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The ?-phase (high-temperature phase in bulk) is successfully stabilized with an orthorhombic structure (a = 16.585(1) Å, b = 5.717(2) Å, c = 8.865(5) Å). X-ray-diffraction pole-figure measurements suggest that crystallographic relationships between the film and substrate are [100]LWO ? [110]STO, [010]LWO ? [11?0]STO and [001]LWO ? [001]STO. From optical properties, investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, we extract a refractive-index value around 2 (at 500 nm) along with the presence of two absorption bands situated, respectively at 3.07 and 6.32 eV. Ferroelectricity is evidenced as well on macroscale (standard polarization measurements) as on nanoscale, calling for experiments based on piezo-response force-microscopy, and confirmed with in situ scanning-and-tunneling measurements performed with a transmission electron microscope. This work highlights the ferroelectric behavior, at room temperature, in high-temperature LWO phase when stabilized in thin film and opens the way to new functional oxide thin films dedicated to advanced electronic devices. PMID:26477357

  2. Low-symmetry phases in ferroelectric nanowires.

    PubMed

    Louis, L; Gemeiner, P; Ponomareva, I; Bellaiche, L; Geneste, G; Ma, W; Setter, N; Dkhil, B

    2010-04-14

    Ferroelectric nanostructures have recently attracted much attention due to the quest of miniaturizing devices and discovering novel phenomena. In particular, studies conducted on two-dimensional and zero-dimensional ferroelectrics have revealed original properties and their dependences on mechanical and electrical boundary conditions. Meanwhile, researches aimed at discovering and understanding properties of one-dimensional ferroelectric nanostructures are scarce. The determination of the structural phase and of the direction of the polarization in one-dimensional ferroelectrics is of technological importance, since, e.g., a low-symmetry phase in which the polarization lies away from a highly symmetric direction typically generates phenomenal dielectric and electromechanical responses. Here, we investigate the phase transition sequence of nanowires made of KNbO(3) and BaTiO(3) perovskites, by combining X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and first-principles-based calculations. We provide evidence of a previously unreported ferroelectric ground state of monoclinic symmetry and the tuning of the polarization's direction by varying factors inherent to the nanoscale. PMID:20230042

  3. Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Model Using Partitioned Ferroelectric Layer and Partial Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2004-01-01

    A model of an n-channel ferroelectric field effect transistor has been developed based on both theoretical and empirical data. The model is based on an existing model that incorporates partitioning of the ferroelectric layer to calculate the polarization within the ferroelectric material. The model incorporates several new aspects that are useful to the user. It takes into account the effect of a non-saturating gate voltage only partially polarizing the ferroelectric material based on the existing remnant polarization. The model also incorporates the decay of the remnant polarization based on the time history of the FFET. A gate pulse of a specific voltage; will not put the ferroelectric material into a single amount of polarization for that voltage, but instead vary with previous state of the material and the time since the last change to the gate voltage. The model also utilizes data from FFETs made from different types of ferroelectric materials to allow the user just to input the material being used and not recreate the entire model. The model also allows the user to input the quality of the ferroelectric material being used. The ferroelectric material quality can go from a theoretical perfect material with little loss and no decay to a less than perfect material with remnant losses and decay. This model is designed to be used by people who need to predict the external characteristics of a FFET before the time and expense of design and fabrication. It also allows the parametric evaluation of quality of the ferroelectric film on the overall performance of the transistor.

  4. Spatially resolved probing of Preisach density in polycrystalline ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Senli; Ovchinnikov, Oleg S; Curtis, Mark E; Johnson, Matthew B; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    Applications of the ferroelectric materials for the information storage necessitate the understanding of local switching behavior on the level of individual grains and microstructural elements. In particular, implementation of multilevel neuromorphic elements requires the understanding of history-dependent polarization responses. Here, we introduce the spatially resolved approach for mapping local Preisach densities in polycrystalline ferroelectrics based on first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements over spatially resolved grid by piezoresponse force spectroscopy using tip-electrode. The band excitation approach allowed effective use of cantilever resonances to amplify weak piezoelectric signal and also provided insight in position-, voltage-, and voltage history-dependent mechanical properties of the tip-surface contact. Several approaches for visualization and comparison of the multidimensional data sets formed by FORC families or Preisach densities at each point are introduced and compared. The relationship between switching behavior and microstructure is analyzed.

  5. Abnormal electric-field-induced light scattering in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yibo; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Wei; Zeng, Jiangtao; Zheng, Liaoying; Cheng, Jian; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-01

    We present a strong electric-field-induced light scattering phenomenon in relaxor ferroelectrics 75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-25PbTiO3 transparent ceramics under a weak threshold electric field, which is attributed to the abrupt growth of polar nanoregions above the threshold field with a significant change of local crystal symmetry, dielectric, and Raman response. These results provide further understanding on the electric field-induced domain behaviors and peculiar properties in relaxor ferroelectrics.

  6. Diisopropylammonium bromide is a high-temperature molecular ferroelectric crystal.

    PubMed

    Fu, Da-Wei; Cai, Hong-Ling; Liu, Yuanming; Ye, Qiong; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Xue-Yuan; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Capone, Massimo; Li, Jiangyu; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-25

    Molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable for their easy and environmentally friendly processing, light weight, and mechanical flexibility. We found that diisopropylammonium bromide (DIPAB), a molecular crystal processed from aqueous solution, is a ferroelectric with a spontaneous polarization of 23 microcoulombs per square centimeter [close to that of barium titanate (BTO)], high Curie temperature of 426 kelvin (above that of BTO), large dielectric constant, and low dielectric loss. DIPAB exhibits good piezoelectric response and well-defined ferroelectric domains. These attributes make it a molecular alternative to perovskite ferroelectrics and ferroelectric polymers in sensing, actuation, data storage, electro-optics, and molecular or flexible electronics. PMID:23349285

  7. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  8. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Ponath, Patrick; Fredrickson, Kurt; Posadas, Agham B.; Ren, Yuan; Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Aoki, Toshihiro; McCartney, Martha; Smith, David J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Lai, Keji; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.

  9. Static ferroelectric memory transistor having improved data retention

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1996-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric FET structure in which the ferroelectric layer is doped to reduce retention loss. A ferroelectric FET according to the present invention includes a semiconductor layer having first and second contacts thereon, the first and second contacts being separated from one another. The ferroelectric FET also includes a bottom electrode and a ferroelectric layer which is sandwiched between the semiconductor layer and the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric layer is constructed from a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4 in sufficient concentration to impede shifts in the resistance measured between the first and second contacts with time. The ferroelectric FET structure preferably comprises Pb in the A-site. The first and second elements are preferably Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred B-site dopants are Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten at concentrations between 1% and 8%.

  10. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. PMID:24863240

  11. Modified Johnson model for ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate at very high fields and below Curie temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Ma, B.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.

    2012-01-01

    A modified Johnson model is proposed to describe the nonlinear field dependence of the dielectric constant ({var_epsilon}-E loop) in ferroelectric materials below the Curie temperature. This model describes the characteristic ferroelectric 'butterfly' shape observed in typical {var_epsilon}-E loops. The predicted nonlinear behavior agreed well with the measured values in both the low- and high-field regions for lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films. The proposed model was also validated at different temperatures below the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric Curie point. The anharmonic coefficient in the model decreased from 6.142 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} to 2.039 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} when the temperature increased from 25 C to 250 C.

  12. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free LiNbO3-modified 0.97(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)-0.03BaZrO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Jamil Ur; Hussain, Ali; Maqbool, Adnan; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Myong Ho; Lee, Soonil; Kim, Won Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1- x) [(0.97Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)]-0.03BaZrO3- xLiNbO3 (BNT-BZ3- xLN) with x = (0-0.07) were synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated as a function of the LN content. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of a single-phase perovskite structure for all the LN-modified BNT-BZ ceramics in this study. The results indicate that the LN substitution into BNT-BZ3 induces a transition from a ferroelectric to a diffuse and/or relaxor state accompanying a field-induced strain of 0.20% for x = 0.05 at an applied field of 6 kV/mm. The corresponding dynamic piezoelectric coefficient for this composition was ( S max/ E max = 333 pm/V). A significant reduction of the coercive field ( E c) and enhancement of the piezoelectric constant ( d 33) from 98 pC/N for x = 0 to 117 pC/N x = 0.01 was observed.

  13. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  14. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  15. Ferroelectric Material Application: Modeling Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Characteristics from Micro to Nano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd, C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2006-01-01

    All present ferroelectric transistors have been made on the micrometer scale. Existing models of these devices do not take into account effects of nanoscale ferroelectric transistors. Understanding the characteristics of these nanoscale devices is important in developing a strategy for building and using future devices. This paper takes an existing microscale ferroelectric field effect transistor (FFET) model and adds effects that become important at a nanoscale level, including electron velocity saturation and direct tunneling. The new model analyzed FFETs ranging in length from 40,000 nanometers to 4 nanometers and ferroelectric thickness form 200 nanometers to 1 nanometer. The results show that FFETs can operate on the nanoscale but have some undesirable characteristics at very small dimensions.

  16. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. Properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Linderman, Katie; Economou, Evangelos; Celinski, Zbigniew; Nie, Yan

    2014-05-07

    Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures, SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SBT/BaM), were grown on platinum-coated Si substrates using metal-organic decomposition. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the heterostructures contain only SBT and BaM phases. The microwave properties of these heterostructures were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer from 35 to 60 GHz, which allowed us to determine gyromagnetic ratio and effective anisotropy field. The FMR linewidth is as low as140 Oe at 58 GHz. In addition, measurements of the effective permittivity of the heterostructures were carried out as a function of bias electric field. All heterostructures exhibit hysteretic behavior of the effective permittivity. These properties indicate that such heterostructures have potential for application in dual electric and magnetic field tunable resonators, filters, and phase shifters.

  18. Ferroelectric-field-effect-enhanced electroresistance in metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zheng; Li, Chen; Wu, Di; Li, Aidong; Ming, Naiben

    2013-07-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs), composed of two metal electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric barrier, have attracted much attention as promising candidates for non-volatile resistive memories. Theoretical and experimental works have revealed that the tunnelling resistance switching in FTJs originates mainly from a ferroelectric modulation on the barrier height. However, in these devices, modulation on the barrier width is very limited, although the tunnelling transmittance depends on it exponentially as well. Here we propose a novel tunnelling heterostructure by replacing one of the metal electrodes in a normal FTJ with a heavily doped semiconductor. In these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs, not only the height but also the width of the barrier can be electrically modulated as a result of a ferroelectric field effect, leading to a greatly enhanced tunnelling electroresistance. This idea is implemented in Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructures, in which an ON/OFF conductance ratio above 104, about one to two orders greater than those reported in normal FTJs, can be achieved at room temperature. The giant tunnelling electroresistance, reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention observed in these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs suggest their great potential in non-destructive readout non-volatile memories.

  19. Grain surface polarization: ferroelectric mantles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, A. M.; Balog, R.; Field, D.; Jones, N.; Plekan, O.

    2011-05-01

    Recent experiments have shown that films of molecules such as nitrous oxide, propane etc. spontaneously harbour very high electric fields exceeding 108 Vm-11 . This arises through dipole alignment with polarization at the film surface, giving rise to large voltages at the surface. Potentials are measured with a cold electron beam technique using the ASTRID synchrotron at Aarhus. The electric field within the film is constant. Since a spontaneous field is generated the films show ferroelectric properties. Figure 1 shows the amount of potential added per added monolayer (ML) of material, in this case on a gold surface. The absolute value of potential and the field generated is independent of the nature of the surface. If we assume the 'standard' onion skin model of mantle accretion on grains, then the outer layer of grains will be composed of almost pure CO. If a large fraction of CO is adsorbed into the mantle, as is the case in B682, the mantle of pure CO will be typically 10-100 MLs thick. We mark, in Figure 1, the position of CO with respect to dipole moment. It would therefore seem highly probable that CO would show dipole alignment, although we have not yet been able to measure this for the purely technical reason that our apparatus will not operate below 38K and CO requires 22K to condense. Thus the surface of such grains would show a positive potential, given that the O-atom sticks up (McCoustra, private communication). The polarization on the surface is expected to be >10-4 Cm-2, giving 75 apparent charges on a 0.1 micron radius grain, which will decay as electrons are captured. Coupled with an electric field within the CO ice mantle of > 10^7 Vm-1, this may have interesting implications in grain properties and their associated chemistry. This will be discussed in our contribution.

  20. Ferroelectric Devices Emit Charged Particles and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Felsteiner, Joshua; Karsik, Yakov

    2005-01-01

    Devices called solid-state ferroelectric- based sources (SSFBSs) are under development as sources of electrons, ions, ultraviolet light, and x-rays for diverse applications in characterization and processing of materials. Whereas heretofore it has been necessary to use a different device to generate each of the aforementioned species of charged particles or radiation, a single SSFBS can be configured and operated to selectively generate any of the species as needed using a single source. Relative to comparable prior sources based, variously, on field emission, thermionic emission, and gaseous discharge plasmas, SSFBSs demand less power, and are compact and lightweight. An SSFBS exploits the unique physical characteristics of a ferroelectric material in the presence of a high-frequency pulsed electric field. The basic building block of an SSFBS is a ferroelectric cathode -- a ferroelectric wafer with a solid electrode covering its rear face and a grid electrode on its front face (see figure). The application of a voltage pulse -- typically having amplitude of several kilovolts and duration of several nanoseconds -- causes dense surface plasma to form near the grid wires on the front surface.

  1. Quantum criticality in a uniaxial organic ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Rowley, S E; Hadjimichael, M; Ali, M N; Durmaz, Y C; Lashley, J C; Cava, R J; Scott, J F

    2015-10-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) is a highly uniaxial ferroelectric with a Curie temperature of approximately 130 K. By suppressing ferroelectricity with bromine substitution on the chlorine sites, pure single crystals were tuned through a ferroelectric quantum phase transition. The resulting quantum critical regime was investigated in detail and was found to persist up to temperatures of at least 30-40 K. The nature of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial materials, which lead to non-analytical terms in the free-energy expansion in the polarization, predict a dielectric susceptibility varying as 1/T (3)close to the quantum critical point. Rather than this, we find that the dielectric susceptibility varies as 1/T (2) as expected and observed in better known multi-axial systems. We explain this result by identifying the ultra-weak nature of the dipole moments in the TSCC family of crystals. Interestingly, we observe a shallow minimum in the inverse dielectric function at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point in paraelectric samples that may be attributed to the coupling of quantum polarization and strain fields. Finally, we present results of the heat capacity and electro-caloric effect and explain how the time dependence of the polarization in ferroelectrics and paraelectrics should be considered when making quantitative estimates of temperature changes induced by applied electric fields. PMID:26360383

  2. Ferroelectric polarization reversal via successive ferroelastic transitions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruijuan; Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Karthik, J; Damodaran, Anoop R; Rappe, Andrew M; Martin, Lane W

    2015-01-01

    Switchable polarization makes ferroelectrics a critical component in memories, actuators and electro-optic devices, and potential candidates for nanoelectronics. Although many studies of ferroelectric switching have been undertaken, much remains to be understood about switching in complex domain structures and in devices. In this work, a combination of thin-film epitaxy, macro- and nanoscale property and switching characterization, and molecular dynamics simulations are used to elucidate the nature of switching in PbZr(0.2)Ti(0.8)O3 thin films. Differences are demonstrated between (001)-/(101)- and (111)-oriented films, with the latter exhibiting complex, nanotwinned ferroelectric domain structures with high densities of 90° domain walls and considerably broadened switching characteristics. Molecular dynamics simulations predict both 180° (for (001)-/(101)-oriented films) and 90° multi-step switching (for (111)-oriented films) and these processes are subsequently observed in stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. These results have implications for our understanding of ferroelectric switching and offer opportunities to change domain reversal speed. PMID:25344784

  3. Theory of prospective tetrahedral perovskite ferroelectrics

    E-print Network

    Roy, Anindya

    2010-01-01

    Using first-principles methods, we predict the energy landscape and ferroelectric states of double perovskites of the form AA$'$BB$'$O$_6$ in which the atoms on both the A and B sites are arranged in rock-salt order. While we are not aware of compounds that occur naturally in this structure, we argue that they might be realizable by directed synthesis. The high-symmetry structure formed by this arrangement belongs to the tetrahedral $F\\bar{4}3m$ space group. If a ferroelectric instability occurs, the energy landscape will tend to have minima with the polarization along tetrahedral directions, leading to a rhombohedral phase, or along Cartesian directions, leading to an orthorhombic phase. We find that the latter scenario applies to CaBaTiZrO$_6$ and KCaZrNbO$_6$, which are weakly ferroelectric, and the former one applies to PbSnTiZrO$_6$, which is strongly ferroelectric. The results are modeled with a fourth- or fifth-order Landau-Devonshire expansion, providing good agreement with the first-principles calcul...

  4. Graded Ferroelectric Capacitors with Robust Temperature Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    near the Curie temperature, Tc. This means that, for conventional ferroelectrics, the dielec- tric have been investigated as a means of overcoming this temperature instability. The Curie temperature of temperatures, corresponding to different Curie temperatures for the different regions. Recent experimental

  5. Ferroelectrics and the Curie-Weiss law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, Matthew

    2000-09-01

    The electrical properties of ferroelectric substances are investigated and related to the Curie-Weiss law. A cryogenic experiment suitable for students measures the electrical susceptibility of strontium titanate in the 90-300 K temperature range. By measuring the electrical susceptibility of a modified barium titanate ceramic between 273 K and 343 K a phase transition is clearly observed at 304 K.

  6. Ferroelectric Tunnel Memristor C.-W. Bark,

    E-print Network

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Information ABSTRACT: Strong interest in resistive switching phenom- ena is driven by a possibility to develop devices are characterized by two resistance states that can be switched by an external voltage. Recently. The ferroelectric tunnel memristors exhibit a reversible hysteretic nonvolatile resistive switching

  7. Local Polarization Dynamics in Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Morozovska, A. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectrics and multiferroics have recently emerged as perspective materials for information technology and data storage applications. The combination of extremely narrow domain wall width and the capability to manipulate polarization by electric field opens the pathway towards ultrahigh (>10 TBit/in2) storage densities and small (sub-10 nm) feature sizes. The coupling between polarization and chemical and transport properties enables applications in ferroelectric lithography and electroresistive devices. The progress in these applications, as well as fundamental studies of polarization dynamics and the role of defects and disorder on domain nucleation and wall motion, requires the capability to probe these effects on the nanometer scale. In this review, we summarize recent progress in applications of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) for imaging, manipulation, and spectroscopy of ferroelectric switching processes. We briefly introduce the principles and relevant instrumental aspects of PFM, with special emphasis on resolution and information limits. The local imaging studies of domain dynamics, including local switching and relaxation accessed through imaging experiments, and spectroscopic studies of polarization switching, are discussed in detail. Finally, we briefly review the recent progress on photochemical processes on ferroelectric surfaces, the role of surface adsorbates, and imaging and switching in liquids. Beyond classical applications, probing local bias-induced transition dynamics by PFM opens the pathway to studies of the influence of a single defect on electrochemical and solid state processes, thus providing model systems for batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitor applications.

  8. Local polarization dynamics in ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Qing Chen, Long; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2010-05-01

    Ferroelectrics and multiferroics have recently emerged as perspective materials for information technology and data storage applications. The combination of extremely narrow domain wall width and the capability to manipulate polarization by electric field opens the pathway toward ultrahigh (>10 TBit inch-2) storage densities and small (sub-10 nm) feature sizes. The coupling between polarization and chemical and transport properties enables applications in ferroelectric lithography and electroresistive devices. The progress in these applications, as well as fundamental studies of polarization dynamics and the role of defects and disorder on domain nucleation and wall motion, requires the capability to probe these effects on the nanometer scale. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in applications of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) for imaging, manipulation and spectroscopy of ferroelectric switching processes. We briefly introduce the principles and relevant instrumental aspects of PFM, with special emphasis on resolution and information limits. The local imaging studies of domain dynamics, including local switching and relaxation accessed through imaging experiments and spectroscopic studies of polarization switching, are discussed in detail. Finally, we review the recent progress on understanding and exploiting photochemical processes on ferroelectric surfaces, the role of surface adsorbates, and imaging and switching in liquids. Beyond classical applications, probing local bias-induced transition dynamics by PFM opens the pathway to studies of the influence of a single defect on electrochemical and solid state processes, thus providing model systems for batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitor applications.

  9. Quantum criticality in a uniaxial organic ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, S. E.; Hadjimichael, M.; Ali, M. N.; Durmaz, Y. C.; Lashley, J. C.; Cava, R. J.; Scott, J. F.

    2015-10-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) is a highly uniaxial ferroelectric with a Curie temperature of approximately 130 K. By suppressing ferroelectricity with bromine substitution on the chlorine sites, pure single crystals were tuned through a ferroelectric quantum phase transition. The resulting quantum critical regime was investigated in detail and was found to persist up to temperatures of at least 30-40 K. The nature of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial materials, which lead to non-analytical terms in the free-energy expansion in the polarization, predict a dielectric susceptibility varying as 1/T 3close to the quantum critical point. Rather than this, we find that the dielectric susceptibility varies as 1/T 2 as expected and observed in better known multi-axial systems. We explain this result by identifying the ultra-weak nature of the dipole moments in the TSCC family of crystals. Interestingly, we observe a shallow minimum in the inverse dielectric function at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point in paraelectric samples that may be attributed to the coupling of quantum polarization and strain fields. Finally, we present results of the heat capacity and electro-caloric effect and explain how the time dependence of the polarization in ferroelectrics and paraelectrics should be considered when making quantitative estimates of temperature changes induced by applied electric fields.

  10. Thermotropic phase boundaries in classic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Gu, Yijia; Wang, Jianjun; Lei, Shiming; Xue, Fei; Kumar, Amit; Barnes, Andrew T.; Barnes, Eftihia; Denev, Sava; Belianinov, Alex; Holt, Martin; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Chen, Long-Qing; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    High-performance piezoelectrics are lead-based solid solutions that exhibit a so-called morphotropic phase boundary, which separates two competing phases as a function of chemical composition; as a consequence, an intermediate low-symmetry phase with a strong piezoelectric effect arises. In search for environmentally sustainable lead-free alternatives that exhibit analogous characteristics, we use a network of competing domains to create similar conditions across thermal inter-ferroelectric transitions in simple, lead-free ferroelectrics such as BaTiO3 and KNbO3. Here we report the experimental observation of thermotropic phase boundaries in these classic ferroelectrics, through direct imaging of low-symmetry intermediate phases that exhibit large enhancements in the existing nonlinear optical and piezoelectric property coefficients. Furthermore, the symmetry lowering in these phases allows for new property coefficients that exceed all the existing coefficients in both parent phases. Discovering the thermotropic nature of thermal phase transitions in simple ferroelectrics thus presents unique opportunities for the design of ‘green’ high-performance materials.

  11. Residual ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate tunable dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, Lauren M.

    Loss reduction is critical to the development of Ba 1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) thin film tunable microwave dielectrics. This work addresses mechanisms of loss and performance of Ba1-xSr xTiO3, such as residual ferroelectricity, enhanced flexocoupling, and dc electric field induced piezoelectricity. The presence of residual ferroelectricity --a persistent ferroelectric response above the global phase transition temperature, adds a contribution to dielectric loss from either motion of domain walls or the boundaries of micropolar regions, degrading the tunable performance over a wide frequency range. Rayleigh behavior as a function of temperature was used to track the ferroelectric behavior of BST materials through the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature. The irreversible Rayleigh parameter serve as a metric for the presence of ferroelectricity because this response is dependent on the presence of domain walls, cluster boundaries or phase boundaries. Chemical solution deposited Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 films, with relative tunabilities of 86% over 250kV/cm at 100kHz, demonstrated residual ferroelectricity at least 65°C above the ostensible paraelectric transition temperature. The Rayleigh behavior was further corroborated with second harmonic generation, polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and the frequency dependence of the Rayleigh response. The temperature extent of residual ferroelectricity in sputtered and chemical solution deposited films and bulk ceramics was investigated as a function of chemical inhomogeneity on the A-site using electron energy loss spectroscopy. All samples showed some residual ferroelectricity, where the temperature extent was a function of the sample processing. The application of AC electric field for residual ferroelectric measurements of these samples lead to a 100% increase in loss for ac fields exceeding 10kV/cm at room temperature. The presence of residual ferroelectricity in BST also correlates to the increased flexoelectric response in these materials. Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics 30°C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient in this temperature range was shown to lead to strain gradient-induced poling, or flexoelectric poling, enhancing the flexoelectric response. Flexoelectric poling was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements upon the removal of the applied strain gradient. Additionally, an induced d33 piezoelectric response was observed in samples after the removal of the applied strain gradient, indicating that the polarization was realigned during flexoelectric measurements. Flexoelectric poling lead to the production of an internal bias of 9 kV/m. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response. In order to investigate the effects of dc electric field induced piezoelectricity, metrology was designed, developed and calibrated for the measurement of the e31,f piezoelectric coefficient as a function of applied electric field and strain. This allowed for direct measurements of the field-induced piezoelectric response for Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (70:30) and Ba 0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 composition on MgO were 83% and 70% respectively, with a dielectric loss of 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz respectively. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity with field to --3.0 C/m2 and --1.5 C/m2 at 110 kV/cm was observed in 60:40 BST on MgO and 70:30 BST on Si. Large and hysteretic piezoelectric and tuning responses were observed in the 70:30 BST thin films on MgO. This was consistent with the irreversible Rayleigh behavior, indicating a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response 40°C above the global paraelectric transition temperature. This information should enable advancements in tunable

  12. Pressure-induced crossover from long-to-short-range order in Pb,,Zn13Nb23...O30.905,,PbTiO3...0.095 single crystal

    E-print Network

    ...0.095 single crystal G. A. Samaraa) and E. L. Venturini Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico normal ferroelectric­to­relaxor behavior has been observed in single crystal Pb Zn1/3Nb2/3 O3 0.905 Pb with single crystals. Numerous attempts, extending over several decades, to grow PZT crystals of suitable size

  13. Real-time observation of local strain effects on nonvolatile ferroelectric memory storage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Christopher R; Jablonski, Michael L; Ashraf, Khalid; Damodaran, Anoop R; Jambunathan, Karthik; Hart, James L; Wen, Jianguo G; Miller, Dean J; Martin, Lane W; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Taheri, Mitra L

    2014-06-11

    We use in situ transmission electron microscopy to directly observe, at high temporal and spatial resolution, the interaction of ferroelectric domains and dislocation networks within BiFeO3 thin films. The experimental observations are compared with a phase field model constructed to simulate the dynamics of domains in the presence of dislocations and their resulting strain fields. We demonstrate that a global network of misfit dislocations at the film-substrate interface can act as nucleation sites and slow down domain propagation in the vicinity of the dislocations. Networks of individual threading dislocations emanating from the film-electrode interface play a more dramatic role in pinning domain motion. These dislocations may be responsible for the domain behavior in ferroelectric thin-film devices deviating from conventional Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi dynamics toward a Nucleation Limited Switching model. PMID:24801618

  14. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Takmeel, Qanit; Moghaddam, Saeed; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-08-18

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films approximately 10?nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO{sub 2} thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  15. The conductivity mechanism and an improved C-V model of ferroelectric PZT thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, K.; Buditama, A.; Chien, D.; Cui, J.; Cheung, P. L.; Goljahi, S.; Tolbert, S. H.; Chang, J. P.; Lynch, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    A dense, homogeneous and crack-free ferroelectric PZT thin film with <100>-preferred orientation was produced using the sol-gel method. The volume fraction ?(100) of <100>-oriented grains in the PZT film was calculated [?(100) ? 80%] from XRD of the PZT thin film and powder. The PZT thin film exhibits an open polarization vs. electric field loop and a low leakage current density from 10-8 A/cm2 to 10-7 A/cm2. The electrical conduction data were fit to a Schottky-emission model with deep traps from 100 kV/cm to 250 kV/cm. A modified capacitance model was introduced that adds electrical domain capacitance based on a metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) system with Schottky contacts. The model reproduces the observed non-linear capacitance vs. voltage behavior of the film.

  16. Anomalous change in leakage and displacement currents after electrical poling on lead-free ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Tomar, M.; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J. F.; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    We report the polarization, displacement current, and leakage current behavior of a trivalent nonpolar cation (Al3+) substituted lead free ferroelectric (Na0.46Bi0.46-xAlxBa0.08)TiO3 (NBAT-BT) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.10) electroceramics with tetragonal phase and P4 mm space group symmetry. Almost, three orders of magnitude decrease in leakage current were observed under electrical poling, which significantly improves microstructure, polarization, and displacement current. Effective poling neutralizes the domain pinning, traps charges at grain boundaries and fills oxygen vacancies with free charge carriers in matrix, thus saturated macroscopic polarization in contrast to that in unpoled samples. E-poling changes "bananas" type polarization loops to real ferroelectric loops.

  17. Kinetics of 90° domain wall motions and high frequency mesoscopic dielectric response in strained ferroelectrics: A phase-field simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P.; Chen, D. P.; Wang, Y. L.; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Wan, J. G.; Liu, J.-M.; Li, J. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric behaviors of a ferroelectric are substantially determined by its domain structure and domain wall dynamics at mesoscopic level. A relationship between the domain walls and high frequency mesoscopic dielectric response is highly appreciated for high frequency applications of ferroelectrics. In this work we investigate the low electric field driven motion of 90°-domain walls and the frequency-domain spectrum of dielectric permittivity in normally strained ferroelectric lattice using the phase-field simulations. It is revealed that, the high-frequency dielectric permittivity is spatially inhomogeneous and reaches the highest value on the 90°-domain walls. A tensile strain favors the parallel domains but suppresses the kinetics of the 90° domain wall motion driven by electric field, while the compressive strain results in the opposite behaviors. The physics underlying the wall motions and thus the dielectric response is associated with the long-range elastic energy. The major contribution to the dielectric response is from the polarization fluctuations on the 90°-domain walls, which are more mobile than those inside the domains. The relevance of the simulated results wth recent experiments is discussed.

  18. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernández, Jose F.

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO3 single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO3 at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light. PMID:25779918

  19. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernández, Jose F.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO3 single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO3 at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light.

  20. Molecule-displacive ferroelectricity in organic supramolecular solids

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Noro, Shin-ichiro; Kubo, Kazuya; Yoshitake, Masashi; Liu, Zun-Qi; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectricity is essential to many forms of current technology, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. In this circumstance, organic ferroelectrics are of particular importance because of their potential application in tomorrow's organic devices, and several pure organic ferroelectrics have been recently developed. However, some problems, such as current leakage and/or low working frequencies, make their application prospects especially for ferroelectric memory (FeRAM) not clear. Here, we describe the molecule-displacive ferroelectricity of supramolecular adducts of tartaric acid and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane N,N?-dioxide. The adducts show large spontaneous polarization, high rectangularity of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops even at high operation frequency (10?kHz), and high performance in polarization switching up to 1 × 106 times without showing fatigue. It opens great perspectives in terms of applications, especially in organic FeRAM. PMID:23873392

  1. Low electric-field driven ultrahigh electrostrains in Sb-substituted (Na,K)NbO{sub 3} lead-free ferroelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Jian; Zuo, Ruzhong E-mail: rzzuo@hotmail.com; Qi, He; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Longtu

    2014-12-15

    Lead-free (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48})(Nb{sub 1?y}Sb{sub y})O{sub 3} (NKNS{sub y}) ferroelectric ceramics were reported to exhibit an ultrahigh electrostrain (dynamic d{sub 33}* (=S/E) of 800–1100?pm/V) in a relatively low driving electric field range (1–4?kV/mm). As evidenced by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements, the mechanism of generating large strains was ascribed to both the low-field induced reversible rhombohedral-monoclinic phase transition (1–2?kV/mm) and the enhanced domain switching (2–4?kV/mm) owing to the normal to relaxor phase transformation, which contribute to ?62% and ?38% of the total strain, respectively. The results indicate that the NKNS{sub y} compositions would have excellent potentials for applications of lead-free actuator ceramics.

  2. Spin-phonon coupling and ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric gallium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2014-03-01

    Gallium ferrite (GaFeO3 or GFO) is a low temperature ferrimagnet and room temperature piezoelectric wherein the magnetic transition temperature (TC) could be tailored to room temperature and above by tuning the stoichiometry and processing conditions. Such tunability of the magnetic transition temperature renders GFO a unique perspective in the research of multiferroics to potentially demonstrate room temperature magnetoelectric effect attractive for futuristic digital memory applications. Recent studies in several transition metal oxides highlight the importance of spin-phonon coupling in designing novel multiferroics by means of strain induced phase transition. In the present work, we have systematically studied the evolution of phonons in good quality samples of GFO across the TC using Raman spectroscopy. Using the phonon softening behavior and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation function below TC we estimated spin-phonon coupling strength in the magnetically ordered state. In the process, we also show, for the first time, the presence of a spin glass phase in GFO where the spin-glass transition has a signature of abrupt change in spin-phonon coupling strength. Though GFO is piezoelectric and crystallizes in polar Pc21n symmetry, its ferroelectric nature remained controversial probably due to the large leakage current in the bulk material. To address this issue, we deposited epitaxial thin film on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using indium tin oxide (ITO) as a bottom conducting layer. We demonstrate clear evidence of room temperature ferroelectricity in the thin films from the 180o phase shift of the piezoresponse upon switching the electric field. Further, suppression of dielectric anomaly in presence of an external magnetic field clearly reveals a pronounced magneto-dielectric coupling across the magnetic transition temperature. In addition, using first principles calculations we elucidate that Fe ions are not only responsible for ferrimagnetism as observed earlier, but give rise to the observed ferroelectricity also, making GFO an unique single phase multiferroic. I thank to my collaborators (Somdutta Mukherjee, Amritendu Roy, Sushil Auluck, Rajendra Prasad, Rajeev Gupta,and Ashish Garg) for their contributions in the present work. This work was partially funded by DST, India.

  3. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    DOEpatents

    Naumov, Ivan I. (Fayetteville, AR); Bellaiche, Laurent M. (Fayetteville, AR); Prosandeev, Sergey A. (Fayetteville, AR); Ponomareva, Inna V. (Fayetteville, AR); Kornev, Igor A. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  4. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Vincent; Bibes, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Computer memory that is non-volatile and therefore able to retain its information even when switched off enables computers that do not need to be booted up. One of the technologies for such applications is ferroelectric random access memories, where information is stored as ferroelectric polarization. To miniaturize such devices to the size of a few nanometres, ferroelectric tunnel junctions have seen considerable interest. There, the electric polarization determines the electrical resistance of these thin films, switching the current on and off. With control over other parameters such as magnetism also being possible, ferroelectric tunnel junctions represent a promising and flexible device design.

  5. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Vincent; Bibes, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Computer memory that is non-volatile and therefore able to retain its information even when switched off enables computers that do not need to be booted up. One of the technologies for such applications is ferroelectric random access memories, where information is stored as ferroelectric polarization. To miniaturize such devices to the size of a few nanometres, ferroelectric tunnel junctions have seen considerable interest. There, the electric polarization determines the electrical resistance of these thin films, switching the current on and off. With control over other parameters such as magnetism also being possible, ferroelectric tunnel junctions represent a promising and flexible device design. PMID:25056141

  6. Ferroelectric memory element based on thin film field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A. R.; Aghamalyan, N. R.; Elbakyan, E. Y.; Guo, R.; Hovsepyan, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    We report the preparation and investigation of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FET) using ZnO:Li films with high field mobility of the charge carriers as a FET channel and as a ferroelectric active element simultaneously. The possibility for using of ferroelectric FET based on the ZnO:Li films in the ZnO:Li/LaB6 heterostructure as a bi-stable memory element for information recording is shown. The proposed ferroelectric memory structure does not manifest a fatigue after multiple readout of once recorded information.

  7. Domain walls in improper ferroelectrics as functional oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    The coexistence of magnetic and electric order in multiferroics and the resulting magnetoelectric coupling have triggered an immense research interest. The most prominent mechanisms promoting magnetic and ferroelectric order, however, tend to be mutually exclusive. As a result, multiferroics are an inherent source of ``unusual'' ferroelectricity. In many cases the ferroelectric state is improper, i.e., induced by the ordering of a different parameter like magnetism or strain. This secondary nature can lead to properties not normally found in ferroelectrics. In my talk I will discuss consequences for the ferroelectric domain walls of various multiferroics. For example, in magnetically induced ferroelectrics like MnWO4 or TbMnO3 the electric polarization within the wall is expected to rotate instead of passing through zero, as in conventional displacive ferroelectrics. This affects the distribution and propagation of the ferroelectric domains. In addition, a magnetic-field-induced rotation can reversible charge and discharge the domain walls. In strain-induced ferroelectrics like SrMnO3 the interplay of strain and oxygen vacancies leads to a polar state in which domain walls act as insulating boundaries to the conducting domains which therefore acts as nano-capacitors.

  8. Evidence of relaxor freezing in Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3/BiFeO 3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, M. P. K.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) relation has long been adopted to extract the freezing temperature (Tf) from a dielectric constant-temperature plot. It has been shown that the V-F relation in the relaxation time (?) scale can be used for a more direct evaluation of Tf rather than ?(T). But in our opinion, neither ? nor ?(T) gives direct evidence of freezing. Hence, in this letter, we have tried to give direct evidence for relaxor freezing and direct evaluation of Tf for a relaxor system [ Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3 with 20 mol% BiFeO 3] using differential scanning calorimetric and pyroelectric measurements.

  9. Nanomanufacturing and analysis of novel continuous ferroelectric PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xi

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF copolymers are well known for their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Currently, they are mainly used in applications in the form of films. Thin PVDF films have been shown to possess unique ferroelectric properties in the nanoscale range. However, their two-dimensional nature limits their applicability in active engineering materials and structures. One-dimensional PVDF nanofibers can be expected to combine ferroelectric behavior with enhanced mechanical properties and ultrahigh flexibility providing critical advantages for applications. In this work, novel continuous PVDF nanofibers were nanomanufactured and systematically studied for the first time. Nanofibers from PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer with several molecular weights and co-polymer compositions were manufactured by electrospinning. The method consists of spinning polymer solutions in high electric fields. Effects of process parameters on nanofiber diameters and morphology were studied. Resulting nanofibers were characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, DSC and TGA. Effects of annealing on copolymer nanofibers were analyzed. Nanofiber-reinforced composites were manufactured and their polarization behavior studied using a specially designed experimental device. A number of pioneering observations and discoveries were made as a result of this analysis. For example, analysis of crystalline structure of PVDF nanofibers showed that the initial a phase of the PVDF raw material was converted to beta phase during electrospinning. This result is very encouraging as the beta phase is primarily responsible for the piezo- and ferroelectric behavior of PVDF polymers. It was also shown for the first time that nanofabricated P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers exhibited distinct Curie points and different structures than their raw materials. Annealing was shown to be an effective way to modify properties of P(VDF-TrFE) co-polymer nanofibers. Overall, the results demonstrated for the first time flexible nanomanufacturing of continuous PVDF and co-polymer nanofibers exhibiting a number of unusual ferroelectric properties. The developed continuous nanofibers can be used in a broad range of applications spanning smart and active composites, multifunctional coatings, functional textiles, ultrafast/sensitive sensors, tailorable miniature actuators, MEMS/NEMS, energy conversion devices, and many others.

  10. Porous ferroelectrics for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscow, J.; Zhang, Y.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of energy harvesting using ferroelectric materials, with a particular focus on the energy harvesting capabilities of porous ferroelectric ceramics for both piezo- and pyroelectric harvesting. The benefits of introducing porosity into ferro- electrics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been known for over 30 years, but the potential advantages for energy harvesting from both ambient vibrations and temperature fluctuations have not been studied in depth. The article briefly discusses piezoelectric and pyro- electric energy harvesting, before evaluating the potential benefits of porous materials for increasing energy harvesting figures of merits and electromechanical/electrothermal coupling factors. Established processing routes are evaluated in terms of the final porous structure and the resulting effects on the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties.

  11. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-07-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the “universal memory”. In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories.

  12. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  13. Vertical Transport in Ferroelectric/Superconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begon-Lours, Laura; Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Jacquet, Eric; Carretero, Cecile; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fusil, Stephane; Garcia, Vincent; Xavier, Stephane; Girod, Stephanie; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bibes, Manuel; Barthelemy, Agnes; Villegas, Javier E.

    2015-03-01

    We study electric field-effects in superconducting films by measuring vertical transport in ferroelectric/superconductor heterostructures. These are based on ultrathin (4 to 8 nm thick) BiFeO3-Mn grown on YBa2Cu3O7 by pulsed laser deposition. Nanoscale contacts are defined on the BiFeO3 via a series of nanofabrication steps which include e-beam lithography, metal deposition (Nb or Co capped with Pt) and lift-off. Conductive-tip atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy are used to characterize the transport across the ferroelectric barrier as a function of its polarization (up/down). The observed electro-resistance, measured at various temperatures, allows studying the different electric-field screening in the normal and superconducting states. Work supported by DIM Oxymore.

  14. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Orvis, William J. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Wieskamp, Ted F. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  15. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  16. Ferroelectricity in underdoped La-based cuprates.

    PubMed

    Viskadourakis, Z; Sunku, S S; Mukherjee, S; Andersen, B M; Ito, T; Sasagawa, T; Panagopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    Doping a "parent" antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in cuprates leads to short-range electronic correlations and eventually to high-Tc superconductivity. However, the nature of charge correlations in the lightly doped cuprates remains unclear. Understanding the intermediate electronic phase in the phase diagram (between the parent insulator and the high-Tc superconductor) is expected to elucidate the complexity both inside and outside the superconducting dome, and in particular in the underdoped region. One such phase is ferroelectricity whose origin and relation to the properties of high-Tc superconductors is subject of current research. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectricity and the associated magnetoelectric coupling are in fact common in La-214 cuprates namely, La2-xSrxCuO4, La2LixCu1-xO4 and La2CuO4+x. It is proposed that ferroelectricity may result from local CuO6 octahedral distortions, associated with the dopant atoms and clustering of the doped charge carriers, which break spatial inversion symmetry at the local scale whereas magnetoelectric coupling can be tuned through Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. PMID:26486276

  17. WFL: Microwave Applications of Thin Ferroelectric Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a family of tunable microwave circuits, operating from X- through Ka-band, based on laser ablated BaxSr1-xTiO films on lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide substrates. Circuits include voltage controlled oscillators, filters, phase shifters and antennas. A review of the basic theory of operation of these devices will be presented along with measured performance. Emphasis has been on low-loss phase shifters to enable a new phased array architecture. The critical role of phase shifter loss and transient response in reflectarray antennas will be discussed. The Ferroelectric Reflectarray Critical Components Space Experiment was launched on the penultimate Space Shuttle, STS-134, in May of 2011. It included a bank of ferroelectric phase shifters with two different stoichiometries as well as ancillary electronics. The experiment package and status will be reported. In addition, unusual results of a Van der Pauw measurement involving a ferroelectric film grown on buffered high resisitivity silicon will be discussed.

  18. Ferroelectricity in underdoped La-based cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Viskadourakis, Z.; Sunku, S. S.; Mukherjee, S.; Andersen, B. M.; Ito, T.; Sasagawa, T.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Doping a “parent” antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in cuprates leads to short-range electronic correlations and eventually to high-Tc superconductivity. However, the nature of charge correlations in the lightly doped cuprates remains unclear. Understanding the intermediate electronic phase in the phase diagram (between the parent insulator and the high-Tc superconductor) is expected to elucidate the complexity both inside and outside the superconducting dome, and in particular in the underdoped region. One such phase is ferroelectricity whose origin and relation to the properties of high-Tc superconductors is subject of current research. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectricity and the associated magnetoelectric coupling are in fact common in La-214 cuprates namely, La2-xSrxCuO4, La2LixCu1-xO4 and La2CuO4+x. It is proposed that ferroelectricity may result from local CuO6 octahedral distortions, associated with the dopant atoms and clustering of the doped charge carriers, which break spatial inversion symmetry at the local scale whereas magnetoelectric coupling can be tuned through Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. PMID:26486276

  19. Nanoscale ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Sb2S3 nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Justin; Barth, Sven; Keeney, Lynette; Whatmore, Roger W; Holmes, Justin D

    2012-02-01

    We report the first observation of piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in individual Sb(2)S(3) nanowires embedded in anodic alumina templates. Switching spectroscopy-piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM) measurements demonstrate that individual, c-axis-oriented Sb(2)S(3) nanowires exhibit ferroelectric as well as piezoelectric switching behavior. Sb(2)S(3) nanowires with nominal diameters of 200 and 100 nm showed d(33(eff)) values around 2 pm V(-1), while the piezo coefficient obtained for 50 nm diameter nanowires was relatively low at around 0.8 pm V(-1). A spontaneous polarization (P(s)) of approximately 1.8 ?C cm(-2) was observed in the 200 and 100 nm Sb(2)S(3) nanowires, which is a 100% enhancement when compared to bulk Sb(2)S(3) and is probably due to the defect-free, single-crystalline nature of the nanowires synthesized. The 180° ferroelectric monodomains observed in Sb(2)S(3) nanowires were due to uniform polarization alignment along the polar c-axis. PMID:22268546

  20. Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpfe, T.; Reichenbach, P.; Haußmann, A.; Woike, T.; Soergel, E.; Eng, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) do not only affect the properties of a ferroelectric material, but they also exhibit themselves fascinating functionalities. Hence, it is quite evident that the pathway of DWs is of major interest. Whereas, for thin films, mapping the domain pattern at the samples' surface is usually sufficient to obtain the information wanted, this is not the case for bulk samples. Indeed, extrapolating from surface images of domain patterns to the three-dimensional (3D) behavior of DWs is, in general, not adequate. In order to overcome this problem, we developed a 3D imaging technique that allows to trace the pathway of DWs in bulk samples with high resolution, exemplarily demonstrated for an irregular DW inside a mm-thick LiNbO3 crystal. Based on the optical nonlinearity of ferroelectrics and taking advantage of an interferometric approach, we compare the optical path differences between fundamental and second harmonic waves, yielding a full 3D map of the DW from a single two-dimensional planar laser-scan. The short image acquisition time of this technique might furthermore enable to record dynamic DW processes.

  1. Upconversion luminescence, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics of Er Doped SrBi4Ti4O15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dengfeng; Zou, Hua; Xu, Chaonan; Wang, Xusheng; Yao, Xi; Lin, Jian; Sun, Tiantuo

    2012-12-01

    Er3+ doped SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT) bismuth layered-structure ferroelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid-state method, and their upconversion photoluminescent (UC) properties were investigated as a function of Er3+ concentration and incident pump power. Green (555 nm) and red (670 nm) emission bands were obtained under 980 nm excitation at room temperature, which corresponded to the radiative transitions from 4S3/2, and 4F9/2 to 4I15/2, respectively. The emission color of the samples could be changed with moderating the doping concentrations. The dependence of UC intensity on pumping power indicated a two-photon emission process. Studies on dielectric properties indicated that the introduction of Er increased the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tc) of SBT, thus making this ceramic suitable for piezoelectric sensor applications at higher temperatures. Piezoelectric measurement showed that the doped SBT had a relative higher piezoelectric constant d33 compared with the non-doped ceramics. The thermal annealing behaviors of the doped sample revealed a stable piezoelectric property. The doped SBT showed bright UC emission while simultaneously having increased Tc and d33. As a multifunctional material, Er doped SBT ferroelectric oxide showed great potential in application of sensor, future optical-electro integration and coupling devices.

  2. Ferroelectric glycine silver nitrate: a single-crystal neutron diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, R R; Chitra, R; Aliouane, N; Schefer, J

    2013-12-01

    Protonated crystals of glycine silver nitrate (C4H10Ag2N4O10) undergo a displacive kind of structural phase transition to a ferroelectric phase at 218?K. Glycine silver nitrate (GSN) is a light-sensitive crystal. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigations are difficult to perform on these crystals due to the problem of crystal deterioration on prolonged exposure to X-rays. To circumvent this problem, single-crystal neutron diffraction investigations were performed. We report here the crystal structure of GSN in a ferroelectric phase. The final R value for the refined structure at 150?K is 0.059. A comparison of the low-temperature structure with the room-temperature structure throws some light on the mechanism of the structural phase change in this crystal. We have attempted to explain the structural transition in GSN within the framework of the vibronic theory of ferroelectricity, suggesting that the second-order Jahn-Teller (pseudo-Jahn-Teller) behavior of the Ag(+) ion in GSN leads to structural distortion at low temperature (218?K). PMID:24253085

  3. Ferroelectric phase transition and optical performance of PLZnNZT transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kaibin; Shi, Yue; Li, Kun; Fang, Bijun; Ding, Jianning

    2015-06-01

    Lead-based Pb0.97La0.02(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.3(Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.7O3 (PLZnNZT) transparent ceramics with the addition of 2 wt% excess PbO were prepared by hot-pressing sintering method. The hot-pressing sintered PLZnNZT ceramics exhibit dense and large-grained microstructure, and perovskite structure with distorted cubic-like symmetry. The ceramics exhibit normal ferroelectric-like dielectric behavior with slightly diffused ferroelectric phase transition characteristic. The PLZnNZT ceramics exhibit fully developed, symmetric and saturated P-E hysteresis loop and large piezoelectric constant d33, being 468 pC/N. The ceramics with 120 ?m thickness exhibit maximum transmittance of 53% at 850 nm when Fresnel losses was not included, almost totally transparent in the mid IR region (2500-5600 nm), and low-lying optical band gap energy Eg of 3.23 eV. Three diffused Raman bands centering around 240 cm-1, 560 cm-1 and 750 cm-1 are observed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which can be attributed to F2g [BO6] bending vibration, A1g [BO6] stretching vibration and "soft mode" mixed by the bending and stretching vibrations, respectively, confirming the normal ferroelectric-like characteristic.

  4. Ferroelectricity in hexagonal YFeO3 film at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Run-Lan; Chen, Chang-Le; Zhang, Yun-Jie; Xing, Hui; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the leakage current, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the YFeO3 film with hexagonal structure, which was fabricated on Si(111) substrate by a simple sol-gel method. The leakage current test shows good characteristics as the leakage current density is 5.4×10-6 A/cm2 under 5 V. The dominant leakage mechanism is found to be an Ohmic behavior at low electric field and space-charge-limited conduction at high electric field region. The P-E measurements show ferroelectric hysteresis loops with small remnant polarization and coercive field at room temperature. The distinct and switchable domain structures on the nanometer scale are observed by piezoresponse force microscopy, which testifies to the ferroelectricity of the YFeO3 film further. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471301, 61078057, 51202195, and 511172183), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20126102110045), and the NPU Foundation for Fundamental Research (Grant Nos. JC201155, JC201271, and JC20120246).

  5. Future Development of Dense Ferroelectric Memories for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpy, Stephen C.; Derbenwick, Gary F.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of high density, radiation tolerant, nonvolatile memories is critical for space applications. Ferroelectric memories, when fabricated with radiation hardened complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS), can be manufactured and packaged to provide high density replacements for Flash memory, which is not radiation tolerant. Previous work showed ferroelectric memory cells to be resistant to single event upsets and proton irradiation, and ferroelectric storage capacitors to be resistant to neutron exposure. In addition to radiation hardness, the fast programming times, virtually unlimited endurance, and low voltage, low power operation make ferroelectric memories ideal for space missions. Previously, a commercial double level metal 64-kilobit ferroelectric memory was presented. Although the capabilities of radiation hardened wafer fabrication facilities lag behind those of the most modern commercial wafer fabrication facilities, several paths to achieving radiation tolerant, dense ferroelectric memories are emerging. Both short and long term solutions are presented in this paper. Although worldwide major semiconductor companies are introducing commercial ferroelectric memories, funding limitations must be overcome to proceed with the development of high density, radiation tolerant ferroelectric memories.

  6. Electrospinning induced ferroelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers.

    PubMed

    Baji, Avinash; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Li, Qian; Liu, Yun

    2011-08-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers with diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm are produced by electrospinning and the effect of fiber size on the ferroelectric ?-crystalline phase is determined. Domain switching and associated ferro-/piezo-electric properties of the electrospun PVDF fibers were also determined. The fibers showed well-defined ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. PMID:21713284

  7. Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated by Scanned Probe on the ferroelectric properties of individual single-crystalline barium titanate nanowires. We show that nonvolatile report the scanned probe characterization of individual single-crystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano

  8. FERROELECTRIC PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION *

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    FERROELECTRIC PLASMA SOURCE FOR HEAVY ION BEAM CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION * Philip C. Efthimion, Erik P electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal

  9. Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators Ju-Hyun Lee Yung-Hsun Wu Shin (about 2.3p at k ¼ 1.55 lm under E ¼ 2.5 V=lm) and fast response time ( at an infrared wavelength, say k ¼ 1.55 mm. On the contrary, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) show very fast

  10. Spectral measurements of gyrotron oscillator with ferroelectric electron gun

    E-print Network

    Jerby, Eli

    Spectral measurements of gyrotron oscillator with ferroelectric electron gun M. Einat, E. Jerby on repetitive ferroelectric electron gun has been reported. This letter presents measurements of the spectral variations of the gyrotron output, and relates them to the electron-gun energy spread and to other inherent

  11. Ultrafast Polarization Response of an Optically Trapped Single Ferroelectric Nanowire

    E-print Network

    Ultrafast Polarization Response of an Optically Trapped Single Ferroelectric Nanowire Sanghee Nah-dimensional potassium niobate nanowires are of interest as building blocks in integrated piezoelectric devices of light-induced polarization dynamics within an optically trapped ferroelectric nanowire, using the second

  12. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.A.; Walker, F.J.

    2000-06-27

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO{sub 3}, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  13. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  14. A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith

    E-print Network

    A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith Center for Research in Scientific.hom@lmco.com Abstract This paper addresses the modeling of hysteresis in ferroelectric materials through consideration for the anhysteretic polarization that occurs in the absence of domain wall pinning. In the second step, hysteresis

  15. A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith

    E-print Network

    A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith Center for Research in Scienti c.hom@lmco.com Abstract This paper addresses the modeling of hysteresis in ferroelectric materials through consideration for the anhysteretic polarization that occurs in the absence of domain wall pinning. In the second step, hysteresis

  16. Giant electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric perovskite oxides possess large electrocaloric effect, but only at high temperature, which limits their potential as next generation solid state cooling devices. Here, we demonstrate from phase field simulations that a giant adiabatic temperature change exhibits near room temperature in the strained ferroelectric PbTiO? nanotubes, which is several times in magnitude larger than that of PbTiO? thin films. Such giant adiabatic temperature change is attributed to the extrinsic contribution of unusual domain transition, which involves a dedicated interplay among the electric field, strain, temperature and polarization. Careful selection of external strain allows one to harness the extrinsic contribution to obtain large adiabatic temperature change in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature. Our finding provides a novel insight into the electrocaloric response of ferroelectric nanostructures and leads to a new strategy to tailor and improve the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric materials through domain engineering. PMID:25578434

  17. Giant electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric perovskite oxides possess large electrocaloric effect, but only at high temperature, which limits their potential as next generation solid state cooling devices. Here, we demonstrate from phase field simulations that a giant adiabatic temperature change exhibits near room temperature in the strained ferroelectric PbTiO3 nanotubes, which is several times in magnitude larger than that of PbTiO3 thin films. Such giant adiabatic temperature change is attributed to the extrinsic contribution of unusual domain transition, which involves a dedicated interplay among the electric field, strain, temperature and polarization. Careful selection of external strain allows one to harness the extrinsic contribution to obtain large adiabatic temperature change in ferroelectric nanotubes near room temperature. Our finding provides a novel insight into the electrocaloric response of ferroelectric nanostructures and leads to a new strategy to tailor and improve the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric materials through domain engineering. PMID:25578434

  18. Toward Ferroelectric Control of Monolayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ariana; Sharma, Pankaj; Scott, Thomas; Preciado, Edwin; Klee, Velveth; Sun, Dezheng; Lu, I-Hsi Daniel; Barroso, David; Kim, SukHyun; Shur, Vladimir Ya; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R; Gruverman, Alexei; Bartels, Ludwig; Dowben, Peter A

    2015-05-13

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) single-layer films onto periodically poled lithium niobate is possible while maintaining the substrate polarization pattern. The MoS2 growth exhibits a preference for the ferroelectric domains polarized "up" with respect to the surface so that the MoS2 film may be templated by the substrate ferroelectric polarization pattern without the need for further lithography. MoS2 monolayers preserve the surface polarization of the "up" domains, while slightly quenching the surface polarization on the "down" domains as revealed by piezoresponse force microscopy. Electrical transport measurements suggest changes in the dominant carrier for CVD MoS2 under application of an external voltage, depending on the domain orientation of the ferroelectric substrate. Such sensitivity to ferroelectric substrate polarization opens the possibility for ferroelectric nonvolatile gating of transition metal dichalcogenides in scalable devices fabricated free of exfoliation and transfer. PMID:25909996

  19. Characteristics of Radio-Frequency Circuits Utilizing Ferroelectric Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Michael; Gui, Xiao; MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric capacitors, most commonly used in memory circuits and variable components, were studied in simple analog radio-frequency circuits such as the RLC resonator and Colpitts oscillator. The goal was to characterize the RF circuits in terms of frequency of oscillation, gain, etc, using ferroelectric capacitors. Frequencies of oscillation of both circuits were measured and studied a more accurate resonant frequency can be obtained using the ferroelectric capacitors. Many experiments were conducted and data collected. A model to simulate the experimental results will be developed. Discrepancies in gain and frequency in these RF circuits when conventional capacitors are replaced with ferroelectric ones were studied. These results will enable circuit designers to anticipate the effects of using ferroelectric components in their radio- frequency applications.

  20. Microscopic model for the ferroelectric field effect in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shuai; Zhang, Xiaotian; Yu, Rong; Liu, J.-M.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2011-01-01

    A microscopic model Hamiltonian for the ferroelectric field effect is introduced for the study of oxide heterostructures with ferroelectric components. The long-range Coulomb interaction is incorporated as an electrostatic potential, solved self-consistently together with the charge distribution. A generic double-exchange system is used as the conducting channel, epitaxially attached to the ferroelectric gate. The observed ferroelectric screening effect, namely, the charge accumulation/depletion near the interface, is shown to drive interfacial phase transitions that give rise to robust magnetoelectric responses and bipolar resistive switching, in qualitative agreement with previous density functional theory calculations. The model can be easily adapted to other materials by modifying the Hamiltonian of the conducting channel, and it is useful in simulating ferroelectric field effect devices particularly those involving strongly correlated electronic components where ab initio techniques are difficult to apply.

  1. Observation of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization reversal in multiferroic Mn{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}WO{sub 4} (x???0.16)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Sang; Chung, Jae-Ho; Woo Shin, Kwang; Hoon Kim, Kee; Hwan Oh, In

    2014-06-23

    In this Letter, we report the effect of replacing Mn{sup 2+} ions with Ni{sup 2+} on the ferroelectricity of multiferroic MnWO{sub 4} single crystals. When the amount of substitution was close to 16%, the sign of ferroelectric polarization spontaneously became negative with respect to initial dc poling field at a few degrees below T{sub C}. Neutron diffraction intensities revealed a sudden change in the underlying spiral spin ordering that occurred coincidentally with the observed sign reversal. This unusual behavior in zero magnetic fields suggests that strong competitions between the two different magnetic ions may provide an efficient route to manipulation of existing multiferroics.

  2. 450 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 43, NO. 3, MAY 1996 ansient Modeling of Ferroelectric Capacitors

    E-print Network

    Gulak, P. Glenn

    1996 ansient Modeling of Ferroelectric Capacitors for Nonvolatile Memories Ali Sheikholeslami and P. Glenn Gulak, Member, IEEE Abstruct- Present ferroelectric (FE) capacitor models mostly rely,corresponding to the two different polarization states of an FE capacitor. I. INTRODUCTION ERROELECTRIC (FE) capacitors

  3. Real Space Phase Field Simulations of Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lun

    Ferroelectric perovskites are used in various transducer, memory and optical applications due to their attractive electromechanical and optical properties. In these applications, ferroelectrics often have complex geometries and function under complex electro-mechanical loadings. Phase-field models are typically used to predict the formation of microstructural patterns and subsequent evolution for ferroelectrics under these applied loads. In addition, boundary element method can be integrated into the phase-field model to resolves the electrical fields generated from these devices over all space, not just confined inside the specimen. In this research, we develop a simple method to construct an energy density function for phase-field modeling to predict the microstructure of multifunction materials. This formulation can handle complex equilibrium structures and crystallographic symmetry with ease. We validate this method on a NiTi shape-memory thin film with cubic to monoclinic transformation with 12 variants that are symmetry related. Next, we present an iterative boundary element method for the solution of the exterior all-space electrostatic problem for nonlinear dielectric media. In contrast to direct solution of the electrostatic problems, this method avoids the construction, storage and solution of dense and large linear systems. This provides important advantages for multiphysics problems, such as ferroelectrics modeling, that couple the linear electrostatic Poisson problem to nonlinear physics. We integrate this iterative approach into the conventional phase field model. After that, We implement this method to simulate the ferroelectric materials in various examples. First, we studied the effect of lattice orientation, surface modulation, and applied fields on free-surface domain microstructure in ferroelectrics. Second, we consider the free-surface domain microstructure in ferroelectrics with a stationary crack. Next, we investigate the ferroelectric domain nucleation under a charged tip. After that, we simulate the Piezoresponse Force Microscopy on scanning the ferroelectric surfaces. At last, we examine the domain microstructure and space charge distribution of ferroelectrics under the effect of semiconductor doping.

  4. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

  5. The effects of Bi4Ti3O12 interfacial ferroelectric layer on the dielectric properties of Au/n-Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçen, Muharrem; Y?ld?r?m, Mert

    2015-06-01

    Au/n-Si metal-semiconductor (MS) and Au/Bi4Ti3O12/n-Si metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structures were fabricated and admittance measurements were held between 5 kHz and 1 MHz at room temperature so that dielectric properties of these structures could be investigated. The ferroelectric interfacial layer Bi4Ti3O12 decreased the polarization voltage by providing permanent dipoles at metal/semiconductor interface. Depending on different mechanisms, dispersion behavior was observed in dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent versus bias voltage plots of both MS and MFS structures. The real and imaginary parts of complex modulus of MFS structure take smaller values than those of MS structure, because permanent dipoles in ferroelectric layer cause a large spontaneous polarization mechanism. While the dispersion in AC conductivity versus frequency plots of MS structure was observed at high frequencies, for MFS structure it was observed at lower frequencies.

  6. Asymmetry in ferroelectric polymer laminate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.A.; Scheinbeim, J.I.; Su, Ji

    1996-10-01

    Studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of composite bilaminates of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nylon 11 films have shown that the properties of the bilaminates cannot be understood solely in terms of the properties of the individual components. Further, the properties of films which are polarized with the positive voltage on the nylon 11 side are different from those having the positive voltage on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) side. This asymmetry is interpreted as resulting from a region of space charge trapped at the interface between the two layers.

  7. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve.

    PubMed

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction. PMID:25961513

  8. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-05-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction.

  9. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    PubMed Central

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction. PMID:25961513

  10. A lead-halide perovskite molecular ferroelectric semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao; Ye, Heng-Yun; Li, Peng-Fei; Huang, Songping D.; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-05-01

    Inorganic semiconductor ferroelectrics such as BiFeO3 have shown great potential in photovoltaic and other applications. Currently, semiconducting properties and the corresponding application in optoelectronic devices of hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate are a hot topic of academic research; more and more of such hybrids have been synthesized. Structurally, these hybrids are suitable for exploration of ferroelectricity. Therefore, the design of molecular ferroelectric semiconductors based on these hybrids provides a possibility to obtain new or high-performance semiconductor ferroelectrics. Here we investigated Pb-layered perovskites, and found the layer perovskite (benzylammonium)2PbCl4 is ferroelectric with semiconducting behaviours. It has a larger ferroelectric spontaneous polarization Ps=13 ?C cm-2 and a higher Curie temperature Tc=438 K with a band gap of 3.65 eV. This finding throws light on the new properties of the hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate compounds and provides a new way to develop new semiconductor ferroelectrics.

  11. A lead-halide perovskite molecular ferroelectric semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao; Ye, Heng-Yun; Li, Peng-Fei; Huang, Songping D.; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic semiconductor ferroelectrics such as BiFeO3 have shown great potential in photovoltaic and other applications. Currently, semiconducting properties and the corresponding application in optoelectronic devices of hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate are a hot topic of academic research; more and more of such hybrids have been synthesized. Structurally, these hybrids are suitable for exploration of ferroelectricity. Therefore, the design of molecular ferroelectric semiconductors based on these hybrids provides a possibility to obtain new or high-performance semiconductor ferroelectrics. Here we investigated Pb-layered perovskites, and found the layer perovskite (benzylammonium)2PbCl4 is ferroelectric with semiconducting behaviours. It has a larger ferroelectric spontaneous polarization Ps=13??C?cm?2 and a higher Curie temperature Tc=438?K with a band gap of 3.65?eV. This finding throws light on the new properties of the hybrid organo-plumbate or stannate compounds and provides a new way to develop new semiconductor ferroelectrics. PMID:26021758

  12. Why isn't CsSnF3 ferroelectric?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eva H.; Benedek, Nicole A.; Fennie, Craig J.

    2013-03-01

    Complex fluorides are an interesting class of materials to explore for new ferroelectrics and multiferroics. The elucidation of design rules for new ferroelectric fluorides is challenging because polar fluorides tend to form in structures with a large number of atoms in the unit cell and the ferroelectricity is almost always of the geometric type. In this talk we will discuss our recent attempt to rationally design new polar fluorides from first principles. By exploring the relative stability of the subgroups of the perovskite manifold (using the phonons of the 5-atom cubic structure as a guide), we reveal the origin of ferroelectricity in R3c CsPbF3, the only known polar ABF3 compound. Comparison with CsSrF3, which has a similar tolerance factor but no lone pair cation, reveals that the interplay between lone-pair localization and rotations stabilizes the rotation pattern most compatible with ferroelectricity, i . e . , a-a-a-, rather than the more common a-a-c+. Next we replace Pb2+ with another lone pair cation, Sn2+. Within a perovskite manifold of states CsSnF3 is ferroelectric, yet synthesis of this compound by our experimental collaborators shows that not only isn't it ferroelectric, it isn't even a perovskite. Why?

  13. Intrinsic space charge layers and field enhancement in ferroelectric nanojunctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Ye; Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro

    2015-07-13

    The conducting characteristics of topological defects in the ferroelectric materials, such as charged domain walls in ferroelectric materials, engendered broad interest and extensive study on their scientific merit and the possibility of novel applications utilizing domain engineering. At the same time, the problem of electron transport in ferroelectrics themselves still remains full of unanswered questions, and becomes still more relevant over the impending revival of interest in ferroelectric semiconductors and new improper ferroelectric materials. We have employed self-consistent phase-field modeling to investigate the physical properties of a local metal-ferroelectric (Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3) junction in applied electric field. We revealed an up tomore »10-fold local field enhancement realized by large polarization gradient and over-polarization effects once the inherent non-linear dielectric properties of PZT are considered. The effect is independent of bias polarity and maintains its strength prior, during and after ferroelectric switching. The local field enhancement can be considered equivalent to increase of doping level, which will give rise to reduction of the switching bias and significantly smaller voltages to charge injection and electronic injection, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical processes.« less

  14. Design of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the dove1 characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used as a reference to determine the amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. It is predicted that each memory cell may be able to store 8 bits or more. The design is based on data taken from actual ferroelectric transistors. Although the circuit has not been fabricated, a prototype circuit is now under construction. The design of this circuit is different than multi-level FLASH or silicon transistor circuits. The differences between these types of circuits are described in this paper. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  15. Dielectric and phase behavior of dipolar spheroids.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lewis E; Benight, Stephanie J; Barnes, Robin; Robinson, Bruce H

    2015-04-23

    The Stockmayer fluid, composed of dipolar spheres, has a well-known isotropic-ferroelectric phase transition at high dipole densities. However, there has been little investigation of the ferroelectric transition in nearly spherical fluids at dipole densities corresponding to those found in many polar solvents and in guest-host organic electro-optic materials. In this work, we examine the transition to ordered phases of low-aspect-ratio spheroids under both unperturbed and poled conditions, characterizing both the static dielectric response and thermodynamic properties of spheroidal systems. Spontaneous ferroelectric ordering was confined to a small region of aspect ratios about unity, indicating that subtle changes in sterics can have substantial influence on the behavior of coarse-grained liquid models. Our results demonstrate the importance of molecular shape in obtaining even qualitatively correct dielectric responses and provide an explanation for the success of the Onsager model as a phenomenological representation for the dielectric behavior of polar organic liquids. PMID:25821921

  16. Ferroelectric domain switching of individual nanoscale grains in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanyuan

    2011-12-01

    This thesis will focus on the switching behavior of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in polycrystalline thin films. Ferroelectrics are a class of dielectric materials that demonstrate spontaneous polarizations under zero applied electric field. A region with the same polarization is called a ferroelectric domain. One important attribute of ferroelectrics is the domain switching from one thermodynamically stable state to another by application of an external electric field. Ferroelectric domain switching has been intensively investigated in epitaxial thin films. However, little is known about the domain switching in polycrystalline thin films. The main reason is that each grain is differently orientated and each is in a unique local stress and electric field determined by neighboring grains. To understand and deterministically control the nanoscale domain switching in polycrystalline thin films, it's critical to experimentally identify the effect of local microstructure (grain orientation and grain boundary misorientation) on the individual grain switching behavior. In this thesis, the effect of local microstructure on domain switching has been quantitatively analyzed in a 100 nm thick polycrystalline PbZr 0.2Ti0.8O3 thin film. The ferroelectric domains are characterized by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), with their switching behavior analyzed by Polarization Difference Maps (PDMs, an analytical technique developed in this work). The local microstructure is determined by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD). The results are discussed in chapter 3 to 6. Chapter 3 introduces the PDMs technique that enables the rapid identification of 0o, 90o switching and 180o switching in polycrystalline thin films. By assigning different colors to different types of switching, the full nature of polarization switching can be visualized simultaneously for large number of domains or grains in one map. In chapter 4, an external electric field reversal experiment has been carried out in a polycrystalline PZT thin film. Using PDMs, 90° switching of individual grains is identified in addition to the expected 180° switching. What is noteworthy is that a significant number of grains undergo 90° switching in both switching and relaxation processes, a striking contrast with epitaxial thin films where only 180o switching have been reported. In chapter 5, the reason that a large amount of 90o switching occurred in a polycrystalline thin film is studied by experimentally characterizing the local microstructure. The preliminary results show a direct correlation between the crystal orientation of a chosen grain and its switching type, indicating that the switching of a grain is dominated by its orientation. For a minority of the grains, however, the neighboring grain should play a dominant role. The effects of neighboring grains on the center grain switching are studied in chapter 6. Switching loops are carried out at different positions within individual grains. A correlation across grain boundaries in the coercive bias was observed for almost all measured grain boundaries. Even inside the same grain, different grain boundaries can either facilitate or hinder the switching, depending on the grain boundary misorientation. Future work is discussed in chapter 7, including the non-deterministic domain switching in polycrystalline thin films, the influence of electron beams on the domain switching behavior, and the domain relaxation through 90o switching. In conclusion, a large fraction of 90o switching is found in a polycrystalline PZT thin film. The switching of an individual grain is found to be mainly determined by the grain orientation and the grain boundary misorientations. Grains orientated close to the [001] direction are more likely to go through a 90o switching than a 180o switching. Grain boundaries with different misorientation angles tend to either hinder or facilitate the switching of grains on both sides.

  17. Electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric nanowires from atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Herchig, R; Chang, C-M; Mani, B K; Ponomareva, I

    2015-01-01

    Electrocaloric effect is presently under active investigation owing to both the recent discoveries of giant electrocaloric effects and its potential for solid state cooling applications. We use first-principles-based direct simulations to predict the electrocaloric temperature change in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires. Our findings suggest that in nanowires with axial polarization direction the maximum electrocaloric response is reduced when compared to bulk, while the room temperature electrocaloric properties can be enhanced by tuning the ferroelectric transition temperature. The potential of ferroelectric nanowires for electrocaloric cooling applications is discussed. PMID:26612267

  18. Electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric nanowires from atomistic simulations

    PubMed Central

    Herchig, R.; Chang, C.-M.; Mani, B. K.; Ponomareva, I.

    2015-01-01

    Electrocaloric effect is presently under active investigation owing to both the recent discoveries of giant electrocaloric effects and its potential for solid state cooling applications. We use first-principles-based direct simulations to predict the electrocaloric temperature change in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires. Our findings suggest that in nanowires with axial polarization direction the maximum electrocaloric response is reduced when compared to bulk, while the room temperature electrocaloric properties can be enhanced by tuning the ferroelectric transition temperature. The potential of ferroelectric nanowires for electrocaloric cooling applications is discussed. PMID:26612267

  19. Ferroelectricity in antiferroelectric NaNbO3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Tyunina, M; Dejneka, A; Rytz, D; Gregora, I; Borodavka, F; Vondracek, M; Honolka, J

    2014-03-26

    Sodium niobate (NaNbO3, or NNO) is known to be antiferroelectric at temperatures between 45 and 753 K. Here we show experimentally the presence of the ferroelectric phase at temperatures between 100 and 830 K in the NNO crystals obtained by top-seeded solution growth. The ferroelectric phase and new phase transitions are evidenced using a combination of thermo-optical studies by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy analysis, and photoelectron emission microscopy. The possibility for strain-induced ferroelectricity in NNO is suggested. PMID:24594846

  20. Natural focusing of x rays from ferroelectric lithium niobate wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Stephen; Jach, Terrence; Kim, Sungwon; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2007-10-01

    The interaction of waves with inhomogeneous media leads to the natural focusing of light, the channelling of waves into stable caustics. We have extended natural focusing to x rays, observing caustics in topographs of ferroelectric lithium niobate. Voltage across domains of reversed polarity induces perturbations to the local crystal planes, producing dramatic variations in the images. Ray tracing shows a ''catastrophic'' discontinuity, causing bright focal lines. Analysis reveals details of boundary strains and local ferroelectric properties. Controlled focusing could be extended to designed domain patterns to probe microstructural properties, and also to a type of voltage-controlled ferroelectric optics for x rays.

  1. An unusual route to polarization reversal in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Herchig, R.; Chang, Ch.-M.; Mani, B. K.; Ponomareva, I.

    2014-07-07

    Ferroelectric nanowires are promising candidates for miniaturized ferroelectric devices. Some potential nanoscale applications of the nanowires, such as ultra high density ferroelectric memory, utilize their reversible polarization. To meet the ever increasing demand for low energy consumption, it is extremely desirable to reduce the operational fields associated with polarization reversal. In this Letter, we use first-principles-based simulations to explore an unusual route to polarization reversal that utilizes a combination of relatively low bias field and THz pulsed radiation. Such an approach allows for lower operational fields and may lead to other potential applications such as THz radiation sensing and remote switches.

  2. Constitution Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society (UFFC-S) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jian-yu

    Constitution Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society (UFFC-S) Institute IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society (UFFC-S) Table of Contents ARTICLE 1 be known as the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society, hereinafter referred

  3. Improper ferroelectricity: A theoretical and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. R.; Ullman, F. G.

    1984-02-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study has been made of the origins and properties of the improper ferroelectricity associated with structural modulations of non-zero wavelengths. Two classes of materials have been studied: rare earth molybdates (specifically, gadolinium molybdate: GMO), and potassium selenate and its isomorphs. In the former, the modulation is produced by a zone boundary phonon instability, and in the latter by the instability of a phonon of wave vector approximately two-thirds of the way to the zone-boundary. In the second case the initial result is a modulated structure whose repeat distance is not a rational multiple of the basic lattice repeat distance. This result is a modulated polarization which, when the basic modulation locks in to a rational multiple of the lattice spacing, becomes uniform, and improper ferroelectricity results. The origins of these effects have been elucidated by theoretical studies, initially semi-empirical, but subsequently from first-principles. These complemented the experimental work, which primarily used inelastic light scattering, uniaxial stress, and hydrostatic pressure, to probe the balance between the interionic forces through the effects on the phonons and dielectric properties.

  4. HTS/Ferroelectric microwave phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Farhat; Gallop, J. C.; Langham, C. D.

    This analysis provides the possibility of developing microwave phase shifters based on the dielectric substrate nonlinearity, with the conducting surfaces made of a superconductor. The displacement vector, the dipole moment, polarization, polarizability, susceptibility and relative permittivity concepts are used for ferroelectrics; and for superconductors Bose statistics and the Gorter and the Casimir model for a two-fluid model, London's equations, and the classical skin effect for the normal component of the current are used. A sinusoidal wave solution is found for a planar superconducting transmission line. This solution gives expressions for the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient which are used to characterize the tunability of microwave components. The measured data in the literature have been used to compute the relative phase velocities and phase shift per centimetre versus temperature and the d.c. bias electric field E (kV cm -1). It is shown that with a ferroelectric film of thickness 140 nm, with ?r = 2 × 10 3 and tan ? = 10 -3 phase shifts and attenuation of the order of tens of degrees per centimetre and 5.76 × 10 -3 dB cm -1, respectively, at 10 GHz can be obtained with tens of millivolts at 4 K.

  5. Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals In Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Holmes, Harlan K.

    1994-01-01

    The process of simultaneous optical visualization and quantitative measurement of aerodynamic boundary layer parameters requires new concepts, materials and utilization methods. Measurement of shear stress in terms of the transmitted or the reflected light intensity from an aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) thin (approx. 1 micron) film deposited on a glass substrate has been the first step in this direction. In this paper, recent progress in utilization of FLC thin films for skin friction measurement and for studying the state of the boundary layer in a wind tunnel environment is reviewed. The switching characteristics of FLCs have been used to measure pressure from the newly devised system of partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals (PEPDFLCs). In this configuration, a PEPDFLC thin film (approx. 10-25 microns) is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a rigid surface and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvinylidene fluoride or mylar. The switching characteristics of the film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and a predetermined bias voltage across the two electrodes. The results, considering the dielectrics of composite media, are discussed.

  6. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, A; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the “universal memory”. In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories. PMID:26215429

  7. Functional ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Shengwei; Han, Kun; Huang, Lisen; Schlom, Darrell G; Venkatesan, T; Ariando; Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The quest for solid state non-volatility memory devices on silicon with high storage density, high speed, low power consumption has attracted intense research on new materials and novel device architectures. Although flash memory dominates in the non-volatile memory market currently, it has drawbacks, such as low operation speed, and limited cycle endurance, which prevents it from becoming the "universal memory". In this report, we demonstrate ferroelectric tunnel junctions (Pt/BaTiO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3) epitaxially grown on silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope images prove the high epitaxial quality of the single crystal perovskite films grown on silicon. Furthermore, the write speed, data retention and fatigue properties of the device compare favorably with flash memories. The results prove that the silicon-based ferroelectric tunnel junction is a very promising candidate for application in future non-volatile memories. PMID:26215429

  8. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  9. Integrated non-planar ferroelectric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonnenmann, Stephen Sommers

    Ferroelectrics (FEs) exhibit stable spontaneous polarization states in the absence of an applied electric field, analogous to other ferroic systems such as ferromagnetics and ferroelastics. Incomplete screening of surface charges along the FE-electrode interface creates a potential gradient across the FE layer. This yields a depolarizing field which greatly suppresses polarization, particularily in systems approaching finite sizes, where surface and interface effects exhibit far more influence than in the bulk. Identifying mechanisms for reducing the detrimental effects of the depolarizing field and maintaining FE stability in finite dimensions remains the largest obstacle in FEs realizing their potential as next generation devices such as electrocaloric coolers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and non-volatile memory elements. This thesis aims to develop a reproducible, versatile synthetic approach towards cylindrical conductive core-ferroelectric perovskite oxide shell nanostructures. The inherent finite curvature produces surface-tension based stresses which may be used to nonlinearily couple to charge, thus mitigating the destabilizing effects of the depolarizing field. This study will show that FE stability is enhanced in curved nanostructures as compared to their planar counterparts. Piezoresponse force microscopy, a modified scan probe technique, will be used to elucidate these effects via imaging and static hysteresis collection. The improved FE stability enables the demonstration of a single, integrated FE field effect transistor test structure, showing nanoscale integration of a FE layer in direct contact with silicon, a notable challenge in developing semiconductor industrial applications.

  10. Theory of ferroelectric phase transition of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Susumu; Suda, Hiroyuki

    1997-09-01

    We propose a model of ferroelectric polymers constructed through abstraction of ferroelectric properties of copolymers of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene. Each element in the model can take two different structures whose energy states are split into three levels under an electric field. Interaction between elements in this system is classified into two categories; intermolecular interaction and intramolecular interaction. Fundamental properties of the model are calculated by the Bethe approximation. We find the thermodynamic character of the phase transition changes from the first order phase transition to the diffuse transition with a change in the ratio of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions. We demonstrate a critical phenomenon at a boundary between the first order phase transition and the diffuse transition. The critical temperature is independent of the properties related to the intramolecular degrees of freedom such as intramolecular interaction and multiplicity of an excited conformation state. Furthermore, a smearing out effect that is introduced into the intermolecular interaction influences the transition temperature. The effects of external fields on the phase transition are also discussed.

  11. Optical, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of LaCrO3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matam, Mahesh Kumar; Ye, Zuo Guang

    2001-03-01

    Perovskite LaCrO3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure, which is used in various applications as an electrode material due to its p-type semicondutivity. LaCrO3 shows an antiferromagnetic behavior up to a Neel temperature TN = 258 K, and supposedly also exhibit ferroelectricity. However, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties have not been characterized thoroughly. This situation is mainly due to the difficulties encountered both in the ceramics sintering and the crystal growth of LaCrO3 due to its highly refractory character, which has also limited certain applications. In this work, single crystals of LaCrO3 have been successfully grown using a complex flux of Bi_2O3 and B_2O3 by slow cooling. Crystals thus obtained are transparent, green and of 0.75 x 0.5 x 0.1 mm size. Dielectric measurements carried out at various frequencies show an anomaly, pointing to a phase transition around TC = 350 ^oC. A large increase in dissipation factor (tan?) is observed just above the phase transition, which is attributed to an increase in conductivity. A partially saturated hysteresis loop is displayed, indicating the presence of ferroelectric behavior. Studies by Polarized Light Microscopy reveal the ferroelastic domain structures. Temperature dependence of domain structures and birefrengence shows the phase transition at TC around 350 ^oC accompanied by a significant change in domain structure, which is consistent with measurements. With its multi-ferroic properties confirmed, LaCrO3 could become a potentially magnetoelectric material.

  12. Low-temperature dielectric relaxation in ferroelectric pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    The dielectric behavior of polycrystalline pyridinium tetrafluoroborate, C5NH6BF4, has been investigated in detail at temperatures in the range of 120 K ? T ? 280 K and frequencies in the range of 10 Hz ? ? ? 105 Hz. The marked dielectric dispersion observed at temperatures below 205 K was analyzed by using the sum of two different relaxation processes. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time for the main one with dominant strength revealed an excellent fit to the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy E = 2702 ± 6 K and a pre-exponential factor ?0 = 2.2 × 10-11 s. The coupled reorienting motion of the pyridinium cation and the BF4 anion is suggested to account for the main process. The relaxation time for the other weak process also obeys the Arrhenius law with E = 815±14 K and ?0 = 7.9×10-5 s. The origin of the weak process is ascribed to the ferroelectric domain-wall motion.

  13. Phase Diagram of Modulated Structures in Ferroelectric Crystals Based on Quantum Ising Model with Third-Neighbor Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Incommensurate-commensurate phase transitions are analyzed using a model derived from the normal coordinate Hamiltonian for a crystal lattice. The Hamiltonian consists of a local self-potential and effective third-neighbor interactions. Free energies of various modulated phases are calculated with a mean-field approximation under the condition that two quantum states within the local potential are important at low temperature. It is demonstrated that the quantum effect works to stabilize the incommensurate phase rather than the commensurate phase. Even at zero temperature, the incommensurate phase can occupy a finite region in the phase diagram. This situation is similar to quantum paraelectricity in some ferroelectrics, and can be expected as a general feature of modulated structures of dielectric crystals. The phase diagram for ferroic first- and third-neighbor interactions but antiferroic second-neighbor interactions is constructed theoretically and is discussed in detail to explain qualitatively the low-temperature behavior of some ferroelectric crystals.

  14. Ferroelectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films grown on YBa2Cu3O7 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, K.; Hao, Z.; Xu, B.; Chen, B.; Miao, J.; Yang, H.; Zhao, B. R.

    2003-09-01

    Ferroelectric and superconductor bilayers of Ba1-xSrxTiO3(BST)/YBa2Cu3 O7 (YBCO) are grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates by magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. The BST thin films exhibit typical ferroelectric behavior in their hysteresis loops. Capacitance-voltage curves are measured. From the capacitance, a dielectric constant of 1250 is obtained. The current-voltage curve is fitted to investigate the mechanism of leakage. The Schottky barrier height at the Ag/BST interface is calculated to be 0.521 eV. The trapped level Et in BST is estimated to be 0.335 eV below the conduction-band edge. An energy band diagram of the Ag/BST/YBCO structure is proposed to explain the experimental results.

  15. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2010-03-15

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a 1.3 GHz ferroelectric tuner that could find application in the International Linear Collider or in Project X at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The tuner configuration utilizes a three-deck sandwich imbedded in a WR-650 waveguide, in which ferroelectric bars are clamped between conducting plates that allow the tuning bias voltage to be applied. Use of a reduced one-third structure allowed tests of critical parameters of the configuration, including phase shift, loss, and switching speed. Issues that were revealed that require improvement include reducing loss tangent in the ferroelectric material, development of a reliable means of brazing ferroelectric elements to copper parts of the tuner, and simplification of the mechanical design of the configuration.

  16. Modeling phonon-polariton generation and control in ferroelectric crystals

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we present simulations, using Finite Element Method (FEM), of phonon-polariton generation and coherent control in ferroelectric crystals LiNbO? and LiTaO? through nonlinear electro-optic interactions with ...

  17. Discovery of stable skyrmionic state in ferroelectric nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Y; Prokhorenko, S; Louis, L; Gui, Z; Kornev, I; Bellaiche, L

    2015-01-01

    Non-coplanar swirling field textures, or skyrmions, are now widely recognized as objects of both fundamental interest and technological relevance. So far, skyrmions were amply investigated in magnets, where due to the presence of chiral interactions, these topological objects were found to be intrinsically stabilized. Ferroelectrics on the other hand, lacking such chiral interactions, were somewhat left aside in this quest. Here we demonstrate, via the use of a first-principles-based framework, that skyrmionic configuration of polarization can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanocomposites. The interplay between the considered confined geometry and the dipolar interaction underlying the ferroelectric phase instability induces skyrmionic configurations. The topological structure of the obtained electrical skyrmion can be mapped onto the topology of domain-wall junctions. Furthermore, the stabilized electrical skyrmion can be as small as a few nanometers, thus revealing prospective skyrmion-based applications of ferroelectric nanocomposites. PMID:26436432

  18. Discovery of stable skyrmionic state in ferroelectric nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Louis, L.; Gui, Z.; Kornev, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-coplanar swirling field textures, or skyrmions, are now widely recognized as objects of both fundamental interest and technological relevance. So far, skyrmions were amply investigated in magnets, where due to the presence of chiral interactions, these topological objects were found to be intrinsically stabilized. Ferroelectrics on the other hand, lacking such chiral interactions, were somewhat left aside in this quest. Here we demonstrate, via the use of a first-principles-based framework, that skyrmionic configuration of polarization can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanocomposites. The interplay between the considered confined geometry and the dipolar interaction underlying the ferroelectric phase instability induces skyrmionic configurations. The topological structure of the obtained electrical skyrmion can be mapped onto the topology of domain-wall junctions. Furthermore, the stabilized electrical skyrmion can be as small as a few nanometers, thus revealing prospective skyrmion-based applications of ferroelectric nanocomposites. PMID:26436432

  19. Discovery of stable skyrmionic state in ferroelectric nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Louis, L.; Gui, Z.; Kornev, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2015-10-01

    Non-coplanar swirling field textures, or skyrmions, are now widely recognized as objects of both fundamental interest and technological relevance. So far, skyrmions were amply investigated in magnets, where due to the presence of chiral interactions, these topological objects were found to be intrinsically stabilized. Ferroelectrics on the other hand, lacking such chiral interactions, were somewhat left aside in this quest. Here we demonstrate, via the use of a first-principles-based framework, that skyrmionic configuration of polarization can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanocomposites. The interplay between the considered confined geometry and the dipolar interaction underlying the ferroelectric phase instability induces skyrmionic configurations. The topological structure of the obtained electrical skyrmion can be mapped onto the topology of domain-wall junctions. Furthermore, the stabilized electrical skyrmion can be as small as a few nanometers, thus revealing prospective skyrmion-based applications of ferroelectric nanocomposites.

  20. Emergence of room-temperature ferroelectricity at reduced dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Lu, H; Gu, Y; Choi, S-Y; Li, S-D; Ryu, S; Paudel, T R; Song, K; Mikheev, E; Lee, S; Stemmer, S; Tenne, D A; Oh, S H; Tsymbal, E Y; Wu, X; Chen, L-Q; Gruverman, A; Eom, C B

    2015-09-18

    The enhancement of the functional properties of materials at reduced dimensions is crucial for continuous advancements in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report that the scale reduction leads to the emergence of an important functional property, ferroelectricity, challenging the long-standing notion that ferroelectricity is inevitably suppressed at the scale of a few nanometers. A combination of theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, and structural analyses provides evidence of room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free epitaxial nanometer-thick films of otherwise nonferroelectric strontium titanate (SrTiO3). We show that electrically induced alignment of naturally existing polar nanoregions is responsible for the appearance of a stable net ferroelectric polarization in these films. This finding can be useful for the development of low-dimensional material systems with enhanced functional properties relevant to emerging nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26383947

  1. Processing and Properties of Strontium Bismuth Vanadate Niobate Ferroelectric Ceramics

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    Processing and Properties of Strontium Bismuth Vanadate Niobate Ferroelectric Ceramics Yun Wu, Chau, microstructure, and dielectric properties of strontium bismuth niobate vanadate ceramics, SrBi2(VxNb1 x)2O9 (SBVN

  2. Polarization Control of Electron Tunneling into Ferroelectric Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, R.; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly reproducible control of local electron transport through a ferroelectric oxide via its spontaneous polarization. Electrons are injected from the tip of an atomic force microscope into a thin film of lead-zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3, in the regime of electron tunneling assisted by a high electric field (Fowler-Nordheim tunneling). The tunneling current exhibits a pronounced hysteresis with abrupt switching events that coincide, within experimental resolution, with the local switching of ferroelectric polarization. The large spontaneous polarization of the PZT film results in up to 500-fold amplification of the tunneling current upon ferroelectric switching. The magnitude of the effect is subject to electrostatic control via ferroelectric switching, suggesting possible applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and spintronics.

  3. Effect of Ferroelectric Polarization on Ionic Transport and Resistance ...

    E-print Network

    2014-07-18

    ing concentration, depolarization current, dielectric layer thickness, grain size ... address the degrada- tion kinetics in relation to ferroelectric phase and the role of ..... electrodes on two sides at room temperature (25°C). The acceptor ..... tric-

  4. Emergence of room-temperature ferroelectricity at reduced dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lu, H.; Gu, Y.; Choi, S.-Y.; Li, S.-D.; Ryu, S.; Paudel, T. R.; Song, K.; Mikheev, E.; Lee, S.; Stemmer, S.; Tenne, D. A.; Oh, S. H.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Wu, X.; Chen, L.-Q.; Gruverman, A.; Eom, C. B.

    2015-09-01

    The enhancement of the functional properties of materials at reduced dimensions is crucial for continuous advancements in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report that the scale reduction leads to the emergence of an important functional property, ferroelectricity, challenging the long-standing notion that ferroelectricity is inevitably suppressed at the scale of a few nanometers. A combination of theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, and structural analyses provides evidence of room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free epitaxial nanometer-thick films of otherwise nonferroelectric strontium titanate (SrTiO3). We show that electrically induced alignment of naturally existing polar nanoregions is responsible for the appearance of a stable net ferroelectric polarization in these films. This finding can be useful for the development of low-dimensional material systems with enhanced functional properties relevant to emerging nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Tuning two-dimensional electron gas of ferroelectric/GaN heterostructures by ferroelectric polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Yang, Chuanren; Wu, Song; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Hongwei; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric/semiconductor heterostructures are very attractive for future multifunctional and novel electronic devices. This paper examines the potential of devices based on heterostructures made from PbTiO3 (PTO) ferroelectric and GaN semiconductor. Our calculations combined the first principle and charge control model, which can derive basic material parameters (include effective mass and band offset) and two dimensional electric gas (2DEG) characters, respectively. Results showed that 2DEG density in GaN induced from PTO could reach 4.6 × 1013 cm-2, which is three times higher than that of from 20 nm Al0.3Ga0.7N. In the 8 nm PTO/20 nm Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN structure, a positive polarization of 50 µC cm-2 could improve the 2DEG density to 1.9 × 1013 cm-2. Our theory predictions may provide some reference to the design of new electronic devices and promote experimental studies of ferroelectric/GaN heterostructures.

  6. The effect of interlayer interactions on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in multilayered thin films of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; You, H.; Ducharme, S.; Adenwalla, S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Nebraska

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between ferroelectric polymer films with different transition temperatures is evident in the effect of layer thickness on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in multilayer films, as revealed by x-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements. The multilayer samples consisted of alternating Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of two different copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene, one with 80% vinylidene fluoride and a ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature on heating of 133 {+-} 4 C and the other with 50% vinylidene fluoride and a transition temperature of 70 {+-} 4 C. Samples with a repeat period of 20 LB layers (10 contiguous layers of each composition) exhibited two distinct phase transitions, indicative of minimal interaction between the two materials. Films with a repeat period of 2, or films made from an equal mixture of the two copolymers, exhibited composite behavior, with an intermediate transition temperature and suppression of the transitions associated with the individual compositions. Films with a repeat period of 10 exhibit cross-over behavior. These results imply that the ferroelectric interaction length along the (110) direction, which is perpendicular to the film plane, is approximately 11 nm.

  7. Metastable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases and electric field induced irreversible phase transformation at room temperature in the lead-free classical ferroelectric BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; Khatua, Dipak Kumar; Loukya, B.; Datta, Ranjan; Fitch, Andy N.; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-03-01

    For decades it has been a well-known fact that among the few ferroelectric compounds in the perovskite family, namely, BaTiO3, KNbO3, PbTiO3, and Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3 , the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 are considerably higher than the others in polycrystalline form at room temperature. Further, similar to ferroelectric alloys exhibiting morphotropic phase boundary, single crystals of BaTiO3 exhibit anomalously large piezoelectric response when poled away from the direction of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. These anomalous features in BaTiO3 remained unexplained so far from the structural standpoint. In this work, we have used high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, atomic resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with a powder poling technique, to reveal that at 300 K (i) the equilibrium state of BaTiO3 is characterized by coexistence of metastable monoclinic Pm and orthorhombic (Amm2) phases along with the tetragonal phase, and (ii) strong electric field switches the polarization direction from the [001] direction towards the [101] direction. These results suggest that BaTiO3 at room temperature is within an instability regime, and that this instability is the fundamental factor responsible for the anomalous dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 as compared to the other homologous ferroelectric perovskite compounds at room temperature. Pure BaTiO3 at room temperature is therefore more akin to lead-based ferroelectric alloys close to the morphotropic phase boundary where polarization rotation and field induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transformations play a fundamental role in influencing the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior.

  8. Characterization Of Graphene-Ferroelectric Superlattice Hybrid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Du, Xu; Dawber, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials possess a spontaneous electrical polarization, which can be controlled by an electric field. A good interface between ferroelectric surface and graphene sheets can introduce a new generation of multifunctional devices, in which the ferroelectric material can be used to control the properties of graphene. In our approach, problems encountered in previous efforts to combine ferroelectric/carbon systems are overcome by the use of artificially layered superlattice materials grown in the form of epitaxial thin films. In these materials the phase transition temperature and dielectric response of the material can be tailored, allowing us to avoid polarization screening by surface absorbates, whilst maintaining an atomically smooth surface and optimal charge doping properties. Using ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices, we have shown ultra-low-voltage operation of graphene field effect devices within +/- 1 V at room temperature. The switching of the graphene field effect transistors is characterized by pronounced resistance hysteresis, suitable for ultra-fast non-volatile electronics. Low temperature characterization confirmed that the coercive field required for the ferroelectric domain switching increases significantly with decreasing temperatures. National Science Foundation (NSF) (grant number 1105202)

  9. Bridging to the Continuum Scale forBridging to the Continuum Scale for Ferroelectric ApplicationsFerroelectric Applications

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Characteristics of Ferroelectric Materials · Ceramic materials Cubic Perovskite When T phases ·Transition barriers ·Vibrational frequencies ·Normal modes Force Fields and MD ·Dielectric constant for various nanostructures ·Dielectric loss mechanism ·Domain wall and interface mobility

  10. Unusual electronic behavior in the polycrystalline metal organic framework [(CH3)2NH2][Na0.5Fe0.5(HCOO)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieradzki, Adam; Trzmiel, Justyna; Ptak, Maciej; M?czka, Miros?aw

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the dielectric properties of a polycrystalline metal organic framework [(CH3)2NH2][Na0.5Fe0.5(HCOO)3] (DMNaFe) sample were investigated. The DMNaFe sample exhibited a typical relaxor-like relaxation response in addition to a ferroelastic order-disorder phase transition. Analysis of the frequency dependence of the complex permittivity revealed the characteristic two-power-law dipolar glass relaxor behavior of the DMNaFe, indicating complex cluster formation in the material. Moreover, an unusual transformation associated with the ferroelastic phase transition from the generalized Mittag-Leffler relaxation pattern (low-temperature ordered phase) to the Havriliak-Negami one (high-temperature disordered phase) was detected. The relaxation data obtained for the investigated sample were interpreted based on the stochastic approach to relaxation processes.

  11. Mechanical switching of ferro-electric rubber

    E-print Network

    J. M. Adams; M. Warner

    2008-12-09

    At the A to C transition, smectic elastomers have recently been observed to undergo $\\sim$35% spontaneous shear strains. We first explicitly describe how strains of up to twice this value could be mechanically or electrically induced in Sm-$C$ elastomers by rotation of the director on a cone around the layer normal at various elastic costs depending on constraints. Secondly, for typical sample geometries, we give the various microstructures in Sm-$C$ akin to those seen in nematic elastomers under distortions with constraints. It is possible to give explicit results for the nature of the textures. Chiral Sm-$C$ elastomers are ferro-electric. We calculate how the polarization could be mechanically reversed by large, hard or soft strains of the rubber, depending upon sample geometry.

  12. Controlled stripes of ultrafine ferroelectric domains.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Ludwig; Yudin, Petr; Stolichnov, Igor; Sluka, Tomas; Shapovalov, Konstantin; Mtebwa, Mahamudu; Sandu, Cosmin S; Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of ferroic-based (nano)electronics, it is essential to minutely control domain patterns and domain switching. The ability to control domain width, orientation and position is a prerequisite for circuitry based on fine domains. Here, we develop the underlying theory towards growth of ultra-fine domain patterns, substantiate the theory by numerical modelling of practical situations and implement the gained understanding using the most widely applied ferroelectric, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, demonstrating controlled stripes of 10 nm wide domains that extend in one direction along tens of micrometres. The observed electrical conductivity along these thin domains embedded in the otherwise insulating film confirms their potential for electronic applications. PMID:25119149

  13. Controlled stripes of ultrafine ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Ludwig; Yudin, Petr; Stolichnov, Igor; Sluka, Tomas; Shapovalov, Konstantin; Mtebwa, Mahamudu; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2014-08-01

    In the pursuit of ferroic-based (nano)electronics, it is essential to minutely control domain patterns and domain switching. The ability to control domain width, orientation and position is a prerequisite for circuitry based on fine domains. Here, we develop the underlying theory towards growth of ultra-fine domain patterns, substantiate the theory by numerical modelling of practical situations and implement the gained understanding using the most widely applied ferroelectric, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, demonstrating controlled stripes of 10?nm wide domains that extend in one direction along tens of micrometres. The observed electrical conductivity along these thin domains embedded in the otherwise insulating film confirms their potential for electronic applications.

  14. Engineering polarization rotation in a ferroelectric superlattice.

    PubMed

    Sinsheimer, J; Callori, S J; Bein, B; Benkara, Y; Daley, J; Coraor, J; Su, D; Stephens, P W; Dawber, M

    2012-10-19

    A key property that drives research in ferroelectric perovskite oxides is their strong piezoelectric response in which an electric field is induced by an applied strain, and vice versa for the converse piezoelectric effect. We have achieved an experimental enhancement of the piezoelectric response and dielectric tunability in artificially layered epitaxial PbTiO(3)/CaTiO(3) superlattices through an engineered rotation of the polarization direction. As the relative layer thicknesses within the superlattice were changed from sample to sample we found evidence for polarization rotation in multiple x-ray diffraction measurements. Associated changes in functional properties were seen in electrical measurements and piezoforce microscopy. The results demonstrate a new approach to inducing polarization rotation under ambient conditions in an artificially layered thin film. PMID:23215129

  15. About the deformation of ferroelectric hystereses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, T.; Yurchuk, E.; Mueller, S.; Schroeder, U.; Starschich, S.; Böttger, U.; Mikolajick, T.

    2014-12-01

    Studying ferroelectric hafnium oxide with focus on memory applications for the past years, discussions frequently involved the shape of measured polarization hystereses, its relation to the device performance, and how to optimize it. A perfect model-like hysteresis is of nearly rectangular shape and all deviations from this situation have to have a certain physical origin. Different phenomena and their impact on the shape of the polarization hystereses were reported in literature: Aging, imprint, fatigue, or dielectric interface layers to name a few examples. A collection of these phenomena is not easily found up to now. Thus, filling or at least reducing this gap is one of the goals of this work. Moreover, observing a pinched, slanted, or displaced hysteresis, it is quite tempting to try the reverse approach: a derivation of potential structural origins for this curve shape. First, the basics of the dynamic hysteresis measurement and the ferroelectric memories are briefly reviewed. The figures of interest are derived to ensure a proper assessment of imperfections in the hysteresis shape and their influence. It is discussed how a closer look on the polarization loop helps to draw conclusions on what might have caused such a shape or at least how to rule out some phenomena if the expected indications are not reflected in the present curve. Of course, further structural or electrical studies, as they are exemplarily pointed out, are indispensable to find the root cause(s) for the deviations from the ideal hysteresis. But sophisticated methods are not always accessible straightaway and, moreover, a pointer on where to start is always helpful. Especially, the transient currents recorded during a dynamic hysteresis measurement are stressed as a valuable instrument for this purpose. Despite their known potential, these currents are seldom shown in literature.

  16. Influence of Ferroelectric Polarization on the Equilibrium Stoichiometry of Lithium Niobate (0001) Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    Influence of Ferroelectric Polarization on the Equilibrium Stoichiometry of Lithium Niobate (0001 the relative thermodynamic stability of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LiNbO3) (0001) surfaces of different

  17. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers Dan Daranciang,1,2,3

    E-print Network

    photovoltaic effects in ferroelectrics and muUltrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers Dan Daranciang,1,2,3 Matthew J direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x- ray scattering

  18. A phenomenological multi-axial constitutive law for switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics

    E-print Network

    field. In addition, the law successfully handles remanent polarization rotation due to the applicationA phenomenological multi-axial constitutive law for switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric; accepted 30 January 2002 Abstract A phenomenological constitutive law for ferroelectric switching due

  19. Ferroelectric thin films 6. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 493

    SciTech Connect

    Treece, R.E.; Jones, R.E.; Foster, C.M.; Desu, S.B.; Yoo, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    This new volume from MRS, the sixth in a series on ferroelectric thin films, presents a wide range of topics spanning basic academic research to applied integration issues. Fundamental materials studies, new growth methods, device and materials integration research, and developments in the design and growth of new materials, all involving epitaxial, polycrystalline and nanocrystalline ferroelectric thin films, are featured. In addition, since ULSI chip manufacturers are seriously considering incorporating ferroelectric DRAM technology into existing fabrication facilities, the industrial interest and resulting research is causing an explosion in ferroelectrics. To that end, the volume presents the latest technical information on ferroelectric thin films from academia, government organizations and industry as well. Topics include: high-permittivity DRAM materials; domains and size effects; barriers and electrodes; bilayered ferroelectrics; Pb-based ferroelectrics; microwave and optical devices; materials for piezoelectric MEMs; and novel ferroelectric devices.

  20. Electrically tunable near-field radiative heat transfer via ferroelectric materials

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yi

    We explore ways to actively control near-field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces that relies on electrical tuning of phonon modes of ferroelectric materials. Ferroelectrics are widely used for tunable electrical ...

  1. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband rejection, and constant bandwidth is designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The filters are fabricated using barium strontium titanate (BST) varactors. Electromagnetic simulations and measured results of the tunable two-pole ferroelectric filter are analyzed to explore the origins of high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters. The results indicate that the high-permittivity of the BST (a ferroelectric) not only makes the filters tunable and compact, but also increases the conductive loss of the ferroelectric-based tunable resonators which translates into high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters.

  2. 180° Ferroelectric Stripe Nanodomains in BiFeO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuhuang; Liu, Jian; Qi, Yajun; Chen, Deyang; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Damodaran, Anoop R; He, Xiaoqing; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Rockett, Angus; Martin, Lane W

    2015-10-14

    There is growing evidence that domain walls in ferroics can possess emergent properties that are absent in the bulk. For example, 180° ferroelectric domain walls in the ferroelectric-antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 are particularly interesting because they have been predicted to possess a range of intriguing behaviors, including electronic conduction and enhanced magnetization. To date, however, ordered arrays of such domain structures have not been reported. Here, we report the observation of 180° stripe nanodomains in (110)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films grown on orthorhombic GdScO3 (010)O substrates and their impact on exchange coupling to metallic ferromagnets. Nanoscale ferroelectric 180° stripe domains with {112?} domain walls were observed in films <32 nm thick. With increasing film thickness, we observed a domain structure crossover from the depolarization field-driven 180° stripe nanodomains to 71° ferroelastic domains determined by the elastic energy. These 180° domain walls (which are typically cylindrical or meandering in nature due to a lack of strong anisotropy associated with the energy of such walls) are found to be highly ordered. Additional studies of Co0.9Fe0.1/BiFeO3 heterostructures reveal exchange bias and exchange enhancement in heterostructures based on BiFeO3 with 180° domain walls and an absence of exchange bias in heterostructures based on BiFeO3 with 71° domain walls; suggesting that the 180° domain walls could be the possible source for pinned uncompensated spins that give rise to exchange bias. This is further confirmed by X-ray circular magnetic dichroism studies, which demonstrate that films with predominantly 180° domain walls have larger magnetization than those with primarily 71° domain walls. Our results could be useful to extract the structure of domain walls and to explore domain wall functionalities in BiFeO3. PMID:26317408

  3. Interplay of the strain and microstructure in ferroelectric epitaxial CaTiO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Liang, Qiao; Biegalski, Michael; Borisevich, Albina

    2014-03-01

    CaTiO3 (CTO) was predicted to become ferroelectric under lattice strain. However, other factors such as oxygen octahedral tilts or microstructural details can play a role. In this work, two 20 nm CTO films were grown on LSAT and NGO by PLD. They both show ferroelectricity, with Tc near 140 K on LSAT and near 70 K on NGO, and the remnant polarization at 10K of 5 and 2 ?C/cm, respectively. This is surprising given that the strain of CTO on both substrates is similar. AC-STEM shows two major differences in microstructure between two CTO films: Firstly, the first few nm of CTO on NGO show perfect epitaxial growth, and after that grains start to develop, but the c-axis of CTO remains aligned with the c-axis of NGO, suggesting the presence of 180° grain boundaries only. However for CTO/LSAT, grains begin to develop at the interface and their c-axes have two possible orientations, resulting in both 180° and 90° grain boundaries. These grain boundaries are either dislocations or ferroelastic twins. Secondly, the octahedral tilt behavior at the film/substrate interface is different: CTO/LSAT has a 5-6 unit cell transition region from the untilted LSAT to the tilted CTO, which is not the case in CTO/NGO. The connection between the microstructure, substrate strain and connections to the ferroelectric properties will be discussed in detail. Research at ORNL supported by the MSE Division, BES, U.S. DOE, and through a user project supported by ORNL's CNMS, which is also sponsored by BES, U.S. DOE.

  4. Effect of Zr4+ Content on the Grain Growth, Dielectric Relaxation Behavior, and Ferroelectric Properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6Ti1- x Zr x O3 Nano-Ceramics Prepared by Different Methods Assisted by Fast Microwave Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zixiong, Sun; Yongping, Pu; Yuwen, Liu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of Zr4+ content on the grain growth, dielectric relaxation, and piezoelectric properties of Ba0.4Sr0.6Ti1- x Zr x O3 (BSTZ; x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) ceramics prepared by solid-state (SS) and sol-gel modified hydrothermal (SH) methods assisted by fast microwave sintering was investigated in this study. A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), impedance analysis, and ferroelectric analysis was used. All the ceramics had pure perovskite structures at room temperature, as seen from XRD patterns, indicating that Zr4+ was incorporated into Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution. In the SEM micrographs, SH samples had higher densities and smaller and more homogeneous grain size than SS samples, which was in agreement with density measurements. Nano-ceramics were obtained by this method. When the temperature dependence of dielectric constant and dielectric loss was studied, SH samples had higher permittivity, better thermally activated relaxation, and lower dielectric loss at high temperature. Ferroelectric characteristics can still be detected in Ba0.4Sr0.6Ti1- x Zr x O3 ceramics and residual polarization ( P r) decreased with increasing Zr4+ content.

  5. Physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides DPMC, University of Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland

    E-print Network

    Wu, Zhigang

    Physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides M. Dawber* DPMC, University of Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4 of thin-film ferroelectric oxides, the strongest emphasis being on those aspects particular to ferroelectrics in thin-film form. The authors introduce the current state of development in the application

  6. Local Electromechanical Response at a Single Ferroelectric Domain Wall in Lithium Niobate

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Local Electromechanical Response at a Single Ferroelectric Domain Wall in Lithium Niobate DAVID A electromechanical response across a single ferroelectric domain wall in congruent lithium niobate at room in the crystal, which interact with the domain wall. I. INTRODUCTION FERROELECTRIC lithium niobate and lithium

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 134116 (2011) Theory of prospective perovskite ferroelectrics with double rocksalt order

    E-print Network

    Vanderbilt, David

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 134116 (2011) Theory of prospective perovskite ferroelectrics with double and ferroelectric states of double perovskites of the form AA BB O6 in which the atoms on both the A and B sites of electric fields, magnetic fields, or strain. Ferroelectric perovskites constitute a subset of these inter

  8. Polycrystalline ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide articles on biaxially textured substrates and methods for making same

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2015-03-31

    A polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface; at least one biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the substrate; and a biaxially textured ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide layer supported by the buffer layer. Methods for making polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide articles are also disclosed.

  9. 2004 IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 50th Anniversary Joint Conference

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jian-yu

    2004 IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 50th Anniversary Joint administrative committee and a journal. Even so the conferences for Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency are interested in Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics or Frequency Control you will find this to be an exciting

  10. Ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of BaTi1-xAlxO3, 0 ? x ? 0.015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmed I.; Hassen, A.; Khang, Nguyen Cao; Kim, Y. S.

    2015-09-01

    Single phase polycrystalline samples of BaTi1-xAlxO3, 0 ? x ? 0.015, have been prepared by a conventional powder processing method. The Rietveld refinements of X- ray powder diffraction patterns at room temperature indicate that the samples crystallize in tetragonal structure with group symmetry P4mm. Because of the oxygen vacancies, the volume of the unit cell increases with increasing x. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the particle size of pure BTO ceramics was affected by the Al content. Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of pure BTO as well as Al-doped BTO were studied. It was found that the dielectric permittivity (?') increases significantly with increasing x while the transition from ferroelectric phase to a paraelectric phase changes slightly. The Curie-Weiss law is verified over a wide temperature range. Both ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BTO are enhanced by the substitution of Ti4+ by Al3+ ions. Piezoelectric strains of Al-doped BTO showed a suitable behavior for application compared with that of pure BTO compound. Finally, the results obtained in this work are discussed and compared with those for similar materials.

  11. Ferroelectric, magnetic and structural studies of the Bi4LaSmFe2Ti3O18 multiferroic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón-Suesca, C. E.; Cardona-Vásquez, J. A.; Salcedo-Fontecha, J. P.; Vargas-Jiménez, A.; Landínez-Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2014-12-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the new Bi4LaSmFe2Ti3O18 ferroelectric ceramic. X-ray characterization reveals reflections for layered perovskite Aurivillius system. Rietveld analyses of the powder pattern shows that Bi4LaSmFe2Ti3O18 crystallizes in orthorhombic structure, which corresponds to the space group F2/mm (#42), with lattice parameters a=5.4240(16) ?, b=5.4078(23) ? and c=50.2440(12) ?. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of dense material with plate-like morphology. Electric polarization curves were measured by means of a radiant ferroelectric tester, at room temperature in bulk samples and exhibit an intrinsic ferroelectric response, even at low applied fields. Measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature after Zero field cooling and field cooling were carried out by using a MPMS Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. We found an effective magnetic moment of 7.95 ?B, which is 95.8% in agreement with the expected value calculated from Hund's rules. Magnetization curves as the function of applied fields reveal an incipient hysteretic behavior at room temperature.

  12. Dielectric characterization of (1-x)PMN-xPT (x = 0.07 and 0.10) ceramics synthesized by an ethylene glycol-based soft chemical route.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Hamel N; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2011-09-01

    Materials based on relaxor ferroelectrics have become one of the most important families of functional materials being explored for such applications as sensors/actuators, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), non-volatile random access memories, and high-energy-density capacitors. Fabrication of high-quality relaxor-based ceramics remains, however, a challenging task. In this work, a new soft chemical synthetic method for the preparation of the complex perovskite-based relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions, (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) was developed using ethylene glycol as the solvent. Ceramics with compositions of x = 0.07 and 0.10 were prepared and it was found that a 10% stoichiometric excess of Pb(2+) was required to compensate for lead oxide volatility at the high temperatures used for sintering. The ceramics produced by this method show excellent dielectric properties at room temperature, such as a high dielectric constant (~20 000) and low loss over a large temperatures range (tan ? < 0.01 between 20 and 200°C). The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant exhibits typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior, fitting a quadratic law which describes the high-temperature slope of ?'(T) peak. The frequency dispersion of the temperature of maximum permittivity satisfies the Vogel-Fulcher law. PMID:21937326

  13. Development of Si monolithic (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin film ferroelectric microbolometers for uncooled chopperless infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huaping; Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Mukaigawa, Tomonori; Zhu, Hong; Kubo, Ryuichi; Usuki, Tatsuro; Kishihara, Hiroyoki; Noda, Minoru; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Okuyama, Masanori

    2000-12-01

    We have been developing a total monolithic microbolometer technology for uncooled thermal sensing along the route from fabricating pixels of thin-film ferroelectric bolometers on micromachined Si substrates. Toward achieving this objective, sensor material of (Ba0.75Sr0.25)TiO3 (BST) has been prepared into thin-film form and been investigated to obtain a large temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (TCD) within the ambient temperature region. Operated in our proposed dynamic pulse-biased mode, the infrared responsivity (Rv) of sensor pixels is analyzed to reflect how those materials properties of BST film dominate the ultimate array performances. This new ferroelectric bolometer is expected to provide value-added merits of chopperless operation and high sensitivity enhanced by pulsed bias. In this paper, pixels of C-C balanced BST thin-film microbolometers have been fabricated by integrating Si-bulk micromachining and ferroelectric thin-film processing. Both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic decomposition (MOD) methods have been employed in preparing BST films on those micromachined silicon substrates. Both the films show similar insufficient bolometric behavior with TCD-values smaller than 1%/K. Under pulsed bias, chopperless operation of pixels of so- fabricated microbolometers was confirmed. PLD enabled low- temperature preparation of high-quality films at 520 degree(s)C, so renders it for cutting-edge investigations to attain the TCD-value that demonstrated in BST ceramic plate by preparing large-grained, stress-free, micrometers -thick films. Meanwhile, MOD provides us those advantages of low-cost, large-area deposition and good uniformity compared to PLD method, films with TCD-value about -0.3%/K have been developed by MOD and are being geared to fabricate arrays. Finally, the future direction towards prototyping ferroelectric arrays was formulated based on the practical view of our development expeditions.

  14. Peculiar ordering in flat ferroelectric nanoparticles driven by lattice misfit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Ivan; Bratkovsky, Alex

    2008-03-01

    Flat free-standing ferroelectric (FE) nanopartilcles tend to have a vortex-like polarization ordering with the in-plane polarization that curls around an out-of-plane vortex core axis. The question is, if such a structure is still a ground state in presence of noticeable misfit strains induced by a substrate, and whether the 180^o stripe domains may form, similarly to the case of ultra thin FE films? Here we perform an ab initio based study of disk- shaped Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles that have the vortex ground state when no stress is applied. Our study leads to the following findings for the disks having circular and square footprint: (i) under strong enough compressive strains the curling state is no longer stable and yields to a multi-domain structure with an out-of-plane polarization, and different possible in-plane domains: triangle, stripe-like, or ``bubble'' in shape, (ii) each separate domain, regardless of its shape, runs through the entire thickness of a disk, and (iii) the 180^o stripes occur only under special conditions depending on the shape and chemical composition of the nanostructures. Further, we discovered that starting with the vortex state and then increasing the compressive strains may lead to a metastable bi- or multi-domain phase different from the ground state obtained by gradual cooling at a fixed strain. This leads to a novel hysteretic behavior as a function of the misfit strain.

  15. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Sr4CaSmTi3Nb7O30 with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Gao-Shang; Fang, Yu-Jiao; Huang, Shuai; Yin, Chong-Yang; Yuan, Song-Liu; Wang, Li-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Sr4CaSmTi3Nb7O30 ceramics are synthesized and indexed as tetragonal tungsten bronze structure. The dielectric behavior and ferroelectric nature are investigated. Three dielectric anomalies are observed. The phase transition is a displacive phase transition with some diffusive characteristics, which indicates possible compositional variations within the materials on the microscopic scale. The weak distortion disappears in cooling process for differential scanning calorimetry measurement, and the large depression of Curie—Weiss temperature T0 indicates the difficulty in forming macroferroelectric domain. The ferroelectric nature in these filled tungsten bronze niobates originates from the off-center displacement of B-site cations, but they are primarily dominated by A-site cation occupation. Both the radius and the valence of A1-site cations play an important role on ferroelectric properties of the filled tungsten bronze compounds. Existence of spontaneous polarization with a remanent polarization of 0.16 ?C/cm2 a coercive field of Ec = 11.74 kV/cm confirms the room-temperature ferroelectric nature of Sr4CaSmTi3Nb7O30 ceramics.

  16. Domain- and symmetry-transition origins of reduced nanosecond piezoelectricity in ferroelectric/dielectric superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pice; Jo, Ji Young; Lee, Ho Nyung; Dufresne, Eric M.; Nakhmanson, Serge; Evans, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Complex-oxide superlattices (SLs) with atomic-scale periodicity have dynamical properties that are distinct from thin films of uniform composition. The origins of these properties are closely related to the dynamics of polarization domains and to field-driven changes in the symmetries resulting from interfacial coupling between different components. These dynamics are apparent at timescales from a few nanoseconds to several milliseconds in experiments probing the piezoelectricity of a ferroelectric/dielectric BaTiO{sub 3}(BTO)/CaTiO{sub 3} (CTO) SL using time-resolved x-ray microdiffraction. At the 100 ns timescale, the piezoelectric distortion is approximately ten times smaller than in the millisecond regime. This reduced piezoelectricity at short timescales is not observed in previously studied PbTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} SLs or compositionally uniform ferroelectrics such as tetragonal compositions of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}. The unusual behavior of the BTO/CTO SL can be linked to the switching of a nanodomain state into a uniform polarization state or to a field-induced crystallographic symmetry transition. A comparison of the results with the characteristic timescales of these two dynamical phenomena in other complex oxides with different compositions suggests that the phase transition is a more likely possibility.

  17. Strain-controlled optical absorption in epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Chernova, E.; Pacherova, O.; Chvostova, D.; Dejneka, A.; Kocourek, T.; Jelinek, M.; Tyunina, M.

    2015-05-11

    A lattice strain of 0.3%–1.3% is achieved in epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} films grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystal substrates. Our experimental studies of absorption spectra in the range of 0.74–9.0?eV demonstrate that epitaxy produces significant changes in the optical properties of the films compared with those of a reference polydomain BaTiO{sub 3} crystal: the absorption edge and the peak at 5?eV strongly blue-shift by 0.2–0.4?eV, the magnitude of the peak at 5?eV drops, and certain spectral features disappear, whereas the absorption peak at 8.5?eV remains unchanged. The observed behavior is attributed to ferroelectric polarization, which is enhanced by epitaxial strain in the films. Our results indicate that epitaxially induced variations of ferroelectric polarization may be used to tailor the optical properties of thin films for photonic and optoelectronic applications.

  18. Emergence of Hysteresis and Transient Ferroelectric Response in Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been rapid progress in the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells, hysteresis in the current-voltage performance is not yet completely understood. Owing to its complex structure, it is not easy to attribute the hysteretic behavior to any one of different components, such as the bulk of the perovskite or different heterojunction interfaces. Among organo-lead halide perovskites, methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) is known to have a ferroelectric property. The present investigation reveals a strong correlation between transient ferroelectric polarization of CH3NH3PbI3 induced by an external bias in the dark and hysteresis enhancement in photovoltaic characteristics. Our results demonstrate that the reverse bias poling (-0.3 to -1.1 V) of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic layers prior to the photocurrent-voltage measurement generates stronger hysteresis whose extent changes significantly by the cell architecture. The phenomenon is interpreted as the effect of remanent polarization in the perovskite film on the photocurrent, which is most enhanced in planar perovskite structures without mesoporous scaffolds. PMID:26263106

  19. Hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations coexistent in nano-metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring materials to obtain unique, or significantly enhanced material properties through rationally designed structures rather than chemical constituents is principle of metamaterial concept, which leads to the realization of remarkable optical and mechanical properties. Inspired by the recent progress in electromagnetic and mechanical metamaterials, here we introduce the concept of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and demonstrate through an experiment in silico with hierarchical nanostructures of ferroelectrics using sophisticated real-space phase-field techniques. This new concept enables variety of unusual and complex yet controllable domain patterns to be achieved, where the coexistence between hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations establishes a new benchmark for exploration of complexity in spontaneous polarization ordering. The concept opens a novel route to effectively tailor domain configurations through the control of internal structure, facilitating access to stabilization and control of complex domain patterns that provide high potential for novel functionalities. A key design parameter to achieve such complex patterns is explored based on the parity of junctions that connect constituent nanostructures. We further highlight the variety of additional functionalities that are potentially obtained from ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and provide promising perspectives for novel multifunctional devices. This study proposes an entirely new discipline of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, further driving advances in metamaterials research. PMID:26424484

  20. Theory of Polyvinylidene Fluoride and its Ferroelectric Random Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renshi

    1991-02-01

    In this thesis a structural analysis of polyvinylidene fluoride is presented by calculation of the intrachain and interchain interactions. The compactness of chain packing and the condition of commensurability are included in the discussion to show how interchain energy acts to make the alpha phase the stable structure. The possibility of the existence and formation of a 3 _{1} helix under special conditions is discussed. A general formalism that uses functionals of the torsional angle distribution for the free energy is described. This general formalism is then applied to a simple three-state model of random copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene. Because both vinylidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene monomers are tacticity -symmetric, we make the further approximation of allowing the gauche^' bond to be degenerate with the gauche bond. We successfully find a first-order ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition in polyvinylidene fluoride and also find that the ferroelectric phase in copolymers with tetrafluoroethylene is preserved at high temperatures. The nearly-all-trans phase of pure polytetrafluoroethylene does not change phase even at high temperatures. All these findings are in agreement with experiment. A drawback of this model is that it contains only one order parameter. As a result, we cannot predict at the same time both a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition and the melting transition, which both exist in the random copolymers. We examine the role of the intrachain Coulomb interactions in the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases, and propose that copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with ethylene should be ferroelectric.

  1. More ferroelectrics discovered by switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Tan, Chi; Zhou, Xilong; Wei, Xiaoyong; Li, Faxin

    2014-10-01

    The local hysteresis loop obtained by switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM) is usually regarded as a typical signature of ferroelectric switching. However, such hysteresis loops were also observed in a broad variety of non-ferroelectric materials in the past few years, which casts doubts on the viewpoint that the local hysteresis loops in SS-PFM originate from ferroelectricity. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the mechanism of local hysteresis loops obtained in SS-PFM testing. Here we proposed that non-ferroelectric materials can also exhibit amplitude butterfly loops and phase hysteresis loops in SS-PFM testing, due to the Maxwell force as long as the material can show macroscopic D\\text-E hysteresis loops under cyclic electric field loading, no matter what the inherent physical mechanism is. To verify our viewpoint, both the macroscopic D\\text-E and microscopic SS-PFM testing are conducted on a soda-lime glass and a non-ferroelectric dielectric material \\text{Ba}0.4\\text{Sr}0.6\\text{TiO}3 . Results show that both materials can exhibit D\\text-E hysteresis loops and SS-PFM phase hysteresis loops, which can well support our viewpoint.

  2. The direct magnetoelectric effect in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic epitaxial heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Fina, I; Dix, N; Rebled, J M; Gemeiner, P; Martí, X; Peiró, F; Dkhil, B; Sánchez, F; Fàbrega, L; Fontcuberta, J

    2013-09-01

    Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a ferroelectric thin film is modified by a magnetic field. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) oxide thin films have been used to create epitaxial FE/FM and FM/FE heterostructures on SrTiO3(001) substrates buffered with metallic SrRuO3. It will be shown that large ferroelectric polarization and DME can be obtained by appropriate selection of the stacking order of the FE and FM films and their relative thicknesses. The dielectric permittivity, at the structural transitions of BTO, is strongly modified (up to 36%) when measurements are performed under a magnetic field. Due to the insulating nature of the ferromagnetic layer and the concomitant absence of the electric-field effect, the observed DME effect solely results from the magnetostrictive response of CFO elastically coupled to the BTO layer. These findings show that appropriate architecture and materials selection allow overcoming substrate-induced clamping in multiferroic multi-layered films. PMID:23872985

  3. Hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations coexistent in nano-metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    Tailoring materials to obtain unique, or significantly enhanced material properties through rationally designed structures rather than chemical constituents is principle of metamaterial concept, which leads to the realization of remarkable optical and mechanical properties. Inspired by the recent progress in electromagnetic and mechanical metamaterials, here we introduce the concept of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and demonstrate through an experiment in silico with hierarchical nanostructures of ferroelectrics using sophisticated real-space phase-field techniques. This new concept enables variety of unusual and complex yet controllable domain patterns to be achieved, where the coexistence between hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations establishes a new benchmark for exploration of complexity in spontaneous polarization ordering. The concept opens a novel route to effectively tailor domain configurations through the control of internal structure, facilitating access to stabilization and control of complex domain patterns that provide high potential for novel functionalities. A key design parameter to achieve such complex patterns is explored based on the parity of junctions that connect constituent nanostructures. We further highlight the variety of additional functionalities that are potentially obtained from ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and provide promising perspectives for novel multifunctional devices. This study proposes an entirely new discipline of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, further driving advances in metamaterials research.

  4. Anharmonic lattice interactions in improper ferroelectrics for multiferroic design.

    PubMed

    Young, Joshua; Stroppa, Alessandro; Picozzi, Silvia; Rondinelli, James M

    2015-07-22

    The design and discovery of new multiferroics, or materials that display both ferroelectricity and long-range magnetic order, is of fundamental importance for new electronic technologies based on low-power consumption. Far too often, however, the mechanisms causing these properties to arise are incompatible or occur at ordering temperatures below room temperature. One design strategy which has gained considerable interest is to begin with a magnetic material, and find novel ways to induce a spontaneous electric polarization within the structure. To this end, anharmonic interactions coupling multiple lattice modes have been used to lift inversion symmetry in magnetic dielectrics. Here we provide an overview of the microscopic mechanisms by which various types of cooperative atomic displacements result in ferroelectricity through anharmonic multi-mode coupling, as well as the types of materials most conducive to these lattice instabilities. The review includes a description of the origins of the displacive modes, a classification of possible non-polar lattice modes, as well as how their coupling can produce spontaneous polarizations. We then survey the recent improper ferroelectric literature, and describe how the materials discussed fall within a proposed classification scheme, offering new directions for the theoretical design of magnetic ferroelectrics. Finally, we offer prospects for the future discovery of new magnetic improper ferroelectrics, as well as detail remaining challenges and open questions facing this exciting new field. PMID:26125654

  5. Anharmonic lattice interactions in improper ferroelectrics for multiferroic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Joshua; Stroppa, Alessandro; Picozzi, Silvia; Rondinelli, James M.

    2015-07-01

    The design and discovery of new multiferroics, or materials that display both ferroelectricity and long-range magnetic order, is of fundamental importance for new electronic technologies based on low-power consumption. Far too often, however, the mechanisms causing these properties to arise are incompatible or occur at ordering temperatures below room temperature. One design strategy which has gained considerable interest is to begin with a magnetic material, and find novel ways to induce a spontaneous electric polarization within the structure. To this end, anharmonic interactions coupling multiple lattice modes have been used to lift inversion symmetry in magnetic dielectrics. Here we provide an overview of the microscopic mechanisms by which various types of cooperative atomic displacements result in ferroelectricity through anharmonic multi-mode coupling, as well as the types of materials most conducive to these lattice instabilities. The review includes a description of the origins of the displacive modes, a classification of possible non-polar lattice modes, as well as how their coupling can produce spontaneous polarizations. We then survey the recent improper ferroelectric literature, and describe how the materials discussed fall within a proposed classification scheme, offering new directions for the theoretical design of magnetic ferroelectrics. Finally, we offer prospects for the future discovery of new magnetic improper ferroelectrics, as well as detail remaining challenges and open questions facing this exciting new field.

  6. Hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations coexistent in nano-metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring materials to obtain unique, or significantly enhanced material properties through rationally designed structures rather than chemical constituents is principle of metamaterial concept, which leads to the realization of remarkable optical and mechanical properties. Inspired by the recent progress in electromagnetic and mechanical metamaterials, here we introduce the concept of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and demonstrate through an experiment in silico with hierarchical nanostructures of ferroelectrics using sophisticated real-space phase-field techniques. This new concept enables variety of unusual and complex yet controllable domain patterns to be achieved, where the coexistence between hierarchical ferroelectric and ferrotoroidic polarizations establishes a new benchmark for exploration of complexity in spontaneous polarization ordering. The concept opens a novel route to effectively tailor domain configurations through the control of internal structure, facilitating access to stabilization and control of complex domain patterns that provide high potential for novel functionalities. A key design parameter to achieve such complex patterns is explored based on the parity of junctions that connect constituent nanostructures. We further highlight the variety of additional functionalities that are potentially obtained from ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, and provide promising perspectives for novel multifunctional devices. This study proposes an entirely new discipline of ferroelectric nano-metamaterials, further driving advances in metamaterials research. PMID:26424484

  7. Giant electrode effect on tunnelling electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Soni, Rohit; Petraru, Adrian; Meuffels, Paul; Vavra, Ondrej; Ziegler, Martin; Kim, Seong Keun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Pertsev, Nikolay A; Kohlstedt, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Among recently discovered ferroelectricity-related phenomena, the tunnelling electroresistance (TER) effect in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) has been attracting rapidly increasing attention owing to the emerging possibilities of non-volatile memory, logic and neuromorphic computing applications of these quantum nanostructures. Despite recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies of FTJs, many questions concerning their electrical behaviour still remain open. In particular, the role of ferroelectric/electrode interfaces and the separation of the ferroelectric-driven TER effect from electrochemical ('redox'-based) resistance-switching effects have to be clarified. Here we report the results of a comprehensive study of epitaxial junctions comprising BaTiO(3) barrier, La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) bottom electrode and Au or Cu top electrodes. Our results demonstrate a giant electrode effect on the TER of these asymmetric FTJs. The revealed phenomena are attributed to the microscopic interfacial effect of ferroelectric origin, which is supported by the observation of redox-based resistance switching at much higher voltages. PMID:25399545

  8. Polarization switching dynamics by inhomogeneous field mechanism in ferroelectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütrumpf, J.; Zhukov, S.; Genenko, Y. A.; von Seggern, H.

    2012-04-01

    The understanding of polarization switching dynamics of ferroelectrics is of great importance for practical applications and has been steadily advanced for ferroelectric ceramics and polymers for more than half a century. The temporal behaviour of polarization reversal in ferroelectric copolymers such as P(VDF-TrFE) cannot be satisfactorily explained by simple models such as the classical Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi nucleation and growth theory. In this paper the inhomogeneous field mechanism (IFM) model recently proposed for PZT ceramics has been applied to polymer ferroelectrics for the first time. The model is based on the assumption that the switching volume is divided into many spatial regions with independent dynamics, only determined by the local electric field. The local field values are randomly distributed over the ensemble of regions due to intrinsic inhomogeneities of the material. Therefore an inhomogeneous switching behaviour is induced by the varying local fields of each region. The statistical distribution of local field values can be directly extracted from the experimental data. The model satisfactorily describes virgin P(VDF-TrFE) samples over a broad time-field domain covering eight orders of magnitude of poling time and electric field values from 30-150 kV mm-1. In the same way we can conclude that the IFM model is adaptive to both ferroelectric ceramics and semi-crystalline polymers.

  9. Residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film tunable dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, L. M. Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Lam, P.; Harris, D.; Maria, J.-P.

    2014-07-28

    Loss reduction is critical to develop Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} thin film tunable microwave dielectric components and dielectric energy storage devices. The presence of ferroelectricity, and hence the domain wall contributions to dielectric loss, will degrade the tunable performance in the microwave region. In this work, residual ferroelectricity—a persistent ferroelectric response above the global phase transition temperature—was characterized in tunable dielectrics using Rayleigh analysis. Chemical solution deposited Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} films, with relative tunabilities of 86% over 250?kV/cm at 100?kHz, demonstrated residual ferroelectricity 65?°C above the ostensible paraelectric transition temperature. Frequency dispersion observed in the dielectric temperature response was consistent with the presence of nanopolar regions as one source of residual ferroelectricity. The application of AC electric field for the Rayleigh analysis of these samples led to a doubling of the dielectric loss for fields over 10?kV/cm at room temperature.

  10. Residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film tunable dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, L. M.; Lam, P.; Harris, D.; Maria, J.-P.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-07-01

    Loss reduction is critical to develop Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin film tunable microwave dielectric components and dielectric energy storage devices. The presence of ferroelectricity, and hence the domain wall contributions to dielectric loss, will degrade the tunable performance in the microwave region. In this work, residual ferroelectricity—a persistent ferroelectric response above the global phase transition temperature—was characterized in tunable dielectrics using Rayleigh analysis. Chemical solution deposited Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 films, with relative tunabilities of 86% over 250 kV/cm at 100 kHz, demonstrated residual ferroelectricity 65 °C above the ostensible paraelectric transition temperature. Frequency dispersion observed in the dielectric temperature response was consistent with the presence of nanopolar regions as one source of residual ferroelectricity. The application of AC electric field for the Rayleigh analysis of these samples led to a doubling of the dielectric loss for fields over 10 kV/cm at room temperature.

  11. The origin of magnetism in perovskite ferroelectric ABO3 nanoparticles (A = K,Li; B = Ta,Nb or A = Ba,Sr,Pb; B = Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahoosh, S. G.; Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Using spin Hamiltonian models and Green's function techniques, we study the ferroic order parameters of ferroelectric nanoparticles, and show how multiferroic behavior can be achieved in such systems. We present a theoretical study suggesting that unexpected ferromagnetic properties of perovskite ferroelectric ABO3 nanoparticles (A = K, Li; B = Ta, Nb or A = Ba, Sr, Pb; B = Ti) observed recently at room temperatures can be explained by considering oxygen vacancies at the surface of the nanocrystalline materials. Such vacancies lead to the appearance of Ta4+ and/or Ta3+ (Ti3+ and/or Ti2+) ions at the surface with nonzero net spin. The resulting different valence compared to the Ta5+ (or Ti4+) with S = 0 in the bulk offers a nonzero magnetization which increases with decreasing particle size. The system shows a multiferroic behavior below a critical size of the nanoparticles and the related polarization tends to a saturation value when the particle size is enhanced.

  12. Ferroelectrics, 469:113, 2014 Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    E-print Network

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    a stronger piezoelec- tric effect, high permittivity over a broad temperature range, unique dielectric) is widely used despite the fact that relaxors show about four to ten times larger the d33 coefficients. This is due to loss of piezoelectric performance below unsuitably low Curie temperature and low co- ercive

  13. Ferroelectricity in molecular solids: a review of electrodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomi?, S.; Dressel, M.

    2015-09-01

    In conventional ferroelectrics the polarization is induced either by the relative displacement of positive and negative ions due to a lattice distortion or by the collective alignment of permanent electric dipoles. Strongly correlated materials with the inversion-symmetry-broken ground states feature electronic ferroelectricity, a phenomenon which has recently caught the attention of condensed matter physicists due to its great fundamental and technological importance. The discovery of electronic ferroelectricity in one and two-dimensional molecular solids is an exciting development because they show a rich variety of nonlinear properties and complex electrodynamics, including nontrivial emergent excitations. We summarize key experimental results, sketch the current theoretical understanding and outline promising prospects of this phenomenon which have great potential for future electronic devices.

  14. Development of a Ferroelectric Based Tunable DLA Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Jing, C.; Nenasheva, E.; Power, J. G.; Gai, W.

    2009-01-22

    An experimental demonstration of a tunable Dielectric Loaded Accelerating (DLA)[1] structure is planned using a nonlinear ferroelectric with temperature- or voltage-controllable permittivity. We designed and tested two prototype Ka-band double layer ferroelectric-ceramic structures (cylindrical and planar) consisting of linear ceramic layers (dielectric constant of 6.8) and BST(M) composite ferroelectric layers of 400-800 {mu}m thickness and dielectric constant of 450-550. The frequency shift by temperature variation of the cylindrical Ka-band tunable DLA of 14 MHz/ deg. K has been demonstrated leading to an overall DLA structure frequency tuning range of 140-280 MHz with 10-20 deg. K temperature variation. The Ka band prototype DLA structure demonstrated a 6 MHz frequency tuning range for a dc bias field design at 25 kV/cm field strength.

  15. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    SciTech Connect

    Palto, S. P. Draginda, Yu. A.

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  16. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sirena, M.; Kaul, E.; Guimpel, J.; Steren, L. B.; Pedreros, M. B.; Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-06-15

    The La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (BSTO) superlattices and bilayers, where LSMO is ferromagnetic and BSTO is ferroelectric, were grown by dc sputtering. X-ray diffraction indicates that the samples present a textured growth with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Magnetization measurements show a decrease of the sample's magnetization for decreasing ferromagnetic thickness. This effect could be related to the presence of biaxial strain and a magnetic dead layer in the samples. Conductive atomic force microscopy indicates that the samples present a total covering of the ferromagnetic layer for a ferroelectric thickness higher than four unit cells. Transport tunneling of the carriers seems to be the preferred conduction mechanism through the ferroelectric layer. These are promising results for the development of multiferroic tunnel junctions.

  17. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashok Shukla, A. K.; Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Shannigrahi, Santiranjan; Scott, J. F.

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7?nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30?nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7?nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5?nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7?nm polar capping.

  18. Molecular Designs for Enhancement of Polarity in Ferroelectric Soft Materials.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Ryo; Nakaya, Manabu; Ohmagari, Hitomi; Nakamura, Masaaki; Ohta, Kazuchika; Lindoy, Leonard F; Hayami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The racemic oxovanadium(IV) salmmen complexes, [VO((rac)-(4-X-salmmen))] (X?=?C12C10C5 (1), C16 (2), and C18 (3); salmmen?=?N,N'-monomethylenebis-salicylideneimine) with "banana shaped" molecular structures were synthesized, and their ferroelectric properties were investigated. These complexes exhibit well-defined hysteresis loops in their viscous phases, moreover, 1 also displays liquid crystal behaviour. We observed a synergetic effect influenced by three structural aspects; the methyl substituents on the ethylene backbone, the banana shaped structure and the square pyramidal metal cores all play an important role in generating the observed ferroelectricity, pointing the way to a useful strategy for the creation of advanced ferroelectric soft materials. PMID:26568045

  19. Negative-pressure-induced enhancement in a freestanding ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Wylie-van Eerd, Ben; Sluka, Tomas; Sandu, Cosmin; Cantoni, Marco; Wei, Xian-Kui; Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo John; Gemeiner, Pascale; Dkhil, Brahim; Tagantsev, Alexander; Trodahl, Joe; Setter, Nava

    2015-10-01

    Ferroelectrics are widespread in technology, being used in electronics and communications, medical diagnostics and industrial automation. However, extension of their operational temperature range and useful properties is desired. Recent developments have exploited ultrathin epitaxial films on lattice-mismatched substrates, imposing tensile or compressive biaxial strain, to enhance ferroelectric properties. Much larger hydrostatic compression can be achieved by diamond anvil cells, but hydrostatic tensile stress is regarded as unachievable. Theory and ab initio treatments predict enhanced properties for perovskite ferroelectrics under hydrostatic tensile stress. Here we report negative-pressure-driven enhancement of the tetragonality, Curie temperature and spontaneous polarization in freestanding PbTiO3 nanowires, driven by stress that develops during transformation of the material from a lower-density crystal structure to the perovskite phase. This study suggests a simple route to obtain negative pressure in other materials, potentially extending their exploitable properties beyond their present levels.

  20. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-03-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.