Science.gov

Sample records for relaxor ferroelectric behavior

  1. Electromechanical behavior of relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tieqi

    Relaxor ferroelectric PZN-xPT and PMN-xPT single crystals exhibit extraordinary electromechanical properties. They are under development for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. The polarization switching and phase transition behavior of PZN-4.5%PT and PMN-32%PT single crystals under external loading has been investigated. Experimental investigation elucidates the polarization switching and phase transition behavior of relaxor ferroelectric crystals at different orientation cuts under combined temperature, electric field and stress loading. These crystals exhibit strong orientation dependence of electromechanical properties, and the applied fields all affect the poling and phase states of the crystals. Based on experimental investigation, crystal variant modeling was developed to compute the piezoelectric properties of multi-domain crystals at different orientation cuts from a set of properties for the single domain. Thermodynamics and work-energy analysis of field induced phase transitions in these single crystals sheds light on the phase transition mechanism of ferroelectric crystals. Fracture behavior of relaxor single crystals under non-uniform electric fields at a partial electrode edge has also been measured and analyzed.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation on dielectric and ferroelectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Liu, J.-M.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.

    2004-04-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectrics over the ferroelectric transition range are simulated using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation is based on the Ginzburg-Landau ferroelectric model lattice in which a random distribution of two types of defects (dopants) which will suppress and enhance the local polarization, respectively, is assumed. The simulation reveals an evolution of the ferroelectric transitions from a normal first-order mode toward a diffusive mode, with increasing defect concentration. The simulated lattice configuration shows the microdipole ordered clusters embedded in the matrix of paraelectric phase over a wide range of temperature, a characteristic of relaxor ferroelectrics. The relaxor-like behaviors are confirmed by the lattice free energy, dielectric susceptibility, and ferroelectric relaxation evaluated as a function of the defect concentration. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison of our simulated results with the simulation based on the coarse-grain model [C. C. Su, B. Vugmeister, and A. G. Khachaturyan, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6345 (2001)].

  3. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements: Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Baris Okatan, M.; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-01

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. Here, we use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. These studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.

  4. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-19

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias themore » average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.« less

  5. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-08-19

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior.

  6. Relaxor ferroelectric behavior of BaMnO3 (2H) at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathy, S.; Singh, M. K.; Pandit, Pragya; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Geometrically frustrated hexagonal BaMnO3 (2H) is an interesting material due to the presence of more than one ferroic order parameters. Although the material is well known, still there exists confusion on the crystal structure of this material at room temperature and its ferroelectric properties have not been explored. Here, we report noncentrosymmetric crystal structure and ferroelectric properties of BaMnO3 (2H) at room temperature. The dielectric diffusivity calculated from modified Curie-Weiss laws and non linear Vogel-Fulcher fittings implies weak relaxor characteristic of BaMnO3 (2H). The ferroelectric properties arise due to off centering of Mn4+ ion in unit cell and weak relaxor properties are attributed to the presence of a smaller amount of Mn3+ cations which creates disorder in 2H-BaMnO3.

  7. Topological Point Defects in Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Kornev, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-03-01

    First-principles-based effective Hamiltonian simulations are used to reveal the hidden connection between topological defects (hedgehogs and antihedgehogs) and relaxor behavior. Such defects are discovered to predominantly lie at the border of polar nanoregions in both Ba (Zr0.5 Ti0.5 )O3 (BZT) and Pb (Sc0.5 Nb0.5 )O3 (PSN) systems, and the temperature dependency of their density allows us to distinguish between noncanonical (PSN) and canonical (BZT) relaxor behaviors (via the presence or absence of a crossing of a percolation threshold). This density also possesses an inflection point at precisely the temperature for which the dielectric response peaks. Moreover, hedgehogs and antihedgehogs are found to be mobile excitations, and the dynamical nature of their annihilation is demonstrated (using simple hydrodynamical arguments) to follows laws, such as those of Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius, that are characteristic of dipolar relaxation kinetics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  8. Dielectric relaxor and ferroelectric relaxor: Bi-doped paraelectric SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Chen; Yu, Zhi

    2002-02-01

    In this article, we report the evolution of the dielectric behavior from a dielectric relaxor to a ferroelectric relaxor with variation of Bi concentration in (Sr1-1.5xBix)TiO3 (0⩽x⩽0.2). In the doping range 0.0005⩽x⩽0.002, two dielectric modes A and B are induced. The temperature (Tm) where the permittivity maximum occurs for modes A and B is independent of Bi concentration and of dc electric fields. The complex permittivity of modes A and B follows the empirical Cole-Cole equation. The relaxation time for modes A and B follows the Arrhenius law. The dielectric possessing this type of dielectric behavior is named as a "dielectric relaxor." At x⩾0.0033, an additional mode C appears, whose Tm increases with increasing Bi concentration. The complex permittivity for mode C does not follow the Cole-Cole equation. The relaxation time of mode C follows the Vogel-Fulcher law, indicating typical relaxor-ferroelectric behavior. In this work, we refer it to a "ferroelectric relaxor" mode. In the range of 0.0033⩽x⩽0.133, the coexistence of the dielectric-relaxor modes and the ferroelectric-relaxor mode is observed. In the samples doped with higher Bi concentration, modes A and B gradually merge into mode C, and only ferroelectric-relaxor behavior remains at x⩾0.133. This system provides a composition-controlled example of evolution from a "dielectric relaxor" to a "ferroelectric relaxor." In addition, some controversial interpretations of the dielectric behavior of the Bi doped SrTiO3 solid solutions in the literature are discussed, and the polarization relaxation species of modes A and B are attributed to Bi ions.

  9. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant behavior of relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fei; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wen

    2009-08-01

    Uniaxial tension and polarization evolution under cyclic electric field are investigated for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer films prepared by different annealing conditions. The stress-strain behavior of the terpolymer film exhibits that of polymeric elastomers, with its fracture strain reaching 680%. Structure analysis demonstrates that the polymer chains undergo reorientation, and conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase takes place during uniaxial tension. Under cyclic electric field, the terpolymer film exhibits a narrow polarization loop typical of a ferroelectric relaxor. Conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase also occurs upon the electric field, and it reverses to the nonpolar phase when the field is removed. As the cycle number accumulates, the terpolymer film demonstrates excellent resistance to electric fatigue. Compared to the film annealed at 115 °C, the terpolymer film annealed at 100 °C has a larger volume fraction of crystallite/amorphous interfaces and shows better mechanical flexibility as well as electric fatigue resistance. The mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant terpolymer films hold promises for many applications, ranging from embedded sensors and actuators to flexible memory devices.

  11. Relaxor behavior of (Ba,Bi)(Ti,Al)O3 ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lei; Hou, Yu-Dong; Wang, Sai; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Man-Kang

    2010-03-01

    Perovskite type (Ba0.9Bi0.1)(Ti0.9Al0.1)O3 (BBTA) ceramics have been prepared through solid state reaction route. The room temperature x-ray diffraction study suggests that BBTA ceramics have single phase tetragonal symmetry with space group P4mm. In contrast to the sharp dielectric transition of pure BaTiO3, a broad dielectric anomaly coupled with the shift in dielectric maxima toward a higher temperature with increasing frequency has been observed in BBTA. The quantitative characterization based on empirical parameters (ΔTm, γ, ΔTrelax, and ΔTdiffuse(1 kHz)) confirms its relaxor nature. The dielectric relaxation which follows the Vogel-Fulcher relationship with Eα=0.011 eV, Tf=356 K, and f0=1.38×1010 Hz, further supports spin-glass-like characteristics. In this system, the relaxor behavior can be attributed to the dynamic response of the polar clusters induced by the combined substitutions of Bi3+ and Al3+ on the Ba2+ and Ti4+ site. Moreover, the curie temperature of BBTA shows the decreasing trend compared to that of pure BaTiO3, which doesn't follow the normal Vegard's law, confirming that no BiAlO3 sublattice formed in BBTA. All these features indicate that BBTA is a promising candidate for lead-free relaxors.

  12. Ferroelectric Relaxor Behavior and Impedance Spectroscopy of Pr and Sn-Doped LaBaMnO Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhouma, F. I. H.; Dhahri, A.; Lahmar, L.; Khirouni, K.; Dhahri, J.

    2015-03-01

    The ceramic sample is synthesized in the solid-state with a nominal chemical formula (LPBMS). X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of a single-phase cubic crystal symmetry (. Furthermore, the complex impedance plots display a single semicircle highlighting the influence of grain resistance on the electrical behavior. A detailed study of impedance parameters shows the non-Debye temperature of relaxation phenomena in the system. Over four decades in frequency, sample Nyquist plots were fitted by adopting an equivalent circuit using constant phase elements. The temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity was investigated in the sample, and the dielectric relaxation behavior was observed in these ferroelectrics with diffused phase transition. Quasiferroeletric state theory has been introduced to explain the dielectric results of the LPBMS relaxors.

  13. Effects of composition and temperature on the large field behavior of [011]{sub C} relaxor ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, John A.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Tian, Jian

    2014-08-04

    The large field behavior of [011]{sub C} cut relaxor ferroelectric lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate, xPb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-yPbTiO{sub 3}, single crystals was experimentally characterized in the piezoelectric d{sub 322}-mode configuration under combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading. Increasing the concentration of lead indium niobate and decreasing the concentration of lead titanate in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary resulted in a decrease of mechanical compliance, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficients as well as a shift from a continuous to a discontinuous transformation.

  14. Effects of composition and temperature on the large field behavior of [011]C relaxor ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.; Tian, Jian; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2014-08-01

    The large field behavior of [011]C cut relaxor ferroelectric lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, xPb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-yPbTiO3, single crystals was experimentally characterized in the piezoelectric d322-mode configuration under combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading. Increasing the concentration of lead indium niobate and decreasing the concentration of lead titanate in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary resulted in a decrease of mechanical compliance, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficients as well as a shift from a continuous to a discontinuous transformation.

  15. Spatial distribution of relaxation behavior on the surface of ferroelectric relaxor in the ergodic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial homogeneity of polarization relaxation behavior on the surface of 0.9Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.1PbTiO{sub 3} crystals in the ergodic relaxor phase is studied using three-dimensional time-resolved spectroscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. The number of statistically independent components in the spectroscopic image is determined using principal component analysis. In the studied measurement time interval, the spectra generally exhibit logarithmic behavior with spatially varying slope and offset, and the statistical distribution of these parameters are studied. The data illustrate the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneity in the dynamics of the relaxation behavior that can be interpreted as spatial variation in local Vogel-Fulcher temperatures.

  16. Role of template layer on microstructure, phase formation and polarization behavior of ferroelectric relaxor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, R.; Chaudhuri, Ayan Roy; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Victor, P.

    2007-05-01

    (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(x)PbTiO3 (PMNPT) a relaxor ferroelectric has gained attention due to its interesting physical properties both in the bulk and thin film forms from a technological and fundamental point of view. The PMNPT solid solution at the morphotropic phase boundary composition has superior properties and is potentially used as an electrostrictive actuator, sensor, and in MEMS applications. Deposition of phase pure PMNPT thin films on bare platinized silicon wafers has been an impossible task so far. In this study the role of the LSCO template on the phase formation and the influence of platinum surface on the same have been studied. It was observed that formation of hillocks in Pt coated silicon wafers is associated with an ATG type of instability while roughening through strain relaxation. The hillocks formation was observed only on the troughs of the strain waves on the surface of Pt. The nucleation and growth of the PMNPT films were analyzed using AFM studies and the nucleation nucleates only at the tips of the hillocks and grows along the same direction with a new nucleus adjacent to the first one. A wavy pattern of PMNPT nuclei was observed and later the lateral growth of the islands takes place to cover the surface and minimizes the roughness to 2 nm. Hence, a template layer with a minimum of 40 nm is required to have a complete coverage with a roughness of less than 2 nm. The chemical states of the PMNPT films grown with and without the template layer were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectrum. The XPS spectrum of PMNPT deposited on a Pt surface exhibited a reduced oxidation state of niobium ions and a metallic state of Pb at the initial stage of the growth, which effectively destabilizes the perovskite phase of PMNPT in which the charge states and the ordering of Nb and Mg are more crucial to have a stable perovskite structure.

  17. Vogel-Fulcher freezing in relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Pirc, R.; Blinc, R.

    2007-07-01

    A physical mechanism for the freezing of polar nanoregions (PNRs) in relaxor ferroelectrics is presented. Assuming that the activation energy for the reorientation of a cluster of PNRs scales with the mean volume of the cluster, the characteristic relaxation time {tau} is found to diverge as the cluster volume reaches the percolation limit. Applying the mean field theory of continuum percolation, the familiar Vogel-Fulcher equation for the temperature dependence of {tau} is derived.

  18. Ferroelectricity and Self-Polarization in Ultrathin Relaxor Ferroelectric Films

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Peixian; Zhao, Yonggang; Luo, Nengneng; Zhao, Diyang; Chen, Aitian; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Meiqi; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We report ferroelectricity and self-polarization in the (001) oriented ultrathin relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3, SrRuO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, respectively. Resistance-voltage measurements and AC impedance analysis suggest that at high temperatures Schottky depletion width in a 4 nm thick PMN-PT film deposited on Nb-SrTiO3 is smaller than the film thickness. We propose that Schottky interfacial dipoles make the dipoles of the nanometer-sized polar nanoregions (PNRs) in PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 point downward at high temperatures and lead to the self-polarization at room temperature with the assistance of in-plane compressive strain. This work sheds light on the understanding of epitaxial strain effects on relaxor ferroelectric films and self-polarization mechanism. PMID:26817516

  19. Ferroelectricity and Self-Polarization in Ultrathin Relaxor Ferroelectric Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Peixian; Zhao, Yonggang; Luo, Nengneng; Zhao, Diyang; Chen, Aitian; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Meiqi; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We report ferroelectricity and self-polarization in the (001) oriented ultrathin relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3, SrRuO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, respectively. Resistance-voltage measurements and AC impedance analysis suggest that at high temperatures Schottky depletion width in a 4 nm thick PMN-PT film deposited on Nb-SrTiO3 is smaller than the film thickness. We propose that Schottky interfacial dipoles make the dipoles of the nanometer-sized polar nanoregions (PNRs) in PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 point downward at high temperatures and lead to the self-polarization at room temperature with the assistance of in-plane compressive strain. This work sheds light on the understanding of epitaxial strain effects on relaxor ferroelectric films and self-polarization mechanism.

  20. Ferroelectricity and Self-Polarization in Ultrathin Relaxor Ferroelectric Films.

    PubMed

    Miao, Peixian; Zhao, Yonggang; Luo, Nengneng; Zhao, Diyang; Chen, Aitian; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Meiqi; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We report ferroelectricity and self-polarization in the (001) oriented ultrathin relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3, SrRuO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, respectively. Resistance-voltage measurements and AC impedance analysis suggest that at high temperatures Schottky depletion width in a 4?nm thick PMN-PT film deposited on Nb-SrTiO3 is smaller than the film thickness. We propose that Schottky interfacial dipoles make the dipoles of the nanometer-sized polar nanoregions (PNRs) in PMN-PT films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 point downward at high temperatures and lead to the self-polarization at room temperature with the assistance of in-plane compressive strain. This work sheds light on the understanding of epitaxial strain effects on relaxor ferroelectric films and self-polarization mechanism. PMID:26817516

  1. Field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions in relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Prosandeev, S; Wang, Dawei; Akbarzadeh, A R; Dkhil, B; Bellaiche, L

    2013-05-17

    A first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian is used to investigate low-temperature properties of Ba(Zr,Ti)O(3) relaxor ferroelectrics under an increasing dc electric field. This system progressively develops an electric polarization that is highly nonlinear with the dc field. This development leads to a maximum of the static dielectric response at a critical field, E(th), and involves four different field regimes. Each of these regimes is associated with its own behavior of polar nanoregions, such as shrinking, flipping, and elongation of dipoles or change in morphology. The clusters propagating inside the whole sample, with dipoles being parallel to the field direction, begin to form at precisely the E(th) critical field. Such a result, and further analysis we perform, therefore, reveal that field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions is the driving mechanism for the transition from the relaxor to ferroelectric state. PMID:25167451

  2. Phonon localization drives polar nanoregions in a relaxor ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Manley, M E; Lynn, J W; Abernathy, D L; Specht, E D; Delaire, O; Bishop, A R; Sahul, R; Budai, J D

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics exemplify a class of functional materials where interplay between disorder and phase instability results in inhomogeneous nanoregions. Although known for about 30 years, there is no definitive explanation for polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here we show that ferroelectric phonon localization drives PNRs in relaxor ferroelectric PMN-30%PT using neutron scattering. At the frequency of a preexisting resonance mode, nanoregions of standing ferroelectric phonons develop with a coherence length equal to one wavelength and the PNR size. Anderson localization of ferroelectric phonons by resonance modes explains our observations and, with nonlinear slowing, the PNRs and relaxor properties. Phonon localization at additional resonances near the zone edges explains competing antiferroelectric distortions known to occur at the zone edges. Our results indicate the size and shape of PNRs that are not dictated by complex structural details, as commonly assumed, but by phonon resonance wave vectors. This discovery could guide the design of next generation relaxor ferroelectrics. PMID:24718289

  3. Pressure as a Probe of the Physics of Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, George A.

    1999-08-09

    Pressure studies have provided new insights into the physics of compositionally-disordered ABO{sub 3} oxide relaxors. Specifically results are presented and discussed on a pressure-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor crossover phenomenon, the continuous evolution of the energetics and dynamics of the relaxation process, and the interplay between pressure and electric field in determining the dielectric response.

  4. Mechanism of Diffuse Phase Transition in Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Soejima, Kouji; Kamiya, Toshio; Daimon, Masaki

    1994-04-01

    Dielectric properties of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and Ta-bearing strontium barium niobate (SBNT) were measured as a function of temperature, and the crystal structure of PMN was refined by the Rietveld analysis method. The results of structure refinement indicate that the volume of polar microregions (PMR) increases with decreasing temperature. The dielectric properties of PMN and SBNT are well explained by an advanced theory of dielectric dispersion. The anomalous behavior in dielectric permittivity (?) observed on the low temperature side of T m, the temperature of ? maximum, is explained by simple dielectric relaxation, while on the high-temperature side of T m is explained by the volume increase of PMR. It is concluded that these is no phase transition around T m, and the diffuse phase transition is an overlapping phenomenon of volume increase of PMR, freezing process of fluctuating dipoles in PMR and dielectric dispersion around the measuring frequrncy. A model of diffuse phase transition and relaxor ferroelectrics is proposed. The difference between normal ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics is discussed from the viewpoints of spreading of soft-mode phonons and disorder in the crystals.

  5. Normal ferroelectric to relaxor behavior in laser ablated Ca-doped barium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Ranjith, R.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2003-12-01

    Ba1-xCaxTiO3 thin films (x=0.05 to 0.17) were deposited on Pt-coated Si substrates using a pulsed excimer laser ablation technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope studies of the Ba1-xCaxTiO3 targets exhibit a polycrystalline nature and thin films also show the same but with a significant orientation along the (111) direction. Secondary ion mass spectrometer analysis reveals the presence of a sharper interface existing at the thin film substrate. The dielectric phase transition temperature of (Ba1-xCax)TiO3 targets were sharp and the transition temperature was found to decrease from 140 °C to 110 °C with an increase in the values of x (x>0.05 at. %). The laser ablated Ca-doped BaTiO3 thin films deposited at 100 mTorr exhibited a higher dielectric constant, lower dielectric loss, and an anomalous decrease in phase transition was observed. The anomalous phase transition decrease was ascribed to the occupancy of the Ca2+ in the Ti4+ site. There was a cross over from the sharp to diffused phase transition for a higher composition of Ca (>9 at. %) in BaTiO3 thin films. The diffuse transition behavior might be due to the larger number of the Ca2+ ions occupying the Ti4+ site, eventually introducing larger compositional and structural disorder and this occupancy leads to the generation of oxygen vacancies. The activation energy obtained from impedance spectroscopy was 1.05 eV, and was attributed to the oxygen vacancy motion.

  6. Pressure as a probe of the physics of relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    SAMARA,GEORGE A.

    2000-01-25

    Pressure studies have provided new insights into the physics of compositionally-disordered ABO{sub 3} oxide relaxors. Specifically, results will be presented and discussed on a pressure-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxer crossover phenomenon, the continuous evolution of the energetic and dynamics of the relaxation process, and the interplay between pressure and electric field in determining the dielectric response.

  7. Origin of the enhanced flexoelectricity of relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Catalan, Gustau

    2014-04-01

    We have measured the bending-induced polarization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals with compositions at the relaxor-ferroelectric phase boundary. The crystals display flexocoupling coefficients f > 100 V, an order of magnitude bigger than the theoretical upper limit set by the theories of Kogan and Tagantsev. This enhancement persists in the paraphase up to a temperature T* = 500 ± 25 K that coincides with the onset of anelastic softening in the crystals; above T*, the true (lattice-based) flexocoupling coefficient is measured as f13 ≈ 10 V for both compositions. Cross-correlation between flexoelectric, dielectric, and elastic properties indicates that the enhancement of bending-induced polarization of relaxor ferroelectrics is not caused by intrinsically giant flexoelectricity but by the reorientation of polar nanodomains that are ferroelastically active below T*.

  8. Mesoscopic harmonic mapping of electromechanical response in a relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Ding, Jilai; Okatan, M. Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-06-01

    Relaxor-ferroelectrics are renowned for very large electrostrictive response, enabling applications in transducers, actuators, and energy harvesters. However, insight into the dissimilar contributions (polarization rotation, wall motion) to the electromechanical response from electrostrictive strain, and separation of such contributions from linear piezoelectric response are largely ignored at the mesoscale. Here, we employ a band-excitation piezoresponse force microscopy (BE-PFM) technique to explore the first and second harmonics of the piezoelectric response in prototypical relaxor-ferroelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-0.28PT) single crystals. Third order polynomial fitting of the second harmonic reveals considerable correlation between the cubic coefficient map and the first harmonic piezoresponse amplitude. These results are interpreted under a modified Rayleigh framework, as evidence for domain wall contributions to enhanced electromechanical response. These studies highlight the contribution of domain wall motion in the electromechanical response of relaxor ferroelectrics, and further show the utility of harmonic BE-PFM measurements in spatially mapping the mesoscopic variability inherent in disordered systems.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Structure, Dynamics and Dielectric Response in a Relaxor Ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Ilya

    2012-02-01

    Since the first synthesis of the classic PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) material in 1961, relaxor ferroelectrics have been the subject of ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation due to their fundamental scientific interest and their importance in technological applications. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study relaxor behavior in the 0.75PMN-0.25PT material. Even for a fairly small simulation size of 1000 atoms, the system exhibits frequency dispersion and deviation from the Curie-Weiss law typical of relaxor materials. Analysis of the time autocorrelation functions for individual atoms allows us to identify the Nb atoms with a high concentration of neighboring Ti atoms as the nucleation sites for the relaxor behavior. This is due to the higher coupling between the cation displacements induced by the presence of overbonded oxygen atoms. We also analyze local structure and dynamics in PMN-PT using instantaneous, time-averaged and frequency resolved pair distribution functions (PDF). We find that dynamic Pb and Ti off-centering is present even in the paraelectric phase, below Tb the rate of growth of local Pb off-centering increases, followed by the freezing in of the local displacement direction at an intermediate temperature Tc and a transition to a ferroelectric-like phase at Tf. Thus there is a sequence of four phases, PE, dynamic relaxor, mixed dynamic and frozen phase, and the non-ergodic frozen relaxor phase. We identify the average instantaneous local cation off-centering as the order parameter for the dynamic relaxor phase, and the time-averaged local cation off-centering as the order parameter for the two lower-temperatures relaxor phases. Examination of the dynamic PDF data reveals the shape and the range of correlation between the cation displacements. We also show that the relaxor phase is characterized by the appearance of strong nearest-neighbor correlation between the off-center displacements along the Cartesian directions.

  10. Properties of epitaxial films made of relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Prosandeev, S; Wang, Dawei; Bellaiche, L

    2013-12-13

    Finite-temperature properties of epitaxial films made of Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics are determined as a function of misfit strain, via the use of a first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian. These films are macroscopically paraelectric at any temperature, for any strain ranging between ≃-3% and ≃+3%. However, original temperature-versus-misfit strain phase diagrams are obtained for the Burns temperature (Tb) and for the critical temperatures (Tm,z and Tm,IP) at which the out-of-plane and in-plane dielectric response peak, respectively, which allow the identification of three different regions. These latter differ from their evolution of Tb, Tm,z, and/or Tm,IP with strain, which are the fingerprints of a remarkable strain-induced microscopic change: each of these regions is associated with its own characteristic behavior of polar nanoregions at low temperature, such as strain-induced rotation or strain-driven elongation of their dipoles or even increase in the average size of the polar nanoregions when the strength of the strain grows. PMID:24483699

  11. Calculations of anomalies in properties of relaxor ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinchuk, Maya; Eliseev, Evgeniy

    2006-03-01

    For the first time, we have calculated the properties of thin relaxor ferroelectric films in a framework of random field theory allowing for a misfit strain between the film and a substrate via surface piezoelectric effect, that causes a built-in electric field in the strained films. We demonstrate that this misfit-induced electric field, as well as the random electric fields created by randomly distributed electric dipoles and charged defects, lead to a smearing of ferroelectric phase transition, namely, they wash out a dielectric susceptibility maximum and a spontaneous polarization temperature dependence. As an example, a dependence of an order parameter and the dielectric susceptibility on the film thickness, temperature, and random fields distribution function was obtained. For the first time, we have shown that a frequency dispersion of susceptibility temperature maximum in relaxor thin films obeys modified Vogel-Fulcher law. In the proposed modified Vogel-Fulcher law the freezing temperature and activation energy depend on the film thickness, namely, freezing temperature decreases and activation energy increases with film thickness decrease. The obtained results quantitatively agree with the available experimental data for PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 relaxor thin films.

  12. Time-domain spectrum of dielectric relaxation in relaxor ferroelectrics: Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-M.; Dong, S.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.

    2006-10-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulation on the dielectric relaxation behaviour of a model relaxor ferroelectric, based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory of ferroelectrics with dipole-defect induced random field. The coexistence of ferroelectric nanoclusters and paraelectric matrix is demonstrated. It is found that the time-domain spectrum for dielectric relaxation below the ferroelectric transition point exhibits a multi-peaked pattern rather than the diffusive single-peaked pattern, indicating the existence of multi-characteristic times for the dielectric relaxation. The extended multi-peaked time-domain spectrum is responsible for the diffusive ferroelectric transitions and frequency dispersion of the dielectric relaxation, usually observed for relaxor ferroelectrics.

  13. Relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices: high energy density capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ortega, N; Kumar, A; Scott, J F; Chrisey, Douglas B; Tomazawa, M; Kumari, Shalini; Diestra, D G B; Katiyar, R S

    2012-11-01

    We report the breakdown electric field and energy density of laser ablated BaTiO(3)/Ba((1-x))Sr(x)TiO(3) (x = 0.7) (BT/BST) relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices (SLs) grown on (100) MgO single crystal substrates. The dielectric constant shows a frequency dispersion below the dielectric maximum temperature (T(m)) with a merger above T(m) behaving similarly to relaxors. It also follows the basic criteria of relaxor ferroelectrics such as low dielectric loss over wide temperature and frequency, and 50 K shift in T(m) with change in probe frequency; the loss peaks follow a similar trend to the dielectric constant except that they increase with increase in frequency (~40 kHz), and satisfy the nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher relation. Well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis and 50-80% dielectric saturation are observed under high electric field (~1.65 MV cm(-1)). The superlattices demonstrate an 'in-built' field in as grown samples at low probe frequency (<1 kHz), whereas it becomes more symmetric and centered with increase in the probe frequency system (>1 kHz) which rules out the effect of any space charge and interfacial polarization. The P-E loops show around 12.24 J cm(-3) energy density within the experimental limit, but extrapolation of this data suggests that the potential energy density could reach 46 J cm(-3). The current density versus applied electric field indicates an exceptionally high breakdown field (5.8-6.0 MV cm(-1)) and low current density (~10-25 mA cm(-2)) near the breakdown voltage. The current-voltage characteristics reveal that the space charge limited conduction mechanism prevails at very high voltage. PMID:23053172

  14. Electric field induced relaxor behavior in anisotropically strained SrTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Schubert, J.; Hollmann, E.; Wördenweber, R.

    2016-03-01

    Electric fields can modify the dielectric response of ferroelectric and especially relaxor ferroelectric material. Since strained ferroelectric fields represent ideal candidates for relaxor ferroelectrics, we analyzed the impact of ac and dc electric fields and field orientation on the dielectric properties of anisotropically strained epitaxial SrTiO3 films in detail. The tensile strain in the SrTiO3 films causes an increase of the ferroelectric-dielectric phase transition temperature to 258 K and 288 K for small and large tensile strains, respectively. The resulting films represent relaxor-type ferroelectrics with properties that strongly depend on the applied electric field. While a dc bias field significantly suppresses the permittivity in the paraelectric regime ranging from 180 K to 320 K, an ac field leads to an even more pronounced enhancement of the permittivity in an even larger temperature regime (e.g. reduction of up to 50% versus enhancement of up to 380% for 0.5 V/μm dc bias or ac field, respectively). Furthermore the ac field dependence is nonlinear and cannot be explained by the classical Rayleigh law. Frequency dependent measurements show among others that the electric field dependences are strongly related to the relaxor-type behavior. The different dielectric responses are explained in terms of the mobility and dynamic of regimes of uniform polarization, the polar nanoregions, that are generally assumed to be responsible for the relaxor behavior.

  15. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu; Wang, Hai-yan; Frank Zhang, X.; Fu, Jun

    2014-02-07

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-x%PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN − x%PT) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN − x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN − x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T{sub c}. A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed.

  16. Anisotropic dielectric function in polar nanoregions of relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Hlinka, J; Ostapchuk, T; Noujni, D; Kamba, S; Petzelt, J

    2006-01-20

    The Letter suggests treating the infrared reflectivity spectra of single crystal perovskite relaxors as fine-grained ferroelectric ceramics: locally frozen polarization makes the dielectric function strongly anisotropic in the phonon frequency range and the random orientation of the polarization at nanoscopic scale requires taking into account the inhomogeneous depolarization field. Employing a simple effective medium approximation (the Bruggeman symmetrical formula) turns out to be sufficient for reproducing all principal features of room temperature reflectivity of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3. One of the reflectivity bands is identified as a geometrical resonance entirely related to the nanoscale polarization inhomogeneity. The approach provides a general guide for systematic determination of the polar mode frequencies split by the inhomogeneous polarization at the nanometer scale. PMID:16486640

  17. Advantages and Challenges of Relaxor-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals for Electroacoustic Transducers- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Jinwook; Luo, Jun; Geng, Xuecang

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) based ferroelectric crystals with the perovskite structure have been investigated over the last few decades due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients (d33 > 1500 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 90%), far outperforming state-of-the-art ferroelectric polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics, and are at the forefront of advanced electroacoustic applications. In this review, the performance merits of relaxor-PT crystals in various electroacoustic devices are presented from a piezoelectric material viewpoint. Opportunities come from not only the ultrahigh properties, specifically coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, but through novel vibration modes and crystallographic/domain engineering. Figure of merits (FOMs) of crystals with various compositions and phases were established for various applications, including medical ultrasonic transducers, underwater transducers, acoustic sensors and tweezers. For each device application, recent developments in relaxor-PT ferroelectric crystals were surveyed and compared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline piezoelectrics, with an emphasis on their strong anisotropic features and crystallographic uniqueness, including engineered domain - property relationships. This review starts with an introduction on electroacoustic transducers and the history of piezoelectric materials. The development of the high performance relaxor-PT single crystals, with a focus on their uniqueness in transducer applications, is then discussed. In the third part, various FOMs of piezoelectric materials for a wide range of ultrasound applications, including diagnostic ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, underwater acoustic and passive sensors, tactile sensors and acoustic tweezers, are evaluated to provide a thorough understanding of the materials’ behavior under operational conditions. Structure-property-performance relationships are then established. Finally, the impacts and challenges of relaxor-PT crystals are summarized to guide on-going and future research in the development of relaxor-PT crystals for the next generation electroacoustic transducers. PMID:25530641

  18. Temperature dependence of flexoelectric response in ferroelectric and relaxor polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Shashi; Ducharme, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the flexoelectric response in thin films of both ferroelectric and relaxor forms of vinylidene fluoride polymers. The ferroelectric samples were depoled to minimize piezoelectric response by heating them beyond their Curie temperature and then cooling in zero applied electric field. In both the relaxor ferroelectric polymer and the paraelectric state of the ferroelectric copolymer, the flexoelectric coefficient was proportional to the dielectric constant over a limited range of temperatures, in agreement with general theoretical principles. The enhancements in flexoelectric response were also observed near the Curie transition temperature for the ferroelectric polymer and near the dielectric relaxation temperature for the relaxors. The broad dielectric anomaly in these systems provides greater temperature stability for these enhancements.

  19. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-03-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  20. Relaxor ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling in ZnO-Co nanocomposite thin films: beyond multiferroic composites.

    PubMed

    Li, D Y; Zeng, Y J; Batuk, D; Pereira, L M C; Ye, Z Z; Fleischmann, C; Menghini, M; Nikitenko, S; Hadermann, J; Temst, K; Vantomme, A; Van Bael, M J; Locquet, J-P; Van Haesendonck, C

    2014-04-01

    ZnO-Co nanocomposite thin films are synthesized by combination of pulsed laser deposition of ZnO and Co ion implantation. Both superparamagnetism and relaxor ferroelectricity as well as magnetoelectric coupling in the nanocomposites have been demonstrated. The unexpected relaxor ferroelectricity is believed to be the result of the local lattice distortion induced by the incorporation of the Co nanoparticles. Magnetoelectric coupling can be attributed to the interaction between the electric dipole moments and the magnetic moments, which are both induced by the incorporation of Co. The introduced ZnO-Co nanocomposite thin films are different from conventional strain-mediated multiferroic composites. PMID:24598535

  1. Monte Carlo simulation on dielectric relaxation and dipole cluster state in relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The Ginzburg-Landau theory on ferroelectrics with random field induced by dipole defects is studied by using Monte Carlo simulation, in order to investigate the dipole configuration and the dielectric relaxation of relaxor ferroelectrics. With the increase of random field, the dipole configuration evolves from the long-range ferroelectric order into the coexistence of short-range dipole-clusters and less polarized matrix. The dipole-cluster phase above the transition temperature and superparaelectric fluctuations far below this temperature are identified for the relaxor ferroelectrics. We investigate the frequency dispersion and the time-domain spectrum of the dielectric relaxation, demonstrating the Vogel-Fulcher relationship and the multi-peaked time-domain distribution of the dielectric relaxation.

  2. First-principles-based effective Hamiltonian simulations of bulks and films made of lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosandeev, Sergey; Wang, Dawei; Akbarzadeh, A. R.; Bellaiche, L.

    2015-06-01

    A review of the recent development and application of a first-principles-derived effective Hamiltonian technique to the study of lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 (BZT) relaxor ferroelectrics is provided. In addition to the computation and analysis of macroscopic properties (such as different types of dielectric responses and electric polarization) and their connections to previous published works, particular emphasis is given to microscopic insights arising from this atomistic technique. These include (i) the numerically-found determination of the physical origin of the relaxor behavior in BZT; and (ii) the prediction of polar nanoregions and the evolution of their morphology as a response to temperature, electric fields and epitaxial misfit strain. Other striking phenomena that were predicted in BZT compounds, such as Fano resonance and field-driven percolation, are also documented and discussed. Finally, a brief perspective of possible remaining computational studies to be conducted in relaxor ferroelectrics, in order to further understand them, is attempted.

  3. Lattice-based Monte Carlo simulations of the electrocaloric effect in ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang-Bin; Albe, Karsten; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Canonical and microcanonical Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to study the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics (RFEs) by direct computation of field-induced temperature variations at the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition and the nonergodic-to-ergodic state transformation. A lattice-based Hamiltonian is introduced, which includes a thermal energy, a Landau-type term, a dipole-dipole interaction energy, a gradient term representing the domain-wall energy, and an electrostatic energy contribution describing the coupling to external and random fields. The model is first parametrized and studied for the case of BaTiO3. Then, the ECE in RFEs is investigated, with particular focus on the influence of random fields and domain-wall energies. If the strength or the density of the random fields increases, the ECE peak shifts to a lower temperature but the temperature variation is reduced. On the contrary, if the domain-wall energy increases, the peak shifts to a higher temperature and the ECE becomes stronger. In RFEs, the ECE is maximum at the freezing temperature where the nonergodic-to-ergodic transition takes place. Our results imply that the presence of random fields reduces the entropy variation in an ECE cycle by pinning local polarization.

  4. Temperature-dependent reversible and irreversible processes in Nb-doped PbZrO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Huang, Haitao; Li, Tao; Ke, Shanming; Lin, Peng; Peng, Biaolin; Mai, Manfang; Sun, Qiu; Peng, Xiang; Zeng, Xierong

    2015-11-01

    The dielectric and ferroelectric nonlinearity of Nb-doped PbZrO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films was investigated. The ac field dependence of the permittivity of relaxor ferroelectric thin films is demonstrated to be described by a Rayleigh type relation. Both reversible and irreversible components of dielectric permittivity decrease linearly with the logarithm of the frequency of the ac field. The irreversible Rayleigh coefficient α'(T) shows a peak around the "freezing temperature" Tf, which is probably according to the transition from polar nano-regions (PNRs) to dipole-glass state in relaxor ferroelectrics. The results demonstrate that the models describing the interaction of domain walls and randomly distributed pinning centers in ferroelectric materials can be extended to the displacement of nanoscale walls in relaxors.

  5. Ferroelectric-to-Relaxor Crossover and Oxygen Vacancy Hopping in Compositionally-Disordered Perovskites - KtA(1-x)Nb(x)O(3):Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-07-26

    It is shown that lattice disorder induced by Nb and Ca substitution has a strong influence on the dielectric and relaxational properties of KTaO{sub 3}. Both substituents are believed to occupy off-center positions at the Ta site, and the difference in valence between the Ca{sup 2+} and Ta{sup 5+} ions leads to the formation of oxygen vacancies (V{sub 0}). Specifically, for a KTa{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3}:Ca crystal with x = 0.023 and with a 0.055 at.% Ca doping they observe: (1) a ferroelectric transition at atmospheric pressure (1 bar); (2) a large enhancement of the transition temperature by Ca doping; (3) a pressure-induced crossover from ferroelectric-to-relaxor behavior; (4) the impending vanishing of the relaxor phase at high pressure; (5) the reorientation of the Ca-oxygen vacancy (Ca:V{sub 0}) pair defect; and (6) the variation of the energetics and dynamics of this reorientation with pressure. Most of these effects are associated with Nb- and Ca-induced dipolar entities and appear to be general features of soft mode ferroelectrics with random-site polar nanodomains. The ferroelectric-to-relaxor crossover can be understood in terms of a large decrease with pressure in the correlation length among polar nanodomains--a unique property of soft ferroelectric mode systems.

  6. Evaluation of field enforced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition dielectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics for pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, B.D.; Tuttle, B.A.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.; Brooks, R.A.; King, C.F.

    1997-09-01

    Discharge capacitors were designed based on materials with antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) field enforced transitions that had 10 times the capacitance of relaxor ferroelectric or state of the art BaTiO{sub 3} materials in the voltage range of interest. Nonlinear RLC circuit analysis was used to show that the AFE to FE materials have potentially more than 2 times the peak discharge current density capability of the BaTiO{sub 3} or lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials. Both lead lanthanum zirconium tin titanate (PLZST) AFE to FE field enforced phase transition materials and PMN based relaxor materials were fabricated and characterized for Sandia`s pulse discharge capacitor applications. An outstanding feature of the PLZST materials is that there are high field regimes where the dielectric constant increases substantially, by a factor of 20 or more, with applied field. Specifically, these materials have a low field dielectric constant of 1,000, but an effective dielectric constant of 23,000 in the electric field range corresponding to the FE to AFE transition during discharge. Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) based relaxor materials were also investigated in this project because of their high dielectric constants. While the PMN based ceramics had a low field dielectric constant of 25,000, at a field corresponding to half the charging voltage, approximately 13 kV/cm, the dielectric constant decreases to approximately 7,500.

  7. Debye’s temperature and heat capacity for Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláiz-Barranco, A.; González-Abreu, Y.; Saint-Grégoire, P.; Guerra, J. D. S.; Calderón-Piñar, F.

    2016-02-01

    A lead-free relaxor ferroelectric, Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9, was synthesized via solid-state reaction and the temperature-dependence of the heat capacity was measured in a wide temperature range. The dielectric permittivity was also measured between 500Hz and 5MHz in the same temperature range. No anomaly has been detected in the heat capacity curve for the whole temperature range covered in the present experiments, while broad peaks have been observed in the dielectric permittivity with high frequency dispersion. A typical relaxor behavior has been observed from the dielectric analysis. The Debye’s temperature has showed a minimum value near the freezing temperature. The results are discussed considering the spin-glass model and the high frequency dispersion, which has been observed for the studied relaxor system.

  8. Aging, rejuvenation, and memory phenomena in a lead-based relaxor ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kircher, O.; Böhmer, R.

    2002-04-01

    Isothermal aging and temperature cycle experiments were done on the relaxor ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate mixed with 10% lead titanate (PMN-10PT) around and below the diffuse maximum of the dielectric loss. With increasing aging time tw the isothermal evolution of the linear susceptibility follows a power law and does not show frequency scaling. The non-linear susceptibility, however, obeys nearly perfect ωtw-scaling. After aging the sample at a single temperature we observed both rejuvenation and memory effects in temperature cycle experiments. This observation indicates symmetric behavior in the sense that it shows up irrespective of whether cooling with subsequent re-heating or heating with subsequent re-cooling was performed. The memory effect is absent if subsequent to aging the temperature is increased significantly above that corresponding to the maximum in the dielectric loss. The symmetric behavior within negative and positive temperature cycles under these conditions can be rationalized by the notion of movable domain walls. These become fixed in their configuration on a large spatial scale while more flexible wall segments still show re-conformation processes when cooling or heating the sample after aging.

  9. Thickness Dependent Properties of Relaxor-PbTiO(3) Ferroelectrics for Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-09-23

    The electrical properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) based polycrystalline ceramics and single crystals were investigated as a function of scale ranging from 500 microns to 30 microns. Fine-grained PMN-PT ceramics exhibited comparable dielectric and piezoelectric properties to their coarse-grained counterpart in the low frequency range (<10 MHz), but offered greater mechanical strength and improved property stability with decreasing thickness, corresponding to higher operating frequencies (>40 MHz). For PMN-PT single crystals, however, the dielectric and electromechanical properties degraded with decreasing thickness, while ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) exhibited minimal size dependent behavior. The origin of property degradation of PMN-PT crystals was further studied by investigating the dielectric permittivity at high temperatures, and domain observations using optical polarized light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the thickness dependent properties of relaxor-PT ferroelectrics are closely related to the domain size with respect to the associated macroscopic scale of the samples. PMID:21954374

  10. Energy-storage properties and high-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. F.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Huang, X. X.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2016-03-01

    (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x  =  0, 5, and 10 mol%) ceramics were prepared using a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction method. The low-temperature relaxor behavior of (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ceramics were examined in the temperature range from 120 to 523 K. A broad dielectric maximum that shifted to higher temperatures with increasing frequency, signified the relaxor-type behavior of these ceramics. The value of the relaxation parameter γ  =  1.61-1.94 estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law indicated the relaxor nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation phenomena were found in the temperature region 600-850 K. Energy-storage properties were also analyzed, and the energy-storage density calculated from hysteresis loops reached about 0.47 J cm-3 at room temperature.

  11. Investigation of the depolarisation transition in Bi-based relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, David I.; Dittmer, Robert; Jo, Wook; Walker, David; Keeble, Dean S.; Dale, Matthew W.; Rödel, Jürgen; Thomas, Pam A.

    2014-03-01

    The loss of macroscopic polarisation in relaxor ferroelectric (Na0.8K0.2)1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramics doped with BiZn1/2Ti1/2O3 has been studied by electrical and structural methods. These indicate that the phenomena that are coupled in a displacive phase transition are not necessarily coupled in the depolarisation of Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-based relaxors and a concept of correlated and uncorrelated switching of dipoles within adjacent unit cells is used to explain this. Second harmonic generation performed on poled ceramics during heating yields values of the freezing temperature and shows a broad temperature range of ˜100 °C across which the structure changes from field-induced ferroelectric to an equilibrium-state ergodic relaxor. Electrical poling at room temperature causes poled regions to increase in size by ˜2 orders of magnitude. A model illustrating the main steps in thermal depolarisation is described that does not require a phase transition to take place on a unit cell level.

  12. Phase transition of chemically doped uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Chillal, S; Koulialias, D; Gvasaliya, S N; Cowley, R A; Ivleva, L I; Lushnikov, S G; Zheludev, A

    2015-11-01

    We report a neutron scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in Sr0.585Ce0.025Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN-61:Ce). We find no evidence for a soft transverse optic phonon. We do, however, observe anisotropic diffuse scattering. This scattering has inelastic and elastic contributions. In the paraelectric phase the susceptibility associated with the elastic diffuse scattering from SBN-61:Ce increases on approaching the transition temperature. In the ferroelectric phase the lineshape of the elastic scattering is consistent with the form expected for the ferroelectric domain walls. In contrast to the macroscopic observations, the scattering properties of Ce-doped crystal do not exhibit important changes with respect to those of pure Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6. PMID:26445278

  13. Frustration of ferroelectricity in epitaxial film of relaxor ferroelectric PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3.

    PubMed

    Tyunina, M; Pintilie, I; Iuga, A; Stratulat, M S; Pintilie, L

    2014-08-13

    Relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformations induced by varying electric fields and temperatures are studied experimentally in acube-on-cubetype epitaxial PbSc(1/2)Nb(1/2)O3 film grown on La(1/2)Sr(1/2)CoO3/MgO(001). Dielectric response, quasi-static and dynamic polarization, and dynamic current-voltage characteristics evidence the absence of spontaneous relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition. The electricfield-induced transformation from a glass-like relaxor state to a new dynamic polar state is detected at low temperatures below 100 K only. The frustration of ferroelectricity is discussed in relation to orientational anisotropy of the dipolar system in the epitaxial (001) film. PMID:25030065

  14. Direct evidence of correlations between relaxor behavior and polar nano-regions in relaxor ferroelectrics: A case study of lead-free piezoelectrics Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei Luo, Chengtao; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Luo, Haosu; Ren, Yang

    2013-12-09

    Diffuse scattering and relaxor behavior in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) and NBT-5.6 at.?%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-5.6%BT) were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed two types of diffuse scattering in NBT: (i) broad and (ii) asymmetric L-shaped. After modification with 5.6%BT, the broad diffuse scattering patterns became narrow, and the asymmetric L-shaped ones were replaced by symmetric ones. The symmetric diffuse scattering in NBT-5.6%BT disappeared with increasing dc electric field (E) for E???9.5?kV/cm where the frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant disappeared. These results demonstrate that the relaxor characteristics are directly correlated with the diffuse scattering and the presence polar nano-regions.

  15. Direct evidence of correlations between relaxor behavior and polar nano-regions in relaxor ferroelectrics: A case study of lead-free piezoelectrics Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x%BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Zhang, Qinhui; Ren, Yang; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Viehland, D.

    2013-12-01

    Diffuse scattering and relaxor behavior in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) and NBT-5.6 at. %BaTiO3 (NBT-5.6%BT) were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed two types of diffuse scattering in NBT: (i) broad and (ii) asymmetric L-shaped. After modification with 5.6%BT, the broad diffuse scattering patterns became narrow, and the asymmetric L-shaped ones were replaced by symmetric ones. The symmetric diffuse scattering in NBT-5.6%BT disappeared with increasing dc electric field (E) for E ? 9.5 kV/cm where the frequency dispersion in the dielectric constant disappeared. These results demonstrate that the relaxor characteristics are directly correlated with the diffuse scattering and the presence polar nano-regions.

  16. Local fracture properties in ferroelectric relaxor PZN-4.5%PT single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, William S.; Webber, Kyle G.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Kounga Njiwa, Alain B.; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2005-05-01

    Local fracture properties in poled [Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (x=0.045, PZN-4.5%PT) ferroelectric relaxor single crystals were assessed. The crystals were cut along the [100], [010], and [001] planes. Scanning electron micrographs of Vickers indentations for two different crack orientations were used to determine the crack tip toughness (Ktip) and the local critical energy release rate (Gtip). Cracks oriented along the [010] and [110] crystal planes were found to have practically identical local fracture properties. These properties were determined using Stroh's formalism to account for the large anisotropic material coefficients.

  17. Pressure as a probe of the physics of ABO{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    SAMARA,GEORGE A.

    2000-02-14

    Results on a variety of mixed ABO{sub 3} oxides have revealed a pressure-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor crossover and the continuous evolution of the energetics and dynamics of the relaxation process with increasing pressure. These common features have suggested a mechanism for the crossover phenomenon in terms of a large decrease in the correlation length for dipolar interactions with pressure--a unique property of soft mode or highly polarizable host lattices. The pressure effects as well as the interplay between pressure and dc biasing fields are illustrated for some recent results on PZN-9.5 PT,PMN and PLZT 6/65/35.

  18. A high-k ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer as a gate dielectric for orgnaic thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shan; Shao, Ming; Burlingame, Quinn; Chen, Xiangzhong; Lin, Minren; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) is a ferroelectric terpolymer relaxor with a static dielectric constant of 50, which was developed using defect modification to eliminate remnant polarization in the normal ferroelectric PVDF. In this work, this solution processable terpolymer was used as the gate insulator in bottom gated organic thin-film transistors with a pentacene semiconductor layer. Due to the high dielectric constant of P(VDF-TrFE- CFE), a large capacitive coupling between the gate and channel can be achieved which causes a high charge concentration at the interface of the semiconductor and dielectric layers. In this device, an on/ off ratio of 104 and a low minimum operation gate voltage (5-10 V) were attained

  19. A high-K ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer as a gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shan; Shao, Ming; Burlingame, Quinn; Chen, Xiangzhong; Lin, Minren; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Q. M.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) is a ferroelectric terpolymer relaxor with a static dielectric constant of 50, which was developed using defect modification to eliminate remnant polarization in the normal ferroelectric PVDF. In this work, this solution processable terpolymer was used as the gate insulator in bottom gated organic thin-film transistors with a pentacene semiconductor layer. Due to the high dielectric constant of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), a large capacitive coupling between the gate and channel can be achieved which causes a high charge concentration at the interface of the semiconductor and dielectric layers. In this device, an on/off ratio of 104 and a low minimum operation gate voltage (5-10 V) were attained.

  20. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L. W.; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33∼2000 pC/N, kt∼60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  1. High performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  2. First-principles-based effective Hamiltonian simulations of bulks and films made of lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Prosandeev, Sergey; Wang, Dawei; Akbarzadeh, A R; Bellaiche, L

    2015-06-10

    A review of the recent development and application of a first-principles-derived effective Hamiltonian technique to the study of lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 (BZT) relaxor ferroelectrics is provided. In addition to the computation and analysis of macroscopic properties (such as different types of dielectric responses and electric polarization) and their connections to previous published works, particular emphasis is given to microscopic insights arising from this atomistic technique. These include (i) the numerically-found determination of the physical origin of the relaxor behavior in BZT; and (ii) the prediction of polar nanoregions and the evolution of their morphology as a response to temperature, electric fields and epitaxial misfit strain. Other striking phenomena that were predicted in BZT compounds, such as Fano resonance and field-driven percolation, are also documented and discussed. Finally, a brief perspective of possible remaining computational studies to be conducted in relaxor ferroelectrics, in order to further understand them, is attempted. PMID:25985266

  3. Pyroelectric energy conversion using PLZT ceramics and the ferroelectric-ergodic relaxor phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Felix Y.; Ryul Jo, Hwan; Lynch, Christopher S.; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    This paper is concerned with direct conversion of waste heat into electricity by executing the Olsen cycle on lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics undergoing a relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition. The Olsen cycle consists of two isothermal and two isoelectric field processes. First, the temperature-dependent dielectric properties were measured for x/65/35 PLZT. The polarization transition temperature of x/65/35 PLZT was found to decrease from 240 to 10 °C as x increased from 5 to 10 mol%. This suggests that the different compositions should be operated over different temperature ranges for maximum thermal to electrical energy conversion. The energy and power densities generated by the Olsen cycle using x/65/35 PLZT samples were measured by successively dipping the samples in isothermal dielectric oil baths. Large energy and power densities were obtained when the samples underwent the ergodic relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition. A maximum energy density of 1014 J l-1 per cycle was obtained with a 190 μm thick 7/65/35 PLZT sample cycled at 0.026 Hz between 30 and 200 °C and between 0.2 and 7.0 MV m-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest pyroelectric energy density ever demonstrated experimentally with ceramics, single crystals, or polymers. A maximum power density of 48 W l-1 was achieved using a 200 μm thick 6/65/35 PLZT sample for temperatures between 40 and 210 °C and electric fields between 0 and 8.5 MV m-1 at a frequency of 0.060 Hz. The maximum applied electric field and temperature swings of these materials were physically limited by dielectric breakdown and thermomechanical stress.

  4. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-08-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-x Ti x O3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe "PureWave". The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth techniques, domain engineering concept, and full-matrix property characterization all the way to device innovations. It outlines a truly encouraging story in materials science in the modern era. All key references are provided and 30 complete sets of material parameters for different types of relaxor-PT single crystals are listed in the Appendix. It is the intension of this review article to serve as a resource for those who are interested in basic research and practical applications of these relaxor-PT single crystals. In addition, possible mechanisms of giant piezoelectric properties in these domain-engineered relaxor-PT systems will be discussed based on contributions from polarization rotation and charged domain walls. PMID:25061239

  5. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth techniques, domain engineering concept, and full-matrix property characterization all the way to device innovations. It outlines a truly encouraging story in materials science in the modern era. All key references are provided and 30 complete sets of material parameters for different types of relaxor-PT single crystals are listed in the Appendix. It is the intension of this review article to serve as a resource for those who are interested in basic research and practical applications of these relaxor-PT single crystals. In addition, possible mechanisms of giant piezoelectric properties in these domain-engineered relaxor-PT systems will be discussed based on contributions from polarization rotation and charged domain walls. PMID:25061239

  6. Effect of SHI irradiation on NBT-BT ceramics: Transformation of relaxor ferroelectric to ferroelectric nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuga Sundari, S.; Kumar, Binay; Asokan, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2013-01-01

    The lead free NBT-BT ceramics prepared by conventional solid state reaction method were irradiated with 120 MeV Au9+ ions with different fluences. The structural, dielectric and piezoelectric studies were carried out before and after irradiation. The agglomeration and increase of grain size are observed in SEM analysis after the irradiation. The diffuse phase transition disappeared after high fluence of irradiation and the material becomes ferroelectric in nature. The piezoelectric properties were decreased due to the reduced stability of the ferroelectric domains after the irradiation.

  7. Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoshi; Yang, Tiannan; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Long-Qing; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-04-01

    In general, a dielectric material will eject (or absorb) heat when an electric field is applied and absorb (or eject) heat when the field is removed, under isothermal condition, which is known as the normal (or negative) electrocaloric (EC) effect. For some applications, it is highly desired that an EC material will absorb heat (cooling the surrounding) without subsequent heating under an electric pulse. Here, we show that such an EC material can be realized in a properly designed hybrid normal ferroelectric/relaxor ferroelectric polymer blend in which the normal ferroelectric component induces dipole ordering in the relaxor polymer in the poled state, which can be switched to a de-poled state by an external field. More importantly, the de-poled state can be maintained by the relaxor component when the de-poling field is removed. Consequently, the hybrid blend exhibits a large cooling (an isothermal entropy change ΔS = 11.5 J kg-1 K-1) without the subsequent heating upon the application of an electric pulse.

  8. Polarization-based perturbations to thermopower and electronic conductivity in highly conductive tungsten bronze structured (Sr,Ba)Nb2O6: Relaxors vs normal ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Jonathan A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Mahan, Gerald D.; Randall, Clive A.

    2014-09-01

    Electrical conductivity, thermopower, and lattice strain were investigated in the tetragonal tungsten bronze structured (Srx,Ba1-x)Nb2O6-δ system for 0.7>x>0.4 with large values of δ. These materials show attractive thermoelectric characteristics, especially in single-crystal form. Here, the Sr/Ba ratio was changed in order to vary the material between a normal ferroelectric with long-range polarization to relaxor behavior with short-range order and dynamic polarization. The influence of this on the electrical conduction mechanisms was then investigated. The temperature dependence of both the thermopower and differential activation energy for conduction suggests that the electronic conduction is controlled by an impurity band with a mobility edge separating localized and delocalized states. Conduction is controlled via hopping at low temperatures, and as temperature rises electrons are activated above the mobility edge, resulting in a large increase in electrical conductivity. For relaxor ferroelectric-based compositions, when dynamic short-range order polarization is present in the system, trends in the differential activation energy and thermopower show deviations from this conduction mechanism. The results are consistent with the polarization acting as a source of disorder that affects the location of the mobility edge and, therefore, the activation energy for conduction.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinc, R.; Gregorovič, A.; Zalar, B.; Pirc, R.; Laguta, V. V.; Glinchuk, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The 207Pb, 45Sc, and 93Nb nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been measured for the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 both above and below Tc. The 45Sc spectra suggest that the "disordered" part of the crystal occupies about 60% and the "ordered" cubic part about 40% of the crystal volume. In agreement with the spherical random bond-random field (SRBRF) model the square of the polarization linearly increases with decreasing T below Tc in both the ordered as well as in the disordered regions. The Edwards-Anderson order parameter q similarly increases linearly with decreasing T below Tc. For the disordered region we find J0≈328 K and J≈227 K whereas Δ/J02≈0.006. In the ordered region J0≈297 K, whereas J and Δ are too small to be determined from this experiment. The results demonstrate that the SRBRF model works not only for pure relaxors but also for relaxor ferroelectrics.

  10. Nanoscale mapping of heterogeneity of the polarization reversal in lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeljic, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Belianinov, A.; Okatan, B.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Groh, C.; Rödel, J.; Lupascu, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. We report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the composites as opposed to the pure phase samples. Our results confirm ceramic/ceramic composites to be a viable approach to tailor the piezoelectric properties and optimize the macroscopic electromechanical characteristics.Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. We report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the composites as opposed to the pure phase samples. Our results confirm ceramic/ceramic composites to be a viable approach to tailor the piezoelectric properties and optimize the macroscopic electromechanical characteristics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05032d

  11. Impossibility of pressure-induced crossover from ferroelectric to nonergodic relaxor state in a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 crystal: Dielectric spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokov, A. A.; Hilczer, A.; Szafrański, M.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2007-11-01

    Relaxor behavior induced by hydrostatic pressure up to 0.95GPa in the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-30PT) ferroelectric crystal was studied using dielectric spectroscopy. With increasing pressure we observed the decrease of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature (TC) , the suppression and smearing of the dielectric anomaly at TC , and the appearance of strong relaxorlike dielectric dispersion below the temperature of the permittivity maximum (Tm) . Such kinds of pressure-induced alteration are inherent in compositionally disordered perovskite ferroelectrics. It is usually believed to signify a crossover from the ferroelectric ground state to the nonergodic relaxor ground state in which the dipole moments of polar nanoregions (PNRs) are frozen in a way characteristic of dipole glasses. Surprisingly, our analysis of the dielectric spectra in PMN-30PT at high pressure did not reveal any glassy freezing of dipole dynamics. This means that the nature of the high-pressure-induced ground state is different from the nonergodic relaxor state observed in canonical relaxors at ambient pressure. At T>TC the dielectric spectra measured in PMN-30PT under different pressures are qualitatively similar. They are composed of two contributions that follow the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) and the Curie-von Schweidler (CS) relaxation patterns, respectively. The dielectric susceptibility related to the KWW relaxation provides the major contribution to the total dielectric constant. The shapes of the frequency and temperature dependences of this susceptibility remain practically unaffected by pressure. Contrary to the canonical relaxors the KWW relaxation time does not obey the Vogel-Fulcher law. On the other hand the CS-related susceptibility, which is significant only at low frequencies, considerably increases with increasing pressure and the shapes of its frequency and temperature dependences change radically. At Tferroelectric phase transition, which is triggered by the cooperative interactions among dynamic (in the high-temperature phase) PNRs to the diffuse displacive-type ferroelectric transition, which is related to the growth of PNR dimensions.

  12. Stress-mediated magnetoelectric memory effect with uni-axial TbCo2/FeCo multilayer on 011-cut PMN-PT ferroelectric relaxor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusch, Yannick; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Klimov, Alexey; Giordano, Stefano; Preobrazhensky, Vladimir; Pernod, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We present here the implementation of a magnetoelectric memory with a voltage driven writing method using a ferroelectric relaxor substrate. The memory point consists of a magnetoelastic element in which two orthogonal stable magnetic states are defined by combining uni-axial anisotropy together with a magnetic polarization in the hard axis direction. Using a ferroelectric relaxor substrate, an anisotropic stress is created in the magnetic element when applying a voltage across electrodes. Because of the inverse magnetostrictive effect, the effective anisotropy of the magnetic element is controlled by the applied voltage and used to switch magnetization from one state to the other.

  13. Nanoscale mapping of heterogeneity of the polarization reversal in lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric ceramic composites.

    PubMed

    Gobeljic, D; Shvartsman, V V; Belianinov, A; Okatan, B; Jesse, S; Kalinin, S V; Groh, C; Rödel, J; Lupascu, D C

    2016-01-21

    Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. We report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the composites as opposed to the pure phase samples. Our results confirm ceramic/ceramic composites to be a viable approach to tailor the piezoelectric properties and optimize the macroscopic electromechanical characteristics. PMID:26731664

  14. Theory of radiation induced relaxor behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanovich, V. A.; Glinchuk, M. D.; Kirichenko, E. V.; Hilczer, B.

    2003-11-01

    We propose a theory of the dynamic dielectric response in the organic ferroelectrics polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF/TrFE)] copolymer before and after irradiation by fast electrons. For this purpose, we use our random field formalism. In the adopted model we consider the earlier polymers as the disordered ferroelectrics in a mixed ferroglass phase (FG) with a coexistence of polar short- and long-range order regions. Short-range order regions correspond to amorphous layers, while long-range order regions appears in the crystalline phase of all-trans conformation. In our formalism, we account for the change of VDF content as well as for the influence of the irradiation, by variation of the content of electric dipoles and other random field sources. The downward shift of the paraferroelectric phase transition temperature and gradual transformation of the mixed FG phase into a dipole glass state with the increase of the irradiation dose was shown to be related to the self-consistent change of parameters of random field distribution function. We were able to fit the low-temperature dynamic dielectric response related to the amorphous phase by Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) law with parameters close enough to those observed in the experiment. The coincidence between calculated and measured behavior (namely, almost complete disappearance of high-temperature maxima, corresponding to the ferroelectric phase transition, their submergence into low-temperature maxima and V-F law for the low-temperature maxima of absorption) of the irradiated samples speaks in favor of irradiation induced relaxor behavior of P(VDF/TrFE) copolymers. We also discuss the physical reasons for the choice of the parameters of material necessary to fit our theory to the experiment.

  15. Subterahertz dielectric relaxation in lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.; Hlinka, J.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-04-01

    Relaxors are complex materials with unusual properties that have been puzzling the scientific community since their discovery. The main characteristic of relaxors, that is, their dielectric relaxation, remains unclear and is still under debate. The difficulty to conduct measurements at frequencies ranging from ~=1 GHz to ~=1 THz and the challenge of developing models to capture their complex dynamical responses are among the reasons for such a situation. Here, we report first-principles-based molecular dynamic simulations of lead-free Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3, which allows us to obtain its subterahertz dynamics. This approach reproduces the striking characteristics of relaxors including the dielectric relaxation, the constant-loss behaviour, the diffuse maximum in the temperature dependence of susceptibility, the substantial widening of dielectric spectrum on cooling and the resulting Vogel-Fulcher law. The simulations further relate such features to the decomposed dielectric responses, each associated with its own polarization mechanism, therefore, enhancing the current understanding of relaxor behaviour.

  16. Subterahertz dielectric relaxation in lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.; Hlinka, J.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-01-01

    Relaxors are complex materials with unusual properties that have been puzzling the scientific community since their discovery. The main characteristic of relaxors, that is, their dielectric relaxation, remains unclear and is still under debate. The difficulty to conduct measurements at frequencies ranging from ≃1 GHz to ≃1 THz and the challenge of developing models to capture their complex dynamical responses are among the reasons for such a situation. Here, we report first-principles-based molecular dynamic simulations of lead-free Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3, which allows us to obtain its subterahertz dynamics. This approach reproduces the striking characteristics of relaxors including the dielectric relaxation, the constant-loss behaviour, the diffuse maximum in the temperature dependence of susceptibility, the substantial widening of dielectric spectrum on cooling and the resulting Vogel–Fulcher law. The simulations further relate such features to the decomposed dielectric responses, each associated with its own polarization mechanism, therefore, enhancing the current understanding of relaxor behaviour. PMID:27040174

  17. Subterahertz dielectric relaxation in lead-free Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Bokov, A A; Ye, Z-G; Hlinka, J; Bellaiche, L

    2016-01-01

    Relaxors are complex materials with unusual properties that have been puzzling the scientific community since their discovery. The main characteristic of relaxors, that is, their dielectric relaxation, remains unclear and is still under debate. The difficulty to conduct measurements at frequencies ranging from ≃1 GHz to ≃1 THz and the challenge of developing models to capture their complex dynamical responses are among the reasons for such a situation. Here, we report first-principles-based molecular dynamic simulations of lead-free Ba(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3, which allows us to obtain its subterahertz dynamics. This approach reproduces the striking characteristics of relaxors including the dielectric relaxation, the constant-loss behaviour, the diffuse maximum in the temperature dependence of susceptibility, the substantial widening of dielectric spectrum on cooling and the resulting Vogel-Fulcher law. The simulations further relate such features to the decomposed dielectric responses, each associated with its own polarization mechanism, therefore, enhancing the current understanding of relaxor behaviour. PMID:27040174

  18. Bi(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3-PbTiO3 relaxor-ferroelectric films for piezoelectric energy harvesting and electrostatic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenkun; Yue, Zhenxing; Ruehl, Griffin; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Qi; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Longtu

    2014-06-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrated that both a high energy-storage density and a large piezoelectric response can be attained simultaneously in relaxor-ferroelectric 0.4Bi(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3-0.6PbTiO3 films prepared by chemical solution deposition. The as-prepared films had a pure-phase perovskite structure with an excellent crystalline morphology, featuring a moderate relative permittivity ( ɛ r ˜ 800-1100), a low dissipation factor ( tan δ < 5%) and strong relaxor-like behavior ( γ = 1.81). An ultra-high energy-storage density of 39.8 J/cm3 at 2167 kV/cm was achieved at room temperature. Moreover, the 0.4Bi(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3-0.6PbTiO3 films exhibited a considerably large effective piezoelectric coefficient of 83.1 pm/V under substrate clamping, which is comparable to the values obtained for lead zirconate titanate films. Good thermal stabilities in both the energy-storage performance and the piezoelectric properties were obtained over a wide range of temperatures, which makes 0.4Bi(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3-0.6PbTiO3 films a promising candidate for high energy-storage embedded capacitors, piezoelectric micro-devices, and specifically for potential applications in next-generation integrated multifunctional piezoelectric energy harvesting and electrostatic storage systems.

  19. Optical bandgap and phase transition in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals: An inherent relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Hu, Z. G.; Xu, G. S.; Zhu, J. J.; Li, Y. W.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    We report band to band transition behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) single crystals derived from temperature-dependent spectral transmittance. A typical bandgap formula with the temperature and composition (8 K≤Texp≤453 K, 0.1≤x≤0.4) has been presented. Moreover, the phase diagram of PMN-xPT crystals can be well proposed, which is based on the bandgap variations and can be explained by electronic structure evolution. It reveals an intrinsic relationship between fundamental bandgap and phase transition of PMN-xPT single crystals, which pioneers an effective methodology to explore the phase transition of ferroelectric oxides.

  20. High Tm lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with broad temperature usage range: 0.04BiScO3-0.96(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hongliang; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei; Qu, Shaobo; Li, Ye; Pei, Zhibin

    2008-08-01

    In order to develop high temperature lead-free relaxors, xBiScO3-(1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3[xBS-(1-x)KNN] ceramics were proposed using a tolerance factor approach. To verify this proposal, xBS-(1-x)KNN ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering. A stable perovskite phase was obtained when KNN content was greater than 96 mol %. The diffuse phase transition and frequency dispersion of the dielectric constant, which are two typical characteristics of relaxor ferroelectrics, were observed in xBS-(1-x)KNN ceramics. The dielectric relaxor behavior follows a modified Curie-Weiss law relationship. In addition, 0.04BS-0.96KNN ceramics show a broad and stable permittivity maximum near 2500 from 100 to 300 °C and lower dielectric loss (<5%) at broad temperature usage range (100-300 °C). The results indicate that this material may have great potential for high temperature capacitors in automobile applications.

  1. Dielectric anomalies in epitaxial films of relaxor ferroelectric (PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.68}-(PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.32}

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunina, M.; Levoska, J.

    2001-06-01

    Dielectric anomalies observed in heterostructures of the epitaxial thin films of (PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.68}-(PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.32}, fabricated by in situ pulsed laser deposition on La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/MgO (100), and with metal top electrodes, were analyzed. The contribution of the film-electrode interfaces to the properties of the heterostructures was evaluated and the true properties of the films were reconstructed. Deviation from Curie-Weiss behavior, temperature evolution of the local order parameter, the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, and temperature evolution of the relaxation time spectrum were found in the films. The relaxor ferroelectric properties of the films were essentially similar to those of the single crystal. Also, it was shown that an apparent {open_quotes}relaxorlike{close_quotes} behavior in ferroelectric thin film heterostructures, evidenced only by a broad maximum and frequency dispersion of the dielectric permittivity, can be determined by the film-electrode interface rather than by the relaxor properties of the films.

  2. Dielectric relaxor properties of K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectrics prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. F.; Wang, C. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, M. L.

    2003-08-01

    Lead-free potassium-bismuth titanate, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT), ferroelectric ceramics were fabricated from the natural sintering of powders prepared by the thermal decomposition of adequate precursor solutions. Their crystal structure was determined by x-ray diffraction, and the temperature dependence of dielectric constants were measured. The results show that KBT may be a kind of order-disorder relaxor ferroelectric with a first-order phase transition below the temperature of dielectric constant maximum.

  3. Stress-modulated relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition in lead-free (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-BaTi O3 ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schader, Florian H.; Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of external mechanical fields on relaxor 0.94 (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-0.06 BaTi O3 was investigated by means of temperature- and stress-dependent dielectric constant measurements between 223 and 673 K. Analogous to previous investigations that showed an electric-field-induced ferroelectric long-range order in relaxor ferroelectrics, we show that compressive stress can also result in the transition to the long-range ferroelectric order, marked by the formation of an anomaly in the permittivity-temperature curves and a nonlinear, remanent change in permittivity during mechanical loading. In situ stress-dependent high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments were performed at room temperature and reveal an apparent phase transition during mechanical loading, consistent with previous macroscopic electrical measurements. The transition lines between the relaxor states and the stress-induced ferroelectric state were determined at constant temperatures with stress-dependent dielectric constant measurements, providing a stress-temperature phase diagram.

  4. Grain-size-dependent spontaneous relaxor-to-ferroelectric phase transition in (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2015-07-01

    Dense and phase-pure (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (BKT) ceramics with various average grain sizes from 0.18 to 1.01 μm were prepared from a hydrothermally synthesized powder and their phase transition behaviors were studied by means of dielectric measurements. A drastic increase of the maximum dielectric permittivity (ɛm) with increasing the grain size was found in the temperature dependence of permittivity. The sample with the largest grain size clearly showed both a frequency dependence of dielectric maximum temperature (Tm) and a dielectric anomaly with a strong thermal hysteresis at a temperature below Tm, demonstrating that the BKT ceramic is intrinsically a material exhibiting a spontaneous relaxor to normal ferroelectric (R-nFE) phase transition. On the other hand, the suppression of the R-nFE transition was observed in the sample with the smallest grain size, which was explained as an effect of avoiding the internal stress development caused by the volume increase occurring with the phase transition.

  5. Relaxor ferroelectricity and electric-field-driven structural transformation in the giant lead-free piezoelectric (Ba ,Ca ) (Ti ,Zr ) O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajesh, Kumar; Tanwar, Khagesh; Abebe, Mulualem; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in lead-free (B a0.85C a0.15 ) (T i0.90Z r0.10 ) O3 (15/10BCTZ) because of its exceptionally large piezoelectric response [Liu and Ren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257602 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.257602]. In this paper, we have analyzed the nature of: (i) crystallographic phase coexistence at room temperature, (ii) temperature- and field-induced phase transformation to throw light on the atomistic mechanisms associated with the large piezoelectric response of this system. A detailed temperature-dependent dielectric and lattice thermal expansion study proved that the system exhibits a weak dielectric relaxation, characteristic of a relaxor ferroelectric material on the verge of exhibiting a normal ferroelectric-paraelectric transformation. Careful structural analysis revealed that a ferroelectric state at room temperature is composed of three phase coexistences, tetragonal (P 4 m m )+ orthorhombic(Amm 2 )+rhombohedral(R 3 m ) . We also demonstrate that the giant piezoresponse is associated with a significant fraction of the tetragonal phase transforming to rhombohedral. It is argued that the polar nanoregions associated with relaxor ferroelectricity amplify the piezoresponse by providing an additional degree of intrinsic structural inhomogeneity to the system.

  6. Phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 lead-free solid solution for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hongliang; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei; Qu, Shaobo; Pei, Zhibin

    2009-06-01

    The (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-x(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 (KNN-BST) solid solution has been synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering in order to search for the new lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics for high temperature applications. The phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution are systematically investigated. The phase structure of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution gradually changes from pure perovskite phase with an orthorhombic symmetry to the tetragonal symmetry, then to the pseudocubic phase, and to the cubic phase with increasing addition of BST. The 0.90KNN-0.10BST solid solution shows a broad dielectric peak with permittivity maximum near 2500 and low dielectric loss (<4%) in the temperature range of 100-250 °C. The result indicates that this material may have great potential for a variety of high temperature applications. The diffuse phase transition and the temperature of the maximum dielectric permittivity shifting toward higher temperature with increasing frequency, which are two typical characteristics for relaxor ferroelectrics, are observed in the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution. The dielectric relaxor behavior obeys a modified Curie-Weiss law and a Vogel-Fulcher relationship. The relaxor nature is attributed to the appearance of polar nanoregions owing to the formation of randon fields including local electric fields and elastic fields. These results confirm that the KNN-based relaxor ferroelectrics can be regarded as an alternative direction for the development of high temperature lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics.

  7. Phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} lead-free solid solution for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Du Hongliang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin

    2009-06-15

    The (1-x)(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (KNN-BST) solid solution has been synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering in order to search for the new lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics for high temperature applications. The phase structure, dielectric properties, and relaxor behavior of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution are systematically investigated. The phase structure of the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution gradually changes from pure perovskite phase with an orthorhombic symmetry to the tetragonal symmetry, then to the pseudocubic phase, and to the cubic phase with increasing addition of BST. The 0.90KNN-0.10BST solid solution shows a broad dielectric peak with permittivity maximum near 2500 and low dielectric loss (<4%) in the temperature range of 100-250 deg. C. The result indicates that this material may have great potential for a variety of high temperature applications. The diffuse phase transition and the temperature of the maximum dielectric permittivity shifting toward higher temperature with increasing frequency, which are two typical characteristics for relaxor ferroelectrics, are observed in the (1-x)KNN-xBST solid solution. The dielectric relaxor behavior obeys a modified Curie-Weiss law and a Vogel-Fulcher relationship. The relaxor nature is attributed to the appearance of polar nanoregions owing to the formation of randon fields including local electric fields and elastic fields. These results confirm that the KNN-based relaxor ferroelectrics can be regarded as an alternative direction for the development of high temperature lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics.

  8. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  9. Relaxation and phase-transition characteristics of relaxor ferroelectric potassium lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byeong-Eog; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Choi, Byung Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2015-06-01

    The electric modulus relaxations were considered to be coupled phenomena between the polarization fluctuations < P 2 > due to local symmetry breaking and ionic hopping through nearest neighbor sites. The Nb-rich potassium lithium niobate (K5.595Li3.125Nb11.28O30) crystals exhibited a ferroelectric diffused phase transition around the dielectric maximum temperature T max = 350. The electric modulus relaxations were characterized by using the Cole-Davidson distribution of the electric modulus relaxation times at frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Although the lattice constants along the a-axes and the c-axes and the tetragonal unit cell volume showed linear expansions with increasing temperature T, the axial ratio c/a decreased with increasing T at temperatures below the Burn's temperature TB. The dielectric relaxation accompanied the high ionic conduction in the temperature range above T. The ac conductivity σ'( ω) was analyzed by using the formulae, where ω O is the crossover frequency. It was considered that a double-Arrhenius behavior of the dc conductivity σ dc at temperatures around the Burn's temperature T B was suspected of thermally activated motions in the random distribution of oxygen vacancies and lithium ions. The ac universality could result in a disordered configuration of the mobile ions, i.e., the dc conductivity at temperatures above T B . The slow relaxations of the nano-sized polar regions may contribute to the dc conductivity σ dc at temperatures below T B . The characteristic relaxation time τ CD showed a change in activation energy from 1.08 eV to 0.80 eV at temperatures around T B . The scaling factor increased in proportion to ( T B - T) at T T B , but was almost constant at T >T B , where ɛ'∞ is the high frequency dielectric constant and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

  10. Phonon coupling to dynamic short-range polar order in a relaxor ferroelectric near the morphotropic phase boundary

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Schneeloch; Xu, Zhijun; Winn, B.; Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-12-28

    We report neutron inelastic scattering experiments on single-crystal PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped with 32% PbTiO3, a relaxor ferroelectric that lies close to the morphotropic phase boundary. When cooled under an electric field E∥ [001] into tetragonal and monoclinic phases, the scattering cross section from transverse acoustic (TA) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens and shifts to higher energy relative to that under zero-field-cooled conditions. Likewise, the scattering cross section from transverse optic (TO) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens for energy transfers 4 ≤ ℏω ≤ 9 meV. However, TA and TO phonons polarized perpendicular to E show no change. This anisotropic field response is similar to that of the diffuse scattering cross section, which, as previously reported, is suppressed when polarized parallel to E but not when polarized perpendicular to E. Lastly, our findings suggest that the lattice dynamics and dynamic short-range polar correlations that give rise to the diffuse scattering are coupled.

  11. Phonon coupling to dynamic short-range polar order in a relaxor ferroelectric near the morphotropic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Winn, B.; Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-12-01

    We report neutron inelastic scattering experiments on single-crystal PbMg1 /3Nb2 /3O3 doped with 32% PbTiO3, a relaxor ferroelectric that lies close to the morphotropic phase boundary. When cooled under an electric field E ∥ [001] into tetragonal and monoclinic phases, the scattering cross section from transverse acoustic (TA) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens and shifts to higher energy relative to that under zero-field-cooled conditions. Likewise, the scattering cross section from transverse optic (TO) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens for energy transfers 4 ≤ℏ ω ≤9 meV. However, TA and TO phonons polarized perpendicular to E show no change. This anisotropic field response is similar to that of the diffuse scattering cross section, which, as previously reported, is suppressed when polarized parallel to E but not when polarized perpendicular to E . Our findings suggest that the lattice dynamics and dynamic short-range polar correlations that give rise to the diffuse scattering are coupled.

  12. Pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting using relaxor ferroelectric 8/65/35 PLZT and the Olsen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Felix Y.; Goljahi, Sam; McKinley, Ian M.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Pilon, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    Waste heat can be directly converted into electrical energy by performing the Olsen cycle on pyroelectric materials. The Olsen cycle consists of two isothermal and two isoelectric field processes in the electric displacement versus electric field diagram. This paper reports on the electrical energy generated by lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (8/65/35 PLZT) subjected to the Olsen cycle. The material was alternately dipped into a cold and a hot silicone oil bath under specified electric fields. A maximum energy density of 888 J l-1/cycle was obtained with a 290 m thick 8/65/35 PLZT sample for temperatures between 25 and 160?C and electric fields cycled between 0.2 and 7.5 MV m-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest pyroelectric energy density experimentally measured with multiple cycles. It corresponded to a power density of 15.8 W l-1. The electrical breakdown strength and therefore the energy and power densities of the material increased as the sample thickness was reduced from 720 to 290 m. Furthermore, a physical model for estimating the energy harvested by ferroelectric relaxors was further validated against experimental data for a wide range of electric fields and temperatures.

  13. Phonon coupling to dynamic short-range polar order in a relaxor ferroelectric near the morphotropic phase boundary

    DOE PAGESBeta

    John A. Schneeloch; Xu, Zhijun; Winn, B.; Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-12-28

    We report neutron inelastic scattering experiments on single-crystal PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped with 32% PbTiO3, a relaxor ferroelectric that lies close to the morphotropic phase boundary. When cooled under an electric field E∥ [001] into tetragonal and monoclinic phases, the scattering cross section from transverse acoustic (TA) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens and shifts to higher energy relative to that under zero-field-cooled conditions. Likewise, the scattering cross section from transverse optic (TO) phonons polarized parallel to E weakens for energy transfers 4 ≤ ℏω ≤ 9 meV. However, TA and TO phonons polarized perpendicular to E show no change. This anisotropicmore » field response is similar to that of the diffuse scattering cross section, which, as previously reported, is suppressed when polarized parallel to E but not when polarized perpendicular to E. Lastly, our findings suggest that the lattice dynamics and dynamic short-range polar correlations that give rise to the diffuse scattering are coupled.« less

  14. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kai-Christian; Grting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT.

  15. Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dittmer, Robert; Stark, Robert W; Dietz, Christian

    2015-07-21

    Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 -x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) -x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped. PMID:26106953

  16. Enhanced dielectric constant and relaxor behavior realized by dual stage sintering of Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Rathore, Satyapal S. Vitta, Satish

    2014-04-24

    The relaxor ferroelectric compound, Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN50) was synthesized by solid state reaction followed by sintering under two different conditions: single and dual stage sintering. The impact of sintering process on structural and dielectric properties has been studied in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The crystal structure determined by performing Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffractogram was found to be identical in both cases. SBN50 crystallizes in the ferroelectric tetragonal tungsten bronze, P4bm structure. It was observed that uniform grain growth can be controlled by dual stage sintering and relatively narrow distribution of grains can be achieved with an average grain size of ∼15 μm. The dielectric studies show that SBN50 exhibits a relaxor ferroelectric behavior with the transformation taking place at ∼ 380 K due to formation of polar nano regions. Although both single and dual stage sintered SBN50 exhibits relaxor behaviour, the maximum dielectric constant of dual stage sintered SBN50 is found to be 1550 compare to 1440 for single stage sintering.

  17. Relaxor Behavior and Dielectric Properties of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3-Modified BaTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuli; Chen, Jie; Huang, Guisheng; Ma, Dandan; Fang, Lang; Zhou, Huanfu

    2015-12-01

    (1 - x)BaTiO3- xBi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 [(1 - x)BT- xBZN, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2] ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra analysis show that the ceramics are tetragonal phase when x ≤ 0.02, and transform to pseudocubic phase as x ≥ 0.06. The temperature and frequency dependences of relative permittivity indicate a gradual crossover from a classic ferroelectric to relaxor ferroelectric. The dielectric relaxor behavior follows a modified Curie-Weiss law. The degree of the phase transition diffuseness ( γ) and the deviation from the Curie-Weiss law (Δ T_{{d}} ) increase to the maximum at x = 0.08, and subsequently decrease with further increasing x values, which associated with the appearance of polar nanoregions on account of the formation of random fields included local electric fields and elastic fields. Nevertheless, the random fields may decrease by reason of the interaction between the local electric fields and elastic fields.

  18. Re-entrant relaxor behavior of Ba5RTi3Nb7O30 (R = La, Nd, Sm) tungsten bronze ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Li Zhu, Xiao; Qiang Liu, Xiao; Ming Chen, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Ba5RTi3Nb7O30 (R = La, Nd, Sm) tungsten bronze ceramics were prepared, and the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated over a broad temperature range. The relaxor nature was determined for all compositions in their permittivity curves, and a second anomaly of the dielectric loss (tan δ) was observed around 250 K in Ba5NdTi3Nb7O30 and around 275 K in Ba5SmTi3Nb7O30. Both the maximum and remanent polarization tended to decrease and vanish at low temperatures in the ferroelectric phase for all compositions, which was referred to as the low temperature re-entrant relaxor behavior. The remanent polarization increased with decreasing temperature first and then reached the maximum value at the re-entrant temperature (Tr). For Ba5RTi3Nb7O30 (R = La, Nd, Sm), Tr decreased with the radius of R3+ cations and the applied field amplitude.

  19. Influence of lanthanum doping on the dielectric, ferroelectric and relaxor behaviour of barium bismuth titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Varma, K. B. R.

    2009-04-01

    Barium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Ba1-(3/2)xLaxBi4Ti4O15, x = 0-0.4) ceramics were fabricated using the powders synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the above compositions to be monophasic and belonged to the m = 4 member of the Aurivillius family of oxides. The effect of the partial presence of La3+ on Ba2+ sites on the microstructure, dielectric and relaxor behaviour of BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT) ceramics was investigated. For the compositions pertaining to x <= 0.1, the dielectric constant at both room temperature and in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric maximum (Tm) of the parent phase (BBT) increased significantly with an increase in x while Tm remained almost constant. Tm shifted towards lower temperatures accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of the dielectric maximum (ɛm) with an increase in the lanthanum content (0.1 < x <= 0.4). The dielectric relaxation was modelled using the Vogel-Fulcher relation and a decrease in the activation energy for frequency dispersion with increasing x was observed. The frequency dispersion of Tm was found to decrease with an increase in lanthanum doping, and for compositions corresponding to x >= 0.3, Tm was frequency independent. Well-developed P(polarization)-E(electric field) hysteresis loops were observed at 150 °C for all the samples and the remanent polarization (2Pr) was improved from 6.3 µC cm-2 for pure BBT to 13.4 µC cm-2 for Ba0.7La0.2Bi4Ti4O15 ceramics. Dc conductivities and associated activation energies were evaluated using impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Effect of electric field on uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    The effects of an electric field and the temperature dependence on the elastic properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 were studied by micro-Brillouin scattering. In the ferroelectric phase, a dramatic increase in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) velocity, which is related to the elastic constant c33, was observed upon the application of a static electric field along the ferroelectric c-axis. A marked thermal hysteresis was observed below the Curie temperature, TC = 72 C, between field heating (FH) and zero field (ZFC) cooling. The effect of an electric field on the static polar nanoregions (PNRs) was examined by the temporal application of a static electric field at 140 C between TC and the intermediate temperature T* = 190 C. After turning off the applied field at 140 C, the LA velocity during ZFC was measured, and it is found that, below TC, the temperature dependence is similar to that during FH. This fact indicates that the alignment of local polarization in static PNRs between TC and T* is possible using an external electric field.

  1. Effect of dead layer and strain on diffuse phase transition of PLZT relaxor thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.; Narayanan, M.; Ma, B.; Koritala, R. E.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.; Shi, D.

    2011-02-01

    Bulk relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit excellent permittivity compared to their thin film counterpart, although both show diffuse phase transition (DPT) behavior unlike normal ferroelectrics. To better understand the effect of dead layer and strain on the observed anomaly in the dielectric properties, we have developed relaxor PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) thin films with different thicknesses and measured their dielectric properties as a function of temperature and frequency. The effect of dead layer on thin film permittivity has been found to be independent of temperature and frequency, and is governed by the Schottky barrier between the platinum electrode and PLZT. The total strain (thermal and intrinsic) in the film majorly determines the broadening, dielectric peak and temperature shift in the relaxor ferroelectric. The Curie-Weiss type law for relaxors has been further modified to incorporate these two effects to accurately predict the DPT behavior of thin film and bulk relaxor ferroelectrics. The dielectric behavior of thin film is predicted by using the bulk dielectric data from literature in the proposed equation, which agree well with the measured dielectric behavior.

  2. Structured diffuse scattering and polar nano-regions in the Ba(Ti{sub 1-} {sub x} Sn {sub x} )O{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectric system

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yun; Withers, Ray L. Wei Xiaoyong; Fitz Gerald, John D.

    2007-03-15

    The observation via electron diffraction of relatively sharp G{+-}{l_brace}001{r_brace}* sheets of diffuse intensity arising from the large amplitude excitation of inherently polar, transverse optical modes of distortion in Ba(Ti{sub 1-} {sub x} Sn {sub x} )O{sub 3} (BTS), 0.1{<=}x{<=}0.5, samples, both at room temperature as well as liquid nitrogen temperature, shows that the polar nano-regions (PNRs) in these relaxor ferroelectric materials correspond to the same highly anisotropic <001> chain dipoles as are characteristic of the normal ferroelectric end member BaTiO{sub 3} itself. The correlation length along the chain of these 1-d PNRs can, in principle, be determined from the width of the observed {l_brace}001{r_brace}* diffuse sheets in reciprocal space and is estimated to be at least 5 nm even for the higher x samples. The distribution of the substitutional Sn ions thus appears to have only a minor effect upon the correlation length along the <001> chain dipole directions. It is suggested that the role of the dopant Sn ions is not to directly induce PNRs but rather to set up random local strain fields preventing the condensation of long wavelength homogeneous strain distortions of the unit cell thereby suppressing transverse correlations of the <001> chain dipoles and the development of long-range ordered ferroelectric state/s. - Graphical abstract: The characteristic G{+-}{l_brace}001{r_brace}* sheets of diffuse intensity characteristic of the relaxor ferroelectric Ba(Ti{sub 1-} {sub x} Sn {sub x} )O{sub 3} (BTS), 0.1{<=}x{<=}0.5, system along with the inherently polar, transverse optical modes of distortion responsible.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of relaxor ferroelectric PbFe1/2Ta1/2O3 thin film: A comparison with ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez V, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Palai, R.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    Highly oriented Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3 (PFT) film is fabricated on conducting La0.67Sr0.33CoO3 coated (100) MgO substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. The x-ray diffraction pattern shows single phase compound having preferential orientation along (100) plane. Surface topography of the film indicates homogeneous distribution of grains with an average grain size ˜55 nm. Broad dielectric dispersion, high dielectric diffusivity, and moderate dielectric loss are observed in the vicinity of wide range of temperatures and frequencies. A reasonably good shift in dielectric maximum temperature (˜30 K) is observed from 1 to 500 kHz suggests relaxor nature of film in this frequency range. At the same time, diffuse dielectric dispersion is seen above 500 kHz indicating diffuse ferroelectric phase transition. Dielectric data fallows the nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher relation below 500 kHz applied frequency which support the relaxor nature of PFT film. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop and butterfly loop show well defined saturated loop below freezing temperature (Tf) (˜150 K). A large shift in dielectric maximum temperature (Tm), i.e., around 75 K is observed compared to bulk counterpart that may be due to misfit strain across substrate-bottom electrode-film interface and in plane compressive strain in the film.

  4. Theoretical and experimental investigation of Raman modes, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of relaxor Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjan, Manish K.; Karthik, T.; Asthana, Saket; Pan, Jaysree; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2013-05-01

    We use a combination of first-principles density functional theoretical analysis and experimental characterization to understand the lattice dynamics, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system. Vibrational spectrum determined through our calculations agrees well with the observed Raman spectrum, and allows assignment of symmetry labels to modes. The calculated Born effective charges reveal (a) two distinct types of Ti ions at the B-site with anomalous dynamical charges differing by up 1.6e, and (b) Na and Bi ions at the A-site exhibit disparate dynamical charges of about 1 and 5.5e, respectively. Thus, there exist hetero-polar activity at both A and B-sites in NBT, and disorder associated with these hetero-polar ions is responsible for its relaxor behaviour. Large dielectric response of NBT arises primarily from phonons, and specifically the modes involving Bi-O (109 cm-1) and Ti-O (246, 276 cm-1) vibrations, respectively.

  5. Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas R; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather E; Stevenson, Tim J; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew J; Comyn, T P

    2015-01-01

    1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical characters in the exploration of new solid-solutions. PMID:25585388

  6. Processing and Reduced Sintering Temperature of Relaxor Ferroelectric Lead Zinc Niobate - Lead Nickel Niobate/lead Titanate Ceramics for Capacitor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Albert A.

    This dissertation investigates processing and property issues between relaxor ferroelectric Lead Zinc Niobate(PZN) and Lead Nickel Niobate(PNN), and the normal ferroelectric, Lead Titanate(PT). These materials were studied with regard to dielectric properties for potential usage in capacitor applications. Compositions in the xPZN-(1-x)PNN binary system were prepared over a range of x = 0 to x = 0.94. The use of the mixed oxide processing technique resulted in substantial pyrochlore phase formation while use of the B-site precursor technique significantly reduced the pyrochlore phase. Peak dielectric constant was a maximum at x = 0.70, with a value of 8,800 at a T_ c of 46 ^circC, following firing at 1125^circC/2 hours. The addition of PT to the PZN-PNN system was performed to optimize dielectric properties. A composition was identified which possessed a room temperature dielectric constant of 12,000 (0.46PZN-0.46PNN-0.08PT). To further optimize dielectric properties, several processing variables were studied, including excess PbO additions to starting batches, firing configuration, powder purity and post-fire thermal annealing. Thermal annealing was found to improve dielectric constant by 50% in the x = 0.65, x = 0.75 and 0.46PZN-0.46PNN -0.08PT systems. The x = 0.75 composition showed an increase in dielectric constant, despite the increased amount of pyrochlore phase present with increased annealing time. The other compositions showed negligible pyrochlore phase for all firing temperatures studied. The increase in K was due to increased grain development and decreased grain boundary phase. A reduction in processing temperature from 1075 to 950^circC using lithium -based fluxing sintering aids was demonstrated in the 0.46PZN -0.46PNN-0.08PT composition, with an improvement in density to 96% with only a 1% Li^+ concentration. Despite this large improvement, dielectric constant improved minimally. A systematic study comparing the effects of LiNO _3, Li_2CO_3 and LiF on physical, structural and dielectric properties is presented. Finally, an empirical relationship was derived showing the dependence of peak dielectric constant on the broadness of the dielectric constant vs. temperature plot in the paraelectric region. It is shown to be valid for all relaxors, regardless of composition, secondary phases or processing issues. It is concluded that the maximum dielectric constant obtainable in a relaxor ferroelectric system is primarily dependent on the extent of cation ordering.

  7. Structured diffuse scattering and polar nano-regions in the Ba(Ti 1-xSn x)O 3 relaxor ferroelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L.; Wei, Xiaoyong; Fitz Gerald, John D.

    2007-03-01

    The observation via electron diffraction of relatively sharp G±{001}* sheets of diffuse intensity arising from the large amplitude excitation of inherently polar, transverse optical modes of distortion in Ba(Ti 1-xSn x)O 3 (BTS), 0.1⩽ x⩽0.5, samples, both at room temperature as well as liquid nitrogen temperature, shows that the polar nano-regions (PNRs) in these relaxor ferroelectric materials correspond to the same highly anisotropic <001> chain dipoles as are characteristic of the normal ferroelectric end member BaTiO 3 itself. The correlation length along the chain of these 1-d PNRs can, in principle, be determined from the width of the observed {001}* diffuse sheets in reciprocal space and is estimated to be at least 5 nm even for the higher x samples. The distribution of the substitutional Sn ions thus appears to have only a minor effect upon the correlation length along the <001> chain dipole directions. It is suggested that the role of the dopant Sn ions is not to directly induce PNRs but rather to set up random local strain fields preventing the condensation of long wavelength homogeneous strain distortions of the unit cell thereby suppressing transverse correlations of the <001> chain dipoles and the development of long-range ordered ferroelectric state/s.

  8. High energy-storage performance in Pb0.91La0.09(Ti0.65Zr0.35)O3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xihong; Wang, Ying; Yang, Jichun; An, Shengli; Xu, Jinbao

    2012-12-01

    In this work, 1-μm-thick relaxor ferroelectric (FE) films with a typical composition of Pb0.91La0.09(Ti0.65Zr0.35)O3 (PLZT 9/65/35) were successfully deposited on platinum-buffered silicon substrates via a sol-gel technique. The microstructure, electrical properties, and energy-storage performance of the obtained thin films were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy pictures indicated that the crystallized thin films showed a random orientation with uniform and dense microstructure. Electrical measurements illustrated that the relaxor FE thin films had a considerable capacitance density of 925 nF/cm2 at 1 MHz and a higher critical breakdown field of 2177 kV/cm. As a result, a large recoverable energy-storage density of 28.7 J/cm3 was obtained in the thin films at room temperature. Moreover, good charge-discharge endurance was also realized in the FE films, confirmed by the repeated polarization-electric field loops.

  9. Chemical order and local structure of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Groeting, Melanie; Hayn, Silke; Albe, Karsten

    2011-08-15

    The A-site mixed perovskite sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by means of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. By studying different geometries with varying occupations of the A-site, the influence of chemical order on the thermodynamic stability and local structure is explored. We find that the hybridization of Bi 6sp with O 2p-states leads to stereochemically active Bi{sup 3+} lone pairs and increases the stability of structures with high Bi concentrations in {l_brace}001{r_brace}-planes. This goes along with displacive disorder on the oxygen sublattice, which up to now has been neglected in experimental studies. The calculated ordering energies are, however, small as compared to the thermal energy and therefore only short-range chemical order can be expected in experiments. Thus, it is conceivable that chemically ordered local areas can act as nucleation sites for polar nano-regions, which would explain the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: First-principles calculations give relative stabilities of different chemically ordered structures. The results suggest a new model for the local structure of Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} with 001-ordered nano-regions embedded in a chemically disordered matrix. Chemical order/disorder additionally induces displacive disorder within the oxygen sublattice. Highlights: > Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} is studied by ab initio-calculations. > Structural relaxations in the oxygen sublattice are decisive for relative stabilities. > Chemical environment of oxygen determines relaxation ability. > Bi 6s{sup 2} lone pair formation is the driving force for relaxation. > New structure model: Chemically 001-ordered nano-regions embedded in disordered matrix.

  10. Detection of the critical end point in PbSc0.5Ta0.36Nb0.14O3 relaxor ferroelectrics crystals via acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul'kin, E.; Mihailova, B.; Gospodinov, M.; Roth, M.

    2014-09-01

    PbSc0.5Ta0.36Nb0.14O3 relaxor-ferroelectric crystals were studied by the means of dielectric and acoustic emission (AE) methods in the temperature range of 180-300 K. In zero dc electric field (E) no AE was detected at the smeared dielectric maximum Tm ≈ 260 K characteristic for canonical relaxor ferroelectrics. Under the E a phase transition appears at TC = 217 K for E ˜ 1 kV cm-1. The TC(E) dependence is linear with an anomaly point at E ˜ 1.3 kV cm-1, at which dTC/dE abruptly changes. At this E value the AE rate exhibits a maximum. The anomalous E point is assigned to be the critical end point for this solid solution.

  11. Thermal Diffuse Scattering in Relaxor Ferroelectric Pb(Mg_1/3Nb_2/3)O_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosula, Vijaya; Chen, Haydn

    1998-03-01

    X-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements were performed in Pb(Mg_1/3Nb_2/3)O3 (PMN) single crystal using synchrotron x-ray at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Measurements were taken within several different Brilloun Zones in order to identify and separate between the different phonon contributions present at the paraelectric phase of PMN. A [110] transverse type phonon contribution was identified and isolated by scanning the (022) plane along the (010) and (001) directions and observing the diffuse scattering streaks along [0-11] direction. To observe the phonon contribution as a function of temperature, two perpendicular plane scans of the (100) and (001) type, crossing the (004) lattice point, were performed in reciprocal space. Measurements were taken at 42^0, 150^0, and 250^0 C, and the behavior of the phonon as the transition temperature is approached was observed. The phase transformation behavior of several ferroelectric materials has been attributed to the behavior of low-frequency branches of phonons close to the transition temperature. This study will help clarify the role of phonons in the phase transition in PMN.

  12. Visualization of polar nanoregions in lead-free relaxors via piezoresponse force microscopy in torsional dual AC resonance tracking mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Dittmer, Robert; Stark, Robert W.; Dietz, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 - x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) - x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped.Polar nanoregions (PNRs) play a key role in the functionality of relaxor ferroelectrics; however, visualizing them in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics with high lateral resolution is still challenging. Thus, we studied herein the local ferroelectric domain distribution of the lead-free bismuth-based (1 - x)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3) - x(Bi1/2Mg1/2TiO3) piezoceramics which show a relaxor behavior using dual AC resonance tracking (DART) piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By using excitation frequencies at either side of the contact resonance peak of the torsional cantilever vibration, an enhanced contrast in the amplitude and phase images of the piezoresponse can be achieved. Additionally, this tracking technique reduces the topographical crosstalk while mapping the local electromechanical properties. The true drive amplitude, drive phase, contact resonant frequency and quality factor can be estimated from DART-PFM data obtained with vertically or torsionally vibrating cantilevers. This procedure yields a three-dimensional quantitative map of the local piezoelectric properties of the relaxor ferroelectric samples. With this approach, torsional DART allowed for the visualization of fine substructures within the monodomains, suggesting the existence of PNRs in relaxor ferroelectrics. The domain structures of the PNRs were visualized with high precision, and the local electromechanical characteristics of the lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics were quantitatively mapped. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01326g

  13. Stress dependence of thermally driven pyroelectric charge release during FER-FEO phase transformations in [011] cut relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wen D.; Finkel, Peter; Amin, Ahmed; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    The stress dependence of thermally driven polarization change is reported for a ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation in [011] cut and poled Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT). A jump in polarization and strain is associated with a phase transformation of the ferroelectric material. The phase transformation temperature can be tuned, over a broad temperature range, through the application of bias stress. This phenomenon has applications in the field of energy harvesting and thermal sensing.

  14. Re-entrant relaxor behavior of Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R = La, Nd, Sm) tungsten bronze ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Li Zhu, Xiao; Qiang Liu, Xiao; Ming Chen, Xiang

    2013-03-18

    Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R = La, Nd, Sm) tungsten bronze ceramics were prepared, and the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated over a broad temperature range. The relaxor nature was determined for all compositions in their permittivity curves, and a second anomaly of the dielectric loss (tan {delta}) was observed around 250 K in Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} and around 275 K in Ba{sub 5}SmTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30}. Both the maximum and remanent polarization tended to decrease and vanish at low temperatures in the ferroelectric phase for all compositions, which was referred to as the low temperature re-entrant relaxor behavior. The remanent polarization increased with decreasing temperature first and then reached the maximum value at the re-entrant temperature (T{sub r}). For Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R = La, Nd, Sm), T{sub r} decreased with the radius of R{sup 3+} cations and the applied field amplitude.

  15. Large enhancement of the recoverable energy storage density and piezoelectric response in relaxor-ferroelectric capacitors by utilizing the seeding layers engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenkun; Yue, Zhenxing; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Chuan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Ruehl, Griffin; Li, Longtu

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an approach to improve the recoverable energy-storage performance and piezoelectric response of 0.4Bi(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3-0.6PbTiO3 (BNZ-PT) relaxor-ferroelectric film capacitors by utilizing the seeding layers engineering. Highly (100)-oriented BNZ-PT films were prepared through alternatively introducing PbO seeding layers, and the effects of PbO seeds on microstructure and electrical properties were investigated in details. Compared to the films without seeds, the PbO-seeded BNZ-PT films exhibit significant enhancement in dielectric and piezoelectric properties as well as energy-storage performance. The maximum energy-storage density of 56.1 ± 2.4 J/cm3 and a piezoelectric coefficient as high as 125 ± 10 pm/V have been achieved in the highly (100)-oriented BNZ-PT films at 2167 kV/cm, which are increased by 40.6% and 50.6% compared to the films without seeds, respectively. The observed tremendous enhancement of energy-storage performance and piezoelectric response can be attributed to the better crystallization quality and higher degree of (100)-preferred orientation in the films which would motivate higher domain-wall mobility.

  16. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao

    2015-06-24

    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range. PMID:25996244

  17. Role of random electric fields in relaxors

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Daniel; Stock, Christopher; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Chi, Songxue; Leão, Juscelino; Long, Xifa; Xie, Yujuan; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Gehring, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    PbZr1–xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1–xTixO3 (PMN-xPT) are complex lead-oxide perovskites that display exceptional piezoelectric properties for pseudorhombohedral compositions near a tetragonal phase boundary. In PZT these compositions are ferroelectrics, but in PMN-xPT they are relaxors because the dielectric permittivity is frequency dependent and exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior. We show that the nanoscale structure unique to PMN-xPT and other lead-oxide perovskite relaxors is absent in PZT and correlates with a greater than 100% enhancement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient in PMN-xPT relative to that in PZT. By comparing dielectric, structural, lattice dynamical, and piezoelectric measurements on PZT and PMN-xPT, two nearly identical compounds that represent weak and strong random electric field limits, we show that quenched (static) random fields establish the relaxor phase and identify the order parameter. PMID:24449912

  18. Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram of Relaxor Ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Kiyoshi; Hiroshima, Mika; Kasatani, Hirofumi; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Nakamoto, Yuki; Ahart, Muhtar; Yamanaka, Takamitsu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure of up to 2.7 GPa on the dielectric constant and pyroelectric charge of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 single crystal were investigated. In addition to the broad and frequency-dependent dielectric anomaly of the relaxor state, a distinct secondary dielectric anomaly was found at pressures higher than approximately 0.7 GPa. This new dielectric anomaly was confirmed consistently by isothermal and isobaric measurements. The pressure dependences of the peak temperature of the dielectric constant, the freezing temperature, and the temperature at which the secondary dielectric anomaly disappeared (Ta) were investigated. The Ta line in the temperature-pressure phase diagram represents the phase boundary of the pressure-induced structural phase transition.

  19. Dielectric properties of metal-organic chemical vapor deposited highly textured Pb(ScTa)1-xTixO3 (x=0-0.3) relaxor ferroelectric thin films on LaNiO3 electrode buffered Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Lee, S. W.; Chen, Haydn; Wu, T. B.

    1999-10-01

    Highly (100) textured Pb(ScTa)1-xTixO3 (x=0-0.3) thin films were grown on LaNiO3/Pt/Ti electrode-coated Si substrate using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at 685 °C. Ti addition was introduced to modify the dielectric properties. Diffuse phase transition, typical of relaxor ferroelectrics was noticed. As Ti content increased from 0% to 30%, the phase transition temperature (Tmax) gradually shifted from -10 to 120 °C with the dielectric constant at Tmax increased from 1397 to 1992 (1 kHz). Loss tangent values are generally below 0.025.

  20. Abnormal polarization switching of relaxor terpolymer films at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B. B.; Zhao, X. L.; Liu, B. L.; Wang, J. L.; Han, Li; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-02-01

    The ferroelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer films fabricated using Langmuir-Blodgett technology were investigated from 180 to 300 K. The temperature dependences of the remanent polarization and the dielectric response showed a broad peak at ˜270 K, suggesting a ferroelectric phase transition. Unlike perovskite relaxors, a deviation from Merz's law was observed in the relationship between the coercive field and the frequency, which was used to measure the hysteresis for the relaxor terpolymer. The specific ferroelectricity of the relaxor terpolymer is considered to be associated with the distinctive structure and dynamics of its typical molecular conformations.

  1. Blockage of domain growth by nanoscale heterogeneities in a relaxor ferroelectric Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsev, N. A.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Bodnarchuk, Ya. V.; Volk, T. R.

    2015-01-21

    The growth of localized subsurface domains in a relaxor ferroelectric Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is studied using the technique of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Ferroelectric domains are created by applying moderate voltages of 10–50 V to the conductive tip of a scanning force microscope brought into contact with a nonpolar face of a Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} crystal. PFM images of written domains are acquired and analyzed quantitatively to determine the domain length along the polar axis and its width in the transverse direction. The dependences of domain sizes on the applied voltage, pulse duration, and the time passed after completion of the voltage pulse are reported and analyzed theoretically. It is shown that the observed kinetics of domain growth can be explained by the creep of domain boundaries occurring in the presence of random electric fields inherent in Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The comparison of measured domain sizes with their equilibrium values calculated with the aid of the thermodynamic theory demonstrates that the growth of subsurface domains in Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is blocked by nanoscale heterogeneities characteristic of this relaxor ferroelectric. These results may have important implications for the development of nonlinear optical devices based on nanoheterogeneous ferroelectrics.

  2. Relaxor-like ferroelectric behaviour favoured by short-range B-site ordering in 10% Ba{sup 2+} substituted MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Chithra Lekha, P.; Ramesh, G.; Revathi, V.; Subramanian, V.

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mechanism driving polarization in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the Maxwell–Wagner polarization. • But Raman studies confirm the existence of local P4{sub 1}22/P4{sub 3}22 symmetry in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Ba{sup 2+} substitution increases ferroelectric ordering, ΔT{sub m} span, and masks electronic contribution. - Abstract: Using the molten salt method, pristine and Ba{sup 2+} substituted MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are prepared. The relaxor-like behaviour observed in the dielectric dispersion indicates the existence of B-site short-range ordering with the local P4{sub 1}22/P4{sub 3}22 symmetry which is confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. The paper further analyses the origin of polarization using Maxwell–Wagner fit and Nyquist plot. This work suggests a possible way to increase the relaxor-like ferroelectric ordering, larger span of relaxation temperature (ΔT{sub m}) and the effective masking of electronic contribution by the substitution of Ba{sup 2+} ion.

  3. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica; Acosta, Matias; Daniels, John E.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature. These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxor transition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications.

  4. Local Polarization Dynamics and Bias-Induced Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Relaxors: Time-resolved Spectroscopy and Ergodic Gap Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, S. V.; Rodriguez, B.; Nikiforov, M. P.; Balke, N.; Jesse, S.; Ovchinnikov, O. S.; Bokov, A. A.; Ye, Z.-G.

    2009-03-01

    Mesoscopic domain structure and dynamics in PMN-PT solis solutions is studied using spatially resolved time- and voltage spectroscopic imaging modes. For compositions close to the MPB, we observe the formation of classical ferroelectric domains with rough self-affine boundaries. In the ergodic phase (PMN and PMN-10PT), the formation of non-classical labyrinthine domain patterns characterized by a single characteristic length scale is observed. The (a) persistence of these patterns well above Tc and (b) the fact that cannot be switched by tip bias suggest that they can be attributed to the frozen polarization component. Spatial variability of polarization relaxation dynamics in PMN-10PT is studied. Local relaxation attributed to the reorientation of polar nanoregions was found to follow stretched exponential dependence, with β 0.4, much larger than the macroscopic value determined from dielectric spectra (β 0.09). The spatial inhomogeneity of relaxation time distribution with the presence of 100-200 nm ``fast'' and ``slow'' regions is observed. The results are analyzed to map the Vogel-Fulcher temperatures on the nanoscale. The applicability of this technique to map ``ergodic gap'' distribution on the surface is discussed. Research supported by the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC.

  5. Ferroelectric switching behavior in morphology controlled ferroelectric-semiconductor polymer blends for organic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eunhee; Su, Gregory; Kramer, Edward; Chabinyc, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Memory is a fundamental component of all modern electronic systems. Organic ferroelectric memories are advantageous because they are thin and lightweight devices that can be made printable, foldable, and stretchable. Organic ferroelectric memories comprise a physical blend of an organic semiconducting polymer and an insulating ferroelectric polymer as the active layer in a thin film diode. Controlling the thin film morphology in these blends is important for electrical properties of the resulting device. We have found that when a semiconducting thiophene polymer with polar alkanoate side chains (P3EPT) is blended with well-studied ferroelectric polymer poly [(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene] P (VDF-TrFE), the resulting film has low surface roughness and more controllable domain sizes compared to the widely used poly (3-hexylthiophene). This difference allows more reliable study of the ferroelectric switching behavior in devices with domain size of about 100nm. The influence of the 3D composition measured by a combination of methods, including soft x-ray microscopy, on the electrical characteristics will be presented.

  6. Anomalous thermal hysteresis of two first order phase transitions in relaxor ferroelectric 0.945 Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.055PbTiO3 crystals studied by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Saidul; Tsukada, Shinya; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    The thermal hysteresis has been studied by Brillouin scattering in the relaxor ferroelectric (1 - x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 with x = 0.055 (i.e., below the morphotropic phase boundary composition x ˜ 0.08). On heating from room temperature, the first order rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition occurs at TR-T = 397 K, then the first order tetragonal to cubic transition occurs at TT-C = 425 K. However, on cooling from high temperature, only the diffusive phase transition was observed around TC-R = 401 K. Such anomalous thermal hysteresis is attributed to the metastable non-equilibrium states induced by supercooling due to quenching of nano-domains by the random electric fields of the B-site charge disorder.

  7. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  8. Cathodoluminescence investigation of relaxor-based ferroelectrics Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-0.3PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.3PT) single-crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wanyin; Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) possesses ultrahigh electromechanical coefficients near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this paper, the electro-stimulated emission characteristics of a [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-0.3PTsingle-crystal were studied using high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at room temperature. Four luminescence bands were observed in the range of 200-900 nm and they were assigned to polaron, nanometre cluster emission, interband emission and structure-related emission. Besides, it was found that the residual stress field ahead of a crack tip of a Vickers indentation had a considerable influence on these luminescence bands. The relationship between the intensities of CL bands and the residual stress field has been investigated and discussed in this paper.

  9. Investigation of ferroelectric behavior in electroactive polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Matt

    2007-12-01

    Ferroelectric behavior has been investigated in newly synthesized electroactive cyanopolymer systems. These systems are chemical analogs to the well known ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE). Various chemical groups have been used to replace the electronegative fluorine and electropositive hydrogen atoms found in PVDF. This substitution maintains the polar nature of the all-trans conformation while increasing the amphiphilic nature of the polymers, enabling the fabrication of ultrathin films using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The studied cyanopolymers include poly(methyl vinylidene cyanide), PMVC, and several of its copolymers. Evidence for ferroelectric behavior has been observed in the 50:50 copolymer of poly(methyl vinylidene cyanide) and vinyl acetate, P(MVDCN-VAC), where, at elevated temperatures, polarization hysteresis, measured using a specialized Chynoweth pyroelectric technique, has been observed. Polarization hysteresis loops, in the case of P(MVDCN-VAC), were measured at elevated temperatures below the melting temperature, Tm, of 170°C. Furthermore, the reversible polarization states have been shown to be quite long lived (+1000 hours), with decay rates consistent with that observed in P(VDF-TrFE) systems. Structural characteristics of the cyanopolymer systems have been probed using Transmission electron microscopy and theta-2theta x-ray diffraction. Single-crystal electron diffraction measurements indicate an orthorhombic unit cell with dimensions a=11.2A. b=6.6A, and c=5.3 A, an expanded analog to the orthorhombic unit cell associated to the ferroelectric beta phase in PVDF. Fundamental structural and dielectric studies have been performed in order to study the nature of the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in ultrathin (15-100 nm) Langmuir-Blodgett copolymer films of the ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) 70:30. In-situ theta-2theta XRD was used to monitor changes in inter-layer spacing perpendicular to the film surface, corresponding to the (110) direction, as a function of temperature and applied electric-field. Capacitance versus temperature measurements were used to investigate the behavior of the dielectric constant of the copolymer at increasing applied electric fields. Application of a large electric-field, up to 265 MV/m, raises the ferroelectric phase transition temperature, which results in the conversion of the nonpolar trans-gauche paraelectric phase to the polar all-trans ferroelectric phase in a thermodynamically reversible manner, confirming the first-order nature of the ferroelectric transition in P(VDF-TrFE) 70:30.

  10. Structural and dielectric relaxor behavior of Ba1-xNdxBi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Pinyang; Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Shanchuan

    2016-04-01

    Ba1-xNdxBi4Ti4O14 (BNBT) ceramics were prepared by the convention solid state reaction method. Effect of neodymium substitution on the structural and dielectric properties of the BBT ceramic was investigated. Phase structure was characterized by using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). A broaden dielectric peak in frequency dependent dielectric spectrum is observed during the phase transition of the BNBT ceramics. The modified Curie-Weiss and Lorentz-type relationship were used to describe the phase transition behavior. The relaxor behavior could be described well by the Lorentz-type relationship. Effect of neodymium substitution on the Curie temperatures and degree of the diffuseness in the BNBT ceramics was discussed.

  11. Crystal growth and dynamic ferroelectric hysteresis scaling behavior of molecular ferroelectric diisopropylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunli; Lin, Hechun; Luo, Chunhua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jing; Peng, Hui; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The molecular ferroelectric, diisopropylammonium bromide (DIPAB) crystal with P21 phase is successfully prepared in an anhydrous environment at room temperature. The results illustrate that the water in the solvent / environment plays a key role in the phase of DIPAB single crystal during crystallization process. The scaling behavior of the dynamic hysteresis of DIPAB crystal is also investigated. The scaling relations of hysteresis area(A) against frequency (f) and applied electric field amplitude (E0) can be expressed with A ∝ f - 0 . 17E01 in the f-region I (30-6.6 Hz), A ∝ f 0 . 045E00.92 in the f-region II (200-50 Hz) and A ∝ f - 0 . 41E02 in the f-region III (500-250 Hz). This three-stage behavior between the loop area A and frequency is ascribed to the coexistence of order-disorder and displacive characters in the ferroelectric transition characters in such molecular ferroelectrics.

  12. Ferroelastic aspects of relaxor ferroelectric behaviour in Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Guillaume F.; Li, Qian; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L.; Driver, Sarah L.; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2013-03-01

    Elastic and anelastic properties of poled and depoled single crystals of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 with compositions close to the morphotropic boundary have been investigated over the temperature range 5-700 K by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at frequencies of 0.1-1.2 MHz. Steep elastic softening occurs in a temperature interval of at least 250 K as the Vogel-Fulcher freezing interval and cubic → tetragonal transition point, Tc, are approached from above. This is understood in terms of coupling between acoustic modes and central peak mode(s) associated with dynamic polar nano regions (PNR's) below the Burns temperature. Acoustic losses occur in a temperature interval of ˜50 K above Tc, associated with slowing down of the PNR dynamics. The cubic ↔ tetragonal and tetragonal ↔ rhombohedral transitions are accompanied by steep minima in elastic properties, closely analogous to the pattern of softening and stiffening observed in sequences of improper ferroelastic transitions in other perovskites. Variations in the magnitudes of acoustic losses at T < Tc correlate with the density of ferroelastic twin walls, from lowest for [001]c-poled and [111]c-poled crystals in the stability fields of the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases, respectively, to highest for unpoled crystals. A simple model of Debye-like peaks in acoustic loss near 100 K has yielded activation energies and attempt frequencies in the same range as those observed from dielectric data in the Vogel-Fulcher freezing interval. These highlight the fact that, in addition to conventional ferroelectric/ferroelastic twin walls, relaxor ferroelectrics contain local structural heterogeneities coupled to strain, which are probably related to the presence of static PNR's preserved even in poled crystals. RUS also provides a convenient and effective means of determining the mechanical quality factor of relaxor ferroelectrics, as functions of both poling history and temperature.

  13. Composition dependence of the diffuse scattering in the relaxor ferroelectric compound (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.40)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.; Gehring, P. M.; Ye, Z.-G.; Chen, W.; Shirane, G.

    2006-10-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to characterize the diffuse scattering in five single crystals of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-xPT) with x=0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. The addition of ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3} modifies the well-known 'butterfly' and 'ellipsoidal' diffuse scattering patterns observed in pure PMN (x=0), which are believed to be associated with the presence of randomly oriented polar nanoregions. In particular, the anisotropy of the diffuse scattering diminishes as the PT content increases. The spatial correlation length {xi} along the [110] direction derived from the width of the diffuse scattering at room temperature increases from 12.6 A for PMN to 350 A for PMN-20%PT. In addition, the diffuse scattering intensity at q=0 grows and reaches a maximum value around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), which suggests that it is proportional to the dielectric susceptibility. Beyond x=30%, a concentration very close to the MPB, no diffuse scattering is observed below T{sub C}, and well-defined critical behavior appears near T{sub C}. By contrast, the diffuse scattering for x{<=}20% persists down to low temperatures, where the system retains an average cubic structure (T{sub C}=0). Finally, the anisotropic soft transverse optic (TO) modes observed in PMN are found to be isotropic for PMN-30%PT, which strongly suggests a connection between the anisotropic diffuse scattering and the TO modes.

  14. Relaxor and nonlinear behaviors of SrTiO3/BaTiO3 multilayers derived by a sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jiwei; Hung, T. F.; Chen, Haydn

    2004-09-01

    Multilayered SrTiO3/BaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on LaNiO3-buffered Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel deposition method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to examine the microstructure and crystalline phase of grown films. The dielectric properties were investigated as a function of multiplayer periodicity. Results showed that dielectric responses of these films were extremely similar to those of relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. The hysteresis loop decreased as the individual layer thickness decreased for a fixed total thickness of about 360nm. The dielectric constants, however, increased first then decreased as the individual layer thickness increased.

  15. Electric field cycling behavior of ferroelectric hafnium oxide.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe; Pešić, Milan; Popovici, Mihaela; Pershin, Yuriy V; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    HfO2 based ferroelectrics are lead-free, simple binary oxides with nonperovskite structure and low permittivity. They just recently started attracting attention of theoretical groups in the fields of ferroelectric memories and electrostatic supercapacitors. A modified approach of harmonic analysis is introduced for temperature-dependent studies of the field cycling behavior and the underlying defect mechanisms. Activation energies for wake-up and fatigue are extracted. Notably, all values are about 100 meV, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than for conventional ferroelectrics like lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This difference is mainly atttributed to the one to two orders of magnitude higher electric fields used for cycling and to the different surface to volume ratios between the 10 nm thin films in this study and the bulk samples of former measurements or simulations. Moreover, a new, analog-like split-up effect of switching peaks by field cycling is discovered and is explained by a network model based on memcapacitive behavior as a result of defect redistribution. PMID:25365475

  16. Superspin glass phase and hierarchy of interactions in multiferroic PbFe1/2Sb1/2O3: an analog of ferroelectric relaxors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Savinov, M.; Marysko, M.; Kuzian, R. O.; Kondakova, I. V.; Olekhnovich, N. M.; Pushkarev, A. V.; Radyush, Yu V.; Raevski, I. P.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Prosandeev, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    We have fabricated new perovskite multiferroic PbFe1/2Sb1/2O3 with a high degree (up to 0.9) of chemical ordering and unexpectedly high-temperature magnetic relaxor properties, which can barely be described within concepts of conventional spin glass physics. Notably, we found that the field-temperature phase diagram of this material, in the extremely wide temperature interval, contains the de Almeida-Thouless-type critical line, which has been the subject of long debates regarding its possible experimental realization. We explain our findings by the creation, at high temperatures of not less than 250 K, of giant superspins (SSs), owing, curiously enough, to the antiferromagnetic superexchange interaction. We show that these SSs are capable of strong high-temperature magnetic relaxation in the relaxor phase, down to about 150 K, where they transform into a SS glass phase. On further cooling, the material experiences another striking transition, this time, into an ordinary (single-spin) antiferromagnetic phase. We comprehensively analyze the above complex physical picture in terms of three complimentary theoretical approaches. Namely, the ab initio calculations elucidate the microscopic mechanism of giant SS formation, the high-temperature expansion accounts for the morphology of these clusters, and the random field approach provides the description of disorder-related characteristics.

  17. Cation ordering and dielectric properties of PMN-PSN relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. K.; Farber, L.; Valant, M.; Akbas, M. A.

    2000-09-01

    Extended thermal annealing treatments were used to modify the B-site cation order in the (1-x)PMN-(x)PSN perovskite system. Extensive 1:1 ordering could be induced in compositions with x⩾0.1. The substitution of PSN into PMN produces a large increase in the thermal stability of the 1:1 ordered phase, with the maximum disordering temperature of ˜1360 °C being observed for x=0.5. The order-disorder transition temperature for pure PMN was calculated to be 913 °C. The changes in stability could be rationalized using the random site model for the cation order. The well ordered, large chemical domain ceramics exhibited relaxor behavior up to x˜0.6, for higher values normal ferroelectric behavior was observed. Alterations in the size of the chemical domain size had no significant effect on the properties of the lower x compositions, but induced a transition to relaxor behavior for x>˜0.6.

  18. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy loss mechanisms are discussed in terms of compositions, crystal structures, temperature, domain configurations, domain sizes and grain boundaries. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the total energy dissipation are quantified. In domain engineered ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, polarization rotations, domain wall motions and mechanical wave scatterings at grain boundaries are believed to control the mechanical quality factors of piezoelectric resonators. We show that a thorough understanding on the kinetic processes is critical in analyzing energy loss behavior and other time-dependent properties in ferroelectric materials. At the end of the review, existing challenges in the study and control of losses in ferroelectric materials are analyzed, and future perspective in resolving these issues is discussed. PMID:25814784

  19. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  20. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jinzhong; Xu, Guisheng; Jiang, Kai; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42) single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The E(TO1) phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc) can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  1. Phase diagram and skin effect of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3+xPbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Peter; Phelan, Daniel; Rodriguez, Efrain; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2012-02-01

    We revisit the phase diagram of the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-xPT using neutron powder diffraction to test suggestions that defects in the oxygen stoichiometry and/or strain affect the ground state crystal structure. Two identical sets of PMN-xPT powders were prepared with x=0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40. One set was annealed in air at 873K for 2h. For a given composition and temperature the same structural phase is observed in each set, thus indicating that the effects of strain and oxygen vacancies are minimal. But the distortions measured in the annealed samples are consistently smaller than those in the as-grown samples. In addition, the average grain size of the annealed samples is approximately twice that of the as-grown samples (1.2±0.6 microns vs 0.6±0.3 microns). This result is consistent with a skin effect in which Ti-poor bulk crystals show significantly smaller distortions than do powders of the same composition. The diffraction patterns for both the as-grown and annealed samples with compositions x=0.10 and x=0.20 are best refined using the monoclinic Cm space group, which agrees with recent speculation by Singh et al., Phys. Rev. B 74, 024101 (2006).

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the dielectric susceptibility of Ginzburg-Landau mode relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-M.; Wang, X.; Chan, H. L.; Choy, C. L.

    2004-03-01

    The electric dipole configuration and dielectric susceptibility of a Ginzburg-Landau model ferroelectric lattice with randomly distributed defects are simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The simulated characteristics of the lattice configuration and dielectric susceptibility indicate that the model lattice evolves from a normal ferroelectric state to a typical relaxor state with increasing defect concentration. Consequently, the energy and dielectric susceptibility characteristics associated with the ferroelectric phase transitions become smeared. The simulated results approve the applicability of the Ginzburg-Landau model in approaching relaxor ferroelectrics.

  3. Relaxor fluorinated polymers: novel applications and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, François; Dos Santos, Domingues; Zhang, Qiming

    2011-04-01

    It has been found that by introducing defects into the P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers, it is possible to convert the polymer from a normal ferroelectric to a relaxor ferroelectric. A new class of ferroelectric polymers, i.e., the terpolymers of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) or of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE), was developed from the normal ferroelectric PVDF-TrFE polymer by employing proper defect modifications which eliminate detrimental effects associated with a normal first order F-P transition while maintaining high material responses. Relevant studies show that this class of electroactive polymers offers unique properties in comparison with other ferroelectric polymers. The syntheses of these relaxor ferroelectric polymers have been done by a combination of the suspension polymerization process and an oxygen-activated initiator at a temperature of 40 °C. Films from cast solution can be made in different length and thicknesses. Stretching of these films increases the performance as well as the mechanical properties. These relaxor-ferroelectric terpolymers P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) are multifunctional i.e. electrostrictive material, dielectric for electric energy storage. The terpolymer exhibits high electrostrictive strain (>7%) with relatively high modulus (>0.4GPa). Examples of devices applications using unimorphe systems are presented. Micropump and Optical device concerning a liquid-filled varifocal lens on a chip are described.

  4. Polar Nanoregions and Relaxors: How Nanoscale Disorder Leads to Enormous Electromechanical Response (438th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Guangyong

    2008-07-16

    Relaxors is the name given to a special class of materials called relaxor ferroelectrics. Xu will describe a series of experiments done by BNL researchers with collaborators from Stony Brook University, Johns Hopkins University, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to discover why relaxors have such an exceptional electromechanical response. The explanation is dependent on "polar nanoregions" -- tiny, nanometer-scale regions within the relaxors. The team established a link between polar nanoregions and the relaxors' ability to deform in response to an electric field, or to have a pulse of electric current induced by a deforming physical force. This understanding promises to lead to more improvements to relaxor materials for an even greater variety of applications.

  5. Antiferroelectriclike polarization behavior in compositionally varying (1-x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(x ) PbTiO3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, R.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2007-08-01

    Compositionally varying multilayers of (1-x) Pb(Mg1/3N2/3)O3-(x ) PbTiO3 were fabricated using pulsed laser ablation technique. An antiferroelectriclike polarization hysteresis was observed in these relaxor based multilayer systems. The competition among the intrinsic ferroelectric coupling in the relaxor ferroelectrics and the antiferroelectric coupling among the dipoles at the interface gives rise to an antiferroelectriclike polarization behavior. An increment in the coercive field and the applied field corresponding to the polarization flipping at low temperatures, provide further insight on the competition among the long-range ferroelectric interaction and the interfacial interaction in the polarization behavior of these relaxor multilayers.

  6. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Xue

    2015-11-01

    The electrocaloric (EC) effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  7. Microstructural effects on the dielectric and electromechanical properties of lead magnesium(1/3)niobium(2/3)oxygen(3) relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyuncu, Metin

    2000-10-01

    One of the major concerns with the electrostrictive PbMg1/3Nb 2/3O3 (PMN) based materials is the formation of a stable non-ferroelectric second phase in small amounts. One objective of this project is to clear the reason behind its formation and consistently achieve 100% pure perovskite phase using the columbite route. Second objective is to develop a model to understand the effect of non-ferroelectric second phases (pores and pyrochlore) in electrostrictive materials. Careful characterization of the raw materials showed that formation of pyrochlore was related directly to the quality of the MgO powder. 100% pure perovskite was formed consistently from stoichiometric compositions when this oxide was free of volatiles, i.e. hydrates and carbonates. Stoichiometric PMN produced in this way was seen to have the best combination of dielectric and mechanical properties, and deviation from MgO stoichiometry in any direction resulted in inferior material properties due to formation of pyrochlore or unreacted MgO. The effect of pores and second phases to dielectric and electromechanical properties of PMN were investigated by using a non-linear finite element model. Electric field dependence of mechanical properties was determined by the pulse-echo technique as a function of temperature and electric field in the range -50 to 70°C. The dependence of these properties at Tmax was implemented into the FEM. Electric field and mechanical stress dependence of polarization and strain was implemented into the model through the use of non-linear material properties. Electric field induced anisotropy and local change in material properties were taken into account on an element-to-element resolution, including local dielectric breakdown. The effects of pores and pyrochlore of similar geometry were found to be almost equal for identical geometries due to the high dielectric constant of PMN. The field concentrations were elevated between particles/pores if the distance in-between was less than approximately ten times the diameter of the particle. If dielectric breakdown occurred, the broken-down region grew into a tree shape and towards the electrodes as the applied field was increased. The developed model can be used in analysis or design of new electrostrictive materials/devices without the need for assumptions to simplify geometry, field distributions or material properties.

  8. High-resolution structure studies and magnetoelectric coupling of relaxor multiferroic Pb (F e0.5N b0.5) O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hasung; Peets, Darren C.; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Seongsu; Kamiyama, T.; Ikeda, K.; Otomo, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Park, Je-Geun

    2014-12-01

    Pb (F e0.5N b0.5) O3 (PFN), one of the few relaxor multiferroic systems, has a G -type antiferromagnetic transition at TN=143 K and a ferroelectric transition at TC=385 K . By using high-resolution neutron-diffraction experiments and a total scattering technique, we paint a comprehensive picture of the long- and short-range structures of PFN: (i) a clear sign of short-range structural correlation above TC, (ii) no sign of the negative thermal expansion behavior reported in a previous study, and (iii) clearest evidence thus far of magnetoelectric coupling below TN. We conclude that at the heart of the unusual relaxor multiferroic behavior lies the disorder between Fe3 + and Nb5 + atoms. We argue that this disorder gives rise to short-range structural correlations arising from O disorder in addition to Pb displacement.

  9. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density. PMID:27036838

  10. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm3. This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  11. Dielectric properties and aging effects of manganese modified lead iron tungstate relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Vilarinho, P.M.; Baptista, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    Mn-doped samples were used to study the effects of Mn dopant on the dielectric properties of PFW ceramics, especially on its aging behavior, since they could add some knowledge on the role of lattice defects on the aging mechanisms of this relaxor ferroelectric. Mn doping does not cause marked changes in the maximum of permittivity ({var_epsilon}{sub rmax}), transition temperature (T{sub 0}), and diffuseness coefficient ({delta}) under the solubility limit, whereas the resistivity increases significantly with increasing the Mn content. Mn-modified PFW ceramics exhibit evident aging behavior and its level increases with the increase in Mn content. The aging shows strong dependence on the frequency and has a log-linear function of aging time. Probable lattice defects in the ceramics are discussed and it is suggested that the acceptor Mn ions are dominantly compensated by oxygen vacancies, providing reorientable dipole pairs which are responsible for the aging process of Mn-modified PFW ceramics.

  12. Effect of Reoriented Nanodomains on Crystal Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiaolan; Zeng, Weidong; Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yuan, Changlai; Xiao, Jianrong; Ma, Jiafeng

    2015-10-01

    It has been widely accepted that electric fields induce a reversible structural phase transition and thus yield giant piezoelectric responses in ferroelectric ceramics. Based on detailed measurements of polycrystalline (Li0.5Nd0.5)2+-modified 0.95Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 ceramics, we demonstrate in this study that coherent diffraction from nanodomains in ferroelectric ceramics masks the real crystal structure. The observed electric-field-induced phase transformation behavior is a consequence of relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformation caused by changes in the coherence length of the nanodomains. A driving mechanism of the structure-property relationship in which high piezoelectric properties originate from correlated ordering of nanodomains during poling is proposed.

  13. Piezo-/dielectric properties of perovskite-structure high-temperature relaxor ferroelectrics: The Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ternary ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Long, Xifa

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-based ternary ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by solid-state synthesis method. • Morphotropic phase boundary region has been determined by XRD, di-/piezoelectric properties. • The compositions near MPB region exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. - Abstract: A new compositional system of relaxor ferroelectrics was investigated based on the high piezoelectricity Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric perovskite family. Compositions were fabricated near an estimated morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (PLZNT) ternary system by a two-step synthetic process. Their structures have been analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction technique. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction, the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region for the ternary system was obtained. The Curie temperature T{sub C} of ternary system varied from 240 °C to 330 °C and the coercive fields E{sub c}s > 10 kV/cm. The values of piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} vary in the range of 260–450 pC/N with different PZN contents. It is worth noting that the optimum compositions were located at MPB region but near the tetragonal phase. The new PLZNT ceramics exhibit wider range of T{sub C}s and E{sub c}s, making it a promising material for high-powder ultrasound transducers using in a large temperature range.

  14. Near-room temperature relaxor multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Kumar, A.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.

    2010-11-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of highly oriented Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.60(Fe0.5Ta0.5)0.40O3 thin films. Dielectric spectra showed a maximum (Tm) around 350 K for 1 kHz that shifted to higher temperatures (by ˜30 K) with an increase in frequency up to 1 MHz. High dielectric dispersion below and above Tm, low dielectric loss (2%-5%), high dielectric constant (˜1380@1 kHz), ferroelectric polarization, and weak magnetic moment are observed. Real and imaginary dielectric data were fitted with a nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher equation, implying a relaxor nature. The ac conductivity shows frequency-dependent conductivity, low loss, and frequency-dependent kinks near Tm.

  15. Structure-property-performance relationships of new high temperature relaxors for capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Craig J.

    This thesis extends the investigations on perovskite solid solutions based on PbTiO3-Bi(Me',Me")O3 (Me' = Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, In3+ , Fe3+, etc. and Me" = Ti4+, Nb 5+, W6+) systems. The ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) behavior was considered in the tetragonal phase region of the PbTiO 3-Bi(Me',Me")O3 systems. Trends in the TC compositional dependence exhibited three main cases: case 1, a continued increase in transition temperature above the end-member PbTiO3 (495°C); case 2, an increase and then decrease of the transition temperature; and case 3, a continuous decrease in the transition temperature with Bi(Me',Me")O 3 additions. New relaxor materials were developed from the PbTiO3-Bi(Me',Me")O 3 solid solutions; specifically, the Bi(Mg3/4W1/4)O 3-PbTiO3 (BMW-PT) binary solid solution and BiScO3-Pb(Mg 1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (BS-PMN-PT) ternary solid solution were investigated. Permittivity, polarization and pyroelectric measurements were performed on BMW-PT and BS-PMN-PT compositions with respect to temperature with characteristic relaxor behavior observed. The complex solid solution BMW-PT exhibited a morphotropic phase boundary at ˜48 mol% PbTiO3 with a corresponding TC of 205°C. On further structural analysis with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy along with x-ray diffraction, evidence of B-site ordering was observed. The BS-PMN-PT proved to be a model system with high temperature relaxor properties of Tmax ˜ 250°C to 300°C and εmax ˜ 14,000 to 17,000 at 1 kHz. The deviation temperature, TD, or temperature of the onset of local spontaneous polarization, was determined by thermal strain measurement and high temperature dielectric measurement to be approximately 600°C; up to 250°C higher than any reported value for relaxor ferroelectrics. The frequency dependence of the temperature of the permittivity maximum was found to follow the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, with an activation energy (EA) of ˜0.1 eV, and a freezing temperature (Tf) of ˜150°C. Static and in-situ transmission electron microscopy investigations of the BS-PMN-PT compositions demonstrated a frustrated microstructure of nanometer scale regions and were used to establish structure-property relationships with different electric field and thermal histories. A comparative study of the key relaxor parameters, EA, T f, and TD was tabulated with previously investigated relaxor ferroelectrics. These parameters were found to scale relative to other lead-based perovskite relaxor ferroelectric compounds and solid solutions, with the BS-PMN-PT ternary system exhibiting the highest temperature behavior. Finally, to demonstrate one possible application area for these materials, multilayer ceramic capacitor devices were designed for operation at 300°C and up to 10 kHz. The voltage saturation was found to be extremely encouraging at 300°C with observed changes in capacitance (˜3%) on the application of 10 kV/cm. The insulation resistivity followed an Arrhenius behavior and at 300°C was ˜1010 O-cm. Weibull statistics were used to estimate a characteristic breakdown field at 300°C for the BS-PMN-PT multilayer capacitors of ˜40 kV/cm. Current-voltage measurements were performed to voltages up to breakdown and exhibited Ohmic behavior, indicating intrinsically controlled conduction. Highly accelerated life time tests were performed on BS-PMN-PT capacitors. It was observed that silver migration from termination electrodes caused premature failure at elevated temperature.

  16. Ferroelectric behavior of orthogonal smectic phase made of bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lingfeng; Gorecka, Ewa; Pociecha, Damian; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca; Reddy, R. Amaranatha; Gornik, Kristina; Araoka, Fumito; Clark, Noel A.; Walba, David M.; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2011-09-01

    Ferroelectric behavior in the recently reported orthogonal ferroelectric Sm-AdPF phase in an unsymmetric bent-core molecule with a carbosilane terminal group was studied. The ferroelectricity of the Sm-AdPF phase was unambiguously confirmed by optical second-harmonic generation activity in the absence of an electric field, ferroelectric response, and high dielectric strength. The long-range polar order is a consequence of weakened interlayer coupling due to the formation of carbosilane sublayers, which allows for the parallel order of dipole moments of bent-core molecules in the neighboring layers. It develops in the system gradually through the second-order phase transition from the orthogonal Sm-Ad phase. In the Sm-AdPF phase the strong surface anchoring results in the splay of polarization across the sample thickness. The polar surface anchoring also brings about strongly thickness-dependent polar fluctuations, as proved by the dielectric measurements (Goldstone-like mode). The relaxation frequency and dielectric strength vary more than one order of magnitude with cell thickness; in particular the dielectric strength attains more than 2000 in a 25 μm-thick cell and continues to increase for thicker cells. Simple theory developed qualitatively explains the experimental results, supporting the polarization splay model proposed.

  17. Lorentz-type relationship of the temperature dependent dielectric permittivity in ferroelectrics with diffuse phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Shanming; Fan, Huiqing; Huang, Haitao; Chan, H. L. W.

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of perovskite Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 solid solutions, PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 relaxor, and BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics was measured. It is found that a Lorentz-type law can be used to describe the dielectric permittivity of either the normal ferroelectrics with or without diffuse phase transitions (DPT) or the typical ferroelectric relaxors. The ferroelectric DPT can be well described by just one fitting process using the Lorentz-type law, while the relaxor ferroelectric transition needs two independent fitting processes. The Lorentz-type law fails at the low temperature side of the dielectric maximum of a first-order ferroelectric phase transition. Above the transition temperature, the dielectric curves of all the studied materials can be well described by a Lorentz-type law.

  18. Nonlinear dielectric behavior in three-component ferroelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Ranjith, R.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2007-07-01

    Three-component ferroelectric superlattices consisting of alternating layers of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and CaTiO3 (SBC) with variable interlayer thickness were fabricated on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The presence of satellite reflections in x-ray-diffraction analysis and a periodic concentration of Sr, Ba, and Ca throughout the film in depth profile of secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis confirm the fabrication of superlattice structures. The Pr (remnant polarization) and Ps (saturation polarization) of SBC superlattice with 16.4-nm individual layer thickness (SBC16.4) were found to be around 4.96 and 34 μC/cm2, respectively. The dependence of polarization on individual layer thickness and lattice strain were studied in order to investigate the size dependence of the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant of these superlattices was found to be much higher than the individual component layers present in the superlattice configuration. The relatively higher tunability (˜55%) obtained around 300 K indicates that the superlattice is a potential electrically tunable material for microwave applications at room temperature. The enhanced dielectric properties were thus discussed in terms of the interfacial strain driven polar region due to high lattice mismatch and electrostatic coupling due to polarization mismatch between individual layers.

  19. Ferroelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lovinger, A.J.

    1983-06-10

    Piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity, traditionally encountered in certain single crystals and ceramics, have now also been documented in a number of polymers. Recently, one such polymer - poly(vinylidene fluoride) - and some of its copolymers have been shown to be ferroelectric as well. The extraordinary molecular and supermolecular structural requirements for ferroelectric behavior in polymers are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on poly(vinylidene fluoride). Piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and ferroelectric properties are also briefly reviewed, as are some promising applications of such polymers. 8 figures, 1 table.

  20. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} modified (Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitish Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P.

    2014-04-21

    Lead-free Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 10{sup 6} cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  1. The pyroelectric behavior of lead free ferroelectric ceramics in thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Abreu, Y.; Peláiz-Barranco, A.; Garcia-Wong, A. C.; Guerra, J. D. S.

    2012-06-01

    The present paper shows a detailed analysis on the thermally stimulated processes in barium modified SrBi2Nb2O9 ferroelectric bi-layered perovskite, which is one of the most promising candidates for non-volatile random access memory applications because of its excellent fatigue-resistant properties. A numerical method is used to separate the real pyroelectric current from the other thermally stimulated processes. A discharge due to the space-charge injected during the poling process, the pyroelectric response, and a conductive process are discussed in a wide temperature range from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase. The pyroelectric response is separated from the other components to evaluate the polarization behavior and some pyroelectric parameters. The remanent polarization, the pyroelectric coefficient, and the merit figure are evaluated, which show good results.

  2. Magnetoelectric relaxor and reentrant behaviours in multiferroic Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Bokov, Alexei A; Zhu, Weimin; Wu, Hua; Zhuang, Jian; Zhang, Nan; Tailor, Hamel N; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Significant quenched disorder in crystal structure can break ferroic (magnetic or electric) long-range order, resulting in the development of ferroic glassy states at low temperatures such as magnetic spin glasses, electric dipolar glasses, relaxor ferroelectrics, etc. These states have been widely studied due to novel physical phenomena they reveal. Much less known are the effects of quenched disorder in multiferroics, i.e. the materials where magnetic and electric correlations coexist. Here we report an unusual behaviour in complex perovskite Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 (PFW) crystals: the coexistence of electric relaxor, magnetic relaxor and antiferromagnetic (AFM) states. The most striking finding is the transformation of the AFM phase into a new reentrant-type magnetic glassy phase below Tg ≅ 10 K. We show that the behaviour at this transformation contrasts the typical behaviour of canonical spin glasses and is similar to the behaviour of relaxor ferroelectrics. Magnetoelectric effect is also observed in the AFM phase in the temperature range of the transition into electric relaxor phase at Tf ≅ 200. The mechanism of magnetic relaxor behaviour is supposed to arise from the frustrated interactions among the spins located at the AFM domain walls. Our results should inspire further studies of multirelaxor behaviour in other multiferroic systems. PMID:26936414

  3. Magnetoelectric relaxor and reentrant behaviours in multiferroic Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Bokov, Alexei A.; Zhu, Weimin; Wu, Hua; Zhuang, Jian; Zhang, Nan; Tailor, Hamel N.; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Significant quenched disorder in crystal structure can break ferroic (magnetic or electric) long-range order, resulting in the development of ferroic glassy states at low temperatures such as magnetic spin glasses, electric dipolar glasses, relaxor ferroelectrics, etc. These states have been widely studied due to novel physical phenomena they reveal. Much less known are the effects of quenched disorder in multiferroics, i.e. the materials where magnetic and electric correlations coexist. Here we report an unusual behaviour in complex perovskite Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 (PFW) crystals: the coexistence of electric relaxor, magnetic relaxor and antiferromagnetic (AFM) states. The most striking finding is the transformation of the AFM phase into a new reentrant-type magnetic glassy phase below Tg ≅ 10 K. We show that the behaviour at this transformation contrasts the typical behaviour of canonical spin glasses and is similar to the behaviour of relaxor ferroelectrics. Magnetoelectric effect is also observed in the AFM phase in the temperature range of the transition into electric relaxor phase at Tf ≅ 200. The mechanism of magnetic relaxor behaviour is supposed to arise from the frustrated interactions among the spins located at the AFM domain walls. Our results should inspire further studies of multirelaxor behaviour in other multiferroic systems.

  4. Magnetoelectric relaxor and reentrant behaviours in multiferroic Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Bokov, Alexei A.; Zhu, Weimin; Wu, Hua; Zhuang, Jian; Zhang, Nan; Tailor, Hamel N.; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Significant quenched disorder in crystal structure can break ferroic (magnetic or electric) long-range order, resulting in the development of ferroic glassy states at low temperatures such as magnetic spin glasses, electric dipolar glasses, relaxor ferroelectrics, etc. These states have been widely studied due to novel physical phenomena they reveal. Much less known are the effects of quenched disorder in multiferroics, i.e. the materials where magnetic and electric correlations coexist. Here we report an unusual behaviour in complex perovskite Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 (PFW) crystals: the coexistence of electric relaxor, magnetic relaxor and antiferromagnetic (AFM) states. The most striking finding is the transformation of the AFM phase into a new reentrant-type magnetic glassy phase below Tg ≅ 10 K. We show that the behaviour at this transformation contrasts the typical behaviour of canonical spin glasses and is similar to the behaviour of relaxor ferroelectrics. Magnetoelectric effect is also observed in the AFM phase in the temperature range of the transition into electric relaxor phase at Tf ≅ 200. The mechanism of magnetic relaxor behaviour is supposed to arise from the frustrated interactions among the spins located at the AFM domain walls. Our results should inspire further studies of multirelaxor behaviour in other multiferroic systems. PMID:26936414

  5. Dielectric relaxation behavior of ceramics in the Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-BaTiO3-PbTiO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen-xing, Yue; Xiao-li, Wang; Liang-ying, Zhang; Xi, Yao

    1997-12-01

    The dielectric properties of ceramics in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-BaTiO3-PbTiO3 system were characterized using dielectric-temperature spectra. A spontaneous (zero field) relaxor-normal ferroelectric transition was observed for tetragonal-rich compositions. A significant hysteresis effect accompanied by this transition, similar to first-order phase transition of normal ferroelectrics. This behavior was different from that of other relaxors, in which such transitions occurred only under a biased dc field. This observation was explained in terms of a thermally driven transformation from an ensemble of polar microregions to normal long-range ferroelectric state (micro-macro domain transition), which was attributed to the internal field resulting from the tetragonal strain.

  6. Dielectric properties of PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric ceramics at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J. de los S; Venet, M.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Guerrero, F.

    2007-08-06

    Complex dielectric permittivity measurements in PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramics were performed in a frequency and temperature range of 1 kHz-1 MHz and from 15 to 900 K, respectively. The results revealed two dielectric anomalies showing typical characteristics of relaxor ferroelectric materials at cryogenic temperatures. Comparison with other tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure-type materials suggests the existence of successive phase transitions, which until now were not reported. The observed low temperature dielectric behaviors seem to be due to intrinsic physical characteristics related to the TTB structure.

  7. Influence of the A and B vacancies on the dielectric and structural properties of the PLZT 8/60/40 ferroelectric ceramic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Zaldívar, O.; Peláiz-Barranco, A.; Guerra, J. D. S.; Mendoza, M. E.; Calderón-Piñar, F.; Hall, D. A.

    2011-04-01

    The lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramics, considering La/Zr/Ti ratio of 8/60/40 and vacancies in A or B sites of the perovskite structure, have been analyzed by using X-ray diffraction, dielectric response, polarized light microscopy and ferroelectric hysteresis. No remarkable differences are observed between samples with A or B vacancies from the X-ray diffraction patterns and ferroelectric hysteresis loops. However, the dielectric measurements have revealed a significant decrease in the maximum values for the real part of the dielectric permittivity and an enhancement of the relaxor behavior in the systems where A vacancies have been considered. On the other hand, the anomalies observed in the temperature dependence of the remanent polarization suggest a frozen out in the dynamic of Nanometric Polar Regions (PNRs) around the same region of temperatures for both samples.

  8. Oxygen-vacancy-related dielectric relaxation in SrBi2Ta1.8V0.2O9 ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Forbess, Mike J.; Seraji, Seana; Limmer, Steven J.; Chou, Tammy P.; Cao, Guozhong

    2001-05-01

    The strontium bismuth tantalate vanadate, SrBi2Ta1.8V0.2O9, (SBTV) layered perovskite ferroelectrics were made by solid state powder sintering. It was found that the SBTV ferroelectrics had the same crystal structure as that of strontium bismuth tantalate, SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT), but an increased paraferroelectric transition temperature at ˜360 °C as compared to 305 °C for SBT. In addition, SBTV ferroelectrics showed a frequency dispersion at low frequencies and broadened dielectric peaks at the paraferroelectric transition temperature that shifted to a higher temperature with a reduced frequency. However, after a postsintering annealing at 850 °C in air for 60 h, SBTV ferroelectrics showed reduced dielectric constants and tangent loss, particularly at high temperatures. In addition, no frequency dependence of paraferroelectric transition was found in the annealed SBTV ferroelectrics. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in dc conductivity with annealing. The prior results implied that the dielectric relaxation in the as-sintered SBTV ferroelectrics was most likely due to the oxygen-vacancy-related dielectric relaxation instead of relaxor ferroelectric behavior.

  9. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction indicates that a small effective restoring stress of about 1 MPa acts on the domain walls in these nano-crystalline PZT films. This insight allows reversible control of the ferroelectric and dielectric behavior of these important functional oxide materials, with important implications for associated integrated devices.

  10. Experimental studies on physical deterioration and electrical fatigue behavior in ferroelectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiangtong

    Ferroelectric materials are widely used in various electronic applications based upon their excellent electrical bi-stabilities and dielectric performance in response to the applied electric field. They have been utilized to make nonvolatile electronic memories by exploiting the hysteretic behavior and high energy density capacitors in regard to the high capability of electrical energy storage. One critical issue is that the ferroelectrics are required to endure a large number of electrical cycles. A large body of scientific efforts has been devoted to high fatigue failure resistance of ferroelectric-based electronic devices. Fatigue failure of ferroelectric materials still needs to be solved. It is the objective of this work to explore the intrinsic origin of fatigue failure mechanisms. In this study, it was found that electric-field-induced stress relaxation in α-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films can be well described by using the Kohlraush function groups, also known as the stretched exponential relaxation function. The electric strength of the dielectric is strongly dependent on its elastic properties due to the electromechanical coupling effect. Our fitting result of the stretched exponent is in accordance with a Weibull cumulative distribution function. This indicates that the elastic properties of insulating polymers are crucial to the capability of electrical energy storage. In ferroelectric materials, the electromechanical coupling may be indicative of the microscopic origin of polarization fatigue. Further experiments were focused on the polarization fatigue in semi-crystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymers films, whose ferroelectric response is superior to PVDF homopolymer films. Fatigue resistance of normal virgin P(VDF-TrFE) films was compared to that of P(VDF-TrFE) films modulated by using magnetic field. It was shown that normal P(VDF-TrFE) films exhibit a higher fatigue resistance. The artificially introduced lattice reorientation in magnetic-field-modulated P(VDF-TrFE) films would be closely related to the fatigue resistance. Under an ac electric field, the correspondingly microstructures may also influence the electrically induced lattice defects. Polarization fatigue data in P(VDF-TrFE) films was also analyzed by a dynamic Coffin-Manson law, wherein the corresponding coefficients and the exponent of the function can be estimated via different Weibull distribution function. The smallest scale found to be significant in electrical fatigue is the irreversible atomic movements. Studies on electrical failure behavior were also performed in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films. Experiment results consistently show that the measured electric polarization near the breakdown limit with respect to the failure life cycles obeys the Coffin-Manson law that is the most widely used to describe the mechanical fatigue failure behavior. The corresponding Coffin-Manson exponents remain constant. Our experimental evidence indicates that accumulation of the disordered structure at the atomic level is closely related to the physical origin of the fatigue in dielectric materials. It is the intrinsic atomic movement that constitutes the major finding in this work.

  11. Structure and Relaxor Behaviour of Ba2+ Substituted NBT Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Sambasiva; Tilak, B.; Rajulu, K. Ch. Varada; Swathi, A.; Workineh, Haileeyesus; Ganagadharudu, D.

    2011-11-01

    In the course of search for environmental-friendly lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics, (Bi,Na)TiO3-(NBT) based ceramics show very good physical properties among several lead-free compositions. The NBT composition exhibits a strong ferroelectricity and high Curie temperature, and considered to be a good candidate for lead-free ceramics as a substitute for lead-based materials (e.g., PZT). In the present communication barium substituted NBT, (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.912Ba0.088TiO3-0.088BNBT composition has been prepared by conventional solid-state reaction process. The tolerance factor has been estimated and found to be 0.819, indicating the stability of the perovskite structure. The XRD analysis of the material revealed a pure perovskite with tetragonal structure. The average grain size as observed from SEM, was found to be 1.04μm. Detailed studies exhibit a relaxor behaviour with diffuse phase transition. The diffuseness parameter has been established to be 1.97. The dielectric relaxation obeyed the Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) relation. From the V-F plot, the obtained values are Tf = 305°C, Ea = 0.0131eV and νo = 2.95×105Hz, which provide the evidence of relaxor behaviour. The electrical behaviour has been probed through complex impedance spectroscopy. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra obey the power law in the frequency range of 45Hz-5MHz and temperature range of 35 °C-60 °C.

  12. Local structure in BaTi1-xZrxO3 relaxors from neutron pair distribution function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laulhé, C.; Hippert, F.; Bellissent, R.; Simon, A.; Cuello, G. J.

    2009-02-01

    The pair distribution functions (PDF) of BaTi1-xZrxO3 (BTZ) relaxors (x=0.25,0.32,0.35) , as well as those of the end members BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 , were determined at 300 K from neutron powder scattering data. In the relaxors, the PDF provides direct evidence that the Ti and Zr atoms do not occupy the equivalent octahedral sites expected from the crystallographic cubic perovskite structure. It is shown that the TiO6 and ZrO6 octahedra in BTZ relaxors are instead similar to those observed in BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 , respectively. In BaZrO3 , the Zr atoms lie at the center of regular oxygen octahedra, forming nonpolar ZrO6 units. In the tetragonal ferroelectric phase of BaTiO3 , the distribution of Ti-O distances within TiO6 octahedra is found compatible with a displacement of the Ti atoms in the [111]p direction of the pseudocubic perovskite cell. We conclude that the local polarization in BTZ relaxors is mainly due to the displacements of the Ti atoms and that moreover the Ti displacements are very similar in BTZ relaxors and in the classical ferroelectric BaTiO3 .

  13. Relaxor Behavior and Dielectric Relaxation in Lead-Free Solid Solutions of (1 - x)(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, P. K.; Singh, K. N.; Tamrakar, Preeti

    2016-02-01

    Lead-free compositions (1 - x) (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6) (BNT-SN) are synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route. SN diffuse in distorted perovskite BNT for low concentrations of SN ( x ≤ 0.03) and are stabilized in rhombohedral perovskite phase with experimentally observed relative density of the ceramics >92%. A temperature-dependent dielectric response exhibits a broad dielectric peak that shows frequency-dependent shifts towards higher temperatures reflecting typical relaxor behavior. Modified Curie-Weiss law and Lorentz-type empirical relationships are used to fit the dielectric data that exhibit almost complete diffuse phase transition characteristics. In addition, significant dielectric dispersion is observed in a low-frequency regime in both components of the dielectric response and a small dielectric relaxation peak is observed. Cole-Cole plots indicate the poly-dispersive nature of the dielectric relaxation.

  14. Polarization and resistive switching behavior of ferroelectric tunnel junctions with transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Lipatov, Alexey; Sharma, Pankaj; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Sinitskii, Alexander; Gruverman, Alexei; Alexei Gruverman Team; Alexander Sinitskii Team; Chang-Beom Eom Team

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging 2-dimensional (2D) materials of the MX2 type, where M is a transition metal atom (Mo, W, Ti, Sn, Zr, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (S, Se, or Te.). Comparing to graphene, TMDs have a sizable band gap and can be metal, half-metal, semiconductor or superconductor. Their band structures can be tuned by external bias voltage, mechanical force, or light illumination. Their rich physical properties make TMDs potential candidates for a variety of applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are actively studied as a next-generation of non-volatile memory elements. An FTJ comprises a ferroelectric tunnel barrier sandwiched between two electrodes. In this work, we investigate the resistive switching behavior of MoS2/BaTiO3-based FTJs. The ON/OFF ratio can be modulated via electric or mechanical control of the switched polarization fraction opening a possibility of tunable electroresistance effect. Effect of optical illumination on the polarization reversal dynamics has been observed and analyzed based on the polarization-induced modulation of the MoS2 layered electronic properties.

  15. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La1-xBaxMnO3 thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2014-09-01

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La1-xBaxMnO3 (x = 0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb1/2)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R)strain] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La0.8Ba0.2MnO3 film and 150 K for the La0.6Ba0.4MnO3 film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  16. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-21

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ (x=0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.35Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.34PbTiO₃ (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R){sub strain}] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ film and 150 K for the La₀.₆Ba₀.₄MnO₃ film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  17. Enhancing electromechanical properties of lead-free ferroelectrics with bilayer ceramic/ceramic composites.

    PubMed

    Ayrikyan, Azatuhi; Rojas, Virginia; Molina-Luna, Leopoldo; Acosta, Matias; Koruza, Jurij; Webber, Kyle G

    2015-06-01

    The macroscopic electromechanical behavior of lead-free bilayer composites was characterized at room temperature. One layer consisted of a nonergodic relaxor, (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7BaTiO3, with an electric-field-induced longrange ferroelectric order, whereas the other is understood to be an ergodic relaxor [(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-25SrTiO3] that undergoes a reversible electric-field-induced macroscopic nonpolar-to-polar transition. Microstructural evidence of a bilayer with low diffusion between the two components is also demonstrated. By taking advantage of the different macroscopic strain- and polarization-electric-field responses of the two constituents, internal mechanical and electrical fields can be developed that enhance the unipolar strain over that expected by a rule of mixtures approximation, thereby improving the properties needed for application of such materials to actuator systems. It is possible through further tailoring of the volume fractions and macroscopic properties of the constituents to optimize the electromechanical properties of multilayer lead-free ferroelectrics. PMID:26067034

  18. Effect of disorder potential on domain switching behavior in polymer ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro; Gruverman, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale switching dynamics in spin-coated ferroelectric copolymer films of polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE 75/25) has been investigated via high-resolution real-space imaging of electrically induced domain structure evolution using resonance-enhanced piezoresponse force microscopy. It has been shown that in strongly imprinted films application of switching pulses of opposite polarity results in qualitatively different domain switching dynamics. A distinct feature of domain dynamics is roughening of the domains walls during switching to the preferred polarization state as opposed to smooth domain boundaries during switching to the opposite direction. The observed switching behavior is explained by a combined effect of the spatially uniform built-in electric field and local disorder potential. Application of the external potential changes the balance between the two and creates conditions under which domain growth is dominated either by the average built-in electric field or local random-bond disorder potential.

  19. Relaxor-PT Single crystals: Observations and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Relaxor-PT based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PZNT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PMNT) attracted lot of attentions in last decade due to their ultra high electromechanical coupling factors and piezoelectric coefficients. However, owing to a strongly curved morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the usage temperature of these perovskite single crystals is limited by TRT - the rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition temperature, which occurs at significantly lower temperatures than the Curie temperature TC. Furthermore, the low mechanical quality factors and coercive fields of these crystals, usually being on the order of ~70 and 2–3kV/cm, respectively, restrict their usage in high power applications. Thus, it is desirable to have high performance crystals with high temperature usage range and high power characteristics. In this survey, different binary and ternary crystal systems were explored, with respect to their temperature usage range, general trends of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of relaxor-PT crystal systems were discussed related to their TC/TRT. In addition, two approaches were proposed to improve mechanical Q values, including acceptor dopant strategy, analogous to “hard” polycrystalline ceramics, and anisotropic domain engineering configurations. PMID:20889397

  20. Frequency-dependent ferroelectric behavior of BaMn3Ti4O14.25 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Muhammad E.; Liu, Shuangyi; O'Brien, Stephen; Li, Jackie

    2015-07-01

    We report the activation field and selective frequency-dependent ferroelectric behavior of BaMn3Ti4O14.25 (BMT-134) at room temperature. BMT-134, a recently discovered multiferroic complex oxide, exhibits antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior and belongs to the hollandite crystal class. The microstructure can be manipulated through processing conditions to prepare a nanocrystalline textured tablet. We measured polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops and strain-electric field butterfly loops as a function of frequency in order to investigate the AC dynamics of domain switching and strain behavior. Under an electric field loading condition, a clear hysteresis loop of the electric field-displacement curve is obtained at 50 Hz, indicating that room temperature ferroelectricity is attainable under the right processing conditions. When the frequency is increased to 500 Hz, the coercive field also increases, until the frequency reaches 5 kHz, at which point the electric field versus electric displacement becomes linear indicating the limit of domain switching at high frequency.

  1. Temperature dependences of ferroelectricity and resistive switching behavior of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeng-Xing; Song, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Na; Li, Zhong-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Bin; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Lu, Xu-Bing; Wu, Su-Juan; Gao, Xing-Sen; Yan, Zhi-Bo; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the resistive switching and ferroelectric polarization properties of high-quality epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films in various temperature ranges. The room temperature current-voltage (I-V) curve exhibits a well-established polarization-modulated memristor behavior. At low temperatures (< 253 K), the I-V curve shows an open circuit voltage (OCV), which possibly originates from the dielectric relaxation effects, accompanied with a current hump due to the polarization reversal displacement current. While at relative higher temperatures (> 253 K), the I-V behaviors are governed by both space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Ohmic behavior. The polarization reversal is able to trigger the conduction switching from Ohmic to SCLC behavior, leading to the observed ferroelectric resistive switching. At a temperature of > 298 K, there occurs a new resistive switching hysteresis at high bias voltages, which may be related to defect-mediated effects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272078 and 51332007), the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No 2015CB921202), the Guangdong Provincial Universities and Colleges Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme, China (2014), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Platform Program of Guangzhou, China (Grant No. 2014J4500016), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of China (Grant No. IRT1243).

  2. Ferroelectric polarization-induced memristive hysteresis behaviors in Ti- and Mn-codoped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Namhyun; Lee, Hwauk; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deuk Young; Lee, Sejoon

    2016-04-01

    ZnTiMnO layers grown on Pt (111)/Al2O3 (0001) substrates exhibit lattice displacement-induced ferroelectric features, which arise from a modulation in the lattice translation symmetry and originate from the substitution of Ti and Mn ions at Zn sites in ZnO's host lattices. After annealing at 900°C, the ZnTiMnO layer shows a clear hysteresis loop, where the maximum polarization is fully saturated within wide electric-field regions. The top-to-bottom Pt/ZnTiMnO/Pt device reveals a polarization-dependent asymmetric hysteresis ( i.e., ferroelectric memristive-switching); in addition, the device shows > 60% data-retention per 10 years. These results suggest that ZnTiMnO holds great promise for use in ferroelectric memristive-switching devices.

  3. Ferroelectric Behavior in Polyamides of m-Xylylenediamine and Dicarboxylic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Yukinobu; Tsunashima, Kenji; Koizumi, Naokazu

    1995-12-01

    The ferroelectric properties were studied for polyamides consisting of m-xylylenediamine (MXD) and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with the number of carbon atoms n=6 to 11, which were designated as nylon MXDn. Quenched samples of these polyamides exhibited the ferroelectric hysteresis loop with the remanent polarization P r of 25-67 mCm-2 which decreased with increasing n. Strip-biaxial and biaxial drawing of nylon MXD6 caused the preferential orientation of molecular chains parallel to the direction of drawing and to the film surface, respectively, and increased the value of P r. A reversible pyroelectric coefficient of 4 to 12 µC·m-2·K-1 was observed for nylons MXD6 and MXD7. The polarization was depolarized with increasing temperature and vanished at the glass transition temperature of the respective samples. The ferroelectricity of nylon MXDn is related to the amide groups aligned by the electric field in amorphous regions.

  4. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  5. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  6. Unusual High-Temperature Reversible Phase-Transition Behavior, Structures, and Dielectric-Ferroelectric Properties of Two New Crown Ether Clathrates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yun-Zhi; Yu, Yin-Mei; Xiong, Jian-Bo; Tan, Yu-Hui; Wen, He-Rui

    2015-10-21

    Molecular ferroelectrics with high-temperature reversible phase-transition behaviors are very rare and have currently become one of the hotspots in the field of ferroelectric materials. Herein we display two new crown ether clathrates possessing unusual high-temperature ferroelectric phase-transition behaviors, cyclohexyl ammonium 18-crown-6 tetrafluoroborate (or perchlorate), [Hcha-(18-crown-6)](+) [BF4](-) (1) and [Hcha-(18-crown-6)](+)[ClO4](-) (2) (Hcha = protonated cyclohexyl ammonium). We have proven their reversible structural phase transitions by variable-temperature PXRD measurements and temperature evolutions of Raman bands. Both clathrates exhibit clear ferroelectric phase transitions at about 397 and 390 K, respectively, revealed by the thermal anomalies of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, together with abrupt dielectric anomalies in the heating and cooling processes. The measurements on ferroelectric properties using the single crystals showed optimized spontaneous polarization (Ps) of ca. 3.27 μC cm(-2) for 1 and 3.78 μC cm(-2) for 2. PMID:26414811

  7. Enhanced piezoelectric response in the artificial ferroelectric polymer multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X. L.; Wang, J. L. E-mail: lin-tie@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Tian, B. B.; Liu, B. L.; Wang, X. D.; Sun, S.; Zou, Y. H.; Lin, T. E-mail: lin-tie@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    An actuator with a high piezoelectric response, the ferroelectric polymer multilayer actuator, is described. The ferroelectric polymer multilayers consisting of alternative ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer and relaxor poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofloroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) terpolymer with different periodicities and fixed total thickness are prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements indicate that the structure of the multilayer with thin alternating layer is similar to that of the ferroelectric copolymer. Compared with that of the copolymer, it is found that the piezoelectric coefficient of the multilayer could be improved by 57%. We attributed the enhanced piezoelectric response of the multilayers to the internal electric fields that arises from the electrostatic couplings between different layers.

  8. Growth and characterization of piezo-/ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 ternary single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Reagan A.; Tailor, Hamel N.; Long, Xifa; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2011-03-01

    In order to develop new piezo-/ferroelectric materials, single crystals of the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 [PMN-PT-BZT] ternary complex perovskite system has been grown by a high temperature solution method using the mixture of PbO and H3BO3 as flux (in a molar ratio of 4:2) with an optimum flux:charge molar ratio of 6:1. It is found that the addition of BZT into the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT system reduces the number of spontaneous nucleations, resulting in large single crystals (5 mm×5 mm×14 mm) of good quality. The grown crystals exhibit a pseudo-cubic morphology and show evidence of two-dimensional growth mechanism. Examination by polarized light microscopy (PLM) reveals the formation of striation, which can be reduced by changing the growth conditions. The domain structure and phase transition of the PMN-PT-BZT crystals are investigated by PLM. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric permittivity of the grown crystals show typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior, with the frequency dependence of the temperature of maximum permittivity (Tmax) following the Vogel-Fulcher law. The ferroelectric property is displayed in the crystals with a remnant polarization, Pr=21 μC/cm2 and a coercive field, EC=3.5 kV/cm. The piezoelectric coefficient, d33, is found to be 825 pC/N, a value much higher than that of the ternary ceramics.

  9. SISGR -- Domain Microstructures and Mechanisms for Large, Reversible and Anhysteretic Strain Behaviors in Phase Transforming Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu U.

    2013-12-06

    This four-year project (including one-year no-cost extension) aimed to advance fundamental understanding of field-induced strain behaviors of phase transforming ferroelectrics. We performed meso-scale phase field modeling and computer simulation to study domain evolutions, mechanisms and engineering techniques, and developed computational techniques for nanodomain diffraction analysis; to further support above originally planned tasks, we also carried out preliminary first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defects and domain walls to complement meso-scale computations as well as performed in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments to guide theoretical development (both without extra cost to the project thanks to XSEDE supercomputers and DOE user facility Advanced Photon Source).

  10. Fabrication of lithium-doped zinc oxide film by anodic oxidation and its ferroelectric behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Ligang; Zhang Gengmin Zhao Xingyu; Guo Dengzhu

    2009-03-05

    A lithium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film was obtained by the anodic oxidation of a zinc sheet in a lithium hydroxide (LiOH) solution under an external DC voltage. The formation of the ZnO film on the surface of the Zn sheet is attributed to two simultaneous processes: the electrochemical oxidation of Zn to ZnO, and the chemical dissolution of ZnO. It was also confirmed that Li element was successfully introduced into the lattice of the ZnO film. The curves of the polarization versus applied field were measured to be hysteresis loops, suggesting ferroelectricity of the Li-doped ZnO film. The remanent polarization and the coercive field of the film were measured to be 4.7 x 10{sup -3} C m{sup -2} and 1.2 x 10{sup 7} V m{sup -1}, respectively. This ferroelectricity is believed to be the result of the occupation of off-centered positions in oxygen tetrahedra by the Li{sup +} ions.

  11. Unusual Strong Incommensurate Modulation in a Tungsten-Bronze-Type Relaxor PbBiNb5O15.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Zhou, Zhengyang; Liu, Laijun; Ma, Hongqiang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Sun, Junliang; You, Li; Kasai, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Xing, Xianran

    2015-10-28

    Pb- or Bi-based perovskite oxides have been widely studied and used because of their large ferroelectric polarization features induced by stereochemically active 6s(2) lone pair electrons. It is intriguing whether this effect could exist in other related systems. Herein, we designed and synthesized a mixed Pb and Bi A site polar compound, PbBiNb5O15, with the TTB framework. The as-synthesized material turns out to be a relaxor with weak macroscopic ferroelectricity but adopts strong local polarizations. What's more, unusual five orders of incommensurate satellite reflections with strong intensities were observed under the electron diffraction, suggesting that the modulation is highly developed with large amplitudes. The structural modulation was solved with a (3 + 1)D superspace group using high-resolution synchrotron radiation combined with anomalous dispersion X-ray diffraction technique to distinguish Pb from Bi. We show that the strong modulation mainly originates from lone-pair driven Pb(2+)-Bi(3+) ordering in the large pentagonal caves, which can suppress the local polarization in x-y plane in long ranges. Moreover, the as-synthesized ceramics display strong relaxor ferroelectric feature with transition temperature near room temperature and moderate dielectric properties, which could be functionalized to be electromechanical device materials. PMID:26474121

  12. Dielectric phase-transition and polarization studies in stepped and compositionally graded lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, R.; Sarkar, Asis; Laha, Apurba; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Rajagoplan, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2005-07-01

    Ferroelectric properties of chemically heterogeneous multilayers and graded composition thin films of (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3, a well-known relaxor, were prepared using a multitarget pulsed laser ablation system. Target materials with different values of x (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) were used for ablation growth. Films with sharp interfaces and graded interfaces were prepared and were characterized for their electrical properties. The stepped films were found to have a phase-transition behavior dominated by the individual layer behavior with their corresponding local dielectric maxima. The graded films showed an overall averaged effect of the system. The graded films showed an enhanced diffusiveness in the phase transition and the γ value was found to be 2.43, which is a measure of diffusivity. The tunability of these graded films was found to be high around 60% and was twice that of any of the film of homogeneous composition films. The room-temperature polarization hysteresis curves exhibited slim loop characteristics with a saturation polarization of about 40μC/cm2 in the case of both stepped and graded films.

  13. Ac behaviour and phase transition in PLZT 6/80/20 ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláiz-Barranco, A.; García-Zaldívar, O.; Calderón-Piñar, F.; López-Noda, R.

    2005-02-01

    The Ac behaviour of PLZT 6/80/20 ferroelectric ceramics was analyzed around and above the phase transition. Two relaxation processes are identified, showing that the so-called 'universal relaxation law' holds for the ceramics. A critical point in the values of the Ac conductivity, around the temperature corresponding to the maximum of the dielectric losses, is observed below the transition temperature due to the relaxor behaviour. The frequency dependence of the Ac conductivity at various temperatures and the hysteresis loops show classical relaxor behaviour with a diffuse phase transition.

  14. Origin of ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal tungsten-bronze-type oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Gerhard Henning; Aschauer, Ulrich; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Grande, Tor

    2016-05-01

    The origin of ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal tungsten-bronze- (TTB-) type oxide strontium barium niobate (SBN) is investigated using first-principles density functional calculations. We study in particular the relationship between the polarization and the cation and vacancy ordering on alkali-earth metal lattice sites. Lattice dynamical calculations for paraelectric structures demonstrate that all cation configurations that can be accommodated in a 1 ×1 ×2 supercell result in a single unstable polar phonon, composed primarily of relative Nb-O displacements along the polar axis, as their dominant instability. The majority of the configurations also have a second octahedral tilt-mode instability which couples weakly to the polar mode. The existence of the tilt mode is strongly dependent on the local cation ordering, consistent with the fact that it is not found experimentally. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity in the SBN system is driven by a conventional second-order Jahn-Teller mechanism caused by the d0 Nb5 + cations, and demonstrate the strong influence of the size of Sr and Ba on the lattice distortions associated with polarization and octahedral tilting. Finally, we suggest a mechanism for the relaxor behavior in Sr-rich SBN based on Sr displacement inside pentagonal channels in the TTB structure.

  15. Supramolecular ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayi, Alok S.; Kaeser, Adrien; Matsumoto, Michio; Aida, Takuzo; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-04-01

    Supramolecular chemistry uses non-covalent interactions to coax molecules into forming ordered assemblies. The construction of ordered materials with these reversible bonds has led to dramatic innovations in organic electronics, polymer science and biomaterials. Here, we review how supramolecular strategies can advance the burgeoning field of organic ferroelectricity. Ferroelectrics -- materials with a spontaneous and electrically reversible polarization -- are touted for use in non-volatile computer memories, sensors and optics. Historically, this physical phenomenon has been studied in inorganic materials, although some organic examples are known and strong interest exists to extend the search for ferroelectric molecular systems. Other undiscovered applications outside this regime could also emerge. We describe the key features necessary for molecular and supramolecular dipoles in organic ferroelectrics and their incorporation into ordered systems, such as porous frameworks and liquid crystals. The goal of this Review is to motivate the development of innovative supramolecular ferroelectrics that exceed the performance and usefulness of known systems.

  16. Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whatmore, Roger

    Ferroelectric materials offer a wide range of useful properties. These include ferroelectric hysteresis (used in nonvolatile memories), high permittivities (used in capacitors), high piezoelectric effects (used in sensors, actuators and resonant wave devices such as radio-frequency filters), high pyroelectric coefficients (used in infra-red detectors), strong electro-optic effects (used in optical switches) and anomalous temperature coefficients of resistivity (used in electric-motor overload-protection circuits). In addition, ferroelectrics can be made in a wide variety of forms, including ceramics, single crystals, polymers and thin films - increasing their exploitability. This chapter gives an account of the basic theories behind the ferroelectric effect and the main ferroelectric material classes, discussing how their properties are related to their composition and the different ways they are made. Finally, it reviews the major applications for this class of materials, relating the ways in which their key functional properties affect those of the devices in which they are exploited.

  17. Supramolecular ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Tayi, Alok S; Kaeser, Adrien; Matsumoto, Michio; Aida, Takuzo; Stupp, Samuel I

    2015-04-01

    Supramolecular chemistry uses non-covalent interactions to coax molecules into forming ordered assemblies. The construction of ordered materials with these reversible bonds has led to dramatic innovations in organic electronics, polymer science and biomaterials. Here, we review how supramolecular strategies can advance the burgeoning field of organic ferroelectricity. Ferroelectrics - materials with a spontaneous and electrically reversible polarization - are touted for use in non-volatile computer memories, sensors and optics. Historically, this physical phenomenon has been studied in inorganic materials, although some organic examples are known and strong interest exists to extend the search for ferroelectric molecular systems. Other undiscovered applications outside this regime could also emerge. We describe the key features necessary for molecular and supramolecular dipoles in organic ferroelectrics and their incorporation into ordered systems, such as porous frameworks and liquid crystals. The goal of this Review is to motivate the development of innovative supramolecular ferroelectrics that exceed the performance and usefulness of known systems. PMID:25803466

  18. Signature of relaxor behaviour in BiFe0.98Co0.02O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J.; Biswal, A. K.; Kuila, S.; Pradhan, D. K.; Behera, D.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2015-06-01

    Frequency dependent dielectric measurements are carried out at several temperatures for BiFe0.98Co0.02O3. A diffuse dielectric anomaly with strong frequency dispersion has been seen ˜ 400K-600K. The temperature corresponding to the maximum of the peak satisfies the Vogel-Fulcher relation and other characteristics of a relaxor ferroelectric. Havrliak-Negami equation equivalent for impedance is found to be well fitting the Cole-Cole plot. The relaxation time obtained from the fitting shows slower dynamics at higher temperatures.

  19. Anisotropic Optical Behavior of Ferroelectric Bismuth Titanate: A Comparison of Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Amritendu; Prasad, Rajendra; Auluck, Sushil; Garg, Ashish

    2010-03-01

    Optical properties of bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 or BiT) are of technological interest as its band gap lies in the visible region. Here we compare the results of theoretical and experimental studies conducted on pure bismuth titanate single crystals. Highly oriented BiT single crystals were synthesized using flux growth method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made between 300 to 800 nm for different sample orientations. To obtain the absorption coefficient near the band edge, optical transmission measurements were also made. The refractive index data was fitted to a two-term Sellmeier formula. We also calculated the optical constants for both ferroelectric and paraelectric phases of bismuth titanate using density functional theory as implemented in the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) in conjunction with projector augmented wave method (PAW). Our calculations show the anisotropy of the optical properties for the electric field parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal. Our calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Observation of nonequilibrium behavior near the Lifshitz point in ferroelectrics with incommensurate phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushchanskii, K. Z.; Molnar, A.; Bilanych, R.; Yevych, R.; Kohutych, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.; Samulionis, V.; Banys, J.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated nonequilibrium properties of proper uniaxial Sn2P2(SexS1-x) 6 ferroelectrics with the type II incommensurate phase above Lifshitz point xLP˜0.28 . We performed measurements of dielectric susceptibility in cooling and heating regimes with the rate ranging 0.002-0.1 K/min, as well as high-resolution ultrasound investigation and hypersound Brillouin scattering experiments. For samples with x ≥0.28 clear anomalies are observed at incommensurate second-order transition (Ti) and at first-order lock-in transition (Tc) in the regime of very slow cooling rate, whereas the intermediate incommensurate phase is not observed when the rate is faster than 0.1 K/min. In general, increasing the cooling rate leads to smearing of the anomaly at Tc. We relate this effect to cooling rate dependence of domain-wall concentration and their size: domain width decreases when cooling rate increases. At certain conditions, the size of domain is comparable to the incommensurate phase modulation period, which is in the micrometer range in the vicinity of Lifshitz point and leads to pinning of the modulation period by domain walls.

  1. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Behavior of Bismuth-Doped Barium Titanate Ceramic Prepared by Microwave Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, A.; Parida, S.; Sarangi, S.; Badapanda, T.

    2015-08-01

    Bismuth-doped barium titanate ceramics with the general formula Ba1- x Bi2 x/3TiO3 ( x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05) have been prepared by the solid state reaction technique. The phase formation and structural property of all compositions have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Rietveld refinement. XRD pattern reports the single phase tetragonal crystal system with space group of P4mm. All compositions have been sintered at 1100°C in a microwave furnace for 30 min. The variation of dielectric constant with respect to temperature and frequency was studied and it was found that the dielectric constant decreases whereas transition temperature increased with the increase in Bi content. The diffusivity parameter was calculated by the modified Curie-Weiss law and the diffusivity increased with the increase in Bi content. The ferroelectric property was studied by the P-E hysteresis loop and it was observed that the saturation polarization decreased, but the coercive field increased with Bi content. The optical band gap was calculated from UV-Visible spectroscopy and found to decrease with Bi content.

  2. Behavior of inclusions with different value and orientation of topological dipoles in ferroelectric smectic films

    SciTech Connect

    Dolganov, P. V. Dolganov, V. K.; Cluzeau, P.

    2009-07-15

    Cholesteric droplets in ferroelectric free-standing films with tunable anchoring on the droplet boundary are investigated. A droplet and satellite topological defect(s) form a topological dipole. We obtained droplets with different angles {alpha} between two radial lines from the droplet center to -1/2 topological defects. Droplets with parallel dipoles form linear chains in which the interparticle distances decrease with increasing the defect angle {alpha}. For the first time, the dependence of the interparticle distance on the angle between topological defects was measured. We can adjust the magnitude and orientation of topological dipoles formed by the droplets. For the first time, the droplets with antiparallel topological dipoles were prepared in a smectic film. Interaction of the droplets with parallel and antiparallel dipoles differs drastically. Formation of antiparallel dipoles leads to a decomposition of the droplet pairs and chains of droplets. Our observations may be used to change the magnitude, anisotropy of the interparticle interaction, and structures of inclusions in liquid crystal media.

  3. Nonlinear-optic and ferroelectric behavior of lithium borate{endash}strontium bismuth tantalate glass{endash}ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil Murugan, G.; Varma, K. B. R.; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2001-06-18

    Transparent glasses in the system (100{endash}x) Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{endash}xSrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (0{le}x{le}20) were fabricated via a splat-quenching technique. The glassy nature of the as-quenched samples was established by differential thermal analyses. X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the as-quenched and crystallinity (40 nm) in the heat-treated (glass{endash}ceramic) samples. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) of the glass{endash}ceramic composite (x=20, heat treated at 773 K/8 h) was in between that of the parent host glass (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) and strontium bismuth tantalate ceramics in the frequency range 100 Hz{endash}40 MHz at 300 K. These exhibited intense second-harmonic generation and a ferroelectric hysteritic behavior (P vs E loops) at 300 K. The coercive field (E{sub c}) and the remnant polarization (P{sub r}) were 1053 V/cm and 0.483 {mu}C/cm2, respectively. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. La3Ni2SbO9: a relaxor ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Battle, Peter D; Evers, Sophie I; Hunter, Emily C; Westwood, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A polycrystalline sample of La3Ni2SbO9 has been synthesized using a standard ceramic method and characterized by neutron diffraction and magnetometry. The compound adopts a monoclinic, perovskite-like structure with space group P2(1)/n and unit cell parameters a = 5.0675(1), b = 5.6380(1), c = 7.9379(2) Å, β = 89.999(6)° at room temperature. The two crystallographically distinct six-coordinate sites are occupied by Ni(2+) and a disordered distribution of Ni(2+)/Sb(5+), respectively; the Ni(2+) and Sb(5+) cations occupy the disordered site in a 1:2 ratio. Both ac and dc magnetometry indicate the presence of a spontaneous magnetization below 105 K. A magnetization of 1.5 μB per formula unit was measured at 2 K in a field of 40 kOe. However, no magnetic scattering was observed in neutron diffraction data collected at 5 K. It is proposed that, as a consequence of the cation disorder, La3Ni2SbO9 behaves as a relaxor ferromagnet, analogous to a relaxor ferroelectric, with magnetic domains too small to be detected by neutron diffraction forming below 105 K. PMID:23688332

  5. Pressure-induced changes in the dielectric response of polymer relaxors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilczer, B.; Szafranski, M.; Hilczer, A.

    2012-01-30

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the dielectric response of P(VDF/TrFE)(50/50) irradiated with fast electrons has been studied. A non-linear upward shift of the glass transition temperature T{sub g} and the Curie temperature T{sub C} of the polymer relaxors was observed under pressure with the initial slope dT{sub g}/dp being considerably smaller than dT{sub C}/dp. Moreover, pressure was found to reduce the contribution to the low-frequency dielectric absorption originating from segmental motions in the amorphous phase whereas the contribution related to ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and that of polar nanoclusters in the crystalline phase were found to be enhanced.

  6. Anomalous Skin Effect in the Lead-Free Relaxor NBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Peter; Ge, Wenwei; Phelan, Daniel; Zhang, Qinhui; Li, Jie Fang; Viehland, Dwight; Luo, Hasuo; Boatner, Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Several x-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies have shown that the room-temperature space group of the lead-free relaxor NBT is monoclinic Cc and not rhombohedral R3c, as was previously believed. Motivated by these findings, we performed room-temperature neutron scattering measurements on a large (3.5 gram) single crystal of the lead-free relaxor NBT. Our data confirm the R3c symmetry for bulk NBT and place a strict bound on the strength of the 1/2(111) superlattice reflection associated with the Cc space group based on the published atomic coordinates. We show that a skin effect, analogous to that reported in the relaxors PZN and PMN-10%PT, can reconcile our single-crystal data with these other studied. We believe this represents the first evidence of the relaxor skin effect in a lead-free relaxor.

  7. Ferroelectric behavior and reproducible Bi-stable resistance switching property in K-doped ZnO thin films as candidate for application in non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Subramaniam, N. G.; Kang, T. W.; Shon, Yoon; Kim, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Potassium-doped ZnO thin films electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates exhibited ferroelectric behavior with a remnant polarization of 0.2 μC/cm2. Especially, wave forms showing the applied input voltage Vi and output voltage Vo were obtained for Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure. It exhibits a superposition of Vi (input) and Vo (output) signal from Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure with a clear phase shift between the two wave forms which again confirms that the observed ferroelectric hysteresis curve is not related to leaky dielectric materials. The current-voltage characteristics of Al/ZnO:K/ITO structures measured for several cycles revealed bi-stable switching characteristics. The reproducible bi-stable switching characteristics for the mentioned structures had good retention in one particular resistance state. Around one order of switching was realized between low and high resistance states. The switching property thought to be polarization induced originating out from the ferroelectric properties of the potassium doped ZnO thin film. The switching between ZnO:K/ITO interface is assumed to be critical for stability in switching for several cycles. Possible application of this structure in non-volatile memories is explored.

  8. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural origins for the electric field-induced phenomena in ferroelectric perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng

    Ferroelectrics are important materials due to their extensive technological applications, such as non-volatile memories, field-effect transistors, ferroelectric tunneling junctions, dielectric capacitors, piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. As is well known, the outstanding dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of these functional oxides originate from their ferroelectric domain arrangements and the corresponding evolution under external stimuli (e.g. electric field, stress, and temperature). Electric field has been known as the most efficient stimulus to manipulate the ferroelectric domains through polarization switching and alignment. Therefore, direct observation of the dynamic process of electric field-induced domain evolution and crystal structure transformation is of significant importance to understand the microstructural mechanisms for the functional properties of ferroelectrics. In this dissertation, electric field in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was employed to monitor the real-time evolution of the domain morphology and crystal structure during various electrical processes: (1) the initial poling process, (2) the electric field reversal process, and (3) the electrical cycling process. Two types of perovskite-structured ceramics, normal ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics, were used for this investigation. In addition to providing the microscopic insight for some well-accepted phase transformation rules, discoveries of some new or even unexpected physical phenomena were also demonstrated. For the initial poling process, microstructural origins for the piezoelectricity development in the three most promising lead-free piezoceramic systems were investigated. For the non-ergodic relaxor ferroelectric compositions ( x = 6% - 9%) in the (1-x)(Bi1/2Na 1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 system, well-developed piezoelectricity was realized at poling fields far below the coercive field and phase transition field. Such an unusual behavior is attributed to the electric field-induced irreversible P4bm nanodomains coalescence into thin lamellar domains prior to the phase transition. In the (K0.5 Na0.5)NbO3-based ceramics, as demonstrated by an archetypical polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) composition of 0.948(K 0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.052LiSbO3, the origin of the excellent piezoelectric performance is due to a tilted monoclinic phase that emerges from the tetragonal and orthorhombic PPB at the poling fields beyond 14 kV/cm. This monoclinic phase, as manifested by the appearance of blotchy domains and 1/2{oeo} superlattice diffraction spots, was determined to possess a Pm symmetry with a 0b+c0 oxygen octahedra tilting and antiparallel cation displacements. For the PPB composition of x = 0.5 in the (1-x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8 )O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO 3 solid solution system, the original multi-domain state was found to transform into a unique single-domain state with orthorhombic symmetry at very moderate poling fields of 3 6 kV/cm. This single-domain state is suggested to be primarily responsible for the observed large piezoelectricity due to its significant elastic softening. In the electrical reversal process, a highly unusual phenomenon of electric field-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition was directly observed in a lead-free composition of [(Bi1/2Na1/2)0.95 Ba0.05]0.98La0.02TiO3. It is manifested by the disruption of large ferroelectric domains with long range polar order into polar nanodomains with short range orders when the polarity of electric field is reversed. This observation was further rationalized by a phenomenological model that takes the large difference in kinetics between the phase transition and the polarization reversal processes into account. During the electrical cycling process, the microstructural mechanisms for electric fatigue behaviors of two ceramics were investigated. In 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3, the frozen domain configuration after 103 cycles is responsible for the pronounced functionality degradation. Both seed inhibition and domain wall pinning mechanisms were suggested to be the reasons for the observed fatigue behavior. In the polycrystalline ceramic of [(Bi1/2Na1/2)0.95Ba 0.05]0.98La0.02TiO3, a novel phenomenological mechanism of domain fragmentation was found in addition to the domain wall pinning mechanism. Domain fragmentation contributes to the switchable polarization reduction by breaking the long-range polar orders, as visualized by the decomposition of large domains into domain fragments upon bipolar electrical cycling.

  9. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  10. Investigation of the ferroelectric switching behavior of P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA blended films for synaptic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Kim, K. A.; Yoon, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Synaptic plasticity can be mimicked by electronic synaptic devices. By using ferroelectric thin films as gate insulator for thin-film transistors (TFT), channel conductance can be defined as the synaptic plasticity, and gradually modulated by the variations in amounts of aligned ferroelectric dipoles. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)]-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blended films are chosen and their switching kinetics are investigated by using the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model. The switching time for ferroelectric polarization is sensitively influenced by the amplitude of applied electric field and volumetric ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases in the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA films. The switching time of the P(VDF-TrFE) increases with decreasing the pulse amplitude and/or the ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases by incorporation of PMMA. The activation electric field is also found to increase as the increase in blended amount of PMMA. Synapse TFTs are fabricated using the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA as gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O active channels. The drain currents of the synapse TFTs gradually increased when the voltage pulse signals with given duration are repeatedly applied. This suggests that the synaptic weights can be modulated by the number of external pulse signals, and that the proposed synapse TFT can be applied for mimicking the operations of bio-synapses.

  11. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device, the need to fully understand how size and morphology affect domain behaviour in small scale ferroelectrics is obvious. In this talk, observations from a programme of study examining domains in meso and nano-scale BaTiO3 shapes, that have been cut directly from bulk single crystal using focused ion beam milling, will be presented. In general, the equilibrium static domain configurations that occur appear to be the result of a simultaneous desire to minimize both the macroscopic strain and depolarizing fields developed on cooling through the Curie Temperature. While such governing factors might be obvious, the specific patterns that result as a function of morphology are often non-intuitive, and a series of images of domains in nanodots, rods and wires will be presented and rationalised. In addition, the nature in which morphological factors influence domain dynamics during switching will be discussed, with particular focus on axial switching in nanowires, and the manner in which local surface perturbations (such as notches and antinotches) affect domain wall propagation. In collaboration with Alina Schilling, Li-Wu Chang, Mark McMillen, Raymond McQuaid, and Leo McGilly, Queen's University Belfast; Gustau Catalan, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona; and James Scott, University of Cambridge.

  12. Giant magnetoelectric effect in thin magnetic films utilizing inter-ferroelectric transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Peter; Staruch, Margo

    There has recently been much interest to multiferroic magnetoelectric composites based on relaxor ferroelectric single crystals as potential candidates for devices such as magnetic field sensors, energy harvesters, or transducers. Large magnetoelectric coupling coefficient is prerequisite for superior device performance in a broad range of frequencies and functioning conditions. In magnetoelectric heterostructures based on ternary relaxors Pb(In1/2Nb1/2) O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystal better operational range and temperature stability as compared to binary relaxors can be achieved. Giant linear converse magnetoelectric coupling up to 2 x 10-6 s m-1 were observed in heterostructural composites with multilayered FeCo/Ag deposited on (011) PIN-PMN-PT crystals. Further enhancement of magnetoelectric coupling is demonstrated by utilizing inter-ferroelctric rhombohedral - orthorhombic phase transitions in PIN-PMN-PT Mechanical clamping was a precondition to utilize this inter-ferroelectric transition mode to bring the crystal to a point just below its transformation threshold when very small perturbations at the input will cause large swings at the output generating a sharp uniaxial increase in strain (~0.5 %) and polarization change, giving rise to nonlinear effects. Details of these results and their implications will be presented. Giant magnetoelectric effect in thin magnetic fillms utilizing inter-ferroelectric transitions.

  13. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-07-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.

  14. Large strain response based on relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-SrTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Laijun; Shi, Danping; Knapp, Michael; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) addition on the ferroelectric and dielectric behavior of 90Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-10SrTiO3 (BNT-ST) lead-free piezoceramics was investigated. Polarization and strain hysteresis loops indicate that a relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence will be produced with the addition of KNN as a replacement for ST up to 5% and the destabilization of the phase coherence is accompanied by an enhancement of the bipolar strain with the increase of temperature, which is ˜0.37% (corresponding to a large signal d33* of ˜530 pm/V at 90 °C) at 5 mol. % KNN content. This strain was analyzed as derived from an electrostrictive effect at lower electric fields and a field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition at higher electric fields. The large polar strain response would be of great interest for environmental friendly high-temperature actuators.

  15. Ferroelectric memories.

    PubMed

    Scott, J F; Paz de Araujo, C A

    1989-12-15

    In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read/erase/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core memory, magnetic bubble memory systems, and electrically erasable read-only memory for many applications. The switching kinetics of these films, 100 to 300 nanometers thick, are now well understood, with switching times that fit an activation field dependence that scales applied field and temperature. Earlier problems of fatigue and retention failure are also now understood and have been improved to acceptable levels. PMID:17755995

  16. Ferroelectric and electrical behavior of (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.H.; Xue, J.M.; Li, W.Z.; Wang, J.; Zhu, H.; Miao, J.M.

    2004-08-02

    Sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) of perovskite structure is among the best known lead-free piezoelectric/ferroelectric that promises a number of applications in sensors and actuators. However, NBT in thin film form has not been properly investigated, although NBT in bulk ceramic form has been widely studied. In this letter, we report the growth of polycrystalline NBT thin films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and their ferroelectric behavior. The NBT thin films exhibit a well-defined hysteresis loop, with a remanent polarization of 11.9 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and coercive field of 37.9 kV/cm when measured at room temperature. There is a steady decrease of dielectric constant in the range of 650-470 over the frequency range of 10-10{sup 5} Hz. A change in the controlling mechanism of electrical behavior from the grain interior to the grain boundary is observed for the NBT thin film with increasing temperature. Hopping of oxygen vacancies trapped at the grain boundaries is responsible for the high dielectric loss at low frequencies and high dc conductivity observed.

  17. Size effects in a relaxor: further insights into PMN.

    PubMed

    Grigalaitis, R; Ivanov, M; Macutkevic, J; Banys, J; Carreaud, J; Kiat, J M; Laguta, V V; Zalar, B

    2014-07-01

    Dielectric measurements of PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) powder and dense ceramics with grain sizes between 15 nm and two microns were carried out in a broad frequency range (20 Hz-1 GHz). Clear grain size dependence of relaxor behavior was evidenced. A progressive transformation from Vogel-Fulcher behavior towards the Arrhenius process in the PMN with reduction of grain size in both ceramics and powder was observed. In the case of ceramics we were able to extract deeper information from the distributions of relaxation times and an analysis using the Vogel-Fulcher law, revealing two main contributions: a fast part of distribution of relaxation times with a maximum close to 10(-11) s, which is almost grain-size independent and has a non-polar origin; whereas, a process with long relaxation times (in the time range of 10(-8) to 10(-5) s) is associated with the dynamics of the polar nanoregions and is strongly suppressed with reduction of grain size. The results of dielectric investigations are confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments. PMID:24925462

  18. Time-dependent ferroelectric transition in Pb(1-x)(Zr0.4Ti0.6)(1-x/4)O3 - xLa system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhimin; Xue, Dezhen; Wu, Haijun; Ji, Yuanchao; Ding, Xiangdong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Xiaobing

    2013-06-01

    Ferroelectric transition involves tiny shift of ions within unit cell, thus being intrinsically a very fast process without apparent time-dependence. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, here we report a time-dependent ferroelectric transition, which occurs in hours. The system studied was Pb(1-x)(Zr0.4Ti0.6)(1-x/4)O3 - xLa system with relaxor-forming dopant La3+. The time-dependent ferroelectric transition occurs at the ferroelectric/relaxor crossover composition range of 0.09 < x ≤ 0.16. In these compositions, in situ Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveal very slow growth of ferroelectric phase. Dielectric measurement shows isothermal kinetics of the transition. The slow ferroelectric transition can be understood as being caused by the slowing-down of the otherwise fast growth of polar nano-domains due to the random local field caused by La3+, so that long time is needed to achieve long-range order macroscopic ferroelectric phase.

  19. Electrical Properties of Barium and Zirconium Modified NBT Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Sambasiva; Tilak, B.; Rajulu, K. Ch. Varada; Swathi, A.; Workineh, Haileeyesus

    2011-11-01

    Recently a new wave of interest has risen on relaxor ferroelectrics with complex perovskite structure due to their wide use in fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors, electrostrictive actuators, and electromechanical transducers. The polycrystalline 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)Ba0.07Z0.04T0.96O3 (0.07BNBZT) ceramic material, which is in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been prepared by using high temperature solid state reaction method. The tolerance factor has been estimated and found to be 0.815. XRD analysis revealed a rhombohedral perovskite type structure. SEM micrographs showed highly dense grains with rectangular shape. The average grain size is found to be 1.51μm. Dielectric studies in the material ha indicated relaxor behaviour with diffuse phase transition. High value of ɛm>1958 is found at 1kHz, Tm (phase transition temperature) 335 °C, The diffuseness parameter was established to be 1.60 revealing the relaxor behaviour. Further, to confirm the relaxor behaviour in the material, Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) relation has been used. Estimated V-F parameters are found to be Tf = 138 °C, Ea = 0.080 eV and νo = 2.32×108 Hz. Cole-Cole analysis has shown a non-Debye type relaxation in the system. Conductivity studies in the material obeyed the Jonscher's power law in frequency range of (45Hz-5MHz) and temperature range of (35 °C-600 °C). The electric conduction in the system may be due to hopping/mobility/ transportation of charge carriers.

  20. Electrical Properties of Barium and Zirconium Modified NBT Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Sambasiva; Tilak, B.; Swathi, A.; Workineh, Haileeyesus; Rajulu, K. Ch. Varada

    2011-11-22

    Recently a new wave of interest has risen on relaxor ferroelectrics with complex perovskite structure due to their wide use in fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors, electrostrictive actuators, and electromechanical transducers. The polycrystalline 0.93(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})Ba{sub 0.07}Z{sub 0.04}T{sub 0.96}O{sub 3}(0.07BNBZT) ceramic material, which is in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been prepared by using high temperature solid state reaction method. The tolerance factor has been estimated and found to be 0.815. XRD analysis revealed a rhombohedral perovskite type structure. SEM micrographs showed highly dense grains with rectangular shape. The average grain size is found to be 1.51{mu}m. Dielectric studies in the material ha indicated relaxor behaviour with diffuse phase transition. High value of {epsilon}{sub m}>1958 is found at 1kHz, Tm (phase transition temperature) 335 deg. C, The diffuseness parameter was established to be 1.60 revealing the relaxor behaviour. Further, to confirm the relaxor behaviour in the material, Vogel-Fulcher (V-F) relation has been used. Estimated V-F parameters are found to be T{sub f} = 138 deg. C, E{sub a} = 0.080 eV and {nu}{sub o} = 2.32x10{sup 8} Hz. Cole-Cole analysis has shown a non-Debye type relaxation in the system. Conductivity studies in the material obeyed the Jonscher's power law in frequency range of (45Hz-5MHz) and temperature range of (35 deg. C - 600 deg. C). The electric conduction in the system may be due to hopping/mobility/ transportation of charge carriers.

  1. Thermal diffusivity and 3D-XY critical behavior of ferroelectric semiconductors (PbxSn1-x)2P2Se6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A. A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    An ac photopyroelectric calorimeter has been used to study the thermal diffusivity of the ferroelectric semiconductors family (PbxSn1-x)2P2Se6 (x=0-1) from 30 K to room temperature. Phase transitions have been found for x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.47 but not for x=1 in the full temperature range. A continuous phase transition has been found for x=0, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.47 which corresponds to the paraelectric commensurate to incommensurate phase. It has been possible to study the critical behavior of this transition for x=0, 0.05 and the critical parameters obtained have been α=-0.019, A+/A-=1.00 and α=-0.026, A+/A-=1.03, respectively, having fitted at the same time both the low and high temperature branches of the transition as rigorous critical theory indicates; these results agree with the theoretical prediction from renormalization group theory that this kind of transition complies with the 3D-XY universality class (αtheor=-0.014, A+/A-=1.06), which has been experimentally confirmed only in a few materials. A first order incommensurate to ferroelectric phase transition has been characterized in x=0, 0.05 at lower temperature.

  2. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb0.88La0.08)(Zr0.91Ti0.09)O3 was found to be an ideal candidate. La3+ doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm3 with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  3. Observation of bi-relaxor characteristic in multiferroic 0.70Bi0.90Ca0.10FeO3-0.30PbTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, Patri; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-09-01

    The coexistence of bi-relaxor property, i.e. ferroelectric relaxor as well as spin glass type behaviour, is observed in disordered multiferroic ceramic 0.70Bi0.90Ca0.10FeO3-0.30PbTiO3. The real parts of dielectric permittivity and magnetic susceptibility show pronounced frequency dispersion near the corresponding phase transition temperatures, namely, Tc ≈ 550 K and TN ≈ 110 K, respectively. The relaxor behaviour observed in temperature-dependent dielectric constant measurement is confirmed by fitting of the Vogel-Fulcher equation. Similarly, magnetic spin glass behaviour is proven by power law fitting. The origin of such bi-relaxor in the present system can be attributed to the disorder and frustration among the uncompensated spins of the Fe-ion. This has been confirmed by analysing the x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectrum of the sample under investigation. Using FESEM micrographs, the coexistence of nano-sized and bulk grains is shown. The importance of such coexistence is discussed and also presented in the paper.

  4. Coherent coupling in ferroelectric superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Eastman, J.A.; Vetrone, J.; Newnham, R.E.; Cross, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    The phase transition and dielectric behavior of ferroelectric multilayers have been discussed. The coherent interaction between ultra-thin layers can be significantly strong, resulting in a broad diffuse phase transition. The thicknesses of layers and their spatial distributions hold the keys of enhancing dielectric properties in a broad temperature range.

  5. Strain gradients in epitaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, G.; Noheda, B.; McAneney, J.; Sinnamon, L.J.; Gregg, J.M.

    2005-07-01

    X-ray analysis of ferroelectric thin layers of Ba{sub 1/2}Sr{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} with different thicknesses reveals the presence of strain gradients across the films and allows us to propose a functional form for the internal strain profile. We use this to calculate the influence of strain gradient, through flexoelectric coupling, on the degradation of the ferroelectric properties of films with decreasing thickness, in excellent agreement with the observed behavior. This paper shows that strain relaxation can lead to smooth, continuous gradients across hundreds of nanometers, and it highlights the pressing need to avoid such strain gradients in order to obtain ferroelectric films with bulklike properties.

  6. Thickness-dependent ferroelectric behavior of predominantly (117)-oriented Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 thin-film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Zhang, Fuwei; Hu, Guangda; Zong, Zhihao; Tang, Minghua

    2015-04-01

    Ferroelectric hysteresis loops, remanent polarization, coercive field, and leakage current characteristics were investigated by increasing the film thickness (from 103 nm to 401 nm) of predominantly (117)-oriented Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 films. The thickness dependence of the coercive fields shows log coercive field vs. log thickness with a slope of approximately -0.65, which is characteristics of the Kay-Dunn scaling law. The films exhibited very low leakage current on the order of 10-7A/cm2 at an applied electric field of 100 kV/cm. Without a discernible thickness-dependence behavior, the leakage current characteristics, including both Schottky emission and space-charge-limited conduction, were well described by a modified Schottky contact model.

  7. Differentiating Ferroelectric and Nonferroelectric Electromechanical Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; Herklotz, Andreas; Tselev, Alexander; Eom, Chang-Beom; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Yu, Pu; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-06-23

    Ferroelectricity in functional materials remains one of the most fascinating areas of modern science in the past several decades. In the last several years, the rapid development of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and spectroscopy revealed the presence of electromechanical hysteresis loops and bias-induced remnant polar states in a broad variety of materials including many inorganic oxides, polymers, and biosystems. In many cases, this behavior was interpreted as the ample evidence for ferroelectric nature of the system. Here, we systematically analyze PFM responses on ferroelectric and nonferroelectric materials and demonstrate that mechanisms unrelated to ferroelectricity can induce ferroelectric-like characteristics through charge injection and electrostatic forces on the tip. We will focus on similarities and differences in various PFM measurement characteristics to provide an experimental guideline to differentiate between ferroelectric material properties and charge injection. In the end, we apply the developed measurement protocols to an unknown ferroelectric material. PMID:26035634

  8. 180 deg. domain structure and its evolution in Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric single crystals of tungsten bronzes structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.J.; Nie, C.J.; Duan, X.F.; Li, J.Q.; Zhang, H.J.; Wang, J.Y.

    2006-05-15

    Ferroelectric domain structure and its evolution in uniaxial relaxor Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystals were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that there exists a high density of 180 deg. domain walls in the crystals. The domains appear predominantly spike shaped along the polar axis and have a typical diameter of 50-500 nm. Domain wall motion was occasionally induced by electron beam irradiation. Macrodomains-to-microdomains switching has been observed corresponding to the normal-to-relaxor ferroelectrics transition during an in situ heating experiments. At temperature just below ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub C}, zero-field-cooled needlelike nanodomains were also observed.

  9. Weak ferromagnetism and magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic xBa0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.9Gd0.1O3 relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M. J.; Khan, M. N. I.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2016-03-01

    Multiferroic xBa0.95Sr0.05TiO3-(1-x)BiFe0.9Gd0.1O3 [xBST-(1-x)BFGO], where x=0.00-0.40, have been synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The crystalline phase, microstructure, relaxor behavior, ac conductivity, impedance spectroscopy, dc magnetic properties, complex initial permeability and magnetoelectric coefficient of these solid solutions have been investigated. The crystal structure is found to change from rhombohedral in BFGO rich compositions to cubic when x≥0.30. Room temperature dielectric properties are investigated within the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and found to increase with BST content. The frequency dependence of high temperature dielectric measurements indicated that the composites with x≥0.20, exhibit relaxor ferroelectric behavior. The ac conductivity obeys the Jonscher's universal power law and BST helps to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composites. Studies of impedance spectroscopy suggest that only grains have the contribution to the conductivity mechanism in this material. Magnetizations as a function of applied magnetic field measurements show weak ferromagnetism for 0.10≤x≤0.30 composites. The maximum value of remnant magnetization is found to be 0.565×103 A/m (=0.08 emu/g) for x=0.25 which is better than previously reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 systems. The complex initial permeability is found to improve with the increase in BST concentration due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies. In addition, an enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is also observed and determined by the ME coefficient. The maximum value of ME coefficient is found to be 21.71×10-4 V/A (=1.67 mV/cm Oe) for the x=0.25 composition. The BST-BFGO solid solutions show high-performance multiferroic properties and can be selected for further investigation.

  10. Ferroelectric domain wall relaxation in Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 films displaying Curie-Weiss behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boikov, Yu. A.; Khamchane, K.; Claeson, T.

    2004-10-01

    Ferroelectric films may be used in integrated circuits for high frequency and memory applications. Losses and interfaces between films and electrodes are problematic. This work concerns the temperature and electric field response of the complex dielectric permittivity and the relaxation of domain walls in a ferroelectric layer that is of sufficient quality to show a Curie-Weiss behavior. Laser ablation was used to deposit 1200 nm thick Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 layers between metallic oxide, (100 nm) SrRuO3 and (120 nm) La0.67Ca0.33MnO3, films in epitaxial heterostructures. The electric field response (E ⩽80kV/cm) of the real ε' and imaginary ε″ parts of the complex permittivity of the intermediate Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 layer in these parallel plane film capacitors was studied at temperatures above and below the phase transition point TCurie. The latter was determined from the temperature dependence of the inverse dielectric permittivity and its value, TCurie=145K, agrees well with that of bulk single crystal. ε' of the Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 layer could be suppressed about 80% by a field E =80kV/cm at temperatures close to TCurieε'(T,E) and ε″(T,E) curves were used to gain insight into the relaxation dynamics of ferroelectric domain walls (DW) in the Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 layer. Their influence on ε' was noticed up to T =230K, well above TCurie. The most probable relaxation time τ of the DW in Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 follows a relation τ =τ0exp[(ϕ-β√E )/kT], where τ0=1.2×10-10sϕ=75-105meV, and β =4.7×10-24Jm1/2V-1/2.

  11. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  12. Ferroelastic Behavior in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3--46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--30PbTiO3 under Shear Stresses along [001] Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Naohiko; Hidayah, Nur; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Hlinka, Ing. Jiri; Iwata, Makoto; Terauchi, Hikaru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-01

    The ferroelastic behavior of relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3--46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--30PbTiO3 (PIN--PMN--PT) solid-solution single crystals was investigated under shear stresses using polarization light microscopy (PLM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical strain patterns along the \\{110\\}cub directions from the orthoscope images under crossed Nicol, induced by shear stresses applied along the [001]cub direction, making use of a Vickers microindenter with a square-base diagonal line oriented along the \\{100\\}cub directions of the crystal were observed on its (001)cub plate for the first time. These patterns at a diagonal position reveal a flowerlike pattern for ferroelastic transition from a square (S) lattice to a rectangular (R) lattice in a two-dimensional model system. A change in the interference color from yellow to blue through red toward the center in their flower leaves, according to the Michel--Levy birefringence chart, was observed. The patterns at the extinction position reveal starlike patterns coupled with lobes also due to orthorhombic and/or tetragonal twin domain structures. A blue shift (corresponding to addition in retardation) and a yellow shift (corresponding to subtraction in retardation) in color at each flower leaf in the [110]cub and [1\\bar{1}0]cub directions were respectively observed using a sensitive color plate. Such shifts in color correspond to oxygen octahedra being rotated in a staggered sense about the perovskite axis. The patterns appearing strongly along the \\{110\\}cub directions in spite of slip lines along the [100]cub, [010]cub, and [110]cub directions indicate the existence of a rotational preferred orientation in twin domain structures based on a pretransitional tweed domain structure due to platelets observed by SEM, leading to their superior piezoelectric properties due to large shear modes.

  13. Structural and relaxor-like dielectric properties of unfilled tungsten bronzes Ba5-5xSm5xTi5xNb10-5xO30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, T.; Dong, Z.; Zhao, C. Z.; Guo, Y. Y.; Zhou, Q. J.; Li, Z. P.

    2016-03-01

    New unfilled tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) oxides, Ba5-5xSm5xTi5xNb10-5xO30 (BSTN-x), where 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, have been synthesized in this work. Their crystal structure was determined and analyzed based on Rietveld structural refinement. It is found that single TTB phase can be formed in a particular x range (i.e., 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) due to the competition interaction between tolerance factor and electronegativity difference. Furthermore, dielectric and ferroelectric results indicate that phase transitions and ferroelectric states are sensitive to x. Referring to the local chemistry, we suggest that the raise of vacancies at the A2-site compared with that of A1-site will intensely depress the normal ferroelectric phase and is in favor of relaxor ferroelectric state. Macroscopically, previous A-site size difference standpoint on fill TTB compounds cannot give a reasonable explanation about the variation of dielectric maximum temperature (Tm) for present BSTN-x compounds. Alternatively, tetragonality (c/a) is adopted which can well describe the variation of Tm in whole x range. In addition, one by one correspondence between tetragonality and electrical features can be found, and the compositions involving high c/a are usually stabilized in normal ferroelectric phase. It is believed that c/a is a more appropriate parameter to illustrate the variation of ferroelectric properties for unfilled TTB system.

  14. High Piezoelectric Response in (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+-Modified 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 Near the Nonergodic-Ergodic Relaxor Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiwen; Li, Qinglin; Zhou, Changrong; Zeng, Weidong; Xiao, Jianrong; Ma, Jiafeng; Yuan, Changlai; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Guanghui; Li, Xuqiong

    2016-02-01

    The (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 system is a promising Pb-free piezoelectric material to substitute for environmentally undesirable Pb-based ferroelectrics. However, understanding the origin of its high piezoelectric response is a fundamental issue that has remained unclear for decades. Here, complex ions (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+ were introduced to dictate the stability of the electrically-induced ferroelectric state in 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x (Li0.5Sm0.5) x TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 relaxor ceramics. The applied electric field induces a phase transition from a non-ergodic state to a ferroelectric state as well as the realignment of ferroelectric domains. The non-ergodic relaxor state with x = 0-0.02 is accompanied by relatively high piezoelectric activity and the strongest piezoelectricity is observed near the crossover from the nonergodic to the ergodic state. The stable ferroelectric state cannot survive after the removal of the application electric field for the high doping level due to the enhancement of the random field, which is responsible for the rapid decrease of piezoelectric properties for x > 0.02 compositions.

  15. Field-induced strain behavior for potassium sodium bismuth titanate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James F; Payne, David A; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2007-12-01

    Data are reported for the dielectric, piezoelectric, electrostrictive, and ferroelectric properties of potassium-substituted sodium bismuth titanate, [(K(x)Na(1-x))(0.5)Bi(0.5)]TiO3. For the morphotropic phase boundary composition x = 0.2, relaxor-type behavior was observed at room temperature with piezoelectric (effective d(333) = 325 x 10(-12) m/V) and ferroelectric properties (P(R) = 25 microC/cm(2), E(C) = 30 kV/cm). A transition to a relatively frequency-independent, diffuse phase transformation region occurred with increasing temperature, with no remanent strain or coercive field. Above the transition temperature, the field-induced strain was consistent with contributions from electrostriction and field induced piezoelectricity (M(3333) = 1.9 x 10(-16) m2/V2 and d333 = 81 x 10(-12) m/V at 100 degrees C). Information is given for the temperature dependence of properties, e.g., 0.14% strain induced at 50 kV/cm at 200 degrees C. Higher potassium content x = 0.6 stabilized the ferroelectric piezoelectric region to temperatures above 200 degrees C, with a relatively stable d(333) = 150-145 x 10-12 m/V between 25 degrees C and 200 degrees C. Pb-free KNBT ceramics appear competitive with PZT, especially for higher temperature electromechanical applications. PMID:18276548

  16. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Martinez, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J.F.; Cavendish Laboratory, Dept. Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB0 3HE ; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie-Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/{epsilon} - 1/{epsilon}{sub m}) as function of log (T - T{sub m}) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-E loops with good saturation polarization (P{sub s} {approx} 30.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with {gamma} estimated is {approx}1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) + 0.25 (PbF{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) - (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature {approx}261 K and other above {approx}410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm-3 {mu}m. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P{sub s} {approx} 30.68 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/{epsilon} versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The compositional variation on the phase transition temperature, dielectric constant, and ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions are discussed.

  17. Organic ferroelectric/semiconducting nanowire hybrid layer for memory storage.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronggang; Kassa, Hailu G; Haouari, Rachid; Marrani, Alessio; Geerts, Yves H; Ruzié, Christian; van Breemen, Albert J J M; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Nysten, Bernard; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M

    2016-03-21

    Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires over an insulating substrate, the ferroelectric dipole moment can be stabilized by injected free charge carriers accumulating laterally in the neighboring semiconducting nanowires. This lateral electrostatic coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires offers new opportunities to design new device architectures. As an example, we demonstrate the fabrication of an elementary non-volatile memory device in a transistor-like configuration, of which the source-drain current exhibits a typical hysteretic behavior with respect to the poling voltage. The potential for size reduction intrinsic to the nanostructured hybrid layer offers opportunities for the development of strongly miniaturized ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices. PMID:26927694

  18. Constitutive relations of ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu

    The objective of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding on the fundamental constitutive behavior of ferroelectric ceramics based on the physics of phase transition, micromechanics of heterogeneous materials, and principles of irreversible thermodynamics. Within this framework, a self-consistent model is developed to investigate the electromechanical responses of ferroelectric polycrystals under temperature change and electromechanical loading. Cooling of a paraelectric crystal below its curie temperature Tc would result in spontaneous polarization, whereas electromechanical loading on a poled crystal could lead to domain switch. Domain growth and reorientation inside ferroelectric crystals are studied in light of these phase transition and domain switch. In this process, the change of the effective elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants during the evolution of microstructures are examined. In addition, hysteresis loops for the electric displacement and other related phenomena are computed under cyclic electric load. On top of all methods implemented in this work, the kinetic equation derived from the irreversible thermodynamics is the key to study the domain evolution in ferroelectric crystals. The kinetic relation not only governs the growth of new domain in a ferroelectric crystal, but it also determines the onset of phase transition. This characteristic is used to study the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the shift of Curie temperature of a ferroelectric crystal. Based on the derived expressions, it is observed that the deriving force can increase or decrease upon applied hydrostatic mechanical loading, depending on the change of electromechanical moduli, eigenstrain and electro-polarization. Several typical cases are computed and it is found that the change of the electromechanical moduli during phase transformation plays the key role in the shift of Curie temperature. Since ferroelectric ceramics are in a polycrystal form, a self-consistent model is used to examine the issues involved. In this model, each grain is represented by a spherical inclusion embedded in an infinitely extended piezoelectric matrix, and the inclusion further possesses an eigenstrain and eigen polarization. Secant relations between the polycrystal-matrix and the embedded inclusion are established by extending Hill's [1] incremental relations. An iterative computational program is developed for this self-consistent model.

  19. Scaling Behavior of Amplitude-Dependent Ferroelectric Hysteresis Loops in an Epitaxial PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sang Mo; Jang, S. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Kim, Hun-Ho; Lee, Ho Nyung; Yoon, J. -G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scaling behavior of ferroelectric (FE) hysteresis loops as a function of the applied field amplitude (E{sub 0}) in a high-quality epitaxial PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film. We observed that the areas of the polarization-electric field hysteresis loops (A) followed the scaling law A {proportional_to} E{sub 0}{sup {alpha}}, with the exponent {alpha} = 0.45 {+-} 0.01. This result is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction of {alpha} by the two-dimensional Ising model. In addition, we found that the coercive field (E{sub C}) showed E{sub C} {proportional_to} E{sub 0}{sup {gamma}} with the exponent {gamma} = 0.28 {+-} 0.01. We attribute this relationship to the difference in the sweep rate of the field amplitude E{sub 0}. From the obtained {gamma} value, the growth dimension of FE domains is found to be about 1.68 in our epitaxial PZT thin film.

  20. A light-modified ferroelectric resistive switching behavior in Ag/BaMoO{sub 4}/FTO device at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.X.; Sun, B.; Liu, Y.H.; Wei, L.J.; Li, H.W.; Chen, P.

    2014-12-15

    BaMoO{sub 4} powder was prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis. And the BaMoO{sub 4}/FTO device was fabricated by a spin-coated method, in which the thickness of BaMoO{sub 4} layer is about 20 µm. The bipolar resistive switching effect has been observed in Ag/BaMoO{sub 4}/FTO device. Moreover, the resistive switching effect of the device is greatly improved by white light irradiation. The resistive switching behavior is explained by the polarization reversal that changes the charge distribution and modulates the Schottky barriers. - Graphical abstract: We fabricate a resistive switching device based on Ag/BaMoO{sub 4}/FTO, the device shows superior white-light controlled bipolar resistive switching memristive characteristics. - Highlights: • The BaMoO{sub 4} nanosquares powder was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis. • The resistive switching of the Ag/BaMoO{sub 4}/FTO device was observed for the first time. • It is shown that the resistive switching is greatly improved under the white light irradiation. • The mechanism of resistive switching is attributed to the ferroelectric polarization reversal.

  1. Organic ferroelectric/semiconducting nanowire hybrid layer for memory storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ronggang; Kassa, Hailu G.; Haouari, Rachid; Marrani, Alessio; Geerts, Yves H.; Ruzié, Christian; van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Nysten, Bernard; Hu, Zhijun; Jonas, Alain M.

    2016-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires over an insulating substrate, the ferroelectric dipole moment can be stabilized by injected free charge carriers accumulating laterally in the neighboring semiconducting nanowires. This lateral electrostatic coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires offers new opportunities to design new device architectures. As an example, we demonstrate the fabrication of an elementary non-volatile memory device in a transistor-like configuration, of which the source-drain current exhibits a typical hysteretic behavior with respect to the poling voltage. The potential for size reduction intrinsic to the nanostructured hybrid layer offers opportunities for the development of strongly miniaturized ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires over an insulating substrate, the ferroelectric dipole moment can be stabilized by injected free charge carriers accumulating laterally in the neighboring semiconducting nanowires. This lateral electrostatic coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting nanowires offers new opportunities to design new device architectures. As an example, we demonstrate the fabrication of an elementary non-volatile memory device in a transistor-like configuration, of which the source-drain current exhibits a typical hysteretic behavior with respect to the poling voltage. The potential for size reduction intrinsic to the nanostructured hybrid layer offers opportunities for the development of strongly miniaturized ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00049e

  2. Super Stable Ferroelectrics with High Curie Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhipeng; Lu, Chengjia; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Sinuo; Yu, Yuying; He, Hongliang

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric materials are of great importance in the sensing technology due to the piezoelectric properties. Thermal depoling behavior of ferroelectrics determines the upper temperature limit of their application. So far, there is no piezoelectric material working above 800 °C available. Here, we show Nd2Ti2O7 with a perovskite-like layered structure has good resistance to thermal depoling up to 1400 °C. Its stable behavior is because the material has only 180° ferroelectric domains, complex structure change at Curie point (Tc) and their sintering temperature is below their Tc, which avoided the internal stresses produced by the unit cell volume change at Tc. The phase transition at Tc shows a first order behavior which involving the tilting and rotation of the octahedron. The Curie – Weiss temperature is calculated, which might explain why the thermal depoling starts at about 1400 °C.

  3. Super Stable Ferroelectrics with High Curie Point

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhipeng; Lu, Chengjia; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Sinuo; Yu, Yuying; He, Hongliang

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are of great importance in the sensing technology due to the piezoelectric properties. Thermal depoling behavior of ferroelectrics determines the upper temperature limit of their application. So far, there is no piezoelectric material working above 800 °C available. Here, we show Nd2Ti2O7 with a perovskite-like layered structure has good resistance to thermal depoling up to 1400 °C. Its stable behavior is because the material has only 180° ferroelectric domains, complex structure change at Curie point (Tc) and their sintering temperature is below their Tc, which avoided the internal stresses produced by the unit cell volume change at Tc. The phase transition at Tc shows a first order behavior which involving the tilting and rotation of the octahedron. The Curie – Weiss temperature is calculated, which might explain why the thermal depoling starts at about 1400 °C. PMID:27053338

  4. Super Stable Ferroelectrics with High Curie Point.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhipeng; Lu, Chengjia; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Sinuo; Yu, Yuying; He, Hongliang

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are of great importance in the sensing technology due to the piezoelectric properties. Thermal depoling behavior of ferroelectrics determines the upper temperature limit of their application. So far, there is no piezoelectric material working above 800 °C available. Here, we show Nd2Ti2O7 with a perovskite-like layered structure has good resistance to thermal depoling up to 1400 °C. Its stable behavior is because the material has only 180° ferroelectric domains, complex structure change at Curie point (Tc) and their sintering temperature is below their Tc, which avoided the internal stresses produced by the unit cell volume change at Tc. The phase transition at Tc shows a first order behavior which involving the tilting and rotation of the octahedron. The Curie - Weiss temperature is calculated, which might explain why the thermal depoling starts at about 1400 °C. PMID:27053338

  5. Perovskite ferroelectric nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nuraje, Nurxat; Su, Kai

    2013-10-01

    In this review, the main concept of ferroelectricity of perovskite oxides and related materials at nanometer scale and existing difficulties in the synthesis of those nanocrystals are discussed. Important effects, such as depolarization field and size effect, on the existence of ferroelectricity in perovskite nanocrystals are deliberated. In the discussion of modeling works, different theoretical calculations are pinpointed focusing on their studies of lattice dynamics, phase transitions, new origin of ferroelectricity in nanostructures, etc. As the major part of this review, recent research progress in the facile synthesis, characterization and various applications of perovskite ferroelectric nanomaterials, such as BaTiO₃, PbTiO₃, PbZrO₃, and BiFeO₃, are also scrutinized. Perspectives concerning the future direction of ferroelectric nanomaterials research and its potential applications in renewable energy, etc., are presented. This review provides an overview in this area and guidance for further studies in perovskite ferroelectric nanomaterials and their applications. PMID:23912964

  6. Hierarchical Domain Structures in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 near a Morphotropic Phase Boundary Composition Grown by Bridgman Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Naohiko; Fuwa, Tomohiro; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Makoto; Terauchi, Hikaru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    2011-09-01

    The domain structures of the lead-based relaxor ferroelectric solid solution single crystal, 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN)-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN)-30PbTiO3 (PT), near a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition grown by the Bridgeman method were studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change in domain structures with poling from rhombohedral spindlelike domains of 3-5 µm width to orthorhombic domains of ˜20 µm width with rectangular cells with a size of 3-5 µm, characterized with an antiferroelectic double hysteresis loop in the electric field-induced strain behavior, was found. Such domain structures were microscopically identified from SEM images as small circular tetragonal defects, planar monoclinic defects such as edge and screw dislocations with Burgers vector b along <110>cub and/or <100>cub directions and their agglomerate rectangular orthorhombic defects, also characterized by PFM. Hierarchical domain structures are discussed from the viewpoints of domain structures due to defects such as edge and screw dislocations originating in the chemical order region (COR) and the piezoelectric responses and dielectric properties.

  7. Negative Capacitance transients in a ferroelectric capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here we demonstrate the negative differential capacitance in a thin, single crystalline ferroelectric film, by constructing a simple R-C network and monitoring the voltage dynamics across the ferroelectric capacitor6. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time-in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. The results are analyzed on the basis of the Landau-Khalatnikov equation, which shows that as the ferroelectric polarization switches its direction, it passes through the unstable negative capacitance region resulting in the characteristic ``negative capacitance transients.'' Analysis of this ``inductance''-like behavior from a capacitor allows us to calculate the value of the negative capacitance directly and presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material.

  8. Effect of local elastic strain on the structure of Pb-based relaxors: A comparative study of pure and Ba- and Bi-doped PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, B.; Mihailova, B.; Paulmann, C.; Ihringer, J.; Gospodinov, M.; Stosch, R.; Güttler, B.; Bismayer, U.

    2009-06-01

    The temperature evolution of the nanoscale structure of PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN) and (Pb,A″)Sc0.5Nb0.5O3 , (A″=Ba,Bi) is analyzed by applying synchrotron single-crystal and high-resolution powder x-ray diffraction as well as polarized Raman spectroscopy. The study compares the effect of incorporation of two-valent cations with isotropic electron structure (Ba2+) and three-valent cations with stereochemically active lone pairs (Bi3+) on the structure of Pb-based perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectrics. The results reveal that the violation of the host system of cations with lone-pair electrons (Pb2+) , i.e., the reduction in ferroic species with coherent off-centered Pb atoms, is the major factor for the suppression of long-range ferroelectric ordering at low temperatures. The local charge imbalance associated with A site chemical disorder has negligible impact on the development of ferroelectric order if the second type of A -positioned cations also forms lone-pair electrons. The substitution of Bi3+ for Pb2+ even enhances the cubic-to-ferroelectric transformation processes in PSN and results in a structural state consisting of abundant ferroelectric domains, which are large enough to be identified by polarized Raman spectroscopy as crystalline, but with an average size close to the intrinsic detection limit of synchrotron single-crystal x-ray diffraction.

  9. Simultaneous Stress and Field Control of Sustainable Switching of Ferroelectric Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Amin, A.; Ahart, M.; Lofland, S. E.

    2015-09-01

    In ferroelectrics, manifestation of a strong electromechanical coupling is attributed to both engineered domain morphology and phase transformations. However, realization of large sustainable and reversible strains and polarization rotation has been limited by fatigue, nonlinearity and hysteresis losses. Here, we demonstrate that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40 × 106 cycles with little fatigue by realization of a reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. Direct tuning of this effect through combination of stress and applied electric field, confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically with x-ray and Raman scattering, reveals the local symmetry while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field (<0.2 MV/m) under mechanical stress. The observed change in local symmetry as determined by x-ray scattering confirms a proposed polarization rotation mechanism corresponding to a transition between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. These results shed more light onto the nature of this reversible transformation between two ferroelectric phases and advance towards the development of a wide range of ferroic and multiferroic devices.

  10. Simultaneous Stress and Field Control of Sustainable Switching of Ferroelectric Phases

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Amin, A.; Ahart, M.; Lofland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    In ferroelectrics, manifestation of a strong electromechanical coupling is attributed to both engineered domain morphology and phase transformations. However, realization of large sustainable and reversible strains and polarization rotation has been limited by fatigue, nonlinearity and hysteresis losses. Here, we demonstrate that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40 × 106 cycles with little fatigue by realization of a reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. Direct tuning of this effect through combination of stress and applied electric field, confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically with x-ray and Raman scattering, reveals the local symmetry while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field (<0.2 MV/m) under mechanical stress. The observed change in local symmetry as determined by x-ray scattering confirms a proposed polarization rotation mechanism corresponding to a transition between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. These results shed more light onto the nature of this reversible transformation between two ferroelectric phases and advance towards the development of a wide range of ferroic and multiferroic devices. PMID:26345729

  11. Simultaneous Stress and Field Control of Sustainable Switching of Ferroelectric Phases.

    PubMed

    Finkel, P; Staruch, M; Amin, A; Ahart, M; Lofland, S E

    2015-01-01

    In ferroelectrics, manifestation of a strong electromechanical coupling is attributed to both engineered domain morphology and phase transformations. However, realization of large sustainable and reversible strains and polarization rotation has been limited by fatigue, nonlinearity and hysteresis losses. Here, we demonstrate that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40 × 10(6) cycles with little fatigue by realization of a reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. Direct tuning of this effect through combination of stress and applied electric field, confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically with x-ray and Raman scattering, reveals the local symmetry while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field (<0.2 MV/m) under mechanical stress. The observed change in local symmetry as determined by x-ray scattering confirms a proposed polarization rotation mechanism corresponding to a transition between rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. These results shed more light onto the nature of this reversible transformation between two ferroelectric phases and advance towards the development of a wide range of ferroic and multiferroic devices. PMID:26345729

  12. Neutron Diffuse Scattering in Pure and Ba-Doped Single Crystals of the Relaxor NBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher; Phelan, Daniel; Gehring, Peter; Zhang, Qinhui; Ahart, Muhtar; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Viehland, Dwight

    2013-03-01

    We report neutron diffuse scattering measurements on the lead-free relaxors Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) and NBT doped with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition that is located close to the morphotropic phase boundary. The diffuse scattering in NBT appears on cooling near 700 K, which coincides with the temperature at which the dielectric constant deviates from Curie-Weiss behavior. Strong, anisotropic diffuse scattering intensity is observed near the (100), (110), (200), (220), and (210) Bragg peaks. The reciprocal space distribution of the diffuse scattering is consistent with the presence of competing rhombohedral and tetragonal short-range structural correlations. Doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3 reduces the correlation length associated with the tetragonal order by a factor of 10 while simultaneously enhancing the piezoelectric properties. This research was supported by NSF Grant DMR-0806592.

  13. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  14. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    PubMed Central

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly. PMID:26079628

  15. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Lu, S G; Chen, X; Levard, T; Diglio, P J; Gorny, L J; Rahn, C D; Zhang, Q M

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly. PMID:26079628

  16. Energy harvesting based on Ericsson pyroelectric cycles in a relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebald, Gael; Pruvost, Sebastien; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations. It is shown here that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting (connecting an adapted resistance, for example) is not effective, whereas Ericsson-based cycles give energy 100 times higher. The principle and experimental validation of the Ericsson cycle are shown with the example of 0.90Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 ceramic. Harvested energy reached 186 mJ cm-3 for 50 C temperature variation and electric field cycle of 3.5 kV mm-1. A correlation between the electrocaloric effect and pyroelectric energy harvesting is then shown. Harvested electric energy with Ericsson cycles can be simply expressed as electrocaloric heat multiplied by Carnot efficiency. Several examples are then given from materials with the highest known electrocaloric effect. This leads to energies of hundreds of mJ cm-3 for a limited 10 C temperature variation. Compared to Carnot's efficiency, this is much higher than the best thermoelectric materials based on the Seebeck effect.

  17. Possible ferroelectricity in perovskite oxynitride SrTaO2N epitaxial thin films

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Daichi; Hirose, Yasushi; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Sasa, Kimikazu; Ishii, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yukio; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Compressively strained SrTaO2N thin films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates using nitrogen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements revealed small domains (101–102 nm) that exhibited classical ferroelectricity, a behaviour not previously observed in perovskite oxynitrides. The surrounding matrix region exhibited relaxor ferroelectric-like behaviour, with remanent polarisation invoked by domain poling. First-principles calculations suggested that the small domains and the surrounding matrix had trans-type and a cis-type anion arrangements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the promise of tailoring the functionality of perovskite oxynitrides by modifying the anion arrangements by using epitaxial strain.

  18. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed; Finkel, Peter; Rossetti, George A.

    2015-10-01

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]C-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  19. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Rossetti, George A.; Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed; Finkel, Peter

    2015-10-26

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]{sub C}-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  20. Poling and Depoling Effects on Dielectric Properties and Domain Structures in Relaxor 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 near a Morphotropic Phase Boundary Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, Nur; Yasuda, Naohiko; Ohwa, Hidehiro; Tachi, Yoshihito; Yamashita, Yohachi; Iwata, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the complex relative permittivity in a relaxor ferroelectric solid solution 24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystal poled and depoled was measured from room temperature to 200 °C at various frequencies. The poled sample exhibits transitions from the ferroelectric (FE) phase to the relaxor (RE) phase on heating, and after that, the depoled one exhibits those from the RE phase to the glassy freezing phase on cooling. An RE-type dielectric dispersion with a weak frequency (f) dependence was observed. Such a dielectric dispersion in the RE state was found to be based on tweed domain structures observed by polarization light microscopy (PLM) and piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) due to the competition between the antiferroelectric (AFE) and FE coupling in the RE state. The temperature dependence of complex permittivity with resonance- and relaxor-type dielectric dispersions in the poled and depoled samples was characterized by hierarchical domain structures.

  1. Ferroelectric liquid crystal display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Paul K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A ferroelectric liquid crystal display device employs capacitance spoiling layers to minimize unneeded capacitances created by crossovers of X and Y address lines and to accurately define desired capacitances. The spoiler layers comprise low dielectric constant layers which space electrodes from the ferroelectric at crossover points where capacitance is not needed for device operation.

  2. From spin induced ferroelectricity to dipolar glasses: Spinel chromites and mixed delafossites

    SciTech Connect

    Maignan, A.; Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4M1

    2012-11-15

    Magnetoelectric multiferroics showing coupling between polarization and magnetic order are attracting much attention. For instance, they could be used in memory devices. Metal-transition oxides are provided several examples of inorganic magnetoelectric multiferroics. In the present short review, spinel and delafossite chromites are described. For the former, an electric polarization is evidenced in the ferrimagnetic state for ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} polycrystalline samples (A=Ni, Fe, Co). The presence of a Jahn-Teller cation such as Ni{sup 2+} at the A site is shown to yield larger polarization values. In the delafossites, substitution by V{sup 3+} at the Cr or Fe site in CuCrO{sub 2} (CuFeO{sub 2}) suppresses the complex antiferromagnetic structure at the benefit of a spin glass state. The presence of cation disorder, probed by transmission electron microscopy, favors relaxor-like ferroelectricity. The results on the ferroelectricity of ferrimagnets and insulating spin glasses demonstrate that, in this research field, transition-metal oxides are worth to be studied. - Graphical abstract: Electric polarization as a function of temperature is measured up to T{sub C} in three chromite ferrimagnetic spinels. Largest values are reached for spinels with Jahn-Teller cations at the A site (Ni or Fe). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electric polarization is evidenced in the ferrimagnetic state of the chromite spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jahn-Teller cations at the A site of these spinels lead to larger polarization values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium substituted at the Cr (or Fe) site of delafossites changes the antiferromagnetic state to spin glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electric polarization is not the result of magnetic ordering but magnetic disordering in Cr or Fe delafossites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxor-type ferroelectricity or spin induced ferroelectricity can be observed in the delafossites.

  3. Investigation of diffuse phase transition in ferroelectric Pb2- x K1+ x Li x Nb5O15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukri, E.; Neqali, A.; Abkhar, Z.; Alimoussa, A.; Hajji, L.; Mezzane, D.; Belboukhari, A.; Amjoud, M.; Gagou, Y.; El Marssi, M.; Luk'yanchuk, I.

    2016-06-01

    Substitution of Pb with Li and K in the Pb2KNb5O15 phases leads to a new composition with chemical composition Pb2- x K1+ x Li x Nb5O15 which crystallizes with tetragonal tungsten bronze-type structure. Ferroelectric ceramics with different compositions were synthesized using solid-state reaction and complex dielectric permittivity measurements in these compounds were performed in a frequency and temperature range of 20 Hz-1 MHz and from 25 to 550 °C, respectively. Special attention was paid to the diffuse phase transition (DPT) that occurs close to the Curie temperature. The empirical equation proposed by Santos-Eiras for a phenomenological description of the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity (ɛ_{{r}}^' }}) peak is used to calculate some characteristic parameters of DPT. From the results, it must be assumed that these compounds show a diffuse phase transition with non-relaxor behavior. A basic phase diagram showing the evolution of T m function of composition x is deduced from this study.

  4. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Thin Films for Capacitive Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Sheng

    As the increasing requirement of alternative energy with less pollution influence and higher energy efficient, new energy source and related storage methods are hot topic nowadays. Capacitors that supply high instant power are one of the keys in this application for both economic and functional design aspects. To lower the cost and increases the volumetric efficiency and reliability, relaxor thin films are considered as one of the candidates of the next generation capacitors. The research mainly focuses on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate or Pb1-xLax(ZryTi1-y)O3 (PLZT, x/y/1-y) relaxor thin films deposited on silicon (Si) and nickel (Ni) substrates in a range of thickness with different bottom electrodes, e.g. Platinum (Pt) and LaNiO3 (LNO). The final fabricated PLZT film capacitors will show strong potential for the energy storage application. The method adopted is the acetic acid assisted sol-gel deposition for the PLZT thin films. The wet chemical process is cost-effective and easily to scale up for plant/industrial products. We investigated the different bottom electrode/substrate influence in structure, microstructure, phases/defects, and heat-treatment conditions to achieve the optimized PLZT thin films. Issues of basic physical size effects in the PLZT thin films were also investigated, including thickness effects in the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films in a wide range of temperatures, the phase transition of the thin-film relaxors, lanthanum content effect, electrode-dielectric junction, misfit strain effect, etc. Based on the results and analysis, optimum PLZT film capacitors can be determined of proper substrate/electrode/dielectric that achieves the desired dielectric properties required for different applications, especially a more cost-effective method to develop volumetrically efficient capacitors with high charge density, energy density, dielectric breakdown strength, energy storage efficiency, and low dielectric loss, leakage current density.

  5. Relaxor-PT single crystals for broad bandwidth, high power sonar projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, Nevin P.

    2010-06-01

    The high piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric relaxor (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMNT) in single crystal form has generated significant interest in producing broad bandwidth SONAR systems. Both the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) are superior to those of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Within the context of a high power acoustic projector, its high losses and low temperature stability have limited its development. Second generation single crystals with compositions modified from the base PMNT have been recently developed to decrease the electromechanical losses and mitigate the thermal property dependence. In this work, the electromechanical properties were measured using single crystals which have been modified in various ways. The modified crystals exhibit electromechanically "hard" behavior with lower losses (tan delta = 0.1--0.2% and QM = 230--950) than unmodified PMNT (tan delta = 0.26% and QM = 190). The measured d33 values of modified single crystals (d33 = 760--1490 pm/V) are also lower than unmodified PMNT (d33 = 1540 pm/V), but the lower piezoelectric response is compensated by the greater stability of the modified single crystals. These modified single crystal properties were also compared to conventional high power piezoelectric ceramics ( d33 = 240 pm/V and QM = 1050) to show similar losses but significantly greater response in the modified PMNT single crystals. Although most piezoelectric materials are measured under small signal conditions (small signal defined by a completely linear relationship between the input and output signals), the high power nature of SONAR projectors demands that these modified single crystals also be evaluated under high power conditions. A test procedure was developed to measure the electromechanical properties of each material as a function of applied electric field over a frequency range which includes the resonance frequency. Modified single crystals showed twice the dynamic strain of unmodified PMNT as a function of electric field, and in many cases also showed greater maximum strain at failure (0.3% compared to 0.15% for unmodified PMNT). When QM was measured as a function of drive level, it was shown to sharply decrease under high dynamic strain. Modified single crystals with greater small signal QM values than unmodified PMNT maintain higher QM values under high drive, with Q M = 50--150 immediately prior to sample failure (Q M = 20 for base PMNT immediately prior to failure). The temperature dependence of modified PMNT single crystal electromechanical properties was also determined, and it was shown that modified crystals possess greater property stability than unmodified PMNT. While the base composition shows a limiting rhombohedral-tetragonal transition at 95 °C, modified single crystals using ternary PIN and PZT components show increased transition temperatures of 125 °C and 144 °C, respectively. The greater phase stability of the PIN ternary crystal was also examined through the coercive field, which was shown to be much greater than that of unmodified PMNT over the temperature range of interest (Ec = 5 kV/cm and 2 kV/cm, respectively, at room temperature). From the combined set of property measurements, the heat generation of each material was predicted for an arbitrary projector device. As a consequence of the lower losses, modified single crystals showed as little as 25% of the heat generation value for unmodified PMNT single crystals. Using this prediction as a performance metric, the crystals with the lowest heat generation were selected for device testing. Transducers with base PMNT and modified single crystals were designed using a finite element modeling approach. This model predicted approximately two octaves of bandwidth for the transducer geometry under investigation. A 5 dB decrease in acoustic output was observed when moving from base PMNT to highly modified crystals, but that result does not account for nonlinear material behavior. Transducers fabricated using modified PMNT were compared to both base PMNT and conventional PZT4 ceramic. In-water analysis at the resonance frequency showed that heavily modified single crystals showed a maximum source level 5 dB greater than base PMNT and comparable to the conventional PZT4. Off resonance, the modified crystal showed a 3 dB improvement over base PMNT and a 6 dB improvement over PZT4. Broadband frequency sweeps confirmed the superior bandwidth of single crystal transducers relative to the conventional piezoelectric ceramic. The previous heat generation predictions were confirmed, with modified crystals showing 3--4x reduction in heat generation relative to base PMNT when measured in water under isothermal conditions of 50 °C. Combined transducer measurements demonstrate that modified PMNT single crystals may combine broad bandwidth and high power stability in an underwater acoustic projector.

  6. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  7. Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Gated Graphene/Hexagonal-BN/Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-11-24

    The effect of a ferroelectric polarization field on the charge transport in a two-dimensional (2D) material was examined using a graphene monolayer on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) field-effect transistor (FET) fabricated using a ferroelectric single-crystal substrate, (1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT). In this configuration, the intrinsic properties of graphene were preserved with the use of an hBN flake, and the influence of the polarization field from PMN-PT could be distinguished. During a wide-range gate-voltage (VG) sweep, a sharp inversion of the spontaneous polarization affected the graphene channel conductance asymmetrically as well as an antihysteretic behavior. Additionally, a transition from antihysteresis to normal ferroelectric hysteresis occurred, depending on the V(G) sweep range relative to the ferroelectric coercive field. We developed a model to interpret the complex coupling among antihysteresis, current saturation, and sudden conductance variation in relation with the ferroelectric switching and the polarization-assisted charge trapping, which can be generalized to explain the combination of 2D structured materials with ferroelectrics. PMID:26487348

  8. Inherent optical behavior and structural variation in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 revealed by temperature dependent Raman scattering and ultraviolet-visible transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Hu, Z. G.; Xu, G. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, J. Z.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Optical properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (NBT-6%BT) single crystal have been studied by temperature dependent Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectra from 25 to 180 °C. With increasing the temperature, the absorption edge approximately decreases from 3.13 to 3.04 eV. Moreover, abnormal changes of phonon mode and spectral transmission are observed at 83, 106, and 150 °C, which can be unambiguously correlated with thermal evolutions of polar nano-regions and phase transition. It indicates that there is an inherent relationship between optical behavior and structural variation of NBT-6%BT, which provides a valid methodology to explore the phase transition of relaxor ferroelectric oxides.

  9. Ferroelectric Light Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A light control device is formed by ferroelectric material and N electrodes positioned adjacent thereto to define an N-sided regular polygonal region or circular region there between where N is a multiple of four.

  10. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor. PMID:20378440

  11. Ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and fatigue behavior of (111)-oriented BiFeO3/(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 lead-free bilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiagang; Kang, Guangqing; Liu, Huajun; Wang, John

    2009-04-01

    Lead-free bilayered thin films consisting of BiFeO3 (BFO) and (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BNT) nanolayers were deposited on the Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by radio frequency sputtering. The bilayered BFO/BNT film exhibits a strong (111) orientation and much enhanced ferroelectric and magnetic properties (2Pr=52.2 μC/cm2, 2Ec=554.0 kV/cm, 2Ms=96.0 emu/cm3, and 2Hc=253.2 Oe) as compared to those of the single layer BNT and BFO thin films, together with an almost fatigue-free polarization behavior. Although space charges occur at the interface between the constituent nanolayers, as confirmed by the frequency dispersion of capacitance, the bottom BNT nanolayer appears to promote the growth and crystallization of BFO layer, largely responsible for the observed ferroelectric and magnetic behavior.

  12. Effects of Interface Layers and Domain Walls on the Ferroelectric-Resistive Switching Behavior of Au/BiFeO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yang, Shengwei; Lin, Yue; Zhang, Dalong; Huang, Weichuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Yin, Yuewei; Dong, Sining; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    The electric field effects on the electric and magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures are important for not only understanding the mechanisms of certain novel physical phenomena occurring at heterointerfaces but also offering a route for promising spintronic applications. Using the Au/BiFeO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (Au/BFO/LSMO) multiferroic heterostructure as a model system, we investigated the ferroelectric-resistive switching (RS) behaviors of the heterostructure. Via the manipulation of the BFO ferroelectric polarizations, the nonvolatile tristate of RS is observed, which is closely related to the Au/BFO and BFO/LSMO interface layers and the highly conducting BFO domain walls (DWs). More interestingly, according to the magnetic field dependence of the RS behavior, the negative magnetoresistance effect of the third resistance state, corresponding to the abnormal current peak in current-pulse voltage hysteresis near the electric coercive field, is also observed at room temperature, which mainly arises from the possible oxygen vacancy accumulation and Fe ion valence variation in the DWs. PMID:26554671

  13. Ferroelectric properties in Mn-modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhonghua; Akishige, Yukikuni

    2014-12-01

    Multiferroic 0.4 mol%-MnO2-doped 0.78BiFeO3-0.22BaTiO3 ceramics were prepared by a traditional ceramic process. The effects of doping and annealing on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were intensively investigated. Dielectric dispersion like relaxor ferroelectrics was observed in the oxygen annealed sample, but disappeared in the vacuum annealed sample. Modification of the BiFeO3-BaTiO3 with MnO2 and annealing in vacuum improved DC resistivity obviously. The spontaneous polarization, remnant polarization, and coercive field are 65.2 μC/cm2, 59.5 μC/cm2 and 21.9 kV/cm, respectively under an applied field of 35 kV/cm.

  14. Influence of zirconium substitution on dielectric, ferroelectric and field-induced strain behaviors of lead-free 0.99[Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2(Ti1- x Zr x )O3]-0.01LiSbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, A.; Iqbal, Y.; Hussain, A.; Ryu, G. H.; Song, T. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, W. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric and field-induced strain behaviors of lead-free 0.99[Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2(Ti1- x Zr x )O3]-0.01LiSbO3 (BNKTZ-LS) ceramics were investigated in the composition range x = 0 - 0.040. XRD patterns revealed the formation of a pure perovskite phase with no apparent structural phase transition. The temperature-dependent dielectric peaks of the BNKTZ-LS ceramics broadened and the ferroelectric polarizations decreased with increasing Zr concentration. Ferroelectric and bipolar field induced-strain curves indicated a disruption of ferroelectric order upon Zr addition into the BNKT-LS ceramics. This destabilization of the ferroelectric order was accompanied by an enhanced field-induced strain. A high field-induced strain ( S = 0.30%) with a normalized strain ( d*33 = S max / E max = 500 pm/V) was observed at an applied electric field of 6 kV/mm at x = 0.020.

  15. Possible ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity of half-substituted rare-earth titanate: A first-principles study on Y0.5La0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ming; Zhang, Hui-Min; Weng, Ya-Kui; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Titanates with the perovskite structure, including ferroelectrics (e.g., BaTiO3) and ferromagnetic ones (e.g., YTiO3), are important functional materials. Recent theoretical studies predicted multiferroic states in strained EuTiO3 and titanate superlattices, the former of which has already been experimental confirmed. Here, a first-principles calculation is performed to investigate the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Y half-substituted LaTiO3. Our results reveal that the magnetism of Y0.5La0.5TiO3 sensitively depends on its structural details because of the inherent phase competition. The lowest energy state is the ferromagnetic state, resulting in 0.25 μ B /Ti. Furthermore, some configurations of Y0.5La0.5TiO3 exhibit hybrid improper polarizations, which can be significantly affected by magnetism, resulting in the multiferroic properties. Because of the quenching disorder of substitution, the real Y0.5La0.5TiO3 material with random A-site ions may exhibit interesting relaxor behaviors.

  16. Structure and ferroelectric properties of BaBi 3.8M 0.2(Ti 3.8Nb 0.2)O 15 (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Bera, J.

    2011-07-01

    Bismuth layer structured compounds BaBi 3.8M 0.2(Ti 3.8Nb 0.2)O 15, with M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, were synthesized through a modified chemical route. Phase and structure of the compounds were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The structure of Mg 2+ based compound was orthorhombic, while it was tetragonal for the other three compositions. Experimental results indicate that Mg 2+ prefers to substitute in the Bi 2O 2 layer. The room temperature permittivity was maximum for Ba 2+ based compound (∼432). The piezoelectric coefficient was significantly enhanced in Mg 2+ based compound. The Curie temperature was found to decrease gradually in the order Mg>Ca>Sr>Ba based compound. There was a marked improvement in the relaxor behavior and remnant polarization for Ba 2+ based compound. The structural changes and dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of all the compounds was discussed and co-related.

  17. A ferroelectric memristor.

    PubMed

    Chanthbouala, André; Garcia, Vincent; Cherifi, Ryan O; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fusil, Stéphane; Moya, Xavier; Xavier, Stéphane; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Deranlot, Cyrile; Mathur, Neil D; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Grollier, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Memristors are continuously tunable resistors that emulate biological synapses. Conceptualized in the 1970s, they traditionally operate by voltage-induced displacements of matter, although the details of the mechanism remain under debate. Purely electronic memristors based on well-established physical phenomena with albeit modest resistance changes have also emerged. Here we demonstrate that voltage-controlled domain configurations in ferroelectric tunnel barriers yield memristive behaviour with resistance variations exceeding two orders of magnitude and a 10 ns operation speed. Using models of ferroelectric-domain nucleation and growth, we explain the quasi-continuous resistance variations and derive a simple analytical expression for the memristive effect. Our results suggest new opportunities for ferroelectrics as the hardware basis of future neuromorphic computational architectures. PMID:22983431

  18. Geometric ferroelectricity in fluoroperovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Castro, A. C.; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Romero, A. H.; Bousquet, E.

    2014-03-01

    We used first-principles calculations to investigate the existence and origin of the ferroelectric instability in the ABF3 fluoroperovskites. While the ground states of most ABF3 compounds are paraelectric (Pnma phase), we find that many fluoroperovskites have a ferroelectric instability in their high-symmetry cubic structure that is of similar amplitude to that commonly found in oxide perovskites. In contrast to the oxides, however, the fluorides have nominal Born effective charges, indicating a different mechanism for the instability. We show that the instability originates from ionic size effects, and is therefore in most cases largely insensitive to pressure and strain, again in contrast to the oxide perovskites. An exception is NaMnF3, where coherent epitaxial strain matching to a substrate with equal in-plane lattice constants destabilizes the bulk Pnma structure, leading to a ferroelectric, and indeed multiferroic, ground state with an unusual polarization/strain response.

  19. Giant Electroresistive Ferroelectric Diode on 2DEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Ik; Jin Gwon, Hyo; Kim, Dai-Hong; Keun Kim, Seong; Choi, Ji-Won; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Jung Chang, Hye; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kwon, Beomjin; Bark, Chung-Wung; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Sang; Baek, Seung-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of electrons in a solid through transmitting, storing, and switching is the fundamental basis for the microelectronic devices. Recently, the electroresistance effect in the ferroelectric capacitors has provided a novel way to modulate the electron transport by polarization reversal. Here, we demonstrate a giant electroresistive ferroelectric diode integrating a ferroelectric capacitor into two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interface. As a model system, we fabricate an epitaxial Au/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, where 2DEG is formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. This device functions as a two-terminal, non-volatile memory of 1 diode-1 resistor with a large I+/I− ratio (>108 at ±6 V) and Ion/Ioff ratio (>107). This is attributed to not only Schottky barrier modulation at metal/ferroelectric interface by polarization reversal but also the field-effect metal-insulator transition of 2DEG. Moreover, using this heterostructure, we can demonstrate a memristive behavior for an artificial synapse memory, where the resistance can be continuously tuned by partial polarization switching, and the electrons are only unidirectionally transmitted. Beyond non-volatile memory and logic devices, our results will provide new opportunities to emerging electronic devices such as multifunctional nanoelectronics and neuromorphic electronics. PMID:26014446

  20. Polarization fatigue of organic ferroelectric capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong; Katsouras, Ilias; Li, Mengyuan; Asadi, Kamal; Tsurumi, Junto; Glasser, Gunnar; Takeya, Jun; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) decreases upon prolonged cycling. Understanding of this fatigue behavior is of great technological importance for the implementation of P(VDF-TrFE) in random-access memories. However, the origin of fatigue is still ambiguous. Here we investigate fatigue in thin-film capacitors by systematically varying the frequency and amplitude of the driving waveform. We show that the fatigue is due to delamination of the top electrode. The origin is accumulation of gases, expelled from the capacitor, under the impermeable top electrode. The gases are formed by electron-induced phase decomposition of P(VDF-TrFE), similar as reported for inorganic ferroelectric materials. When the gas barrier is removed and the waveform is adapted, a fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) is realized. The capacitor can be cycled for more than 108 times, approaching the programming cycle endurance of its inorganic ferroelectric counterparts. PMID:24861542

  1. Polarization fatigue of organic ferroelectric capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong; Katsouras, Ilias; Li, Mengyuan; Asadi, Kamal; Tsurumi, Junto; Glasser, Gunnar; Takeya, Jun; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-05-01

    The polarization of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) decreases upon prolonged cycling. Understanding of this fatigue behavior is of great technological importance for the implementation of P(VDF-TrFE) in random-access memories. However, the origin of fatigue is still ambiguous. Here we investigate fatigue in thin-film capacitors by systematically varying the frequency and amplitude of the driving waveform. We show that the fatigue is due to delamination of the top electrode. The origin is accumulation of gases, expelled from the capacitor, under the impermeable top electrode. The gases are formed by electron-induced phase decomposition of P(VDF-TrFE), similar as reported for inorganic ferroelectric materials. When the gas barrier is removed and the waveform is adapted, a fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) is realized. The capacitor can be cycled for more than 108 times, approaching the programming cycle endurance of its inorganic ferroelectric counterparts.

  2. Large magnetocapacitance in electronic ferroelectric manganite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Ujjal; Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Midya, Arindam; Mandal, P.; Das, Pintu; Mukovskii, Ya. M.

    2013-11-21

    We have observed a sizable positive magnetocapacitance (∼5%–90%) in perovskite Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} and bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system under 5 T magnetic field across 20–100 K below the magnetic transition point T{sub N}. The magnetodielectric effect, on the other hand, exhibits a crossover: (a) from positive to negative for the perovskite system and (b) from negative to positive for the bilayer system over the same temperature range. The bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system exhibits a sizable anisotropy as well. We have also noticed the influence of magnetic field on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of these systems. These systems belong to a class of improper ferroelectrics and are expected to exhibit charge/orbital order driven ferroelectric polarization below the transition point T{sub CO}. Large magnetocapacitance in these systems shows a typical multiferroic behavior even though the ferroelectric polarization is small in comparison to that of other ferroelectrics.

  3. Continuously-tuned tunneling behaviors of ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Xin; Xu, Bo Yin, Qiaonan; Xia, Yidong; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Gong, Changjie; Lan, Xuexin

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we fabricate BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (BTO/LSMO) ferroelectric tunnel junction on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Combining piezoresponse force and conductive-tip atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate robust and reproducible polarization-controlled tunneling behaviors with the resulting tunneling electroresistance value reaching about 10{sup 2} in ultrathin BTO films (∼1.2 nm) at room temperature. Moreover, local poling areas with different conductivity are finally achieved by controlling the relative proportion of upward and downward domains, and different poling areas exhibit stable transport properties.

  4. Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertelj, Alenka; Cmok, Luka; Čopič, Martin; Cook, Gary; Evans, Dean R.

    2012-02-01

    By dynamic light scattering we studied the temperature dependence of scattered intensities and relaxation rates for pure twist and pure bend modes in a colloidal system of BaTiO3 single domain nanoparticles and liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) close to the nematic to smectic-A phase transition. From the experiments we obtained the critical exponents for the smectic correlation lengths, which in suspensions differ from the values for pure 8CB. The phase transition temperatures from isotropic to nematic phase (TNI) and from nematic to smectic-A phase (TNA) are both affected by the presence of the particles in two ways. The electric field around the ferroelectric particles increases the transition temperatures, whereas the disorder and probably also the excess of the surfactant cause a decrease of the transition temperatures compared to pure 8CB. The net effect is lower TNI and almost unchanged TNA in suspensions. After prolonged exposure to the external field the ferroelectric particles irreversibly aggregate, which results in the decrease of the internal electric field and, consequently, in the decrease of both transition temperatures.

  5. Influence of seed nano-crystals on electrical properties and phase transition behaviors of Ba0.85Sr0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ceramics prepared by seed-induced method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjarittangtham, Krit; Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum

    2015-05-01

    This work studied the effects of seed nano-crystal on the electrical properties and the phase transition behaviors of Ba0.85Sr0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 (BSZT) ceramics. The BSZT ceramics were prepared by the seed-induced method. The seed nano-crystal were prepared by the molten salt technique, and NaCl-KCl (1:1 by mole) eutectic mixtures were used as the flux.[1] The ceramic powders were prepared by using a conventional method which added seed nano-crystals at various ratios. Results indicated that seed nano-crystals enhanced the electrical properties of ceramics. The sample with a 20 wt. % seed nano crystals has excellent value of dielectric constant ( µ r ) of 34698 at maximum temperature. The phase transition temperature was observed at 60°C. The morphology was found that the grain size increasing significantly with an increased of seed nano crystals. The relaxor ferroelectric phase transition behavior was shown by a diffuseness parameter ( ³). An increase in the BSZT-seed showed a decreased in ³ value from 1.61 to 1.44. Thus the ferroelectric of the BSZT ceramics can be confirmed by hysteresis loop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V. [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M. [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P. [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  7. Phase evolution in sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanocrystallites: structural, magnetic and ferroelectric characterisation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dimple P; Roy, Mainak; Maiti, Nandita; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2016-04-14

    The properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, morphology, crystal phase, etc., which in turn depend on the method of synthesis. We report here the electrical and magnetic characterisation of sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped nano BaTiO3 samples. The dopant ion concentration has been optimized and the coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity has been observed in the sample. With increase in Fe(3+) doping from 0 to 20 mol%, a gradual phase change from tetragonal to hexagonal occurred in these sonochemically synthesized BaTiO3 nanomaterials. Below 15 mol% Fe concentration the material displays ferroelectric behaviour with the absence of any magnetic ordering, while at an Fe concentration of ∼15 mol% the material exhibits both room temperature ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. Ferromagnetism as well as relaxor type behaviour has been observed in the BaTiO3:Fe(3+)(20%) sample. We have studied the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering in these sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanomaterials and have tried to correlate the results with their crystal structure and morphology. The origin of ferromagnetism in these materials has been attributed to both intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. PMID:27003320

  8. Classical ferroelectriclike behavior of highly ordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2)O3 studied by dielectric and Brillouin scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, V.; Subramanian, V.; Kojima, S.

    2016-02-01

    The ferroelectric phase transition behavior in the highly ordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2) O3 has been investigated by the dielectric and Brillouin spectroscopy. The dielectric permittivity ɛr exhibits a sharp maximum without any frequency dispersion at its Curie temperature Tc. In the temperature range far above Tc, it was noted that the dielectric permittivity exhibits a noticeable deviation from the Curie-Weiss law below the characteristic intermediate temperature T*=500 K , which is common to most of the Pb-based oxide perovskite relaxors. Upon cooling, the frequency of the longitudinal acoustic phonon mode exhibits a remarkable softening towards Tc. The relaxation time of the order parameter calculated using the Landau-Khalatnikov approach was determined to be more than one order of magnitude lower than that of the disordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2)O3 and is very close to that observed in the paraelectric phase of the classical ferroelectric, BaTi O3 . The observed dielectric and relaxation features are qualitatively discussed in terms of the difference in the strength of the random electric fields.

  9. Compositional instability and the resultant charge variations in mixed B-site cation relaxer ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehland, Dwight; Li, Jie-Fang

    1993-09-01

    A phenomenological model has been applied in an attempt to explain the inability of the ordered regions in the lead magnesium niobate family of relaxor ferroelectrics to coarsen. This approach is based on the concept that the free energy is lowered by an embryonic decomposition along a non-neutral direction. It is proposed that the excess free energy associated with the formation of the non-neutral phase is offset by the distortability of the perovskite structure toward the pyrochlore. The lack of coarsening is then explained as a balance of the electrostatic energy and gradient energy terms, following an earlier published report. This model is then applied to the La-modified (donor-doped) lead magnesium niobate, to explain the dependence of the size of the ordered regions on the degree of doping as observed by other workers.

  10. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by overview on the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. Latest development in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also noted. PMID:24018952

  11. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  12. Magnetocaloric effect in ferroelectric Ising chain magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan; Liu, Jia; Yu, Nai-sen; Du, An

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in multiferroic chain system by adopting the elastic Ising-chain model. Based on the transfer-matrix method, the magnetothermal quantities of characterizing MCE behaviors including the entropy, entropy change and adiabatic cooling rate are rigorously determined. Combined with analysis of ground-state, we mainly discuss results in an antiferromagnetic regime associated with ferroelectric transition. Our results show that the entropy change is greatly enhanced near the saturation field as frustration parameter varies in this regime, and accompanied with remarkable inverse MCE, indicating the enormous potential of multiferroic system in low-temperature refrigeration. Meanwhile we also observe a prominent temperature variation in the isoentropy curves close to zero-temperature ferroelectric transition, but this enhancing MCE signal is very sensitive to the thermal fluctuations, and can be strongly suppressed even under a small temperature.

  13. Electrophoresis of Ferroelectric Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiya; Davidovic, Dragomir

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the electrophoresis of ferroelectric nanoparticles(Ba1-xSrxTiO3). We used de-ionized (DI) water as solvent and an optical microscope to observe the motion of suspended ferroelectric nanoparticles driven by AC electric fields. The immediate start and stop of motion were noticed when the driving electric field was turned on and off, which was similar to dielectricphoresis. Higher voltage generated higher speed as expected. In some instances, the dielectric constant ɛ of ferroelectric materials can increase greatly, which makes it possible that a low driving voltage (no larger than 10V) could induce a relatively high speed. At room temperature, we studied the frequency dependence of the motion speed. By comparing a serial of captured motion movies, we found that higher speeds were corresponding to lower frequencies of driving AC electric field. Further, we use well defined electrodes made by electron-beam lithography and high-vacuum deposition, which may regulate the electric field distribution. Consequently, we can characterize the electric force applied on those nanoparticles.

  14. Scaling Effects on Ferro-Electrics: Application in Nanoelectronics and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilquin, B.; Gautier, B.; Brugère, A.; Moulet, J. S.

    2009-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films have been attractive for multifunctional devices like nonvolatile memory (FeRAM) using hysteresis behavior, DRAM using high permittivity, micro-actuator using piezoelectricity, infrared sensor using pyroelectricity, optical switch shutter display, etc. Thin-film nanoscale device structures integrated onto Si chips have made inroads into the semiconductor industry. These applications need not only ferroelectric high quality materials but also ability to keep the ferroelectricity at low dimension after fabrication of nano-scale objects. For these reasons, advanced characterization techniques for probing the properties of ferroelectric materials at nano-scale dimensions are now required. Among them, techniques based on the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) have proved their efficiency for mapping the ferroelectric behavior of thin films with a nanometric resolution.

  15. Structures, electrical properties, and leakage current behaviors of un-doped and Mn-doped lead-free ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Ren, Wei; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lead-free ferroelectric un-doped and doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) films with different amounts of manganese (Mn) were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The thicknesses of all films are about 1.6 μm. Their phase, microstructure, leakage current behavior, and electrical properties were investigated. With increasing the amounts of Mn, the crystallinity became worse. Fortunately, the electrical properties were improved due to the decreased leakage current density after Mn-doping. The study on leakage behaviors shows that the dominant conduction mechanism at low electric field in the un-doped KNN film is ohmic mode and that at high electric field is space-charge-limited and Pool-Frenkel emission. After Mn doping, the dominant conduction mechanism at high electric field of KNN films changed single space-charge-limited. However, the introduction of higher amount of Mn into the KNN film would lead to a changed conduction mechanism from space-charge-limited to ohmic mode. Consequently, there exists an optimal amount of Mn doping of 2.0 mol. %. The 2.0 mol. % Mn doped KNN film shows the lowest leakage current density and the best electrical properties. With the secondary ion mass spectroscopies and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the homogeneous distribution in the KNN films and entrance of Mn element in the lattice of KNN perovskite structure were also confirmed.

  16. Ferroelectric and dielectric properties of ferrite-ferroelectric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Elena Ciomaga, Cristina; Maria Neagu, Alexandra; Valentin Pop, Mihai; Mitoseriu, Liliana; Airimioaei, Mirela; Tascu, Sorin; Schileo, Giorgio; Galassi, Carmen

    2013-02-21

    Particulate composites of ferrite and ferroelectric phases with xNiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NF) and (1 - x)Pb{sub 0.988}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.976}Nb{sub 0.024}O{sub 3} (where x = 2, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100 wt. %) were prepared in situ by sol-gel method. The presence of a diphase composition was confirmed by X-ray diffraction while the microstructure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy revealing a good mixing of the two phases and a good densification of the bulk ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows usual dielectric dispersion behavior with increasing frequency due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. AC conductivity measurements made in frequency range 1 Hz-1 MHz suggest that the conduction process is due to mixed polaron hopping. The effect of NF phase concentration on the P-E and M-H hysteresis behavior and dielectric properties of the composites was investigated. At low NF concentration a sharp ferro-paraelectric transition peak can be observed at around 360 Degree-Sign C while for higher NF concentrations a trend to a diffuse phase transition occurs. All the composite samples exhibit typical ferromagnetic hysteresis loops, indicating the presence of ordered magnetic structure.

  17. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    GEHRING,P.M.; VAKRUSHEV,S.B.; SHIRANE,G.

    2000-03-09

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.92}Ti{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 {angstrom}{sub {minus}1}, measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T{sub d}, which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons.

  18. Automated System Tests Ferroelectric Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakata, Mark; Thakoor, Sarita

    1994-01-01

    Polarization-switching parameters measured under computer control. Ferroelectric-capacitor-testing system applies voltage pulses and measures responses of ferroelectric capacitor to determine write; "time dependence of polarization," polarization-retention and fatigue characteristics of capacitor. Highly integrated setup quite flexible, versatile, and interactive, and allows convenient computer storage and analysis of data.

  19. Lead-free and lead-based ABO3 perovskite relaxors with mixed-valence A-site and B-site disorder: A comparative neutron scattering structural study of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher; Phelan, Daniel; Zhang, Qinjui; Muhtar, Aheart; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Boatner, Lynn A; Viehland, Dwight; Gehring, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of neutron elastic scattering measurements between -250oC and 620oC on the lead-free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT). Strong, anisotropic, elastic diffuse scattering intensity decorates the (100), (110), (111), (200), (220), and (210) Bragg peaks at room temperature. The wavevector dependence of this diffuse scattering is compared to that in the lead-based relaxor PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) to determine if any features might be common to relaxors. Prominent ridges in the elastic diffuse scattering intensity contours that extend along <110> are seen that exhibit the same zone dependence as those observed in PMN and other lead-based relaxors. These ridges disappear gradually on heating above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature TCT = 523oC, which is also near the temperature at which the dielectric permittivity begins to deviate from Curie-Weiss behavior. We thus identify the <110>-oriented ridges as a relaxor-specific property. The diffuse scattering contours also display narrower ridges oriented along <100> that are consistent with the x-ray results of Kreisel et al. (2003); these vanish below 320oC indicating that they have a different physical origin. The <100>-oriented ridges are not observed in PMN. We observe no equivalent relaxor-specific elastic diffuse scattering from the homovalent relaxor analogues K0.95Li0.05TiO3 (A-site disordered) and KTa0.95Nb0.05O3 (B-site disordered). This suggests that the <110>-oriented diffuse scattering ridges are correlated with the presence of strong random electric fields and invites a reassessment of what defines the relaxor phase. We find that doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary with enhanced piezoelectric properties, increases the room temperature correlation length along [1 1 0] from 40 to 60 while doubling the associated integrated diffuse scattering. Similar behavior was reported by Matsuura et al. (2006) for compositions of PMN doped with PbTiO3. Finally, we comment on the recent observation of monoclinicity in NBT at room temperature by placing a strict bound on the strength of the ( ) superlattice reflection associated with the Cc space group based on the atomic coordinates published in the x-ray study by Aksel et al. (2011) for NBT. We argue that a skin effect, analogous to that reported in the relaxors PZN and PMN-10%PT, can reconcile our single-crystal data with the powder data of Aksel et al. We believe this represents the first evidence of the relaxor skin effect in a lead-free relaxor.

  20. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  1. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore » one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  2. Morphotropic domain structures and dielectric relaxation in piezo-/ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Chen, Chang; Ye, Mao; Qiu, Ximei; Lin, Peng; Xiong, Xinbo; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao; Ke, Shanming

    2016-05-01

    The domain structures, phase transitions and dielectric relaxation of relaxor-based piezo-/ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.33Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x=0.30, 0.34, 0.37, and 0.42) single crystals, abbreviated as PIN-PZN-PT, grown by flux method, have been analyzed by polarized light microscope and dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric relaxation was described by the Curie-Weiss law and Lorentz-type quadratic equation. The substitution of Ti4+ ions for the B-site complex (Zn1/3Nb2/3)4+ and (In1/2Nb1/2)4+ ions results in a long-range symmetry breaking, as revealed by the formation of birefringent domains. Single crystal of PIN-PZN-PT with morphotropic compositions exhibit complex domain structures, which are composed of both rhombohedral and tetragonal phases intimately mixed together. The domain structures, the sequence and temperature of phase transitions have been interpreted in relation to the morphotropic phase boundary behavior of the PIN-PZN-PT system. The analysis of morphotropic domain structures and phase transitions provides a better understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of the enhanced piezoelectric properties recently disclosed in the PIN-PZN-PT and other PZN-based piezocrystals.

  3. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  4. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Michael A.; Land, Cecil E.; Martin, Stephen J.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    1993-01-01

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image.

  5. A physically-derived nonquasi-static model of ferroelectric amplifiers for computer-aided device simulation - Part I: The ferroelectric common-drain amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-08-01

    A physically-derived nonquasi-static model describing the behavior of the ferroelectric common-drain amplifier is presented. The model is based on the method of partitioned channel and ferroelectric layers and is valid in accumulation, depletion, and the three inversion cases: weak, moderate, and strong. The equations of this model are based on the standard MOSFET equations that have been modified to reflect the ferroelectric properties. The model code is written in MATLAB and outputs voltage plots with respect to time. The accuracy and effectiveness of the model are verified by a few test cases, where the modeled results are compared to empirically-derived oscilloscope plots.

  6. Ferroelectric Based Technologies for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Jing, C.; Nenasheva, E.; Kazakov, S.; Tagantsev, A.; Yakovlev, V.

    2009-01-22

    Ferroelectrics have unique intrinsic properties that make them extremely attractive for high-energy accelerator applications. Low loss ferroelectric materials can be used as key elements in RF tuning and phase shifting components to provide fast, electronic control. These devices are under development for different accelerator applications for the X, Ka and L-frequency bands. The exact design of these devices depends on the electrical parameters of the particular ferroelectric material to be used--its dielectric constant, loss tangent and tunability. BST based ferroelectric-oxide compounds have been found to be suitable materials for a fast electrically-controlled tuners. We present recent results on the development of BST based ferroelectric compositions synthesized for use in high power technology components. The BST(M) ferroelectrics have been tested using both transverse and parallel dc bias fields to control the permittivity. Fast switching of a newly developed material has been shown and the feasibility of using of ferroelectric-based accelerator components in vacuum and in air has been demonstrated.

  7. Polarization and interface charge coupling in ferroelectric/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Kong, Yuechan; Zhou, Jianjun; Xue, Fangshi; Li, Liang; Jiang, Wenhai; Hao, Lanzhong; Luo, Wenbo; Zeng, Huizhong

    2012-03-01

    Asymmetrical shift behaviors of capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve with opposite direction are observed in two AlGaN/GaN metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) heterostructures with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and LiNbO3 gate dielectrics. By incorporating the switchable polar nature of the ferroelectric into a self-consistent calculation, the coupling effect between the ferroelectric and the interface charges is disclosed. The opposite initial orientation of ferroelectric dipoles determined by the interface charges is essentially responsible for the different C-V characteristics. A critical fixed charge density of -1.27 × 1013cm-2 is obtained, which plays a key role in the dependence of the C-V characteristic on the ferroelectric polarization. The results pave the way for design of memory devices based on MFS structure with heteropolar interface.

  8. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  9. Examining graphene field effect sensors for ferroelectric thin film studies.

    PubMed

    Rajapitamahuni, A; Hoffman, J; Ahn, C H; Hong, X

    2013-09-11

    We examine a prototype graphene field effect sensor for the study of the dielectric constant, pyroelectric coefficient, and ferroelectric polarization of 100-300 nm epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films. Ferroelectric switching induces hysteresis in the resistivity and carrier density of n-layer graphene (n = 1-5) below 100 K, which competes with an antihysteresis behavior activated by the combined effects of electric field and temperature. We also discuss how the polarization asymmetry and interface charge dynamics affect the electronic properties of graphene. PMID:23924380

  10. Imaging linear polarimetry using a single ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Luc; Foulonneau, Alban; Bigué, Laurent

    2010-09-01

    In the field of polarimetry, ferroelectric liquid crystal cells are mostly used as bistable polarization rotators suitable to analyze crossed polarizations. This paper shows that, provided such a cell is used at its nominal wavelength and correctly driven, its behavior is close to that of a tunable half-wave plate, and it can be used with much benefit in lightweight imaging polarimetric setups. A partial Stokes polarimeter using a single digital video camera and a single ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator is designed and implemented for linear polarization analysis. Polarization azimuthal angle and degree of linear polarization are available at 150 frames per second with a good accuracy. PMID:20820209

  11. Combining Mott insulators and ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelemy, Agn`Es

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the properties of high quality heterostructures consisting of a Mott insulator, (Ca,Ce)MnO3 (CCMO) and a ferroelectric, BiFeO3 in the supertetragonal phase (T-BFO) materials. In particular, we studied the electrical response induced by ferroelectric switching in both planar and vertical devices. In the planar geometry, we used thick T-BFO films to explore the possibility to electrically tune the properties of the CCMO compound in a ferroelectric field-effect device with a CCMO channel and a T-BFO gate. Upon polarization reversal of the T-BFO ferroelectric gate, the CMO channel exhibits a nonvolatile resistance switching by a factor of 4 around room temperature, and up to a factor of 10 at 200 K. We also studied Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) composed of an ultrathin ferroelectric tunnel barrier of T-BFO sandwiched between a CCMO electrode and a Co/Pt counter-electrode. In these junctions, the tunneling current significantly depends on the orientation of the ferroelectric polarization, resulting in large electroresistance enabling a simple nondestructive readout of the ferroelectric state. FTJs based on ultrathin T-BFO films show fast, stable multistate switching with very high resistance ratios of up to four orders of magnitude. Combined piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and electrical measurements give a clear correlation between ferroelectric domain configurations and multiple resistance states They also provide insights into the switching dynamics in response to trains of nanosecond pulses. Additionnaly, we demonstrated the very good endurance and retention characteristics of these FTJs.

  12. Glasses with ferroelectric phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M. A.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2009-07-01

    Glasses ceramics, with ferroelectric phases embedded in the glass matrix, were prepared by the melt- quenching through heat-treatments (HT) of silicate, borate and phosphate glasses. Some glasses were heat-treated with the application of an external electric field (TET). The structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dielectric properties, in function of frequency and temperature, were studied and discussed through a three serial of a resistance in parallel with a constant phase element (CPE), two related with the sample surfaces and one with the bulk material, showing that the bulk has the major contribution for the dielectrical characteristics. The temperature dependence of the dc electrical conductivity (σdc), the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and the ac conductivity (σac), measured at 1 kHz, were used to characterize the samples. The structure, the dielectric properties and the electrical conductivity reflect the important role carried out by the base glass the heat-treatment and the electric field during the HT and the ferroelectric phases in the properties of glass-ceramics.

  13. Thin film ferroelectrics: breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.

    2002-08-01

    Now that commercial infrared is a well-established business with several serious competitors, the pressures for a competitive edge have increased dramatically. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) ferroelectric detectors still provide the basis for the majority of systems being produced today, and tens of thousands of systems have been fielded. The system simplicity of these AC-coupled systems is not matchable by any other current technology, but the complexity of the detector fabrication process limits its potential for further substantial cost and performance improvements. DC-coupled VOx bolometers, currently the most popular technology among manufacturers, offer better sensitivity at somewhat greater cost. Although this technology has been heralded as the technology of the future, it is encumbered by a more complicated system architecture and by spatial noise, which limits the ability to take advantage of its greater sensitivity. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors promise to remove the cost and performance barriers that lie ahead of BST technology, while maintaining the low system cost and low spatial noise characteristic of AC-coupled systems. Until recently the promise has been elusive, but now real-world performance of the best of TFFE systems is competitive with the best of any other technology.

  14. Ferroelectricity in corundum derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David

    2016-04-01

    The search for new ferroelectric (FE) materials holds promise for broadening our understanding of FE mechanisms and extending the range of application of FE materials. Here we investigate a class of A B O3 and A2B B'O6 materials that can be derived from the X2O3 corundum structure by mixing two or three ordered cations on the X site. Most such corundum derivatives have a polar structure, but it is unclear whether the polarization is reversible, which is a requirement for a FE material. In this paper, we propose a method to study the FE reversal path of materials in the corundum derivative family. We first categorize the corundum derivatives into four classes and show that only two of these allow for the possibility of FE reversal. We then calculate the energy profile and energy barrier of the FE reversal path using first-principles density functional methods with a structural constraint. Furthermore, we identify several empirical measures that can provide a rule of thumb for estimating the energy barriers. Finally, the conditions under which the magnetic ordering is compatible with ferroelectricity are determined. These results lead us to predict several potentially new FE materials.

  15. Ferroelectrically active acoustic wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wontae

    2012-05-01

    The ferroelectrically active acoustic wave equation including electrostriction effects is derived from nonlinear constitutive equations of stress and electric displacement for ferroelectric materials exhibiting significant electrostrictive strain. Electrically controllable acoustic wave propagation is predicted by solving the equation as a function of various acoustic variables, e.g., wave excitation, polarization, dc bias, etc. As examples, the elastic, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric acoustic waves and the electromechanical coupling factors are computed as a function of wave propagation in the [100]-[010] plane of BaTiO3 under thickness excitation mode. PMID:22622971

  16. Spectroscopic signature for ferroelectric ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.; Gług, Maciej; Boczar, Marek; Boda, Łukasz

    2014-09-01

    Various forms of ice exist within our galaxy. Particularly intriguing type of ice - ‘ferroelectric ice' was discovered experimentally and is stable in temperatures below 72 K. This form of ice can generate enormous electric fields and can play an important role in planetary formation. In this letter we present Car-Parrinello simulation of infrared spectra of ferroelectric ice and compare them with spectra of hexagonal ice. Librational region of the spectra can be treated as spectroscopic signature of ice XI and can be of help to identify ferroelectric ice in the Universe.

  17. Faceting oscillations in nano-ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J. F. E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Kumar, Ashok E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org

    2014-08-04

    We observe periodic faceting of 8-nm diameter ferroelectric disks on a 10 s time-scale when thin Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film is exposed to constant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy beams. The oscillation is between circular disk geometry and sharply faceted hexagons. The behavior is analogous to that of spin structure and magnetic domain wall velocity oscillations in permalloy [Bisig et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013)], involving overshoot and de-pinning from defects [Amann et al., J. Rheol. 57, 149–175 (2013)].

  18. Study of ferroelectric-superconductor field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, N.J.; Lin, H.; Huang, T.Q.; Endicter, S.; Liu, D.; Ignatiev, A.

    1996-12-31

    A ferroelectric-superconducting three-terminal device consisting of a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) base layer and a PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1{minus}x}O{sub 3} (PZT) gate has been developed. This ferroelectric-superconductor field effect transistor (FSuFET) has non-volatility and retention behavior based on the memory effect of the ferroelectric gate. The FSuFET was characterized both by an admittance spectroscopy and by DC I-V measurements after polarizing the PZT gate with both positive and negative pulses. The J{sub c} modulation of the YBCO channel by the gate polarization field has been found greater than 90%. The retention time longer than 10{sup 6} seconds has also been obtained.

  19. Piezoelectric properties of rhombohedral ferroelectric materials with phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Soh, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of domain structure and its piezoelectric behavior of ferroelectric material BaTiO3 during the transition process from rhombohedral to tetragonal phase under an applied electric field have been studied by employing Landau-Ginzburg theory and the phase-field method. The results obtained show that, during the transformation process, the intermediate phase was monoclinic MA phase, and several peak values of piezoelectric coefficient appeared at the stage where obvious change of domain pattern occurred. In addition, by comparing the cases of applied electric field with different frequencies, it was found that the maximum piezoelectric coefficient obtained decreased with increasing frequency value. These results are of great significance in tuning the properties of engineering domains in ferroelectrics, and could provide more fundamentals to the design of ferroelectric devices.

  20. Annular electron beam generation using a ferroelectric cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Golkowski, C.; Flechtner, D.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Schaechter, L.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, the authors report on the emission of electrons from a ferroelectric cathode in a coaxial gun geometry. The electrons are emitted from the inner conductor of the coaxial system and are accelerated radially. An axial magnetic field causes the formation of an azimuthal annular electron flow. The electrostatic potential distribution then leads to the ejection of the annular beam from the anode-cathode region into the drift space. A beam energy of up to 50 keV and an electron current of up to 250 A is typical in this proof of principle experiment. The Hull cutoff condition is found to considerably underestimate the magnetic field required to insulate the radial electron current flow in the diode. The results obtained are consistent with earlier data showing that the behavior of the ferroelectric is closely coupled to the changing state of the ferroelectric.

  1. Ferroelectric domain structure of anisotropically strained NaNbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, J. Braun, D.; Schmidbauer, M.; Duk, A.; Wördenweber, R.

    2014-05-28

    NaNbO{sub 3} thin films have been grown under anisotropic biaxial strain on several oxide substrates by liquid-delivery spin metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Compressive lattice strain of different magnitude, induced by the deposition of NaNbO{sub 3} films with varying film thickness on NdGaO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates, leads to modifications of film orientation and phase symmetry, which are similar to the phase transitions in Pb-containing oxides near the morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements exhibit large out-of-plane polarization components, but no distinctive domain structure, while C-V measurements indicate relaxor properties in these films. When tensile strain is provoked by the epitaxial growth on DyScO{sub 3}, TbScO{sub 3}, and GdScO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates, NaNbO{sub 3} films behave rather like a normal ferroelectric. The application of these rare-earth scandate substrates yields well-ordered ferroelectric stripe domains of the type a{sub 1}/a{sub 2} with coherent domain walls aligned along the [001] substrate direction as long as the films are fully strained. With increasing plastic lattice relaxation, initially, a 2D domain pattern with still exclusively in-plane electric polarization, and finally, domains with in-plane and out-of-plane polar components evolve.

  2. Ferroelectric domain structure of anisotropically strained NaNbO3 epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, J.; Braun, D.; Schmidbauer, M.; Duk, A.; Wördenweber, R.

    2014-05-01

    NaNbO3 thin films have been grown under anisotropic biaxial strain on several oxide substrates by liquid-delivery spin metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Compressive lattice strain of different magnitude, induced by the deposition of NaNbO3 films with varying film thickness on NdGaO3 single crystalline substrates, leads to modifications of film orientation and phase symmetry, which are similar to the phase transitions in Pb-containing oxides near the morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements exhibit large out-of-plane polarization components, but no distinctive domain structure, while C-V measurements indicate relaxor properties in these films. When tensile strain is provoked by the epitaxial growth on DyScO3, TbScO3, and GdScO3 single crystalline substrates, NaNbO3 films behave rather like a normal ferroelectric. The application of these rare-earth scandate substrates yields well-ordered ferroelectric stripe domains of the type a1/a2 with coherent domain walls aligned along the [001] substrate direction as long as the films are fully strained. With increasing plastic lattice relaxation, initially, a 2D domain pattern with still exclusively in-plane electric polarization, and finally, domains with in-plane and out-of-plane polar components evolve.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Dielectric Polarization and Ferroelectricity in Poly(vinylidene fluoride) and Related Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calame, Jeffrey

    Molecular dynamics studies of the dielectric polarization response of a constrained bond length and bond angle, united-atom-based model of lamellar crystals of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) are reported. Classical ferroelectricity is observed in PVDF, and when variations in the basic PVDF-like interaction parameters are allowed, a transition between classical and relaxor ferroelectricity is found to depend systematically on the polymer repeat unit dipole moment and on the united atom radius of the non-CH2 functional group. The effects of step and ramp electric field reversal are studied. A complicated sequence of reorientation processes occurs over a wide range of time scales, including a weak, temperature-independent response of 1-2 ps duration associated with local torsional motion, followed by a slow-rising delay regime lasting 10s of ns or longer that involves trans-gauche (TG) transitions in the amorphous phase. After the delay, a large-amplitude primary reorientation occurs over a relatively short additional duration (0.1 to 2 ns), which is due to rotation of large sub-segments in the crystalline phase with few TG transitions. The overall sequence concludes with a slow terminal rise lasting several 100s of ns involving an improvement in crystalline order. Work supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research.

  4. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  5. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Tian, B. B.; Wang, J. L.; Fusil, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X. L.; Sun, S.; Shen, H.; Lin, T.; Sun, J. L.; Duan, C. G.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Garcia, V.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates. PMID:27143121

  6. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Tian, B B; Wang, J L; Fusil, S; Liu, Y; Zhao, X L; Sun, S; Shen, H; Lin, T; Sun, J L; Duan, C G; Bibes, M; Barthélémy, A; Dkhil, B; Garcia, V; Meng, X J; Chu, J H

    2016-01-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates. PMID:27143121

  7. Lead-free and lead-based ABO3 perovskite relaxors with mixed-valence A-site and B-site disorder: Comparative neutron scattering structural study of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Phelan, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Ahart, Muhtar; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Boatner, Lynn A.; Viehland, Dwight; Gehring, Peter M.

    2013-11-01

    We report the results of neutron elastic-scattering measurements made between -250 °C and 620 °C on the lead-free relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT). Strong, anisotropic, elastic diffuse scattering intensity decorates the (100), (110), (111), (200), (210), and (220) Bragg peaks at room temperature. The wave-vector dependence of this diffuse scattering is compared to that in the lead-based relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) to determine if any features might be common to relaxors. Prominent ridges in the elastic diffuse scattering intensity contours that extend along ⟨110⟩ are seen that exhibit the same zone dependence as those observed in PMN and other lead-based relaxors. These ridges disappear gradually on heating above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature TCT = 523 °C, which is also near the temperature at which the dielectric permittivity begins to deviate from Curie-Weiss behavior. We thus identify the ⟨110⟩-oriented ridges as a relaxor-specific property. The diffuse scattering contours also display narrower ridges oriented along ⟨100⟩ that are consistent with the x-ray results of Kreisel [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.68.014113 68, 014113 (2003)]; these vanish near 320 °C, indicating that they have a different physical origin. The ⟨100⟩-oriented ridges are not observed in PMN. We observe no equivalent relaxor-specific elastic diffuse scattering from the homovalent relaxor analogues K0.95Li0.05TiO3 (A-site disordered) and KTa0.95Nb0.05O3 (B-site disordered). This suggests that the ⟨110⟩-oriented diffuse scattering ridges are correlated with the presence of strong random electric fields and invites a reassessment of what defines the relaxor phase. We find that doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary with enhanced piezoelectric properties, increases the room-temperature correlation length along [11¯0] from 40 to 60 Å while doubling the associated integrated diffuse scattering. Similar behavior was reported by Matsuura [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.144107 74, 144107 (2006)] for morphotropic compositions of PMN doped with PbTiO3. Finally, we comment on the recent observation of monoclinicity in NBT at room temperature by placing a strict bound on the strength of the (½½½) superlattice reflection associated with the Cc space group based on the atomic coordinates published in the x-ray study by Aksel [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3573826 98, 152901 (2011)] for NBT. We show that a skin effect, analogous to that reported in the relaxors PZN-xPT and PMN-xPT, can reconcile our neutron single-crystal data with the x-ray powder data of Aksel [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.3573826 98, 152901 (2011)]. Our finding of a skin effect in a lead-free, A-site disordered, heterovalent relaxor supports the idea that it arises in the presence of strong random electric fields.

  8. Structures, electrical properties, and leakage current behaviors of un-doped and Mn-doped lead-free ferroelectric K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingyan E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-21

    Lead-free ferroelectric un-doped and doped K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (KNN) films with different amounts of manganese (Mn) were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The thicknesses of all films are about 1.6 μm. Their phase, microstructure, leakage current behavior, and electrical properties were investigated. With increasing the amounts of Mn, the crystallinity became worse. Fortunately, the electrical properties were improved due to the decreased leakage current density after Mn-doping. The study on leakage behaviors shows that the dominant conduction mechanism at low electric field in the un-doped KNN film is ohmic mode and that at high electric field is space-charge-limited and Pool-Frenkel emission. After Mn doping, the dominant conduction mechanism at high electric field of KNN films changed single space-charge-limited. However, the introduction of higher amount of Mn into the KNN film would lead to a changed conduction mechanism from space-charge-limited to ohmic mode. Consequently, there exists an optimal amount of Mn doping of 2.0 mol. %. The 2.0 mol. % Mn doped KNN film shows the lowest leakage current density and the best electrical properties. With the secondary ion mass spectroscopies and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the homogeneous distribution in the KNN films and entrance of Mn element in the lattice of KNN perovskite structure were also confirmed.

  9. Nonlinear pyroelectric energy harvesting from relaxor single crystals.

    PubMed

    Khodayari, Akram; Pruvost, Sebastien; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel; Mohammadi, Saber

    2009-04-01

    Energy harvesting from temperature variations in a Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.955)Ti(0.045)O(3) single crystal was studied and evaluated using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle. The efficiency of this cycle related to Carnot cycle is 100 times higher than direct pyroelectric energy harvesting, and it can be as high as 5.5% for a 10 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field. The amount of harvested energy for a 60 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field is 242.7 mJ x cm(-3). The influence of ferroelectric phase transitions on the energy harvesting performance is discussed and illustrated with experimental results. PMID:19406698

  10. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  11. Tuning of dielectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 ceramic by internal clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Kundu, Swarup; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Vaish, Rahul; Varma, K. B. R.

    2015-08-01

    This study systematically investigates the phenomenon of internal clamping in ferroelectric materials through the formation of glass-ceramic composites. Lead-free 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 (BNT-BT-ST) bulk ferroelectric ceramic was selected for the course of investigation. 3BaO - 3TiO2 - B2O3 (BTBO) glass was then incorporated systematically to create sintered samples containing 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% glass (by weight). Upon glass induction features like remnant polarization, saturation polarization, hysteresis losses and coercive field could be varied as a function of glass content. Such effects were observed to benefit derived applications like enhanced energy storage density ˜174 kJ/m3 to ˜203 kJ/m3 and pyroelectric coefficient 5.7x10-4 Cm-2K-1 to 6.8x10-4 Cm-2K-1 by incorporation of 4% glass. Additionally, BNT-BT-ST depolarization temperature decreased from 457K to 431K by addition of 4% glass content. Glass incorporation could systematically increases diffuse phase transition and relaxor behavior temperature range from 70 K to 81K and 20K to 34 K, respectively when 6% and 4% glass content is added which indicates addition of glass provides better temperature stability. The most promising feature was observed to be that of dielectric response tuning. It can be also used to control (to an extent) the dielectric behavior of the host ceramic. Dielectric permittivity and losses decreased from 1278 to 705 and 0.109 to 0.107 for 6% glass, at room temperature. However this reduction in dielectric constant and loss increases pyroelectric figures of merit (FOMs) for high voltage responsivity (Fv) high detectivity (Fd) and energy harvesting (Fe) from 0.018 to 0.037 m2C-1, 5.89 to 8.85 μPa-1/2 and 28.71 to 61.55 Jm-3K-2, respectively for 4% added ceramic-glass at room temperature. Such findings can have huge implications in the field of tailoring ferroelectric response for application specific requirements.

  12. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya. Zelenovskiy, P. S.

    2014-08-14

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  13. Ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Ferroelectric Films on Si.

    PubMed

    Chernikova, Anna; Kozodaev, Maksim; Markeev, Andrei; Negrov, Dmitrii; Spiridonov, Maksim; Zarubin, Sergei; Bak, Ohheum; Buragohain, Pratyush; Lu, Haidong; Suvorova, Elena; Gruverman, Alexei; Zenkevich, Andrei

    2016-03-23

    Because of their immense scalability and manufacturability potential, the HfO2-based ferroelectric films attract significant attention as strong candidates for application in ferroelectric memories and related electronic devices. Here, we report the ferroelectric behavior of ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films, with the thickness of just 2.5 nm, which makes them suitable for use in ferroelectric tunnel junctions, thereby further expanding the area of their practical application. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis of the films grown on highly doped Si substrates confirms formation of the fully crystalline non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase responsible for ferroelectricity in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2. Piezoresponse force microscopy and pulsed switching testing performed on the deposited top TiN electrodes provide further evidence of the ferroelectric behavior of the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films. The electronic band lineup at the top TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 interface and band bending at the adjacent n(+)-Si bottom layer attributed to the polarization charges in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 have been determined using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The obtained results represent a significant step toward the experimental implementation of Si-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions. PMID:26931409

  14. Coupled ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in superlattices of non-ferroelectric antiferromagnetic manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. D.; Rogdakis, K.; Seo, J. W.; Viskadourakis, Z.; Wang, Y.; Ah Qune, L.; Choi, E.; Tsymbal, E.; Lee, J.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2013-03-01

    Complex oxide heterostructures present a promising avenue for the design of multifunctional properties which may find application in a variety of technological systems. In heterostructures composed of transition metal oxides the disruption introduced by an interface can affect the balance of the competing interactions among spins, charges and orbitals. This has led to the emergence of properties absent in the original building blocks of a heterostructure. We will report on the discovery of magnetically tunable ferroelectricity in artificial tri-layer superlattices consisting of non-ferroelectric and non-ferromagnetic components: NdMnO3/SrMnO3/LaMnO3. Ferroelectricity was observed below 40 K exhibiting strong tunability by superlattice periodicity. Furthermore, magnetoelectric coupling resulted in 150% magnetic modulation of the polarization. First-principles calculations indicate that broken space inversion symmetry and mixed valency give rise to the observed behavior. This discovery highlights the importance of tri-layered systems for the engineering of emergent properties in oxide heterostructures. 1 University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, Heraklion, Greece, 3 Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore, 4 Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

  15. Ergodicity and nonergodicity in La-doped Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thi Hinh; Han, Hyoung-Su; Lee, Jae-Shin; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Ill-Won; Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-04-01

    The phase transition of La-doped [Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2]TiO3 (BNKT) ceramics was investigated by using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent dielectric measurements. Undoped BNKT was found to be a nonergodic relaxor, which was evidenced by the presence of a depolarization temperature below which polar nanoregions were frozen. However, La-doped BNKT ceramics are believed to be composites consisting of ergodic and nonergodic relaxors. The results suggest that a nonergodic relaxor with tetragonal symmetry might be distributed in an ergodic relaxor matrix with pseudocubic symmetry.

  16. Mechanisms for the operation of thin film transistors on ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, C.H.; McIntyre, D.; Tuttle, B.A.; Evans, J.

    1993-12-31

    The electric field emanating from the surface of a poled ferroelectric can control the conduction properties of an overlaying semiconducting film, this combination of materials can thus serve as a non-destructive readout, non-volatile memory device. Here the authors will describe a variety of experimental studies of these devices designed to probe the physics of their operation. The experimental systems included sputtered, n-type semiconductor (SC) films of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO deposited on bulk PLZT ferroelectrics (FE) and thin PZT FE films. Two distinctly different types of device response were measured in this study; in the first, the change in SC film conductance observed in the remanent FE state is in the direction expected from the remanent polarization vector in the ferroelectric. In the second, typically seen in the thin film FE devices, the opposite behavior is observed. They find that these two general cases of behavior, including the observed variations of the SC film conductances and carrier mobilities, can be described by a general model which takes into account not only the FE displacement vector, but also charge injected from the semiconductor into the ferroelectric during biasing of the gate.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation of Ferroelectric Domain Structure and Applied Field Response in Two Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Jr., B.G.; Tikare, V.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-06-30

    A 2-D, lattice-Monte Carlo approach was developed to simulate ferroelectric domain structure. The model currently utilizes a Hamiltonian for the total energy based only upon electrostatic terms involving dipole-dipole interactions, local polarization gradients and the influence of applied electric fields. The impact of boundary conditions on the domain configurations obtained was also examined. In general, the model exhibits domain structure characteristics consistent with those observed in a tetragonally distorted ferroelectric. The model was also extended to enable the simulation of ferroelectric hysteresis behavior. Simulated hysteresis loops were found to be very similar in appearance to those observed experimentally in actual materials. This qualitative agreement between the simulated hysteresis loop characteristics and real ferroelectric behavior was also confirmed in simulations run over a range of simulation temperatures and applied field frequencies.

  18. Improved Ferroelectric Memories With Nondestructive Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1994-01-01

    Ferroelectric memories with enhanced photoresponse leading to improved nondestructive optoelectronic readout and lower power demand proposed. Memories improved versions of devices described in "Rapid, Nondestructive Readout From Ferroelectric Memory" (NPO-18551). In proposed application, array of nonvolatile ferroelectric memory cells fabricated by standard very-large-scale integrated-circuit techniques and flip-bonded onto similarly fabricated array of semiconductor lasers, {see "Optically Addressable, Ferroelectric Memory With NDRO" (NPO-18573)}.

  19. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties in Relaxor Magnet LuFeCoO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Minoru; Masuda, Takatsugu

    2016-03-01

    Dielectric and magnetic properties in the relaxor magnet LuFeCoO4 having a triangular lattice are studied by permittivity, magnetization, and neutron diffraction measurements. We found that LuFeCoO4 has the nuclear diffuse scattering induced by Polar Nanoregions (PNRs) where local polarizations in nanoregions are randomly oriented. Synchronized changes in PNRs and magnetic short-range order with decreasing temperature are observed, which reveal the existence of the strong coupling between dielectricity and magnetism. The coincidence of the correlation lengths of the nuclear atoms and spins in the crystallographic a–b plane at the onset temperature of two-dimensional magnetic order is confirmed, suggesting that the magnetic order develops inside the PNRs. With further decreasing temperature, the magnetic correlation extends beyond the domain wall of the crystal cluster in contrast with another relaxor magnet BiFeO3–1/3BaTiO3.

  20. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-08

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P{sub r} of up to 10 μC cm{sup −2} as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  1. Nanoscale Ferroelectricity in Crystalline -Glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Agarwal, Pratul K; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Ferroelectrics are multifunctional materials that reversibly change their polarization under an electric field. Recently, the search for new ferroelectrics has focused on organic and bio-organic materials, where polarization switching is used to record/retrieve information in the form of ferroelectric domains. This progress has opened a new avenue for data storage, molecular recognition, and new self-assembly routes. Crystalline glycine is the simplest amino acid and is widely used by living organisms to build proteins. Here, it is reported for the first time that {gamma}-glycine, which has been known to be piezoelectric since 1954, is also a ferroelectric, as evidenced by local electromechanical measurements and by the existence of as-grown and switchable ferroelectric domains in microcrystals grown from the solution. The experimental results are rationalized by molecular simulations that establish that the polarization vector in {gamma}-glycine can be switched on the nanoscale level, opening a pathway to novel classes of bioelectronic logic and memory devices.

  2. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4-20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization Pr of up to 10 μC cm-2 as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 105 cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  3. Effect of neodymium (Nd) doping on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate (53/47) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. B.; Roy, B.; Katiyar, R. S.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2001-09-01

    The results of the studies on the effect of rare earth Nd doping on the phase formation behavior and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Pb1.05(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) thin films are presented. The perovskite phase is obtained up to 5 at. % doping and beyond that pyrochlore phase was found to coexist with the perovskite phase in all the films. The transition temperature of undoped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film was found to be reduced with Nd doping. The Nd doped films also exhibited typical relaxor-type behavior and a diffuse phase transition, similar to that observed in relaxor materials. The introduction of Nd into the PZT lattice probably introduces disorder in the B site of ABO3 lattice, which causes the observed dielectric relaxation. Efforts were made to isolate the irreversible component contributions in low field dielectric and high field polarization switching behavior.

  4. The Modification of Ferroelectric Surfaces for Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiech, Matthew William

    Ferroelectrics are a class of materials in which a net dipole can be associated with each repeat unit, resulting in a potentially large electric field through the material. The ability to reversibly switch the polarization direction by applying an external electric field distinguishes ferroelectrics from polar orientations of ordinary materials. Recent studies exploring the reactivity of ferroelectric surfaces toward polar molecules have shown that the heats of adsorption for these molecules are polarization dependent, but the surfaces tend to be unreactive. Despite the inertness of ferroelectric surfaces, their use as supports for catalytically active materials could yield novel reactivity. As even metal oxides that are generally considered inert can influence the catalytic properties of supported layers, a ferroelectric support may offer the opportunity to modulate catalytic activity since charge compensation of the polar surfaces might include chemical and electronic reconstructions of the active layer. In this thesis, the fabrication of active layers with polarization dependent properties was investigated by coating ferroelectric substrates with catalytically active oxides that are likely to grow in a layer-by-layer manner. Two systems in particular were explored: chromium oxide on ferroelectric lithium niobate (Cr2O3/LiNbO3), and ruthenium oxide on ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (RuO2/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O 3). The chromium oxide and ruthenium oxide films were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Additionally, the chromium oxide films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements, and the ruthenium oxide films were characterized with ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) measurements. The reactivity of the films was investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. In particular, the reactivity of the Cr2O3/LiNbO 3 system toward O and the reactivity of the RuO2/Pb(Zr 0.2Ti0.8)O3 system toward N, O, and NO was investigated. It is shown that well-ordered Cr2O3 films can be fabricated on positively and negatively poled LiNbO3 as evidenced by LEED, RHEED, XRD, and XPS; however, the conditions necessary to produce the films can cause Cr diffusion into the LiNbO3, potentially obscuring the film/substrate interface. It is also shown that surface Cr in the Cr 2O3 film can be oxidized to Cr5+ by atomic oxygen. Despite the suggestion that opposite compensating charges occur at the Cr2O3 surface on positively and negatively poled LiNbO3, no significant difference between O atom adsorption on Cr2O3 on the two polar substrates or on non-polar alpha-Al 2O3 (0001) could be detected. It is shown by NO TPD measurements that all RuO2-terminated Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 surfaces were found to be active toward NO adsorption, although since 02 desorption was never detected it was determined that none of the surfaces were active toward NO dissociation. There were two active sites for NO adsorption for RuO2-terminated Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3: O on top of Ru and bare Ru sites. Little polarization dependence was observed for NO adsorption directly to Ru, with NO desorption occurring at 425 K for 1.7 ML RuO2 on positively poled Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O 3 and 430 K for 1.8 ML RuO2 on negatively poled Pb(Zr 0.2Ti0.8)O3. However, significant polarization dependence was observed for adsorption to O on top of Ru, with NO desorption occurring at 285 K for 1.7 ML RuO 2 on positively poled Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and 230 K for 1.8 ML RuO2 on negatively poled Pb(Zr0.2Ti 0.8)O3. The stronger NO adsorption for RuO2 on positively poled Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 is consistent with theoretical predictions, and shows that ferroelectric materials can be used as substrates in film/substrate systems with polarization dependent behavior. The lack of NO dissociation observed in the experiments is inconsistent with theoretical predictions that assume the thickness dependent dipole of the ferroelectric substrate is cancelled via electronic rather than chemical reconstructions in the RuO2 film. Therefore, the lack of NO dissociation may be the result of chemical reconstructions at the surface of either the RuO 2 film or the Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 substrate, which leave the system in a relatively stable, less chemically active state.

  5. Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals for Various Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Luo, Jun; Sahul, Raffi; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials lie at the heart of electromechanical devices. Applications include actuators, ultrasonic imaging, high intensity focused ultrasound, underwater ultrasound, nondestructive evaluation transducer, pressure sensors, and accelerometers, to name a few. In this work, the advantages and disadvantages of relaxor-PbTiO3-based single crystals are discussed, based on the requirements (figure of merit) of various applications, with emphasis on recent developments of the shear properties of single crystals as a function of temperature and applied fields. PMID:25004527

  6. Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Pusenkova, Anastasiia S.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Strikha, Maxym V.

    2015-06-01

    The origin and influence of finite-size effects on the nonlinear dynamics of space charge stored by multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric and resistivity of graphene channel were analyzed. Here, we develop a self-consistent approach combining the solution of electrostatic problems with the nonlinear Landau-Khalatnikov equations for a ferroelectric. The size-dependent behaviors are governed by the relations between the thicknesses of multilayer graphene, ferroelectric film, and the dielectric layer. The appearance of charge and electroresistance hysteresis loops and their versatility stem from the interplay of polarization reversal dynamics and its incomplete screening in an alternating electric field. These features are mostly determined by the dielectric layer thickness. The derived analytical expressions for electric fields and space-charge-density distribution in a multilayer system enable knowledge-driven design of graphene-on-ferroelectric heterostructures with advanced performance. We further investigate the effects of spatially nonuniform ferroelectric domain structures on the graphene layers' conductivity and predict its dramatic increase under the transition from multi- to single-domain state in a ferroelectric. This intriguing effect can open possibilities for the graphene-based sensors and explore the underlying physical mechanisms in the operation of graphene field-effect transistor with ferroelectric gating.

  7. First-principles theory, coarse-grained models, and simulations of ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Umesh V

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: A ferroelectric crystal exhibits macroscopic electric dipole or polarization arising from spontaneous ordering of its atomic-scale dipoles that breaks inversion symmetry. Changes in applied pressure or electric field generate changes in electric polarization in a ferroelectric, defining its piezoelectric and dielectric properties, respectively, which make it useful as an electromechanical sensor and actuator in a number of applications. In addition, a characteristic of a ferroelectric is the presence of domains or states with different symmetry equivalent orientations of spontaneous polarization that are switchable with large enough applied electric field, a nonlinear property that makes it useful for applications in nonvolatile memory devices. Central to these properties of a ferroelectric are the phase transitions it undergoes as a function of temperature that involve lowering of the symmetry of its high temperature centrosymmetric paraelectric phase. Ferroelectricity arises from a delicate balance between short and long-range interatomic interactions, and hence the resulting properties are quite sensitive to chemistry, strains, and electric charges associated with its interface with substrate and electrodes. First-principles density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been very effective in capturing this and predicting material and environment specific properties of ferroelectrics, leading to fundamental insights into origins of ferroelectricity in oxides and chalcogenides uncovering a precise picture of electronic hybridization, topology, and mechanisms. However, use of DFT in molecular dynamics for detailed prediction of ferroelectric phase transitions and associated temperature dependent properties has been limited due to large length and time scales of the processes involved. To this end, it is quite appealing to start with input from DFT calculations and construct material-specific models that are realistic yet simple for use in large-scale simulations while capturing the relevant microscopic interactions quantitatively. In this Account, we first summarize the insights obtained into chemical mechanisms of ferroelectricity using first-principles DFT calculations. We then discuss the principles of construction of first-principles model Hamiltonians for ferroelectric phase transitions in perovskite oxides, which involve coarse-graining in time domain by integrating out high frequency phonons. Molecular dynamics simulations of the resulting model are shown to give quantitative predictions of material-specific ferroelectric transition behavior in bulk as well as nanoscale ferroelectric structures. A free energy landscape obtained through coarse-graining in real-space provides deeper understanding of ferroelectric transitions, domains, and states with inhomogeneous order and points out the key role of microscopic coupling between phonons and strain. We conclude with a discussion of the multiscale modeling strategy elucidated here and its application to other materials such as shape memory alloys. PMID:25361389

  8. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  9. Polarization-modulated rectification at ferroelectric surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Guest, J. R.; Horibe, Y.; Park, S.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Bode, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Rutgers Univ.; Chung-Ang Univ.

    2010-05-28

    By correlating room temperature conductive atomic force microscopy with low temperature electrostatic force microscopy images of the same sample region, we demonstrate that nanoscale electric conduction between a sharp tip and the surface of ferroelectric HoMnO{sub 3} is intrinsically modulated by the polarization of ferroelectric domains. Conductance spectra reveal that the electric conduction is described by polarization-induced Schottky-like rectification at low bias, but dominated by a space-charge limited conduction mechanism at high bias. Our observation demonstrates visualization of ferroelectric domain structure by electric conduction, which may be used for nondestructive readout of nanoscale ferroelectric memories and/or ferroelectric sensors.

  10. Polarization-modulated rectification at ferroelectric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weida; Guest, J R; Horibe, Y; Park, S; Choi, T; Cheong, S-W; Bode, M

    2010-05-28

    By correlating room temperature conductive atomic force microscopy with low temperature electrostatic force microscopy images of the same sample region, we demonstrate that nanoscale electric conduction between a sharp tip and the surface of ferroelectric HoMnO3 is intrinsically modulated by the polarization of ferroelectric domains. Conductance spectra reveal that the electric conduction is described by polarization-induced Schottky-like rectification at low bias, but dominated by a space-charge limited conduction mechanism at high bias. Our observation demonstrates visualization of ferroelectric domain structure by electric conduction, which may be used for nondestructive readout of nanoscale ferroelectric memories and/or ferroelectric sensors. PMID:20867135

  11. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  12. Generalized Ferroelectricity in the Mesomorphic Phase of Nylon Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongbo; Zhu, Lei; Litt, Morton

    Novel ferroelectric polymers, featured by narrow electric displacement-electric (D-E) hysteresis loop, are attractive for electric energy storage applications due to their high dielectric constant and low loss property. Currently, only poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based copolymers (e-beamed) and terpolymers show novel ferroelectric behavior. It is desired to achieve novel ferroelectricity in other polymers such as nylons by carefully modifying the chemical and crystal structures. In this presentation, isomorphic crystals are successfully achieved by copolymerization of nylon 11 and nylon 12 with different compositions. In this way, both chemical and structural defects (i.e., dangling amide groups and kinked bonds) are introduced into the mesomorphic phase. As a consequence, hydrogen bonding interaction is successfully weakened and thus enhanced ferroelectricity with higher maximum polarization and better polarizability is obtained. In addition, for the purpose of further disturbing the mesomorphic phase and pinning effect, partially methylated nylon copolymers are synthesized. With the help of N-methylation of amide groups, the methylated nylon copolymers show relatively narrow hysteresis loops, suggesting the pinning effect from the N-methylated amide moieties.

  13. Optimization of Ferroelectric Ceramics by Design at the Microstructure Level

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2010-05-21

    Ferroelectric materials show remarkable physical behaviors that make them essential for many devices and have been extensively studied for their applications of nonvolatile random access memory (NvRAM) and high-speed random access memories. Although ferroelectric ceramics (polycrystals) present ease in manufacture and in compositional modifications and represent the widest application area of materials, computational and theoretical studies are sparse owing to many reasons including the large number of constituent atoms. Macroscopic properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are dominated by the inhomogeneities at the crystallographic domain/grain level. Orientation of grains/domains is critical to the electromechanical response of the single crystalline and polycrystalline materials. Polycrystalline materials have the potential of exhibiting better performance at a macroscopic scale by design of the domain/grain configuration at the domain-size scale. This suggests that piezoelectric properties can be optimized by a proper choice of the parameters which control the distribution of grain orientations. Nevertheless, this choice is complicated and it is impossible to analyze all possible combinations of the distribution parameters or the angles themselves. Hence we have implemented the stochastic optimization technique of simulated annealing combined with the homogenization for the optimization problem. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented in the finite element method (FEM) by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. This implementation enables the study of the dependence of the macroscopic electromechanical properties of a typical crystalline and polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramic on the grain orientation.

  14. First-principles prediction of a native ferroelectric metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iniguez, Jorge; Filippetti, Alessio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Ricci, Francesco; Delugas, Pietro

    The possibility that metals may support ferroelectricity is an intriguing open issue. Over the years, various compounds have been referred to as ferroelectric metals, including non-centrosymmetric metals as well as ferroelectrics whose polar distortion survives moderate metallicity induced by doping or proximity. Yet, we think none of these systems embodies a truly ferroelectric metal with native switchable polarization and native metallicity coexisting in a single phase. Here we report a first-principles prediction of such a material. We show that the layered perovskite Bi5Ti5O17 has a non-zero density of states at the Fermi level and metal-like conductivity, as well as a spontaneous polarization in zero field. Further, we predict that the polarization of Bi5Ti5O17 is switchable both in principle (the material complies with the sufficient symmetry requirements) and in practice (in spite of being a metal, Bi5Ti5O17 can sustain a sizable potential drop along the polar direction, as needed to revert its polarization by application of an electric bias). Our results also reveal striking behaviors - such as the self screening mechanism at work in thin Bi5Ti5O17 layers - emerging from the intimate interplay between polar distortions and free carriers in such an exotic material. Supported by MIUR-PRIN, Fondazione Banco di Sardegna, FNR Luxembourg, MINECO-Spain, CINECA-ISCRA and CESGA.

  15. Ferroelectric, Thermal, and Magnetic Characteristics of Praseodymium Malonate Hexahydrate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nazir; Ahmad, M. M.; Kotru, P. N.

    2016-04-01

    Gel-grown single crystals of [Pr2(C3H2O4)3(H2O)6] exhibit remarkably flat habit faces, the most predominant being {110}. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystals are free from structural grain boundaries, which is the key requirement for single crystals for use in the microelectronics industry to serve as low-dielectric-constant ferroelectric material. The dielectric behavior recorded on {110} planes of single crystals shows that the crystal is ferroelectric with transition temperature T c = 135°C, which differs from the Curie-Weiss temperature T 0 by 2°C (T 0 < T c). Material in pellet form is shown to exhibit slightly different dielectric behavior. Polarization versus electric field confirms the ferroelectric behavior of the material. The dielectric behavior is also supported by the results of thermal studies, viz. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The magnetic susceptibility and magnetic moment are calculated to be 30.045 × 10-6 emu and 3.092 BM, respectively.

  16. Ferroelectric, Thermal, and Magnetic Characteristics of Praseodymium Malonate Hexahydrate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nazir; Ahmad, M. M.; Kotru, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    Gel-grown single crystals of [Pr2(C3H2O4)3(H2O)6] exhibit remarkably flat habit faces, the most predominant being {110}. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystals are free from structural grain boundaries, which is the key requirement for single crystals for use in the microelectronics industry to serve as low-dielectric-constant ferroelectric material. The dielectric behavior recorded on {110} planes of single crystals shows that the crystal is ferroelectric with transition temperature T c = 135°C, which differs from the Curie-Weiss temperature T 0 by 2°C (T 0 < T c). Material in pellet form is shown to exhibit slightly different dielectric behavior. Polarization versus electric field confirms the ferroelectric behavior of the material. The dielectric behavior is also supported by the results of thermal studies, viz. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The magnetic susceptibility and magnetic moment are calculated to be 30.045 × 10-6 emu and 3.092 BM, respectively.

  17. Vibrational, magnetic, and dielectric behavior of La-substituted BiFeO3-PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. K.; Satya, A. T.; Bharathi, A.; Sivasubramanian, V.; Murthy, V. R. K.; Arora, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Phonons and magnetic and ferroelectric ordering in La-substituted (Bi1-xLax)0.5Pb0.5Fe0.5Ti0.5O3 for samples with 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 are investigated using Raman, magnetization, and polarization measurements as a function of temperature. The system is tetragonal for pure Bi0.5Pb0.5Fe0.5Ti0.5O3 with a large c/a ratio. The anisotropy is reduced when Bi is partially replaced by La (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), and it turns cubic for x ≥ 0.4. All the properties are found to change significantly with changes in the c/a ratio. Evidence of spin-glass-like magnetic ordering at low temperature is found in the case of x = 0.2. A mechanism for the systematic change of magnetic ordering temperature as a function of doping is also discussed. The phonon frequencies and line widths exhibit discontinuous changes across the tetragonal-cubic transition. Large polarization and forbidden Raman scattering in the cubic phase are explained on the basis of symmetry breaking due to the formation of a polar nano region, which leads to relaxor behavior.

  18. Ferroelectric thin-films: The emancipation of ferroelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralt, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to bulk materials, high-resolution microscopy of ultra-thin ferroelectric films finds only a weak coupling of polarization down to unit-cell dimensions. The established theoretical picture can be resurrected by the inclusion of epitaxial strain effects.

  19. Effects of frequency and temperature evolution of polar nanoregions on susceptibility dispersion and polarization mechanism in relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. P.; Soh, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    A generic theory for the frequency and temperature effects on the characteristic evolution of polar nanoregions (PNRs) is essential for improving and optimizing the design of relaxor-based piezoelectric and electrocaloric cooling devices. Pauli's master equation was used to deduce analytical expressions for both the polarization dynamics and frequency-tunable susceptibility dispersions of relaxors. This was done by coupling the intrinsic equilibrium and dynamic factors of bulk relaxors and thin-films. It has been found that for relaxors to comply with Vogel-Fulcher relation, the evolution of PNR mean volume and coercive field of localized electric hysteresis for PNRs has to obey the classic Merz's switching law. The evolution of PNR mean volume in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 crystal was calculated in the temperature range of 200-300 K and at different frequencies up to 1012 Hz. Our results were in good agreement with the mean-field percolation theory and experimental correlation lengths. Hence, the proposed theory may serve as a new basis for studying the relationship between macroscopic dielectric, electrocaloric as well as other important properties of relaxors and evolutions of their typical microstructures.

  20. Defect-mediated polarization switching in ferroelectrics and related materials: from mesoscopic mechanisms to atomistic control

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Baddorf, Arthur P; Balke, Nina; Borisevich, Albina Y; Chang, Hye Jung; Chen, Long-Qing; Jesse, Stephen; Maksymovych, Petro; Nikiforov, Maxim; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The plethora of lattice and electronic behaviors in ferroelectric and multiferroic materials and heterostructures opens vistas into novel physical phenomena including magnetoelectric coupling and ferroelectric tunneling. The development of new classes of electronic, energy-storage, and information-technology devices depends critically on understanding and controlling field-induced polarization switching. Polarization reversal is controlled by defects that determine activation energy, critical switching bias, and the selection between thermodynamically equivalent polarization states in multiaxial ferroelectrics. Understanding and controlling defect functionality in ferroelectric materials is as critical to the future of oxide electronics and solid-state electrochemistry as defects in semiconductors are for semiconductor electronics. Here, recent advances in understanding the defect-mediated switching mechanisms, enabled by recent advances in electron and scanning probe microscopy, are discussed. The synergy between local probes and structural methods offers a pathway to decipher deterministic polarization switching mechanisms on the level of a single atomically defined defect.

  1. The Soft Mode Driven Dynamics in Ferroelectric Perovskites at the Nanoscale: An Atomistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCash, Kevin

    The discovery of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale has incited a lot of interest in perovskite ferroelectrics not only for their potential in device application but also for their potential to expand fundamental understanding of complex phenomena at very small size scales. Unfortunately, not much is known about the dynamics of ferroelectrics at this scale. Many of the widely held theories for ferroelectric materials are based on bulk dynamics which break down when applied to smaller scales. In an effort to increase understanding of nanoscale ferroelectric materials we use atomistic resolution computational simulations to investigate the dynamics of polar perovskites. Within the framework of a well validated effective Hamiltonian model we are able to accurately predict many of the properties of ferroelectric materials at the nanoscale including the response of the soft mode to mechanical boundary conditions and the polarization reversal dynamics of ferroelectric nanowires. Given that the focus of our study is the dynamics of ferroelectric perovskites we begin by developing an effective Hamiltonian based model that could simultaneously describe both static and dynamic properties of such materials. Our study reveals that for ferroelectric perovskites that undergo a sequence of phase transitions, such as BaTiO3. for example, the minimal parameter effective Hamiltonian model is unable to reproduce both static and dynamical properties simultaneously. Nevertheless we developed two sets of parameters that accurately describes the static properties and dynamic properties of BaTiO3 independently. By creating a tool that accurately models the dynamical properties of perovskite ferroelectrics we are able to investigate the frequencies of the soft modes in the perovskite crystal. The lowest energy transverse optical soft modes in perovskite ferroelectrics are known to be cause of the ferroelectric phase transition in these materials and affect a number of electrical properties. The performance of a ferroelectric device is therefore directly influenced by the dynamics of the soft mode. Interestingly, however, little study has been done on the effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the soft modes of perovskites. Understanding the effect of mechanical forces on the soft modes is critical to device applications as complicated growth structures often are the cause of pressures, stresses and strains. Using classical molecular dynamics we study the effect of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain on the soft modes of the ferroelectric PbTiO 3. The results of this study indicate the existence of Curie-Weiss laws for not only hydrostatic pressure, which is well known, but also for uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial strain. The mode frequencies are also seen to respond very differently to these mechanical forces and lead to a more complete picture of the behavior of nanoscale ferroelectrics. One nanoscale geometry of perovskite ferroelectrics is the pseudo one-dimensional nanowire. These structures have very unique properties that are highly attractive for use as interconnects, nanoscale sensors or more directly in computer memory devices. Perovskite nanowires have only recently been synthesized and the techniques are not well developed. While progress has been made towards consistently fabricating uniform, high quality nanowires experimental investigation of their properties is prohibitively difficult. Of immediate interest is the polarization reversal dynamics of ferroelectric nanowires. The reading and writing of bits of information stored in a wire's polarization state is done by switching the polarization. Again using classical molecular dynamics we study the polarization reversal dynamics in ferroelectric nanowires made of Pb(Ti1-xZrx)O 3 disordered alloy. We find that there are two competing mechanisms for polarization reversal and that the interplay of these mechanisms is dependent on electric field strength. The dynamics in nanowires also sheds light on long standing theories about polarization reversal mechanisms in thin film and bulk geometries.

  2. Energy principle of ferroelectric ceramics and single domain mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Haijun; Wang, T. C.

    2007-10-01

    Many physical experiments have shown that the domain switching in a ferroelectric material is a complicated evolution process of the domain wall with the variation of stress and electric field. According to this mechanism, the volume fraction of the domain switching is introduced in the constitutive law of ferroelectric ceramic and used to study the nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric body in this paper. The principle of stationary total energy is put forward in which the basic unknown quantities are the displacement u i , electric displacement D i and volume fraction ρ I of the domain switching for the variant I. Mechanical field equation and a new domain switching criterion are obtained from the principle of stationary total energy. The domain switching criterion proposed in this paper is an expansion and development of the energy criterion. On the basis of the domain switching criterion, a set of linear algebraic equations for the volume fraction ρ I of domain switching is obtained, in which the coefficients of the linear algebraic equations only contain the unknown strain and electric fields. Then a single domain mechanical model is proposed in this paper. The poled ferroelectric specimen is considered as a transversely isotropic single domain. By using the partial experimental results, the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching can be calibrated. Then the electromechanical response can be calculated on the basis of the calibrated hardening relation. The results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus axial electric field, the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus electric filed and the evolution process of the domain switching in the ferroelectric specimens under uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretic prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results given by Lynch.

  3. Nanoporous piezo- and ferroelectric thin films.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paula; Hou, Ru Z; Wu, Aiying; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Vilarinho, Paula M; Mosa, Jadra; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David; Sanchez, Clément

    2012-02-01

    Nanoporous barium titanate and lead titanate thin films (∼100 nm calculated from ellipsometric data) are prepared starting from sol-gel solutions modified with a commercially available block-copolymer and evaporation-induced self-assembly methodology. The tuning of the thermal treatment followed by in situ ellipsometry allows the decomposition of the organic components and of the structuring agent leading to the formation of porous tetragonal crystalline perovskite structures as observed by XRD, HRTEM, SEM, and ellipsoporosimetry. Both nanoporous barium titanate and lead titanate thin films present local piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior measured by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), being promising platforms for the preparation of the generation of new multifunctional systems. PMID:22206407

  4. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of (Ba ,Cd )TiO3 from DFT, statistical inference, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    One of the key impediments to the development of BaTiO3-based materials as candidates to replace toxic-Pb-based solid solutions is their relatively low ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC). Among many potential routes that are available to modify TC, ionic substitutions at the Ba and Ti sites remain the most common approach. Here, we perform density functional theory (DFT) calculations on a series of A TiO3 and Ba B O3 perovskites, where A =Ba , Ca, Sr, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg and B =Ti , Zr, Hf, and Sn. Our objective is to study the relative role of A and B cations in impacting the TC of the tetragonal (P 4 m m ) and rhombohedral (R 3 m ) ferroelectric phases in BaTiO3-based solid solutions, respectively. Using symmetry-mode analysis, we obtain a quantitative description of the relative contributions of various divalent (A ) and tetravalent (B ) cations to the ferroelectric distortions. Our results show that Ca, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg have large mode amplitudes for ferroelectric distortion in the tetragonal phase relative to Ba, whereas Sr suppresses the distortions. On the other hand, Zr, Hf, and Sn tetravalent cations severely suppress the ferroelectric distortion in the rhombohedral phase relative to Ti. In addition to symmetry modes, our calculated unit-cell volume also agrees with the experimental trends. We subsequently utilize the symmetry modes and unit-cell volumes as features within a machine learning approach to learn TC via an inference model and uncover trends that provide insights into the design of new high-TCBaTiO3 -based ferroelectrics. The inference model predicts CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions to have a higher TC and, therefore, we experimentally synthesized these solid solutions and measured their TC. Although the calculated mode strength for CdTiO3 in the tetragonal phase is even larger than that for PbTiO3, the TC of CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions in the tetragonal phase does not show any appreciable enhancement. Thus, CdTiO3-BaTiO3 does not follow the inference model, which is based on established data and trends for A TiO3 . Rather, our experimental phase diagram for CdTiO3-BaTiO3 suggests that it behaves markedly differently from any other BaTiO3-based systems studied so far.

  5. Temperature dependence scaling behavior of the dynamic hysteresis in 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditi; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Temperature dependent dynamic hysteresis of 0.715Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.065BaTiO3-0.22SrTiO3 (BNT-BT-ST) bulk ferroelectric ceramic was systematically studied. The scaling relations were estimated for corrective electric field ({{E}c}), remnant polarization ({{P}r}) and hysteresis loop area ≤ft( ≤ft< A \\right> \\right) as a function of temperature ≤ft( T \\right). It was observed that {{E}c}\\propto {{T}-0.6396}, {{P}r}\\propto {{T}-0.6849} and ≤ft< A \\right> \\propto {{T}-0.6446} for a constant magnitude of electric field ≤ft( E \\right). To understand the domain dynamics, back-switching polarization as a function of T is also predicted. The relation between back-switching polarization and temperature is estimated by well described Arrhenius law to evaluate the average activation energy. It also depends on the applied electric field; the relation fits well to a simple exponential decay function. The saturation polarization as a function of T was also evaluated to estimate the electrocaloric effect. It was found that electrocaloric effect and heat extract capacity in BNT-BT-ST ceramic is of a similar order to that observed in most other lead-free bulk ferroelectric ceramics. It can be said that BNT-BT-ST is also a promising material for solid state refrigeration. These results can be helpful to understand the temperature dependent hysteresis behavior and polarization switching in lead-free ferroelectric ceramics.

  6. Grain size effect on phase transition behavior and electrical properties of (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2015-10-01

    Dense and phase-pure (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (BKT) ceramics with various grain sizes from 0.18 to 1.01 µm were prepared by conventional sintering of a hydrothermally synthesized fine powder. The decrease in grain size resulted in the reductions in tetragonality, remanent polarization, and the piezoelectric d33 coefficient, whereas the room-temperature dielectric permittivity slightly increased with decreasing grain size. The measurement of the temperature dependence of permittivity revealed that BKT exhibited the spontaneous relaxor-to-normal ferroelectric (R-nFE) phase transition. It was also found that the maximum permittivity was decreased and the R-nFE transition was inhibited by the reduction in grain size. In this paper, on the basis of the observed grain-size-dependent phase transition behaviors, microstructural models are proposed for both coarse- and fine-grained BKT ceramics, and the mechanism underlying the grain size effect on the electrical properties is discussed.

  7. Ferroelectric transitions at ferroelectric domain walls found from first principles.

    PubMed

    Wojdeł, Jacek C; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2014-06-20

    We present a first-principles study of model domain walls (DWs) in prototypic ferroelectric PbTiO(3). At high temperature the DW structure is somewhat trivial, with atoms occupying high-symmetry positions. However, upon cooling the DW undergoes a symmetry-breaking transition characterized by a giant dielectric anomaly and the onset of a large and switchable polarization. Our results thus corroborate previous arguments for the occurrence of ferroic orders at structural DWs, providing a detailed atomistic picture of a temperature-driven DW-confined transformation. Beyond its relevance to the field of ferroelectrics, our results highlight the interest of these DWs in the broader areas of low-dimensional physics and phase transitions in strongly fluctuating systems. PMID:24996110

  8. Nanoscale ferroelectric and piezoelectric phenomena in ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valanoor, Nagarajan; Ganpule, Chandan; Liu, Bao Ting; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Melngailis, John; Roytburd, Alexander; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Maki, Kazunari

    2002-03-01

    This talk will focus on the nanoscale ferroelectric phenomena in Pb based ferroelectric thin films. We will present the domain dynamics of polarization relaxation, which has been modeled to the classical JMAK theory. The relaxation is observed via piezo response scanning force microscopy which allows very high spatial resolution (on the nm scale). This allows us to record sveral key events in the phenomenon of polarization relaxation, which will be presented. In this regard, we will also present the impact of domain pinning and faceting on the polarization relaxation. Secondly we will present data on obtaining intrinsic piezoresponse in nanoscale capacitors of PZT thin films. In the end we will discuss the movement of 90^odomains and their impact on piezoelectric properties in thin films.This work is supported by the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under contract No. DMR-00-80008.

  9. Low electric-field driven ultrahigh electrostrains in Sb-substituted (Na,K)NbO3 lead-free ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Zuo, Ruzhong; Qi, He; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Longtu

    2014-12-01

    Lead-free (Na0.52K0.48)(Nb1-ySby)O3 (NKNSy) ferroelectric ceramics were reported to exhibit an ultrahigh electrostrain (dynamic d33* (=S/E) of 800-1100 pm/V) in a relatively low driving electric field range (1-4 kV/mm). As evidenced by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements, the mechanism of generating large strains was ascribed to both the low-field induced reversible rhombohedral-monoclinic phase transition (1-2 kV/mm) and the enhanced domain switching (2-4 kV/mm) owing to the normal to relaxor phase transformation, which contribute to ˜62% and ˜38% of the total strain, respectively. The results indicate that the NKNSy compositions would have excellent potentials for applications of lead-free actuator ceramics.

  10. Coexistence of the soft mode and sub-THz central peak in ferroelectric BaTiO3/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumnaya, A. G.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Zakharchenko, I. N.; Torgashev, V. I.; Ortega, N.; Kumar, A.; Katiyar, R. S.; El Marssi, M.; Lukyanchuk, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Near- and sub-Terahertz dynamics of soft and Debye-type central modes was studied by the polarized Raman spectroscopy in ferroelectric BaTiO3/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BT/BST) superlattice in the temperature range of 80-400 K where system undergoes the series of phase transitions: paraelectric-tetragonal-monoclinic in BT layers and paraelectric-orthorhombic-monoclinic in BST layers. It was shown that temperature evolution of these modes can be described within the model of coexisted damped harmonic oscillator and Debye relaxator. The occurrence of the pronounced central mode can explain the recently observed relaxor-like dielectric anomaly in such superlattice.

  11. Class of Rashba ferroelectrics in hexagonal semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Awadhesh

    2015-12-01

    We present a class of Rashba systems in hexagonal semiconducting compounds, where an electrical control over spin-orbital texture is provided by their bulk ferroelectricity. Our first-principles calculations reveal a number of such materials with large Rashba coefficients. We, furthermore, show that strain can drive a topological phase transition in such materials, resulting in a ferroelectric topological insulating state. Our findings can open avenues for interplay between Rashba effect, ferroelectricity, and topological phenomena.

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures. In-situ TEM Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-30

    The goal of this project was to explore the structure and dynamic behaviors of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field modeling. The experimental techniques used include aberration-corrected sub-Å resolution TEM and in-situ TEM using a novel scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) - TEM holder that allows the direct observation of nucleation and dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domains under applied electric field. Specifically, this project was aimed to (1) to study the roles of static electrical boundary conditions and electrical charge in controlling the equilibrium domain structures of BiFeO3 thin films with controlled substrate constraints, (2) to explore the fundamental mechanisms of ferroelectric domain nucleation, growth, and switching under an applied electric field in both uniform thin films and nanostructures, and to understand the roles of crystal defects such as dislocations and interfaces in these processes, (3) to understand the physics of ferroelectric domain walls and the influence of defects on the electrical switching of ferroelectric domains.

  13. Supramolecular bola-like ferroelectric: 4-methoxyanilinium tetrafluoroborate-18-crown-6.

    PubMed

    Fu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Jia-Zhen; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Huang, Songping D

    2011-08-17

    Molecular motion is one of the structural foundations for the development of functional molecular materials such as artificial motors and molecular ferroelectrics. Herein, we show that pendulum-like motion of the terminal group of a molecule causes a ferroelectric phase transition. Complex 4-methoxyanilinium tetrafluoroborate-18-crown-6 ([C(7)H(10)NO(18-crown-6)](+)[BF(4)](-), 1) shows a second-order ferroelectric phase transition at 127 K, together with an abrupt dielectric anomaly, Debye-type relaxation behavior, and the symmetry breaking confirmed by temperature dependence of second harmonic generation effect. The origin of the polarization is due to the order-disorder transition of the pendulum-like motions of the terminal para-methyl group of the 4-methoxyanilinium guest cation; that is, the freezing of pendulum motion at low temperature forces significant orientational motions of the guest molecules and thus induces the formation of the ferroelectric phase. The supramolecular bola-like ferroelectric is distinct from the precedent ferroelectrics and will open a new avenue for the design of polar functional materials. PMID:21744841

  14. Relaxor-like dielectric response of spin liquid CuCrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, N. Roy, R.; Ghorai, U. K.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Broadband dielectric analysis (10{sup −2}-10{sup 7} Hz) of layered triangular lattice CuCrO{sub 2} is performed (123 K - 473 K) and analyzed in connection with recently observed spin frustration in this multiferroic [M. Poienar et al. Phys. Rev. B 81, 104411, (2010); M. Frontzek et al. Phys. Rev. B 84, 094448, (2011)]. Most unexpectedly, this well known delafossite has found to have nontrivial charge degrees of freedom, being characterized by a relaxor-like dielectric relaxation around 375 K with FWHM of ∼100K. The result strongly suggests the existence of intermolecular Coulomb interaction between charge disproportionation induced electric dipoles.

  15. 45Sc NMR study of the relaxor transition in a lead scandotantalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinc, R.; Gregorovič , A.; Zalar, B.; Pirc, R.; Lushnikov, S. G.

    2000-01-01

    The relaxor transition in a disordered lead scandotantalate ``virgin'' single crystal has been studied by measuring the 45Sc NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation rates. The observed spectra can be decomposed in a narrow 1/2-->-1/2 central part and a broad background due to the satellite transitions. The data demonstrate that the macroscopic cubic symmetry is locally broken and that the Sc electric quadrupole coupling constant amounts to about 12 MHz. The local polarization distribution function and the temperature dependence of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter have been determined and can be well described by the recently proposed spherical random bond-random field model.

  16. Electrostatic engineering of strained ferroelectric perovskites from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorla, Claudio; Stengel, Massimiliano

    2015-12-01

    Design of novel artificial materials based on ferroelectric perovskites relies on the basic principles of electrostatic coupling and in-plane lattice matching. These rules state that the out-of-plane component of the electric displacement field and the in-plane components of the strain are preserved across a layered superlattice, provided that certain growth conditions are respected. Intense research is currently directed at optimizing materials functionalities based on these guidelines, often with remarkable success. Such principles, however, are of limited practical use unless one disposes of reliable data on how a given material behaves under arbitrary electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. Here we demonstrate, by focusing on the prototypical ferroelectrics PbTiO3 and BiFeO3 as test cases, how such information can be calculated from first principles in a systematic and efficient way. In particular, we construct a series of two-dimensional maps that describe the behavior of either compound (e.g., concerning the ferroelectric polarization and antiferrodistortive instabilities) at any conceivable choice of the in-plane lattice parameter, a , and out-of-plane electric displacement, D . In addition to being of immediate practical applicability to superlattice design, our results bring new insight into the complex interplay of competing degrees of freedom in perovskite materials and reveal some notable instances where the behavior of these materials depart from what naively is expected.

  17. Coupling of electrical and mechanical switching in nanoscale ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Li, Qian; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-11-01

    While electric field induced ferroelectric switching has been extensively studied and broadly utilized, pure mechanical switching via flexoelectric effect has recently opened up an alternative method for domain writing due to their highly localized, electrically erasable and electric damage free characteristics. Thus far, few studies have been made on the coupling effect of electro-mechanical switching in ferroelectric materials, likely due to the experimental difficulty in the accurate definition of the tip-surface contact area and in the identification of mechanical contribution from electrical effect. Here, we employed self-consistent phase-field modeling to investigate the bi-polar switching behavior of (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film under concurrent electric and strain field created via a piezoresponse force microscope probe. By separating the effects from electric field, homogeneous strain and strain gradient, we revealed that the homogeneous strain suppresses the spontaneous polarization and accordingly increases the coercive field, and the strain gradient favors unipolar switching and inhibit it in the reverse direction, thus causing lateral offset of the hysteresis loop. The uncertainty of flexoelectric coefficients and the influence of flexocoupling coefficients on switching have also been discussed. Our study could necessitate further understanding of the electric, piezoelectric, and flexoelectric contribution to the switching behavior in nanoscale ferroelectric oxides.

  18. Nanocharacterization of the negative stiffness of ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour Skandani, A.; Ctvrtlik, R.; Al-Haik, M.

    2014-08-01

    Phase changing materials such as ferroelectric materials could exhibit negative stiffness under certain thermomechanical environments. This negative stiffness is embodied by a deflection along the opposite direction of the applied load. So far negative stiffness materials were investigated with the specific morphology of embedded inclusions in stiff matrices then the resulting composite is studied to measure the behavior of each constituent indirectly. In this study, a modified nonisothermal nanoindentation method is developed to measure the negative stiffness of triglycine sulfate single crystal directly. This in-situ method is intended to first demonstrate the feasibility of detecting the negative stiffness via nanoindentation and nanocreep of a ferroelectric material at its Curie point and then to quantify the negative stiffness without the need for embedding the crystal within a stiffer matrix.

  19. Electromigration of microspheres in ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Dierking, I; Cass, P; Syres, K; Cresswell, R; Morton, S

    2007-08-01

    When an electric field is applied to microspheres which are dispersed in a ferroelectric smectic liquid crystal, particle translation along the smectic layer plane, i.e., in a direction nearly perpendicular to that of the director, can be observed. Under certain electric field conditions the translation is shown to be linear in time. We have determined the stability regime of linear particle displacement in the parameter space of amplitude and frequency for various applied wave forms. This regime enlarges for increasing electric field amplitude and frequency, with a threshold behavior observed for small parameters. The upper stability boundary is related to the reciprocal ferroelectric switching time. The microspheres translational velocity is independent of the applied electric field amplitude, but increases linearly with applied frequency. The microsphere velocity also increases with increasing temperature, which is indicative of the respective decrease in liquid crystal viscosity. Possible mechanisms of electric-field-induced particle motion are discussed. PMID:17930054

  20. Domain engineered ferroelectric energy harvesters on a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, I.; Krauß, M.; Landis, C. M.; Huber, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    Phase-field modeling is used to study the domain evolution of nano-scaled ferroelectric devices influenced by the mechanical strain of an underlying substrate. The investigations focus on the design of the energy harvesting systems to convert mechanical into electrical energy. Mechanical energy is provided by an alternating in-plane strain in the substrate through bending or unidirectional stretching. Additionally, lattice mismatch between the substrate and the ferroelectric material induces epitaxial strain and controls the polarization behavior within the system. Further, electrical boundary conditions are used to stabilize the domain topology. Finite element simulations are employed to explore the performance of the engineered domain topologies in delivering electrical charge from mechanical deformation.

  1. Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

  2. Ferroelectric Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator has a three-pump configuration and pumping sequence, in which one pump serves as a compressor. one pump serves as an expander, and one pump serves as a displacer. The pumps are ferroelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps which are coordinated by synchronizing the ferroelectric-actuator voltages in such a way that the net effect of the displacer is to reduce the deleterious effect of dead space; that is, to circulate a greater fraction of the working fluid through the heat exchangers than would be possible by use of the compressor and expander alone. In addition. the displacer can be controlled separately to make the flow of working fluid in the heat exchangers turbulent (to increase the rate of transfer of heat at the cost of greater resistance to flow) or laminar (to decrease the resistance to flow at the cost of a lower heat-transfer rate).

  3. Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Ferroelectric Polymer Composite Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji.

    A co-melt-quenching processing technique was developed to produce new types of ferroelectric polymer composite systems: bilaminate films and powder blend films. The bilaminate films exhibited clear ferroelectric characteristics in the measurements of the electric displacement, D, versus the applied electric field, E. The poled films were also piezoelectrically active as seen in the measurements of the piezoelectric coefficients. The enhancement in both remanent polarization and piezoelectricity were observed when compared with the individual films which comprised the bilaminate films. The enhancements were indicated by the increased remanent polarization, P_ {r}, and piezoelectric strain and stress coefficients, d_{31} and e_{31}, as well as the hydrostatic coefficient, d_{h}, of the composite films. These properties were shown to depend on the relative thickness fraction of the constituents of the bilaminate films. FTIR-ATR and LIPP analysis of the nylon 11/PVF_2 bilaminate films showed that the effects of interface between the nylon 11 and PVF_2, which have differences in electric properties, play an important role in the observed enhancements. The experimental results indicated that both constituents in the bilaminate were well poled and that an accumulation of space charge might exist in the interface region between them. The accumulated space charge, associated with this heterogeneity, could then be considered as the main contributor to the enhanced piezoelectric response. Further investigations showed that the piezoelectric response of the bilaminate depended on the direction of the poling field applied on the bilaminate film and that the PVF _2/nylon 11/PVF_2 trilaminate film, having two interfaces symmetric to the central plane of the film, did not show the enhancement observed in the nylon 11/PVF_2 bilaminate. These results indicated that the characteristics of the interface are important to the ferroelectric and piezoelectric response of laminated ferroelectric films. The enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties was also observed in powder blends of PVF_2/VF_2 -VF_3 copolymer films. These properties are also dependent on the relative fraction of the constituent polymers. Melt-pressed, quenched, uniaxially stretched blend films with equal weight percents showed the maximum response in the piezoelectric measurements, which suggest that the effects of the interface between the two oriented and poled constituents is due to the maximum amount of interface is reached when the constituents have equal amounts of powder in the blend films.

  4. Structural, Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Characterization of NBT-BT Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuga Sundari, S.; Kumar, Binay; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2013-05-01

    Lead free piezoelectric 0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics were synthesized in MPB composition by conventional solid state reaction method. The crystalline nature of NBT-BT ceramic was studied by XRD and the size of the grains are determined by SEM. The X- ray diffraction results reveal that Ba2+ diffuse into the Na0.5 Bi0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics exhibit high piezoelectric properties: d33 = 206 pC/N. Td (depolarization temperature) and Tm (temperature at with the dielectric constant epsilonr reaches a maximum) were observed through the phase transition in dielectric studies. In addition, the prepared ceramic exhibits relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12fold coordination sites. Pr and Ec of the prepared ceramics were determined from the P-E hysteresis loop.

  5. Ferroelectric studies of excessive Sm{sup 3+} containing perovskite PZT and pyrochlore biphase ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, T. Anil; Sastry, D. L.; Ramesh, K. V.; Reddy, V. Raghavendra

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline samples of Sm{sup 3+} modified Pb{sub 1−x} Sm{sub 2x/3} (Zr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}) O{sub 3} (PSZT) ceramics (where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) have been prepared by a high energy ball milling technique, followed by calcination at 950°C and sintering at 1150°C. As x is increased more than 0.1 mole%, considerable secondary phase has been formed. This phase has been identified as pyrochlore Sm{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} from its X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks. The XRD studies also indicate that the perovskte phases of the present systems undergo a dopant induced phase transformation from rhombohedral to tetragonal strucure. All the samples exhibit diffuse but non-relaxor type ferroelectric phase transition. The results of dielectric and hysteresis studies of these materials are presented.

  6. Frequency dispersion of dielectric permittivity-voltage hysteresis during field driven ferroelectric-antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transition in antiferroelectric liquid crystal (SmCA*)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muklesur; Mukherjee, A.; Chaudhuri, B. K.; Yoshizawa, A.

    2007-04-01

    Dielectric permittivity at different polarizing states during field driven ferroelectric-ferroelectric (F-F) transition and the dielectric relaxation spectra in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal (AFLC) phase have been studied to elucidate the interaction processes involved during the transition. The unwinding process of antiferroelectric helix has been found to be governed by the polar coupling between the applied field and the antiferroelectric polarization vector followed by nonpolar interaction with the dielectric anisotropy of the tilted molecules. Frequency dependence of the permittivity-voltage hysteresis behavior observed during the F-F transitions is concluded to be due to different relaxation processes involved in the AFLC phase.

  7. Two-bit ferroelectric field-effect transistor memories assembled on individual nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fu, W Y; Xu, Z; Liu, L; Bai, X D; Wang, E G

    2009-11-25

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with well-defined memory switch behaviors are promising for nonvolatile, nondestructive read-out (NDRO) memory operation and ultralow power consumption. Here, we report two-bit CNT-FeFET memories by assembling two top gates on individual nanotubes coated with ferroelectric thin films. Each bit of the nanotube transistor memory exhibits a controllable memory switching behavior induced by the reversible remnant polarization of the ferroelectric films, and its NDRO operation is demonstrated. The low driving voltage of 2 V, high carrier mobility over 1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), and potential ultrahigh integration density over 200 Gbit inch(-2) of the two-bit FeFET memory are highlighted in this paper. PMID:19875879

  8. Ferroelectric translational antiphase boundaries in nonpolar materials

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Kvasov, Alexander; Roleder, Krystian; Jia, Chun-Lin; Setter, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are heavily used in electro-mechanics and electronics. Inside the ferroelectric, domain walls separate regions in which the spontaneous polarization is differently oriented. Properties of ferroelectric domain walls can differ from those of the domains themselves, leading to new exploitable phenomena. Even more exciting is that a non-ferroelectric material may have domain boundaries that are ferroelectric. Many materials possess translational antiphase boundaries. Such boundaries could be interesting entities to carry information if they were ferroelectric. Here we show first that antiphase boundaries in antiferroelectrics may possess ferroelectricity. We then identify these boundaries in the classical antiferroelectric lead zirconate and evidence their polarity by electron microscopy using negative spherical-aberration imaging technique. Ab initio modelling confirms the polar bi-stable nature of the walls. Ferroelectric antiphase boundaries could make high-density non-volatile memory; in comparison with the magnetic domain wall memory, they do not require current for operation and are an order of magnitude thinner. PMID:24398704

  9. Ferroelectric translational antiphase boundaries in nonpolar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Kvasov, Alexander; Roleder, Krystian; Jia, Chun-Lin; Setter, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are heavily used in electro-mechanics and electronics. Inside the ferroelectric, domain walls separate regions in which the spontaneous polarization is differently oriented. Properties of ferroelectric domain walls can differ from those of the domains themselves, leading to new exploitable phenomena. Even more exciting is that a non-ferroelectric material may have domain boundaries that are ferroelectric. Many materials possess translational antiphase boundaries. Such boundaries could be interesting entities to carry information if they were ferroelectric. Here we show first that antiphase boundaries in antiferroelectrics may possess ferroelectricity. We then identify these boundaries in the classical antiferroelectric lead zirconate and evidence their polarity by electron microscopy using negative spherical-aberration imaging technique. Ab initio modelling confirms the polar bi-stable nature of the walls. Ferroelectric antiphase boundaries could make high-density non-volatile memory; in comparison with the magnetic domain wall memory, they do not require current for operation and are an order of magnitude thinner.

  10. Ferroelectric translational antiphase boundaries in nonpolar materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xian-Kui; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Kvasov, Alexander; Roleder, Krystian; Jia, Chun-Lin; Setter, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are heavily used in electro-mechanics and electronics. Inside the ferroelectric, domain walls separate regions in which the spontaneous polarization is differently oriented. Properties of ferroelectric domain walls can differ from those of the domains themselves, leading to new exploitable phenomena. Even more exciting is that a non-ferroelectric material may have domain boundaries that are ferroelectric. Many materials possess translational antiphase boundaries. Such boundaries could be interesting entities to carry information if they were ferroelectric. Here we show first that antiphase boundaries in antiferroelectrics may possess ferroelectricity. We then identify these boundaries in the classical antiferroelectric lead zirconate and evidence their polarity by electron microscopy using negative spherical-aberration imaging technique. Ab initio modelling confirms the polar bi-stable nature of the walls. Ferroelectric antiphase boundaries could make high-density non-volatile memory; in comparison with the magnetic domain wall memory, they do not require current for operation and are an order of magnitude thinner. PMID:24398704

  11. A concept of ferroelectric microparticle propulsion thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmolich, D.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2008-02-25

    A space propulsion concept using charged ferroelectric microparticles as a propellant is suggested. The measured ferroelectric plasma source thrust, produced mainly by microparticles emission, reaches {approx}9x10{sup -4} N. The obtained trajectories of microparticles demonstrate that the majority of the microparticles are positively charged, which permits further improvement of the thruster.

  12. Switchable diode effect in ferroelectric thin film: High dependence on poling process and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Liu, X. L.; Chen, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Xiong, W. M.; Zheng, Yue

    2014-12-01

    Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) thin film was fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Our results show a very great switchable ferroelectric diode effect (SFDE) in Pt-PZT-Au structure, which is more obvious and controllable than that in other ferroelectric thin films. The electrical conduction exhibits high rectifying behavior after pre-poling and the polarity of ferroelectric diode can be switched by changing the orientation of polarization in ferroelectric thin film. Our results also indicate that the SFDE in PZT film is highly dependent on remanent polarization and temperature. With the increase of remanent polarization, the forward current of bistable rectifying behavior observably reduces. Therefore, our measurement indicated that the biggest rectification ratio can reach about 220, which is found in 250K after +10V poling. By analyzing the conduction data, it is found that the dominant conduction mechanism of the SFDE in this sample is due to the space-charge-limited bulk conduction (SCLC), and Schottky emission (SE) may play subordinate role in forward bias voltage. Our observation demonstrates that SFDE may be general characteristic in ferroelectrics as long as proper electrodes chosen.

  13. Structure and properties of ferroelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene have been shown to be a ferroelectric polymer undergoing polarization reversal and the Curie transition. Besides ferroelectricity, they have an interesting character that annealing at a temperature in the paraelectric phase causes a remarkable increase in crystallinity as well as a growth of large crystalline lamellae. We have prepared the copolymer samples with well-defined higher order structures and examined their properties such as ferroelectric switching, non-linear dielectricity, piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. For example, the samples annealed at just below the melting point are found to consist of crystallites thicker than 200nm and exhibit very sharp ferroelectric switching transients while those annealed at lower temperatures exhibit no or extremely broad switching transients. On the basis of these results, the microscopic mechanisms responsible for their ferroelectricity will be discussed.

  14. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in displacive-type organic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, L. J.; Zhong, Y.; Fan, S. W.; Zhu, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    We explore the intrinsic feature of electrocaloric effect (ECE) accompanied by ferroelectric (FE)-paraelectric (PE) transition for displacive-type organic ferroelectrics using Green's function theory. It is demonstrated that decreasing elastic constant K or increasing spin-lattice coupling λ can enhance the ECE, as well as polarization P and transition temperature TC. Indeed, one expects that the optimal operating temperature for solid-state refrigeration is around room temperature, at which the ECE achieves its maximum. As TC is tuned to ˜310 K, it presents larger ECE response and remanent polarization with lower coercive field for smaller K value, suggesting that well flexible displacive-type organic ferroelectrics are excellent candidates both for electric cooling and data storage in the design of nonvolatile FE random-access memories. Furthermore, in an electric field, it provides a bridge between a Widom line that denotes FE-PE crossover above TC and a metaelectric transition line below TC that demonstrates an FE switching behavior with an antiparallel field.

  15. High Temperature Ferroelectrics for Actuators: Recent Developments and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Kowalski, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A variety of piezoelectric applications have been driving the research in development of new high temperature ferroelectrics; ranging from broader markets such as fuel and gas modulation and deep well oil drilling to very specific applications such as thermoacoustic engines and ultrasonic drilling on the surface of Venus. The focus has been mostly on increasing the Curie temperature. However, greater challenges for high temperature ferroelectrics limit the operating temperature to levels much below the Curie temperature. These include enhanced loss tangent and dc conductivity at high fields as well as depoling due to thermally activated domain rotation. The initial work by Eitel et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 40 [10, Part 1] 59996002 (2001)] increased interest in investigation of Bismuth containing perovskites in solid solution with lead titanate. Issues that arise vary from solubility limits to increased tetragonality; the former one prohibits processing of morphotropic phase boundary, while the latter one impedes thorough poling of the polycrystalline ceramics. This talk will summarize recent advances in development of high temperature piezoelectrics and provide information about challenges encountered as well as the approaches taken to improve the high temperature behavior of ferroelectrics with a focus on applications that employ the converse piezoelectric effect.

  16. Towards the limit of ferroelectric nanosized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, A.; Schneller, T.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.

    2003-02-01

    Ferroelectric random access memories are non-volatile, low voltage, high read/write speed devices which have been introduced into the market in recent years and which show the clear potential of future gigabit scale universal non-volatile memories. The ultimate limit of this concept will depend on the ferroelectric limit (synonymous superparaelectric limit), i.e. the size limit below which the ferroelectricity is quenched. While there are clear indications that 2D ferroelectric oxide films may sustain their ferroelectric polarization below 4 nm in thickness (Tybell T, Ahn C H and Triscone J M 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 856), the limit will be quite different for isolated 3D nanostructures (nanograins, nanoclusters). To investigate scaling effects of ferroelectric nanograins on Si wafers, we studied PbTiO3 (PTO) and Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 grown by a self-assembly chemical solution deposition method. Preparing highly diluted precursor solutions we achieved single separated ferroelectric grains with grain sizes ranging from 200 nm down to less than 20 nm. For grains smaller than 20 nm, no piezoresponse was observed and we suppose this could be due to the transition from the ferroelectric to the paraelectric phase which has no spontaneous polarization. Recent calculations (Zhong W L, Wang Y G, Zhang P L and Qu B D 1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 698) and experiments (Jiang B, Peng J L, Zhong W L and Bursill L A 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 3462) showed that the ferroelectricity of fine ferroelectric particles decrease with decreasing particle size. From these experiments the extrapolated critical size of PTO particles was found to be around 4.2-20 nm.

  17. Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  18. Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  19. Thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Jalink, Jr., Antony (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for forming ferroelectric wafers is provided. A prestress layer is placed on the desired mold. A ferroelectric wafer is placed on top of the prestress layer. The layers are heated and then cooled, causing the ferroelectric wafer to become prestressed. The prestress layer may include reinforcing material and the ferroelectric wafer may include electrodes or electrode layers may be placed on either side of the ferroelectric layer. Wafers produced using this method have greatly improved output motion.

  20. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  1. Microscopic mechanisms for improper ferroelectricity in multiferroic perovskites: a theoretical review

    SciTech Connect

    Picozzi, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Sergienko, Ivan A; Sen, Cengiz; Sanyal, B.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2008-01-01

    Two microscopic mechanisms helping us to understand the multiferroic behavior of distorted rare-earth manganites are here briefly reviewed. The original work was carried out by means of Hamiltonian modeling and first-principles density functional simulations. Our first topic concerns the link between the Dzyaloshinskii Moriya interaction and ferroelectricity in incommensurate magnets. We argue that the Dzyaloshinskii Moriya interaction may play a key role since (i) it induces ferroelectric displacements of oxygen atoms and (ii) it favors the stabilization of a helical magnetic structure at low temperatures. Our second topic concerns the prediction, based on Landau theory, that the symmetry of the zigzag spin chains in the AFM-E (E-type antiferromagnetic) orthorhombic manganites (such as HoMnO3) allows a finite polarization along the c axis. The microscopic mechanism at the basis of ferroelectricity is interpreted through a gain in band energy of the eg electrons within the orbitally degenerate double-exchange model. Related Monte Carlo simulations have confirmed that the polarization can be much higher than what is observed in spiral magnetic phases. Density functional calculations performed on orthorhombic HoMnO3 quantitatively confirm a magnetically induced ferroelectric polarization up to 6 C cm 2, the largest reported so far for improper magnetic ferroelectrics. We find in HoMnO3, in addition to the conventional displacement mechanism, a sizable contribution arising from the purely electronic effect of orbital polarization. The relatively large ferroelectric polarization, present even with centrosymmetric atomic positions, is a clear sign of a magnetism-induced electronic mechanism at play, which is also confirmed by the large displacements of the Wannier function centers with respect to the corresponding ions in AFM-E HoMnO3. The final polarization is shown to be the result of competing effects, as shown by the opposite signs of the eg and t2g contributions to the ferroelectric polarization.

  2. Photorefractivity in ferroelectric liquid crystal composites containing electron donor and acceptor molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederrecht, G. P.; Yoon, B. A.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Chemistry; Northwestern Univ.

    2000-10-16

    The first observation of photorefractivity in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) is reported here. Dopant chromophores chosen to optimize production of mobile ions and careful control of the wavevector and light polarization are believed to play a decisive role in the observed behavior. The Figure is a schematic illustration of the experimental geometry used.

  3. Anomaly in the conductivity relaxation parameters at the phase transition of ferroelectric materials: A time domain study

    SciTech Connect

    Leyet, Y.; Guerrero, F.; Amorin, H.; Guerra, J. de Los S.; Eiras, J. A.

    2010-10-18

    The influence of the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition on the relaxation parameters of conductive processes in ferroelectric materials is studied in the time domain. Three well-known ferroelectric systems were chosen with transition temperatures in different regions, these are, high-temperature PbNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}-based ceramics; nanostructured Pb(Zr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4})O{sub 3} ceramics; and submicron BaTiO{sub 3}. The thermal evolution of relaxation parameters shows clear anomalies in their typical behavior when conductivity processes arise in the temperature range where the ferroelectric transition takes place. The method here described allows obtaining information about the correlation between charge transport and the motion of the off-center ions at the phase transition.

  4. Ferroelectric Metal in Tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 Bilayers and Its Electric Field Effect.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha

    2016-01-01

    By first-principles calculations we investigate the electronic structure of tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 bilayers with different terminations. The multiferroic insulator BiCoO3 and BiFeO3 transform into metal in all of three models. Particularly, energetically favored model CoO2-BiO exhibits ferroelectric metallic properties, and external electric field enhances the ferroelectric displacements significantly. The metallic character is mainly associated to eg electrons, while t2g electrons are responsible for ferroelectric properties. Moreover, the strong hybridization between eg and O p electrons around Fermi level provides conditions to the coexistence of ferroelectric and metallic properties. These special behaviors of electrons are influenced by the interfacial electronic reconstruction with formed Bi-O electrovalent bond, which breaks OA-Fe/Co-OB coupling partially. Besides, the external electric field reverses spin polarization of Fe/Co ions efficiently, even reaching 100%. PMID:26839049

  5. Ferroelectric Metal in Tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 Bilayers and Its Electric Field Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Li; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha

    2016-02-01

    By first-principles calculations we investigate the electronic structure of tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 bilayers with different terminations. The multiferroic insulator BiCoO3 and BiFeO3 transform into metal in all of three models. Particularly, energetically favored model CoO2-BiO exhibits ferroelectric metallic properties, and external electric field enhances the ferroelectric displacements significantly. The metallic character is mainly associated to eg electrons, while t2g electrons are responsible for ferroelectric properties. Moreover, the strong hybridization between eg and O p electrons around Fermi level provides conditions to the coexistence of ferroelectric and metallic properties. These special behaviors of electrons are influenced by the interfacial electronic reconstruction with formed Bi-O electrovalent bond, which breaks OA-Fe/Co-OB coupling partially. Besides, the external electric field reverses spin polarization of Fe/Co ions efficiently, even reaching 100%.

  6. Ferroelectric Metal in Tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 Bilayers and Its Electric Field Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha

    2016-01-01

    By first-principles calculations we investigate the electronic structure of tetragonal BiCoO3/BiFeO3 bilayers with different terminations. The multiferroic insulator BiCoO3 and BiFeO3 transform into metal in all of three models. Particularly, energetically favored model CoO2-BiO exhibits ferroelectric metallic properties, and external electric field enhances the ferroelectric displacements significantly. The metallic character is mainly associated to eg electrons, while t2g electrons are responsible for ferroelectric properties. Moreover, the strong hybridization between eg and O p electrons around Fermi level provides conditions to the coexistence of ferroelectric and metallic properties. These special behaviors of electrons are influenced by the interfacial electronic reconstruction with formed Bi-O electrovalent bond, which breaks OA-Fe/Co-OB coupling partially. Besides, the external electric field reverses spin polarization of Fe/Co ions efficiently, even reaching 100%. PMID:26839049

  7. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T.; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced—in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures—and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments.

  8. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-16

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced-in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures-and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments. PMID:26885704

  9. New perspectives for ferroelectric LC-polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brehmer, M.; Gebhard, E.; Wittig, T.

    1996-10-01

    LC-Elastomers prepared from ferroelectric LC-polymers are interesting materials for two reasons. From a materials point of view they are interesting because of their ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyrroelectric properties. From a scientific point of view they are fascinating because they allow us to study the interplay of electric and mechanical forces in a rubbery material The coupling between the director reorientation and the network can be modified by crosslinking at the end of the mesogens or in the range of the polymer chains . In the last case the coupling is minimal. Besides the planar orientation in SSFLC-cells, free standing films offer the possibility of a homeotropic alignment of smectic liquid crystals ferroelectric LC elastomers of a different topology can be obtained by mixing a low molar mass or an oligomeric ferroelectric LC with a bifunctional crosslinkable: liquid crystal and performing photochemically a crosslinking reaction in one switching state of the smectic C* phase. As a result non crosslinkable ferroelectric LC will form micro-droplets surrounded by a densely crosslinked network, which is formed by the crosslinked non-ferroelectric liquid crystals. This gives a two phasic Volume or Network Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal.

  10. New low temperature multiphase ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bescher, Eric; Xu, Yuhuan; Mackenzie, J. D.

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the low-temperature synthesis of new multiphase ferroelectrics containing an inorganic ferroelectric phase entrapped in amorphous silica or in an organically modified silicate (ormosil). Sol gel derived LiNbO3 and BaTiO3 crystals were grown in SiO2 and in RSiO1.5 glass where R contains a chromophore (TDP) insensitive to hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The LiNbO3-SiO2 and BaTiO3-SiO2 compositions as well as the TDP-LiNbO3-SiO2 and TDP-BaTiO3-SiO2 ormosils exhibit ferroelectric-like properties. This unusual characteristic is due to the presence of small, partially ordered crystallites of the ferroelectric, dispersed in the amorphous matrix. In addition to their ferroelectric properties, the ormosils also exhibit interesting optical characteristics: the TDP-BaTiO3-SiO2 materials are red, whereas the TDP-LiNbO3-SiO2 are yellow. The materials described in this article are representative of two new classes of weak ferroelectrics. In the first class, a ferroelectric is dispersed in an amorphous matrix. The second class may be called "organically-modified crystals": small ferroelectric crystals embedded in an organically modified matrix. The fabrication of such materials is possible for inorganic crystalline phases forming at temperatures below the decomposition temperature of the organic (about 250 °C). This article also contains some theoretical considerations explaining why these materials, although amorphous by x-ray diffraction, exhibit ferroelectric-like properties.

  11. New low temperature multiphase ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Bescher, Eric; Xu, Yuhuan; Mackenzie, J. D.

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the low-temperature synthesis of new multiphase ferroelectrics containing an inorganic ferroelectric phase entrapped in amorphous silica or in an organically modified silicate (ormosil). Sol gel derived LiNbO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3} crystals were grown in SiO{sub 2} and in RSiO{sub 1.5} glass where R contains a chromophore (TDP) insensitive to hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The LiNbO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} and BaTiO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} compositions as well as the TDP{endash}LiNbO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} and TDP{endash}BaTiO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} ormosils exhibit ferroelectric-like properties. This unusual characteristic is due to the presence of small, partially ordered crystallites of the ferroelectric, dispersed in the amorphous matrix. In addition to their ferroelectric properties, the ormosils also exhibit interesting optical characteristics: the TDP{endash}BaTiO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} materials are red, whereas the TDP{endash}LiNbO{sub 3}{endash}SiO{sub 2} are yellow. The materials described in this article are representative of two new classes of weak ferroelectrics. In the first class, a ferroelectric is dispersed in an amorphous matrix. The second class may be called {open_quotes}organically-modified crystals{close_quotes}: small ferroelectric crystals embedded in an organically modified matrix. The fabrication of such materials is possible for inorganic crystalline phases forming at temperatures below the decomposition temperature of the organic (about 250{degree}C). This article also contains some theoretical considerations explaining why these materials, although amorphous by x-ray diffraction, exhibit ferroelectric-like properties. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  13. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-02-15

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  14. 23 GHz ferroelectric electron gun based gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Moshe, R.; Einat, M.

    2011-04-01

    Ferroelectric cathodes have been explored as an alternative electron source for microwave tubes. Past experiments have demonstrated operation at frequencies of 2-10 GHz. Since the ferroelectric cathode is based on surface plasma, the relatively high energy spread limits the tube operation frequency. Hence, the possibility to obtain higher frequencies remained questionable. In this experimental work a gyrotron oscillator was designed with the operation frequency increased toward that of millimeter waves. A cylindrical tube with a cutoff frequency of ˜22 GHz was integrated to a ferroelectric electron gun. Pulses of ˜0.5 μs duration with a frequency of 23 GHz were obtained.

  15. Implementation of Ferroelectric Memories for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpy, Stephen C.; Derbenwick, Gary F.; Kamp, David A.; Isaacson, Alan F.

    2000-01-01

    Ferroelectric random access semiconductor memories (FeRAMs) are an ideal nonvolatile solution for space applications. These memories have low power performance, high endurance and fast write times. By combining commercial ferroelectric memory technology with radiation hardened CMOS technology, nonvolatile semiconductor memories for space applications can be attained. Of the few radiation hardened semiconductor manufacturers, none have embraced the development of radiation hardened FeRAMs, due a limited commercial space market and funding limitations. Government funding may be necessary to assure the development of radiation hardened ferroelectric memories for space applications.

  16. Ferroelectricity emerging in strained (111)-textured ZrO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Deng, Jinyu; Wang, Jingxian; Liu, Ziyan; Yang, Ping; Xiao, Juanxiu; Yan, Xiaobing; Dong, Zhili; Wang, John; Chen, Jingsheng

    2016-01-01

    (Anti-)ferroelectricity in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible binary oxides have attracted considerable research interest recently. Here, we show that by using substrate-induced strain, the orthorhombic phase and the desired ferroelectricity could be achieved in ZrO2 thin films. Our theoretical analyses suggest that the strain imposed on the ZrO2 (111) film by the TiN/MgO (001) substrate would energetically favor the tetragonal (t) and orthorhombic (o) phases over the monoclinic (m) phase of ZrO2, and the compressive strain along certain ⟨11-2⟩ directions may further stabilize the o-phase. Experimentally ZrO2 thin films are sputtered onto the MgO (001) substrates buffered by epitaxial TiN layers. ZrO2 thin films exhibit t- and o-phases, which are highly (111)-textured and strained, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Both polarization-electric field (P-E) loops and corresponding current responses to voltage stimulations measured with appropriate applied fields reveal the ferroelectric sub-loop behavior of the ZrO2 films at certain thicknesses, confirming that the ferroelectric o-phase has been developed in the strained (111)-textured ZrO2 films. However, further increasing the applied field leads to the disappearance of ferroelectric hysteresis, the possible reasons of which are discussed.

  17. Multiphysics model of semiconducting ferroelectrics and its application to memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Nathaniel; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2012-02-01

    Ferroelectrics are used in many electronic devices, in particular as transistors for ferroelectric memory devices. The behavior of these materials are often described via the classic time-dependent Ginzburg Landau model, where they are treated as insulators. However, it is well known that ferroelectrics are in fact wide band-gap semiconductors. It then follows that capturing the key aspects of semiconductor physics--band bending at the interface, Fermi levels, depletion layers, require ferroelectrics to be treated as semiconductors. In this work, we introduce a model that addresses these difficulties, yet at the same time is consistent with both the time-dependent Ginzburg Landau model and the classic drift-diffusion model in semiconductors. Unlike other models, our model makes no a priori assumptions on the space charge and polarization distributions and is not restricted to equilibrium profiles. We first demonstrate that charge carriers migrate to neutralize electric fields across 90 domain walls. Finally, we attempt a full simulation of a ferroelectric transistor and model current flow, electric field and polarization distributions.

  18. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  19. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Bogle, K A; Kumar, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Magaraggia, R; Stamps, R; Ogale, S; Potdar, H S

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of 1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  20. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Karapetian, Edgar; Mirman, B; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  1. Universal Ferroelectric Switching Dynamics of Vinylidene Fluoride-trifluoroethylene Copolymer Films

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei Jin; Juo, Deng-Ming; You, Lu; Wang, Junling; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao; Wu, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50 MV/m and 180° domain wall energy of 60 mJ/m2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications. PMID:24759786

  2. Dynamic Observation of Brain-Like Learning in a Ferroelectric Synapse Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Ueda, Michihito; Fujii, Eiji; Tsujimura, Ayumu

    2013-04-01

    A brain-like learning function was implemented in an electronic synapse device using a ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor (FeFET). The FeFET was a bottom-gate type FET with a ZnO channel and a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate insulator. The synaptic weight, which is represented by the channel conductance of the FeFET, is updated by applying a gate voltage through a change in the ferroelectric polarization in the PZT. A learning function based on the symmetric spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented in the synapse device using the multilevel weight update by applying a pulse gate voltage. The dynamic weighting and learning behavior in the synapse device was observed as a change in the membrane potential in a spiking neuron circuit.

  3. Electric field induced short range to long range structural ordering and its influence on the Eu+3 photoluminescence in the lead-free ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Rao, Badari Narayana; Thomas, Tiju; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-06-01

    Eu+3 was incorporated into the lattice of a lead-free ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) as per the nominal formula Na0.5Bi0.5-xEuxTiO3. This system was investigated with regard to the Eu+3 photoluminescence (PL) and structural behaviour as a function of composition and electric field. Electric field was found to irreversibly change the features in the PL spectra and also in the x-ray diffraction patterns below the critical composition x = 0.025. Detailed analysis revealed that below the critical composition, electric field irreversibly suppresses the structural heterogeneity inherent of the host matrix NBT and brings about a long range ferroelectric state with rhombohedral (R3c) distortion. It is shown that the structural disorder on the nano-scale opens a new channel for radiative transition which manifests as a new emission line branching off from the main 5D0?7F0 line along with a concomitant change in the relative intensity of the other crystal field induced Stark lines with different J values. The study suggests that Eu+3 luminescence can be used to probe the relative degree of field induced structural ordering in relaxor ferroelectrics and also in high performance piezoelectric alloys where electric field couples very strongly with the lattice and structural degrees of freedom.

  4. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P.; Luo, W.; Yi, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Rossell, M. D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G.; Yang, S. Y.; He, Q.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, S. J.; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to novel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we employ a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite underlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:22647612

  5. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications. PMID:25502099

  6. Ferroelectric memory evaluation and development system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondurant, David W.

    Attention is given to the Ramtron FEDS-1, an IBM PC/AT compatible single-board 16-b microcomputer with 8-kbyte program/data memory implemented with nonvolatile ferroelectric dynamic RAM. This is the first demonstration of a new type of solid state nonvolatile read/write memory, the ferroelectric RAM (FRAM). It is suggested that this memory technology will have a significant impact on avionics system performance and reliability.

  7. Fast Switching Ferroelectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Nenasheva, E.; Yakovlev, V.; Dedyk, A.; Karmanenko, S.; Kozyrev, A.; Osadchy, V.; Kosmin, D.; Semenov, A.

    2006-11-27

    Fast switching (<10 nsec) measurement results on the recently developed BST(M) (barium strontium titanium oxide composition with magnesium-based additions) ferroelectric materials are presented. These materials can be used as the basis for new advanced technology components suitable for high-gradient accelerators. A ferroelectric ceramic has an electric field-dependent dielectric permittivity that can be altered by applying a bias voltage. Ferroelectric materials offer significant benefits for linear collider applications, in particular, for switching and control elements where a very short response time of <10 nsec is required. The measurement results presented here show that the new BST(M) ceramic exhibits a high tunability factor: a bias field of 40-50 kV/cm reduces the permittivity by a factor of 1.3-1.5. The recently developed technology of gold biasing contact deposition on large diameter (110 cm) thin wall ferroelectric rings allowed {approx}few nsec switching times in witness sample experiments. The ferroelectric rings can be used at high pulsed power (tens of megawatts) for X-band components as well as at high average power in the range of a few kilowatts for the L-band phase-shifter, under development for optimization of the ILC rf coupling. Accelerator applications include fast active X-band and Ka-band high-power ferroelectric switches, high-power X-band and L-band phase shifters, and tunable dielectric-loaded accelerating structures.

  8. Strain-Induced Ferroelectric Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi; Kim, Youngkuk; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    The simultaneous presence of seemingly incompatible properties of solids often provides a unique opportunity to address questions of fundamental and practical importance. The coexistence of ferroelectric and topological orders is one such example. Ferroelectrics, which have a spontaneous macroscopic polarization switchable by an applied electric field, usually are semiconductors with a well-developed wide band gap with a few exceptions. On the other hand, time-reversal symmetric $Z_2$ topological insulators (TI), characterized by robust metallic surface states protected by the topology of the bulk, usually are narrow-gap semiconductors ($< 0.7$ eV) which allow band inversion induced by the spin-orbit interaction. To date, a ferroelectric topological insulator (FETI) has remained elusive, owing to the seemingly contradictory characters of the ferroelectric and topological orders. Here, we report that the FETI can be realized in halide perovskite CsPbI$_3$ under strain. Our first-principles study reveals that a non-centrosymmetric ferroelectric structure of CsPbI$_3$ is energetically favored under a wide range of pressures, while maintaining its topological order. The proposed FETI is characterized by switchable polar surfaces with spin-momentum locked Dirac cones, which allows for electric-field control of topological surface states (TSSs) and the surface spin current. Our demonstration of a FETI in a feasible material opens doors for future studies combining ferroelectric and topological orders, and offers a new paradigm for diverse applications in electronics, spintronics, and quantum information.

  9. Fast Switching Ferroelectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanareykin, A.; Nenasheva, E.; Yakovlev, V.; Dedyk, A.; Karmanenko, S.; Kozyrev, A.; Osadchy, V.; Kosmin, D.; Schoessow, P.; Semenov, A.

    2006-11-01

    Fast switching (<10 nsec) measurement results on the recently developed BST(M) (barium strontium titanium oxide composition with magnesium-based additions) ferroelectric materials are presented. These materials can be used as the basis for new advanced technology components suitable for high-gradient accelerators. A ferroelectric ceramic has an electric field-dependent dielectric permittivity that can be altered by applying a bias voltage. Ferroelectric materials offer significant benefits for linear collider applications, in particular, for switching and control elements where a very short response time of <10 nsec is required. The measurement results presented here show that the new BST(M) ceramic exhibits a high tunability factor: a bias field of 40-50 kV/cm reduces the permittivity by a factor of 1.3-1.5. The recently developed technology of gold biasing contact deposition on large diameter (110 cm) thin wall ferroelectric rings allowed ˜few nsec switching times in witness sample experiments. The ferroelectric rings can be used at high pulsed power (tens of megawatts) for X-band components as well as at high average power in the range of a few kilowatts for the L-band phase-shifter, under development for optimization of the ILC rf coupling. Accelerator applications include fast active X-band and Ka-band high-power ferroelectric switches, high-power X-band and L-band phase shifters, and tunable dielectric-loaded accelerating structures.

  10. The problem of determining elastic constants of thin ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Shakhovoy, R. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2015-08-01

    A method of determining the constants of the linear equations of the piezoelectric effect dependent on the external conditions is proposed for thin ferroelectric films on the basis of the Landau potential of the phenomenological theory of phase transitions. By the example of single-crystalline barium—titanate thin films, the behavior of material constants is investigated in dependence on the value of the misfit strain. The investigation of material equations is implemented on the basis of the Landau potential of the eighth degree at room temperature. The substantial difference in the elastic, electric, and piezoelectric properties of a thin film from those of a bulk material is shown; the anomalous behavior of constants on the phase boundaries and the extremal behavior inside the r-phase is revealed.

  11. Ca doping dependence of resistive switching characteristics in ferroelectric capacitors comprising Ca-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sawa, Akihito

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the transport and ferroelectric properties of ferroelectric capacitors comprising Ca-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) to elucidate the correlation between resistive switching and ferroelectricity. A capacitor consisting of Ca-doped (3.6 at. %) BFO film exhibited polarization-voltage hysteresis, indicating ferroelectricity of the film. As the Ca-doping ratio was increased, the leakage current increased, and zero-crossing hysteretic current-voltage characteristics, i.e., bipolar resistive switching, were observed in capacitors consisting of Ca-doped BFO films with doping ratios of 6.4-13 at. %. A capacitor consisting of a highly Ca-doped BFO (23 at. %) film showed neither resistive switching nor ferroelectric behavior. Distinct changes in the retention and pulsed-voltage-induced resistive switching characteristics were observed around a Ca-doping ratio of 9.0 at. %. The Ca-doping dependence of the resistive switching appeared to correlate with the ferroelectric phase diagram of the Ca-doped BFO films [Yang et al., Nat. Mater. 8, 485 (2009)].

  12. Effect of crystal structure and cationic order on phonon modes across ferroelectric phase transformation in Pb(Fe0.5-xScxNb0.5)O3 bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesham, B.; Viswanath, B.; Ranjith, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pb(Fe0.5-xScxNb0.5)O3 [(PFSN) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)] multiferroic relaxors were synthesized and the temperature dependence of phonon modes across ferroelectric to paraelectric transition was studied. With varying Sc content from x = 0 to 0.25 the structure remains monoclinic and with further addition (x = 0.3 - 0.5) the structure transforms into rhombohedral symmetry. Structural refinement studies showed that the change in crystal structure from monoclinic to rhombohedral symmetry involves a volume increment of 34-36%. Associated changes in the tolerance factor (1.024 ≤ t ≤ 0.976) and bond angles were observed. Structure assisted B'-B″ cation ordering was confirmed through the superlattice reflections in selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of Pb(Sc0.5Nb0.5)O3 (x = 0.5). Cation ordering is also evident from the evolution of Pb-O phonon mode in Raman spectra of compositions with rhombohedral symmetry (x ≥ 0.3). The high temperature Raman scattering studies show that the B-localized mode [F1u, ˜250 cm-1] and BO6 octahedral rotational mode [F1g, ˜200 cm-1], both originating from polar nano regions (PNRs) behave like coupled phonon modes in rhombohedral symmetry. However, in monoclinic symmetry they behave independently across the transition. Softening of B localized mode across the transition followed by the hardening for all compositions confirms the diffusive nature of the ferroelectric transformation. The presence of correlation between the B localized and BO6 rotational modes introduces a weak relaxor feature for systems with rhombohedral symmetry in PFSN ceramics, which was confirmed from the macroscopic dielectric studies.

  13. Effect of co-substitution of nitrogen and fluorine in BaTiO3 on ferroelectricity and other properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Pan, Jaysree; Aysha, N.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sundaresan, A.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2013-08-01

    BaTiO3, with both nitrogen and fluorine substituted for oxygen, has been prepared and the properties of the doped material with the composition BaTiO2.8N0.1F0.1 have been studied. The color of the sample changes to light green on doping, accompanying a broad visible absorption band with its edge at 2.5 eV. The first-order ferroelectric transition changes to a broad transition on doping along with a decrease in the dielectric constant. We have examined the local structure, electronic structure and polar lattice dynamical properties of N and F co-substituted BaTiO3 using first-principles density functional theory-based calculations and derived the mechanism of the diffuse ferroelectric transition observed here with a broad peak in the temperature-dependent dielectric response. The calculated Born charges clearly reveal a strong disparity in the interaction of N, O and F with Ti: N being the most ferro-active, with a highly anomalous charge, and F being the least active, with an almost nominal charge. This originates from an electronic structure in which the top-most valence band is constituted of the 2p states of N, while the electronic states of F lie deep in the energy band, resulting in a local structure with short covalent Ti-N and long ionic Ti-F bonds. Disorder in these hetero ferro-active anions leads to a relaxor-like diffuse phase transition and a reduction in polarization. Calculations confirm the reduction of 0.65 eV in the bandgap of BaTiO3, which changes from indirect to direct type.

  14. Effect of co-substitution of nitrogen and fluorine in BaTiO3 on ferroelectricity and other properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Pan, Jaysree; Aysha, N; Waghmare, Umesh V; Sundaresan, A; Rao, C N R

    2013-08-28

    BaTiO3, with both nitrogen and fluorine substituted for oxygen, has been prepared and the properties of the doped material with the composition BaTiO2:8N0:1F0:1 have been studied. The color of the sample changes to light green on doping, accompanying a broad visible absorption band with its edge at 2.5 eV. The first-order ferroelectric transition changes to a broad transition on doping along with a decrease in the dielectric constant. We have examined the local structure, electronic structure and polar lattice dynamical properties of N and F co-substituted BaTiO3 using first-principles density functional theory-based calculations and derived the mechanism of the diffuse ferroelectric transition observed here with a broad peak in the temperature-dependent dielectric response. The calculated Born charges clearly reveal a strong disparity in the interaction of N, O and F with Ti: N being the most ferro-active, with a highly anomalous charge, and F being the least active, with an almost nominal charge. This originates from an electronic structure in which the top-most valence band is constituted of the 2p states of N, while the electronic states of F lie deep in the energy band, resulting in a local structure with short covalent Ti–N and long ionic Ti–F bonds. Disorder in these hetero ferro-active anions leads to a relaxor-like diffuse phase transition and a reduction in polarization. Calculations confirm the reduction of 0.65 eV in the bandgap of BaTiO3, which changes from indirect to direct type. PMID:23912943

  15. Ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multilayers: A magnetoelectric heterostructure with high output charge signal

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorenko, S.; Kohlstedt, H.; Pertsev, N. A.

    2014-09-21

    Multiferroic composites and heterostructures comprising ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit room-temperature magnetoelectric (ME) effects greatly exceeding those of single-phase magnetoelectrics known to date. Since these effects are mediated by the interfacial coupling between ferroic constituents, the ME responses may be enhanced by increasing the density of interfaces and improving their quality. A promising material system providing these features is a ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multilayer with epitaxial interfaces. In this paper, we describe theoretically the strain-mediated direct ME effect exhibited by free-standing multilayers composed of single-crystalline ferroelectric nanolayers interleaved by conducting ferromagnetic slabs. Using a nonlinear thermodynamic approach allowing for specific mechanical boundary conditions of the problem, we first calculate the polarization states and dielectric properties of ferroelectric nanolayers in dependence on the lattice mismatch between ferroic constituents and their volume fractions. In these calculations, the ferromagnetic component is described by a model which combines linear elastic behavior with magnetic-field-dependent lattice parameters. Then the quasistatic ME polarization and voltage coefficients are evaluated using the theoretical strain sensitivity of ferroelectric polarization and measured effective piezomagnetic coefficients of ferromagnets. For Pb(Zr₀.₅Ti₀.₅)O₃-FeGaB and BaTiO₃-FeGaB multilayers, the ME coefficients are calculated numerically as a function of the FeGaB volume fraction and used to evaluate the output charge and voltage signals. It is shown that the multilayer geometry of a ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanocomposite opens the way for a drastic enhancement of the output charge signal. This feature makes biferroic multilayers advantageous for the development of ultrasensitive magnetic-field sensors for technical and biomedical applications.

  16. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties in BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao Prater, John T.; Punugupati, Sandhyarani; Hunte, Frank; Narayan, Jagdish

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, we report on the epitaxial integration of room temperature lead-free ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} thin (∼1050 nm) films on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique through a domain matching epitaxy paradigm. We employed MgO and TiN as buffer layers to create BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3}/MgO/TiN/Si (100) heterostructures. C-axis oriented and cube-on-cube epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} is formed on Si (100) as evidenced by the in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements show that Ti is in 4(+) state. Polarization hysteresis measurements together with Raman spectroscopy and temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction confirm the room temperature ferroelectric nature of BaTiO{sub 3}. Furthermore, laser irradiation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin film is found to induce ferromagnetic-like behavior but affects adversely the ferroelectric characteristics. Laser irradiation induced ferromagnetic properties seem to originate from the creation of oxygen vacancies, whereas the pristine BaTiO{sub 3} shows diamagnetic behavior, as expected. This work has opened up the route for the integration of room temperature lead-free ferroelectric functional oxides on a silicon platform.

  17. Studies of dielectric characteristics of BaBi 2Nb 2O 9 ferroelectrics prepared by chemical precursor decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debasis, Dhak; Tanmay, Ghorai K.; Panchanan, Pramanik

    2007-01-01

    BaBiNb 2O 9 (BBN) powders in the nanometer range were prepared by chemical precursor decomposition method (CPD). TG-DTA showed that precursor sample got freed from organic contaminants at 575 °C. XRD showed that a single phase with the layered perovskite structure of BBN was formed after calcining at 600 °C. No intermediate phase was found during heat treatment at and above 600 °C. The crystallite size ( D) and the effective strain ( η) were found to be 26 nm and 0.000867, respectively, while the particle size obtained from TEM was 28 ± 2 nm. SEM revealed that the average grain size after sintering at 900 °C for 4 h was ˜1.67 μm. A relative density of ˜93% was obtained using a two-step sintering process at moderate pressure. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated in the temperature range 50-500 °C and frequencies from 1 kHz to 5 MHz. Strong dispersion of the complex relative dielectric constant was observed including typical relaxor features such as shift of permittivity maximum with frequency and broadening of the peak maximum. The high dielectric constant of 545 measured at 100 kHz and other properties of BBN ceramics were compared to that of BBN prepared by other conventional methods and found to be superior.

  18. Influence of interfacial dislocations on hysteresis loops of ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Hu, S. Y.; Choudhury, S.; Baskes, M. I.; Saxena, A.; Lookman, T.; Jia, Q. X.; Schlom, D. G.; Chen, L. Q.

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the influence of dislocations, located at the interface of a ferroelectric film and its underlying substrate, on the ferroelectric hysteresis loop including the remanent polarization and coercive field using phase-field simulations. We considered epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and found that the hysteresis loop is strongly dependent on the type and density of interfacial dislocations. The dislocations that stabilize multiple ferroelectric variants and domains reduce the coercive field, and consequently, the corresponding remanent polarization also decreases.

  19. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, Saif Ullah E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com; Hasanain, S. K.; Anjum, D. H.; Awan, M. S.; Shah, Saqlain A.

    2014-10-28

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1−y}Li{sub y}O(0.00≤y≤0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4 × 10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5 kV/cm (0.11 μC/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8 kV/cm (0.15 μC/cm{sup 2}) for y = 0.08 and y = 0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ≥5.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  20. Ferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors As Ultraviolet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1995-01-01

    Advantages include rapid response, solar blindness, and relative invulnerability to ionizing radiation. Ferroelectric capacitor made to function as photovoltaic detector of ultraviolet photons by making one of its electrodes semitransparent. Photovoltaic effect exploited more fully by making Schottky barrier at illuminated semitransparent-electrode/ferroelectric interface taller than Schottky barrier at other electrode/ferroelectric interface.

  1. Frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage hysteresis in ferroelectric liquid crystals: An effect of the frequency dependence of dielectric biaxiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muklesur; Kundu, S. K.; Chaudhuri, B. K.; Yoshizawa, A.

    2005-07-01

    Using the concept of the Preisach model for a ferroelectric capacitor, we have analyzed the behavior of frequency (f)-dependent polarization reversal in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals (SSFLCs) under an external field. At a fixed temperature, the peak height of the capacitance-voltage hysteresis loop is found to be decreasing with an increasing number of polarization cycles up to a certain typical value of frequency (e.g., fc) being different for different ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs). We also observed an inversion (a well instead of a peak) in the hysteresis loops appearing above a typical higher frequency denoted fi. The values of capacitance of the FLC capacitors became almost independent of the voltage for the frequencies between fc and fi. The frequency dependence of dielectric biaxiality in the SSFLCs is directly attributed to the appearance of such behavior.

  2. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and technologies for renewable and hydrogen energy, fuel cells, photovoltaics, LEDs, OLEDs. Based on these reports, 48 papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT is available at the homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making the RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successful. Sincerely, organizers of the event Andris Sternberg Liga Grinberga Anatolijs Sarakovskis Martins Rutkis

  3. Ferroelectricity in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienblum, Martin; Lottermoser, Thomas; Manz, Sebastian; Selbach, Sverre M.; Cano, Andres; Fiebig, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Since their discovery in 1963 the hexagonal manganites have consolidated their role as exotic ferroelectrics with astonishing functionalities. Their introduction as room-temperature device ferroelectrics was followed by observations of giant flexoelectricity, multiferroicity with magnetoelectric domain and domain-wall coupling, protected vortex domain structures, topological domain-scaling behaviour and domain walls with tunable conductance and magnetism. Even after half a century, however, the emergence of the ferroelectric state has remained the subject of fierce debate. We resolve the interplay of electric polarization, topological trimerization and temperature by direct access to the polarization for temperatures up to 1,400 K. Nonlinear optical experiments and piezoresponse force microscopy, complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, reveal a single phase transition with ferroelectricity determined by topology rather than electrostatics. Fundamental properties of the hexagonal manganites, including an explanation for the two-phase-transition controversy as a finite-size scaling effect, are derived from this and highlight why improper ferroelectrics are an inherent source of novel functionalities.

  4. Electronic nanofeatures in epitaxial ferroelectric oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C. H.; Tybell, Thomas; Antognazza, L.; Char, Kookrin; Beasley, Malcolm R.; Beeli, C.; Stadelmann, Paul A.; Fischer, Oystein; Triscone, Jean-Marc

    1998-12-01

    We report on ferroelectric field effect experiments in epitaxial oxide heterostructures consisting of the ferroelectric oxide Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and the metallic oxides GdBa2Cu3O7 and SrRuO3. To perform the experiments, we used conventional capacitor structures, as well as a scanning probe approach that allows one to control the local ferroelectric polarization without the use of permanent electrical contacts. In the case of the scanning probe approach, nanometer scale control of the ferroelectric domain structure can be achieved over large areas of up to 2500 micrometer2. Nonvolatile, reversible electronic nanofeatures were written in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/SrRuO3 heterostructures by switching the local polarization field of the ferroelectric layer, inducing a field effect in the thin (30 angstrom) SrRuO3 layer that changes its sheet resistance by 7%. This doping technique permits one to write reversible, nonvolatile electronic structures without requiring traditional lithographic processing or permanent electrical contacts.

  5. Strain-Induced Ferroelectric Topological Insulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Kim, Youngkuk; Tan, Liang Z; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Ferroelectricity and band topology are two extensively studied yet distinct properties of insulators. Nonetheless, their coexistence has never been observed in a single material. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that a noncentrosymmetric perovskite structure of CsPbI3 allows for the simultaneous presence of ferroelectric and topological orders with appropriate strain engineering. Metallic topological surface states create an intrinsic short-circuit condition, helping stabilize bulk polarization. Exploring diverse structural phases of CsPbI3 under pressure, we identify that the key structural feature for achieving a ferroelectric topological insulator is to suppress PbI6 cage rotation in the perovskite structure, which could be obtained via strain engineering. Ferroelectric control over the density of topological surface states provides a new paradigm for device engineering, such as perfect-focusing Veselago lens and spin-selective electron collimator. Our results suggest that CsPbI3 is a simple model system for ferroelectric topological insulators, enabling future studies exploring the interplay between conventional symmetry-breaking and topological orders and their novel applications in electronics and spintronics. PMID:26814668

  6. Structural phase diagram and pyroelectric properties of free-standing ferroelectric/non-ferroelectric multilayer heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialan; Agar, Josh C.; Martin, Lane W.

    2015-12-01

    Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire models are used to explore ferroelectric phases and pyroelectric coefficients of symmetric free-standing, thin-film trilayer heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric and two identical non-ferroelectric layers. Using BaTiO3 as a model ferroelectric, we explore the influence of temperature, in-plane misfit strain, and the non-ferroelectric layer (including effects of elastic compliance and volume fraction) on the phase evolution in the ferroelectric. The resulting phase diagram reveals six stable phases, two of which are not observed for thin films on semi-infinite cubic substrates. From there, we focus on heterostructures with non-ferroelectric layers of commonly available scandate materials which are widely used as substrates for epitaxial growth. Again, six phases with volatile phase boundaries are found in the phase diagram for the NdScO3/BaTiO3/NdScO3 trilayerheterostructures. The evolution of polarization and pyroelectric coefficients in the free-standing NdScO3 trilayer heterostructures is discussed with particular attention to the role that heterostructure design plays in influencing the phase evolution and temperature-dependence with a goal of creating enhanced pyroelectric response and advantages over traditional thin-film heterostructures.

  7. Electroactive fluorinate-based polymers: Ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zhi; Chen Ang

    2004-12-15

    The dielectric, ferroelectric, and electroactive strain behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymers and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) terpolymers is studied in a wide temperature and frequency range. The dielectric response from two dielectric polarization processes, modes A(A{sup '}) and B, and the dielectric-background contribution can be identified for these polymers by using the Cole-Cole plot method. Therefore physically reasonable parameters are obtained by fitting the relaxation time to the Vogel-Fulcher relation. On the other hand, the dielectric relaxation step and high strain decrease simultaneously with decreasing temperature; this indicates that the dielectric relaxation process and high strain behavior are strongly correlated. The electron-irradiation effect in copolymers and the monomer effect in terpolymers are discussed.

  8. Deaging and Asymmetric Energy Landscapes in Electrically Biased Ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tutuncu, Goknur; Damjanovic, Dragan; Chen, Jun; Jones, Jacob L.

    2015-09-01

    In ferroic materials, the dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic, and elastic coefficients are significantly affected by the motion of domain walls. This motion can be described as the propagation of a wall across various types and strengths of pinning centers that collectively constitute a force profile or energetic landscape. Biased domain structures and asymmetric energy landscapes can be created through application of high fields (such as during electrical poling), and the material behavior in such states is often highly asymmetric. In some cases, this behavior can be considered as the electric analogue to the Bauschinger effect. The present Letter uses time-resolved, high-energy x-ray Bragg scattering to probe this asymmetry and the associated deaging effect in the ferroelectric morphotropic phase boundary composition 0.36BiScO{sub 3}-0.64PbTiO{sub 3}.

  9. Development and characterization of a ferroelectric non-volatile memory for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Duo

    Flexible electronics have received significant attention recently because of the potential applications in displays, sensors, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and other integrated circuits. Electrically addressable non-volatile memory is a key component for these applications. The major challenges are to fabricate the memory at a low temperature compatible with plastic substrates while maintaining good device reliability, by being compatible with process as needed to integrate with other electronic components for system-on-chip applications. In this work, ferroelectric capacitors fabricated at low temperature were developed. Based on that, a ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) for flexible electronics was developed and characterized. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer was used as a ferroelectric material and a photolithographic process was developed to fabricate ferroelectric capacitors. Different characterization methods including atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy were used to study the material properties of the P(VDF-TrFE) film. The material properties were correlated with the electrical characteristics of the ferroelectric capacitors. To understand the polarization switching behavior of the P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric capacitors, a Nucleation-Limited-Switching (NLS) model was used to study the switching kinetics. The switching kinetics were characterized over the temperature range from -60 °C to 100 °C. Fatigue characteristics were studied at different electrical stress voltages and frequencies to evaluate the reliability of the ferroelectric capacitor. The degradation mechanism is attributed to the increase of the activation field and the suppression of the switchable polarization. To develop a FRAM circuit for flexible electronics, an n-channel thin film transistor (TFT) based on CdS as the semiconductor was integrated with a P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric capacitor for a one-transistor-one-capacitor (1T1C) memory cell. The 1T1C devices were fabricated at low temperature and demonstrated a memory window (DeltaVBL) of 2.3 V and 3.5 V, depending on the device dimensions. Next, FRAM arrays (4-bit, 16-bit and 64-bit) based on the two-transistor-two-capacitor (2T2C) memory cell architecture were designed and fabricated using a photolithographic process with 9 masks. The fabricated FRAM arrays were packaged in 28-pin ceramic packages. The read/write schemes were developed and the FRAM arrays show successful program and erase with a memory window of approximately 1 V at the output of the sense amplifier.

  10. Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Model Using Partitioned Ferroelectric Layer and Partial Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2004-01-01

    A model of an n-channel ferroelectric field effect transistor has been developed based on both theoretical and empirical data. The model is based on an existing model that incorporates partitioning of the ferroelectric layer to calculate the polarization within the ferroelectric material. The model incorporates several new aspects that are useful to the user. It takes into account the effect of a non-saturating gate voltage only partially polarizing the ferroelectric material based on the existing remnant polarization. The model also incorporates the decay of the remnant polarization based on the time history of the FFET. A gate pulse of a specific voltage; will not put the ferroelectric material into a single amount of polarization for that voltage, but instead vary with previous state of the material and the time since the last change to the gate voltage. The model also utilizes data from FFETs made from different types of ferroelectric materials to allow the user just to input the material being used and not recreate the entire model. The model also allows the user to input the quality of the ferroelectric material being used. The ferroelectric material quality can go from a theoretical perfect material with little loss and no decay to a less than perfect material with remnant losses and decay. This model is designed to be used by people who need to predict the external characteristics of a FFET before the time and expense of design and fabrication. It also allows the parametric evaluation of quality of the ferroelectric film on the overall performance of the transistor.

  11. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  12. Temperature-dependent phonon Raman scattering and spectroscopic ellipsometry of pure and Ca-doped Sr x Ba1-x Nb2O6 ferroelectric ceramics across the phase transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hu, Zhigao; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Optical phonons and the phase transition of relaxor ferroelectric ceramics Sr x Ba1-x Nb2O6 (SBN) and Ca y (Sr0.5Ba0.5)1-y Nb2O6 (CSBN) with different composition (0.3≤slant x≤slant 0.5 , 0.1≤slant y≤slant 0.2 ) have been investigated by variable-temperature Raman scattering and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The anomalous temperature dependence of Tauc gap energy (E t ) is used to fit the phonon energy dependence of the permittivity, and the Raman intensity of some interesting optical phonons can be ascribed to the phase transition from a ferroelectric to a paraelectric structure. The Curie temperature of SBN decreases from 556 to 359 K with increasing Sr composition, which can be attributed to the substitution of smaller Sr2+ for Ba2+. On increasing the Ca composition, however, the phase transition temperature of CSBN remains nearly unchanged at about 350 K. This could be due to the fact that most doped Ca2+ ions move into the oxygen ion site and exhibit no obvious effect on the vibrational properties. Therefore, the general disorder which results from Sr2+ substituting Ba2+ , dominates the phase transition process for SBN-based ferroelectric oxides. Meanwhile, the dielectric functions from 200 to 600 K have been evaluated with the aid of the Tauc-Lorentz model. The electronic transition is located at about 5 eV and decreases with increasing temperature for all the samples. Moreover, the phase transition temperature range derived from the spectroscopic ellipsometry agrees well with that from the Raman scattering. It reveals that the variation of the fundamental energy gap may be associated with the phase transition of SBN ceramics. Both Raman scattering and spectroscopic ellipsometry are proven to be a effective method of exploring the phase transition of ferroelectric oxides.

  13. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sheng-Fen; Tu, Chi-Shun; Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Sao; Hugo Schmidt, V.; Anthoniappen, J.

    2014-10-21

    This work reveals that 0.5 mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ (x = 0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (T{sub d}), piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃), and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)₀.₉₂₅Ba₀.₀₇₅TiO₃ (BN7.5BT) and 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)TiO₃ (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R − R + T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (ε′) follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ε′ = C/(T − T{sub o}), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃) and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  14. Dynamical mechanism of phase transitions in A-site ferroelectric relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Danilkin, Sergey; Zhang, Haiwu; Imperia, Paolo; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2014-10-01

    The dynamical phase transition mechanism of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT) was studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Softening was observed of multiple phonon modes in the phase transition sequence of NBT. As usual, the softening of the zone center transverse optical modes ?5 and ?3 was observed in the (200) and (220) zones, showing the Ti vibration instabilities in TiO6 octahedra for both cubic-tetragonal (C-T) and tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transitions. In these two phase transitions, however, Ti4+ has different preferential displacement directions. Surprisingly, the longitudinal optic mode also softens significantly toward the zone center in the range of the transition temperature, indicating the Na+/Bi3+ vibration instability against TiO6 octahedra during the T-R phase transition. Strong inelastic diffuse scattering shows up near M(1.5, 0.5, 0) and R(1.5, 1.5, 0.5) in the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases, respectively, indicating the condensations of the M3 and R25 optic modes for the corresponding transitions. This reveals the different rotation instabilities of TiO6 in the corresponding transition temperature range. Bottleneck or waterfall features were observed in the dispersion curves at certain temperatures but did not show close correlations to the formation of polar nanoregions. Additional instabilities could be the origin of the complexity of phase transitions and crystallographic structures in NBT.

  15. Monoclinic Cc-phase stabilization in magnetically diluted lead free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3—Evolution of spin glass like behavior with enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Asthana, Saket

    2015-09-01

    The effect of magnetic cation substitution on the phase stabilization, ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties of a lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system prepared by O2 atmosphere solid state sintering were studied extensively. Cobalt (Co) was chosen as the magnetic cation to substitute at the Ti-site of NBT with optimized 2.5 mol%. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data favours the monoclinic Cc phase stabilization strongly rather than the parent R3c phase. FE-SEM micrograph supports the single phase characteristics without phase segregation at the grain boundaries. The stabilized Cc space group was explained based on the collective local distortion effects due to spin-orbit stabilization at Co3+ and Co2+ functional centres. The phonon mode changes as observed in the TiO6 octahedral modes also support the Cc phase stabilization. The major Co3+-ion presence was revealed from corresponding crystal field transitions observed through solid state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhanced spontaneous polarization (Ps) from ≅38 μC cm-2 to 45 μC cm-2 could be due to the easy rotation of polarization vector along the {(1\\bar{1}0)}{{pc}} in Cc phase. An increase in static dielectric response (ɛ) from ɛ ≅ 42 to 60 along with enhanced diffusivity from γ ≅ 1.53 to 1.75 was observed. Magneto-thermal irreversibility and their magnetic field dependent ZFC/FC curves suggest the possibility of a spin glass like behaviour below 50 K. The monoclinic Cc phase stabilization as confirmed from structural studies was well correlated with the observed ferroic properties in magnetically diluted NBT.

  16. Short range magnetic exchange interaction favors ferroelectricity

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiangang; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroics, where two or more ferroic order parameters coexist, is one of the hottest fields in condensed matter physics and materials science. To search multiferroics, currently most researches are focused on frustrated magnets, which usually have complicated magnetic structure and low magnetic ordering temperature. Here, we argue that actually simple interatomic magnetic exchange interaction already contains a driving force for ferroelectricity, thus providing a new microscopic mechanism for the coexistence and strong coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism. We demonstrate this mechanism by showing that even the simplest antiferromagnetic insulator like MnO, could display a magnetically induced ferroelectricity under a biaxial strain. In addition, we show that such mechanism also exists in the most important single phase multiferroics, i.e. BiFeO3, suggesting that this mechanism is ubiquitous in systems with superexchange interaction. PMID:26956480

  17. A Ferroelectric Oxide Made Directly on Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Warusawithana, M.; Cen, C; Sleasman, C; Woicik, J; Li, Y; Fitting Kourkoutis, L; Klug, J; Li, H; Ryan, P; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors, formed using silicon dioxide and silicon, have undergone four decades of staggering technological advancement. With fundamental limits to this technology close at hand, alternatives to silicon dioxide are being pursued to enable new functionality and device architectures. We achieved ferroelectric functionality in intimate contact with silicon by growing coherently strained strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) films via oxide molecular beam epitaxy in direct contact with silicon, with no interfacial silicon dioxide. We observed ferroelectricity in these ultrathin SrTiO{sub 3} layers by means of piezoresponse force microscopy. Stable ferroelectric nanodomains created in SrTiO{sub 3} were observed at temperatures as high as 400 kelvin.

  18. Short range magnetic exchange interaction favors ferroelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiangang; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-03-01

    Multiferroics, where two or more ferroic order parameters coexist, is one of the hottest fields in condensed matter physics and materials science. To search multiferroics, currently most researches are focused on frustrated magnets, which usually have complicated magnetic structure and low magnetic ordering temperature. Here, we argue that actually simple interatomic magnetic exchange interaction already contains a driving force for ferroelectricity, thus providing a new microscopic mechanism for the coexistence and strong coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism. We demonstrate this mechanism by showing that even the simplest antiferromagnetic insulator like MnO, could display a magnetically induced ferroelectricity under a biaxial strain. In addition, we show that such mechanism also exists in the most important single phase multiferroics, i.e. BiFeO3, suggesting that this mechanism is ubiquitous in systems with superexchange interaction.

  19. Short range magnetic exchange interaction favors ferroelectricity.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiangang; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroics, where two or more ferroic order parameters coexist, is one of the hottest fields in condensed matter physics and materials science. To search multiferroics, currently most researches are focused on frustrated magnets, which usually have complicated magnetic structure and low magnetic ordering temperature. Here, we argue that actually simple interatomic magnetic exchange interaction already contains a driving force for ferroelectricity, thus providing a new microscopic mechanism for the coexistence and strong coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism. We demonstrate this mechanism by showing that even the simplest antiferromagnetic insulator like MnO, could display a magnetically induced ferroelectricity under a biaxial strain. In addition, we show that such mechanism also exists in the most important single phase multiferroics, i.e. BiFeO3, suggesting that this mechanism is ubiquitous in systems with superexchange interaction. PMID:26956480

  20. Multiferroics: a magnetic twist for ferroelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    Magnetism and ferroelectricity are essential to many forms of current technology, and the quest for multiferroic materials, where these two phenomena are intimately coupled, is of great technological and fundamental importance. Ferroelectricity and magnetism tend to be mutually exclusive and interact weakly with each other when they coexist. The exciting new development is the discovery that even a weak magnetoelectric interaction can lead to spectacular cross-coupling effects when it induces electric polarization in a magnetically ordered state. Such magnetic ferroelectricity, showing an unprecedented sensitivity to ap plied magnetic fields, occurs in 'frustrated magnets' with competing interactions between spins and complex magnetic orders. We summarize key experimental findings and the current theoretical understanding of these phenomena, which have great potential for tuneable multifunctional devices.

  1. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of cellular polypropylene electrets films characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Hongchen; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei; Li, Faxin

    2014-08-14

    Cellular electrets polymer is a new ferroelectret material exhibiting large piezoelectricity and has attracted considerable attentions in researches and industries. Property characterization is very important for this material and current investigations are mostly on macroscopic properties. In this work, we conduct nanoscale piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterizations of cellular polypropylene (PP) films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). First, both the single-frequency PFM and dual-frequency resonance-tracking PFM testings were conducted on the cellular PP film. The localized piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is estimated to be 7–11pC/N by correcting the resonance magnification with quality factor and it is about one order lower than the macroscopic value. Next, using the switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM), we studied polarization switching behavior of the cellular PP films. Results show that it exhibits the typical ferroelectric-like phase hysteresis loops and butterfly-shaped amplitude loops, which is similar to that of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer film. However, both the phase and amplitude loops of the PP film are intensively asymmetric, which is thought to be caused by the nonzero remnant polarization after poling. Then, the D-E hysteresis loops of both the cellular PP film and PVDF film were measured by using the same wave form as that used in the SS-PFM, and the results show significant differences. Finally, we suggest that the ferroelectric-like behavior of cellular electrets films should be distinguished from that of typical ferroelectrics, both macroscopically and microscopically.

  2. Lead-Free α-La₂WO₆ Ferroelectric Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Thomas; Chambrier, Marie-Hélène; Ferri, Anthony; Estradé, Sonia; Blach, Jean-François; Martín, Gemma; Meziane, Belkacem; Peiró, Francesca; Roussel, Pascal; Ponchel, Freddy; Rèmiens, Denis; Cornet, Albert; Desfeux, Rachel

    2015-11-11

    (001)-Epitaxial La2WO6 (LWO) thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The α-phase (high-temperature phase in bulk) is successfully stabilized with an orthorhombic structure (a = 16.585(1) Å, b = 5.717(2) Å, c = 8.865(5) Å). X-ray-diffraction pole-figure measurements suggest that crystallographic relationships between the film and substrate are [100]LWO ∥ [110]STO, [010]LWO ∥ [11̅0]STO and [001]LWO ∥ [001]STO. From optical properties, investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, we extract a refractive-index value around 2 (at 500 nm) along with the presence of two absorption bands situated, respectively at 3.07 and 6.32 eV. Ferroelectricity is evidenced as well on macroscale (standard polarization measurements) as on nanoscale, calling for experiments based on piezo-response force-microscopy, and confirmed with in situ scanning-and-tunneling measurements performed with a transmission electron microscope. This work highlights the ferroelectric behavior, at room temperature, in high-temperature LWO phase when stabilized in thin film and opens the way to new functional oxide thin films dedicated to advanced electronic devices. PMID:26477357

  3. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  4. Ultra-High-Density Ferroelectric Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1995-01-01

    Features include fast input and output via optical fibers. Memory devices of proposed type include thin ferroelectric films in which data stored in form of electric polarization. Assuming one datum stored in region as small as polarization domain, sizes of such domains impose upper limits on achievable storage densities. Limits approach 1 terabit/cm(Sup2) in all-optical versions of these ferroelectric memories and exceeds 1 gigabit/cm(Sup2) in optoelectronic versions. Memories expected to exhibit operational lives of about 10 years, input/output times of about 10 ns, and fatigue lives of about 10(Sup13) cycles.

  5. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  6. Electrical properties of NaSr2Nb5O15 ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Banarji; Pradhan, Nihar; Nayak, P.

    2012-02-01

    Since the discovery of ferroelectricity, tungsten bronze (TB) ferroelectrics has been a rapid progress in search of new TB-type materials for applications such as capacitors, actuators, transducers, ferroelectric random access memory and display technologies. The materials with TB structure have potential advantages for devices because of their high dielectric constant and low tangent loss. In view of the above importance we have studied the electrical properties of NaSr2Nb5O15 (NSN) ferroelectric ceramic. The polycrystalline NaSr2Nb5O15 (NSN) was prepared by mixed oxide method at high temperature. Electrical properties of NSN have been studied using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) with wide range of frequency (10^2-10^6 Hz) and temperature. The complex impedance plot reveals the main contribution of bulk effect. The bulk resistance has been decreased with rise in temperature. The negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) manifests a semiconductor like behavior. The ac conductivity spectrum was found to obey Jonscher's universal power law.

  7. First-principles study of interface doping in ferroelectric junctions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin-Zhi; Cai, Tian-Yi; Ju, Sheng; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Effect of atomic monolayer insertion on the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junction is investigated in SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostrucutures. Based on first-principles calculations, the atomic displacement, orbital occupancy, and ferroelectric polarization are studied. It is found that the ferroelectricity is enhanced when a (AlO2)− monolayer is inserted between the electrode SRO and the barrier BTO, where the relatively high mobility of doped holes effectively screen ferroelectric polarization. On the other hand, for the case of (LaO)+ inserted layer, the doped electrons resides at the both sides of middle ferroelectric barrier, making the ferroelectricity unfavorable. Our findings provide an alternative avenue to improve the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junctions. PMID:27063704

  8. Static ferroelectric memory transistor having improved data retention

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric FET structure in which the ferroelectric layer is doped to reduce retention loss. A ferroelectric FET according to the present invention includes a semiconductor layer having first and second contacts thereon, the first and second contacts being separated from one another. The ferroelectric FET also includes a bottom electrode and a ferroelectric layer which is sandwiched between the semiconductor layer and the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric layer is constructed from a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4 in sufficient concentration to impede shifts in the resistance measured between the first and second contacts with time. The ferroelectric FET structure preferably comprises Pb in the A-site. The first and second elements are preferably Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred B-site dopants are Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten at concentrations between 1% and 8%.

  9. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Ponath, Patrick; Fredrickson, Kurt; Posadas, Agham B.; Ren, Yuan; Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Aoki, Toshihiro; McCartney, Martha; Smith, David J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Lai, Keji; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.

  10. First-principles study of interface doping in ferroelectric junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pin-Zhi; Cai, Tian-Yi; Ju, Sheng; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Effect of atomic monolayer insertion on the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junction is investigated in SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostrucutures. Based on first-principles calculations, the atomic displacement, orbital occupancy, and ferroelectric polarization are studied. It is found that the ferroelectricity is enhanced when a (AlO2)(-) monolayer is inserted between the electrode SRO and the barrier BTO, where the relatively high mobility of doped holes effectively screen ferroelectric polarization. On the other hand, for the case of (LaO)(+) inserted layer, the doped electrons resides at the both sides of middle ferroelectric barrier, making the ferroelectricity unfavorable. Our findings provide an alternative avenue to improve the performance of ferroelectric tunneling junctions. PMID:27063704

  11. Ferroelectric Material Application: Modeling Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Characteristics from Micro to Nano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd, C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2006-01-01

    All present ferroelectric transistors have been made on the micrometer scale. Existing models of these devices do not take into account effects of nanoscale ferroelectric transistors. Understanding the characteristics of these nanoscale devices is important in developing a strategy for building and using future devices. This paper takes an existing microscale ferroelectric field effect transistor (FFET) model and adds effects that become important at a nanoscale level, including electron velocity saturation and direct tunneling. The new model analyzed FFETs ranging in length from 40,000 nanometers to 4 nanometers and ferroelectric thickness form 200 nanometers to 1 nanometer. The results show that FFETs can operate on the nanoscale but have some undesirable characteristics at very small dimensions.

  12. Giant structural modulation & abnormal ferromagnetism in ferroelectric & ultrathin ferromagnetic digital superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hangwen; Wang, Zhen; Saghayezhian, Mohammad; Chen, Lina; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, Ward; Zhang, Jiandi; Dong, Shuai

    The nature of magnetoelectric coupling in oxide heterostructure remains interesting but illusive, largely because the complex nature of interface intermixing and diffusion. In this work, we present our ability to fabricate superlattices consist of ferroelectric BTO & ferromagnetic LSMO, with minimum interfacial intermixing confined within half a unit cell. Such high quality superlattices with sharp interfaces allow us to explore magnetoelectric coupling effect into ultrathin region (reduced dimensionality) and observe ferroelectric induced abnormal magnetic behavior. A detailed STEM study reveals that the traditional electron/hole carrier doping scenario does not play a major role. Instead, distinct modulation of lattice displacement and octahedron tilting is responsible for the coupling effect and abnormal magnetic behavior. Our study highlights the importance of structural-property relationship in oxide heterostructures. Supported by U.S. DOE under Grant No. DOE DE-SC0002136.

  13. Broadband dielectric dispersion in ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Bjoern; Mai, Manfang; Kliem, Herbert

    2012-11-01

    Ferroelectric polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer films with different thicknesses are prepared by a solvent-cast technique, by spin coating, and by a horizontal Langmuir-Blodgett technique respectively. The frequency dependent dielectric permittivity of these films is investigated with varying sample thickness and varying temperature in the ferroelectric as well as in the paraelectric phase. A dielectric relaxation according to a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher law of the relaxation times is found in all samples. However, the relaxation times extracted from the dielectric permittivity in the frequency range are not consistent with the relaxation times determined from the temperature range. An explanation for this behavior is given by a temperature dependent distribution of relaxation times. Additionally, in thin samples a second relaxation with a weak anomalous temperature dependence, i.e. an increasing relaxation time with increasing temperature, is observed at high frequencies. Detailed investigations show that this behavior can be attributed to an electrode effect.

  14. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Ivry, Yachin E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk

    2014-03-31

    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  15. Impurity-doping effect in quantum paraelectric SrTiO_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ang; Zhi, Yu

    2003-03-01

    Three dielectric anomalies are induced in Bi-doped quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 from 1.5 to 300 K. As 0.0005<=x<=0.002, two modes A and B are induced. The permittivity maximum temperature (T_m) is independent of x and dc electric field. The relaxation time (τ) of modes A and B follows the Arrhenius law. These modes are named as the dielectric relaxor. At x>= 0.0033, an additional mode C appears, whose Tm increases with increasing x. τ follows the Vogel - Fulcher law for mode C, indicating a ferroelectric relaxor behavior. For 0.0033<=x<=0.133, the coexistence of the dielectric-relaxor and the ferroelectric-relaxor modes is observed; with increasing x, modes A and B gradually merge into mode C, and only mode C remains at x>= 0.133. This system provides a composition-controlled example of evolution from a dielectric relaxor to a ferroelectric relaxor in a paraelectric matrix by Bi doping. The results show that several types of polar-regions with different dielectric responses coexist and evolve as a function of doping concentration. This particular dielectric behavior has to be taken into account when we consider the physical nature of dielectric response in doped quantum paraelectrics.

  16. High-order face-shear modes of relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric motor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Zhang, Shujun; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-06-01

    The face-shear vibration modes of [011] poled Zt 45 cut relaxor-PT crystals and their applications for linear piezoelectric motors were investigated. Unlike piezoelectric ceramics, the rotated crystal was found to exhibit asymmetric face-shear deformations, and its two high-order face-shear modes degraded into two non-isomorphic modes. As an application example, a standing wave ultrasonic linear motor (10 10 2 mm3) operating in high-order face-shear vibration modes was developed. The motor exhibits a large driving force (1.5 N) under a low driving voltage (22 Vpp). These findings could provide guidance for design of crystal resonance devices.

  17. Isotope Effect in Perovskite-Type Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdinc, Bahattin; Karadag, Faruk

    2007-04-01

    We discuss theoretically the isotope effects on phase transition temperature Tc and generalized force constant kf in perovskite-type ferroelectric. We give the result of our calculation on the reduced force constant of the soft optic phonon with quantum-mechanical electron-phonon interaction model at finite temperature.

  18. Local Polarization Dynamics in Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Morozovska, A. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectrics and multiferroics have recently emerged as perspective materials for information technology and data storage applications. The combination of extremely narrow domain wall width and the capability to manipulate polarization by electric field opens the pathway towards ultrahigh (>10 TBit/in2) storage densities and small (sub-10 nm) feature sizes. The coupling between polarization and chemical and transport properties enables applications in ferroelectric lithography and electroresistive devices. The progress in these applications, as well as fundamental studies of polarization dynamics and the role of defects and disorder on domain nucleation and wall motion, requires the capability to probe these effects on the nanometer scale. In this review, we summarize recent progress in applications of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) for imaging, manipulation, and spectroscopy of ferroelectric switching processes. We briefly introduce the principles and relevant instrumental aspects of PFM, with special emphasis on resolution and information limits. The local imaging studies of domain dynamics, including local switching and relaxation accessed through imaging experiments, and spectroscopic studies of polarization switching, are discussed in detail. Finally, we briefly review the recent progress on photochemical processes on ferroelectric surfaces, the role of surface adsorbates, and imaging and switching in liquids. Beyond classical applications, probing local bias-induced transition dynamics by PFM opens the pathway to studies of the influence of a single defect on electrochemical and solid state processes, thus providing model systems for batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitor applications.

  19. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  20. Ferroelectric control of metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan; Ge, Chen; Ma, Zhong-shui; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of controlling the metal-insulator transition of one perovskite material at its interface with another ferroelectric material based on first principle calculations. The operating principle is that the rotation of oxygen octahedra tuned by the ferroelectric polarization can modulate the superexchange interaction in this perovskite. We designed a tri-color superlattice of (BiFeO3)N/LaNiO3/LaTiO3, in which the BiFeO3 layers are ferroelectric, the LaNiO3 layer is the layer of which the electronic structure is to be tuned, and LaTiO3 layer is inserted to enhance the inversion asymmetry. By reversing the ferroelectric polarization in this structure, there is a metal-insulator transition of the LaNiO3 layer because of the changes of crystal field splitting of the Ni eg orbitals and the bandwidth of the Ni in-plane eg orbital. It is highly expected that a metal-transition can be realized by designing the structures at the interfaces for more materials.

  1. Ferroelectric control of a Mott insulator

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marinova, Maya; Altuntas, Philippe; Crassous, Arnaud; Bégon-Lours, Laura; Fusil, Stéphane; Jacquet, Eric; Garcia, Vincent; Bouzehouane, Karim; Gloter, Alexandre; Villegas, Javier E.; Barthélémy, Agnès; Bibes, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The electric field control of functional properties is an important goal in oxide-based electronics. To endow devices with memory, ferroelectric gating is interesting, but usually weak compared to volatile electrolyte gating. Here, we report a very large ferroelectric field-effect in perovskite heterostructures combining the Mott insulator CaMnO3 and the ferroelectric BiFeO3 in its “supertetragonal” phase. Upon polarization reversal of the BiFeO3 gate, the CaMnO3 channel resistance shows a fourfold variation around room temperature, and a tenfold change at ~200 K. This is accompanied by a carrier density modulation exceeding one order of magnitude. We have analyzed the results for various CaMnO3 thicknesses and explain them by the electrostatic doping of the CaMnO3 layer and the presence of a fixed dipole at the CaMnO3/BiFeO3 interface. Our results suggest the relevance of ferroelectric gates to control orbital- or spin-ordered phases, ubiquitous in Mott systems, and pave the way toward efficient Mott-tronics devices. PMID:24089020

  2. Quantum criticality in a uniaxial organic ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Rowley, S E; Hadjimichael, M; Ali, M N; Durmaz, Y C; Lashley, J C; Cava, R J; Scott, J F

    2015-10-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) is a highly uniaxial ferroelectric with a Curie temperature of approximately 130 K. By suppressing ferroelectricity with bromine substitution on the chlorine sites, pure single crystals were tuned through a ferroelectric quantum phase transition. The resulting quantum critical regime was investigated in detail and was found to persist up to temperatures of at least 30-40 K. The nature of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial materials, which lead to non-analytical terms in the free-energy expansion in the polarization, predict a dielectric susceptibility varying as 1/T(3)close to the quantum critical point. Rather than this, we find that the dielectric susceptibility varies as 1/T(2) as expected and observed in better known multi-axial systems. We explain this result by identifying the ultra-weak nature of the dipole moments in the TSCC family of crystals. Interestingly, we observe a shallow minimum in the inverse dielectric function at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point in paraelectric samples that may be attributed to the coupling of quantum polarization and strain fields. Finally, we present results of the heat capacity and electro-caloric effect and explain how the time dependence of the polarization in ferroelectrics and paraelectrics should be considered when making quantitative estimates of temperature changes induced by applied electric fields. PMID:26360383

  3. Quantum criticality in a uniaxial organic ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, S. E.; Hadjimichael, M.; Ali, M. N.; Durmaz, Y. C.; Lashley, J. C.; Cava, R. J.; Scott, J. F.

    2015-10-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) is a highly uniaxial ferroelectric with a Curie temperature of approximately 130 K. By suppressing ferroelectricity with bromine substitution on the chlorine sites, pure single crystals were tuned through a ferroelectric quantum phase transition. The resulting quantum critical regime was investigated in detail and was found to persist up to temperatures of at least 30-40 K. The nature of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial materials, which lead to non-analytical terms in the free-energy expansion in the polarization, predict a dielectric susceptibility varying as 1/T 3close to the quantum critical point. Rather than this, we find that the dielectric susceptibility varies as 1/T 2 as expected and observed in better known multi-axial systems. We explain this result by identifying the ultra-weak nature of the dipole moments in the TSCC family of crystals. Interestingly, we observe a shallow minimum in the inverse dielectric function at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point in paraelectric samples that may be attributed to the coupling of quantum polarization and strain fields. Finally, we present results of the heat capacity and electro-caloric effect and explain how the time dependence of the polarization in ferroelectrics and paraelectrics should be considered when making quantitative estimates of temperature changes induced by applied electric fields.

  4. Ferroelectric Devices Emit Charged Particles and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Felsteiner, Joshua; Karsik, Yakov

    2005-01-01

    Devices called solid-state ferroelectric- based sources (SSFBSs) are under development as sources of electrons, ions, ultraviolet light, and x-rays for diverse applications in characterization and processing of materials. Whereas heretofore it has been necessary to use a different device to generate each of the aforementioned species of charged particles or radiation, a single SSFBS can be configured and operated to selectively generate any of the species as needed using a single source. Relative to comparable prior sources based, variously, on field emission, thermionic emission, and gaseous discharge plasmas, SSFBSs demand less power, and are compact and lightweight. An SSFBS exploits the unique physical characteristics of a ferroelectric material in the presence of a high-frequency pulsed electric field. The basic building block of an SSFBS is a ferroelectric cathode -- a ferroelectric wafer with a solid electrode covering its rear face and a grid electrode on its front face (see figure). The application of a voltage pulse -- typically having amplitude of several kilovolts and duration of several nanoseconds -- causes dense surface plasma to form near the grid wires on the front surface.

  5. Strain Tuning of Ferroelectric Thin Films *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlom, Darrell G.; Chen, Long-Qing; Eom, Chang-Beom; Rabe, Karin M.; Streiffer, Stephen K.; Triscone, Jean-Marc

    2007-08-01

    Predictions and measurements of the effect of biaxial strain on the properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and superlattices are reviewed. Results for single-layer ferroelectric films of biaxially strained SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and PbTiO3 as well as PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are described. Theoretical approaches, including first principles, thermodynamic analysis, and phase-field models, are applied to these biaxially strained materials, the assumptions and limitations of each technique are explained, and the predictions are compared. Measurements of the effect of biaxial strain on the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) are shown, demonstrating the ability of percent-level strains to shift TC by hundreds of degrees in agreement with the predictions that predated such experiments. Along the way, important experimental techniques for characterizing the properties of strained ferroelectric thin films and superlattices, as well as appropriate substrates on which to grow them, are mentioned.

  6. A Model for Ferroelectric Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Qureshi, A. Haq

    2000-01-01

    Novel microwave phase shifters consisting of coupled microstrip lines on thin ferroelectric films have been demonstrated recently. A theoretical model useful for predicting the propagation characteristics (insertion phase shift, dielectric loss, impedance, and bandwidth) is presented here. The model is based on a variational solution for line capacitance and coupled strip transmission line theory.

  7. Large negative thermal expansion in non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yangchun; Li, Menglei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Mei; Lin, Kun; Hu, Lei; Yuan, Wenxia; Duan, Wenhui; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-02-17

    Functional materials showing both negative thermal expansion (NTE) and physical performance, such as ferroelectricity and magnetism, have been extensively explored in the past decade. However, among ferroelectrics a remarkable NTE was only found in perovskite-type PbTiO3-based compounds. In this work, a large NTE of -4.7 × 10(-5) K(-1) is obtained in the non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 from 243 K to TC (338 K). Structure refinements and first-principle calculations reveal the effects of the Sn(ii) 5s-S 3p interaction on spontaneous polarization and its correlation with NTE. Then the mechanism of spontaneous volume ferroelectrostriction (SVFS) is verified and it could well elucidate the nature of NTE in ferroelectric Sn2P2S6. This is the first case to demonstrate the unusual NTE behavior by SVFS in a non-perovskite lead-free ferroelectric material. PMID:26854264

  8. Modified Johnson model for ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate at very high fields and below Curie temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Ma, B.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.

    2012-01-01

    A modified Johnson model is proposed to describe the nonlinear field dependence of the dielectric constant ({var_epsilon}-E loop) in ferroelectric materials below the Curie temperature. This model describes the characteristic ferroelectric 'butterfly' shape observed in typical {var_epsilon}-E loops. The predicted nonlinear behavior agreed well with the measured values in both the low- and high-field regions for lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films. The proposed model was also validated at different temperatures below the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric Curie point. The anharmonic coefficient in the model decreased from 6.142 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} to 2.039 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} when the temperature increased from 25 C to 250 C.

  9. Ferroelectric properties of lead-free polycrystalline CaBi2Nb2O9 thin films on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Jang, Joonkyung; Son, Jong Yeog

    2016-03-01

    CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBNO) thin film, a lead-free ferroelectric material, was prepared on a Pt/Ta/glass substrate via pulsed laser deposition. The Ta film was deposited on the glass substrate for a buffer layer. A (115) preferred orientation of the polycrystalline CBNO thin film was verified via X-ray diffraction measurements. The CBNO thin film on a glass substrate exhibited good ferroelectric properties with a remnant polarization of 4.8 μC/cm2 (2Pr ˜9.6 μC/cm2), although it had lower polarization than the epitaxially c-oriented CBNO thin film reported previously. A mosaic-like ferroelectric domain structure was observed via piezoresponse force microscopy. Significantly, the polycrystalline CBNO thin film showed much faster switching behavior within about 100 ns than that of the epitaxially c-oriented CBNO thin film.

  10. Induction of ferroelectricity in the B2 phase of a liquid crystal composed of achiral bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etxebarria, J.; Folcia, C. L.; Ortega, J.; Ros, M. B.

    2003-04-01

    We report the observation of a transition from the antiferroelectric B2 phase to a ferroelectric phase in a liquid crystal composed of achiral bent-core (banana-shaped) molecules. The transition is induced by an electric field of magnitude larger than the switching threshold and is not reversible, i.e., the original B2 phase does not reappear upon field removal. The transformation is accompanied by a dramatic texture change, resulting in an almost optically isotropic structure in the absence of field. The ferroelectric character assigned to the structure is based on the electro-optic behavior of the material and on previously reported dielectric measurements. A short-pitch smectic-C*-type structure is proposed for the ferroelectric phase.

  11. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. PMID:24863240

  12. Magnetoelectric properties of magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung-Ok; Eum, You Jeong; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Hee Young; Park, Jung Min; Ryu, Jungho

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films using PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) and two different magnetic materials, i.e., Terfenol-D and CuFe2O4 (CuFO) layers, were fabricated, and their magnetoelectric (ME) coupling behavior was investigated. The PZT layer was first coated onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Pt layer, which served as an electrode and a diffusion barrier, was grown on the PZT layer by using the ion-beam sputtering method. The ME voltage coefficients were calculated from the ME voltage data measured utilizing a magnetoelectric test system. The Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT films were found to show a higher in-plane ME voltage coefficient than that the CuFO/Pt/PZT films due primarily to the higher magnetostriction coefficient of Terfenol-D.

  13. Properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Linderman, Katie; Economou, Evangelos; Celinski, Zbigniew; Nie, Yan

    2014-05-07

    Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures, SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SBT/BaM), were grown on platinum-coated Si substrates using metal-organic decomposition. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the heterostructures contain only SBT and BaM phases. The microwave properties of these heterostructures were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer from 35 to 60 GHz, which allowed us to determine gyromagnetic ratio and effective anisotropy field. The FMR linewidth is as low as140 Oe at 58 GHz. In addition, measurements of the effective permittivity of the heterostructures were carried out as a function of bias electric field. All heterostructures exhibit hysteretic behavior of the effective permittivity. These properties indicate that such heterostructures have potential for application in dual electric and magnetic field tunable resonators, filters, and phase shifters.

  14. Macroscopic response and directional disorder dynamics in chemically substituted ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Jacopo; DelRe, Eugenio; Agranat, Aharon J.; Parravicini, Gianbattista

    2016-03-01

    Using temperature-resolved dielectric spectroscopy in the range 25-320 K we investigate the macroscopic response, phase symmetry, and order/disorder states in bulk ferroelectric K1-yLiyTa1-xNbx (KLTN). Four long-range symmetry phases are identified with their relative transitions. Directional analysis of the order/disorder states using Fröhlich entropy indicates global symmetry breaking along the growth axis and an anisotropic dipolar effective thermodynamic behavior, which ranges from disordered to ordered at the same temperature for different directions in the sample. Results indicate that the macroscopic polarization, driven by nanosized polar regions, follows a microscopic perovskite eight-sites lattice model.

  15. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free LiNbO3-modified 0.97(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)-0.03BaZrO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Jamil Ur; Hussain, Ali; Maqbool, Adnan; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Myong Ho; Lee, Soonil; Kim, Won Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1- x) [(0.97Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)]-0.03BaZrO3- xLiNbO3 (BNT-BZ3- xLN) with x = (0-0.07) were synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated as a function of the LN content. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of a single-phase perovskite structure for all the LN-modified BNT-BZ ceramics in this study. The results indicate that the LN substitution into BNT-BZ3 induces a transition from a ferroelectric to a diffuse and/or relaxor state accompanying a field-induced strain of 0.20% for x = 0.05 at an applied field of 6 kV/mm. The corresponding dynamic piezoelectric coefficient for this composition was ( S max/ E max = 333 pm/V). A significant reduction of the coercive field ( E c) and enhancement of the piezoelectric constant ( d 33) from 98 pC/N for x = 0 to 117 pC/N x = 0.01 was observed.

  16. Dynamical Behavior of a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal with Monotropic Transition Temperatures during Electric-Field-Induced Switching Studied by Time-resolved Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Singular Value Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinggang; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    The switching dynamics of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC-154) with monotropic transition temperatures has been explored under the surface-stabilized states by polarized infrared (IR) absorption and time-resolved IR spectroscopy. The polarized IR and time-resolved IR studies have revealed that FLC-154 shows significantly different dynamics from FLCs with non-monotropic thermotropic transition temperatures. The analysis of the relative orientation of the transition moments of the CH2 symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes has suggested that the alkyl chains of FLC-154 take a gauche-trans-gauche conformation. It has also been revealed from the same analysis that the alkyl chains take different alignment under dc applied voltages of 20 V of both polarities at 65°C. Time-resolved IR spectra of FLC-154 in a planar-aligned cell were measured as a function of the polarization angle ranging from 0° to 180° under a rectangular electric field of ± 20 V with a 5 kHz repetition rate in the smectic-C* (Sm-C*) phase at 65°C. These spectra have enabled us to explore the reorientation processes of the alkyl chains, the core and the large C=O dipole moments of FLC-154 at all the delay times. The singular value decomposition (SVD) was applied to the time-resolved IR spectra in the 3020-1000 cm-1 region of FLC-154. The results of SVD have provided information about the profile of the principal component (PC) score versus the delay time, enhancing the ability of time-resolved IR in probing the switching dynamic. It has been found from the SVD analysis that the average orientation of a large C=Obiphenyl dipole moment (it arises from the C=O group adjoining the biphenyl ring) of FLC-154 is unchanged during the whole electric-field-induced switching. It seems likely that the core of FLC-154 straddles the polyimide molecules on the surface of the FLC layer. This configuration of FLC molecule forces the transverse C=Obiphenyl dipole moment to be parallel with the rubbing direction, and the molecules of FLC-154 revolve around the average orientation of the C=Obiphenyl dipole moment. These results have suggested that the FLC-154 molecules revolve around the large C=Obiphenyl dipole moment during the electric-induced-field switching. The dynamic SVD profile for the alkyl chains, a large C=Ochiral dipole moment (it arises from the C=O group in the chiral moiety) and the core moiety have shown that all the moieties require an induction period of 10 μs before responding to the electric field.

  17. Temperature- and Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived BaTiO3-NaNbO3 Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Do-Kyun; Goh, Yumin; Son, Dongsu; Kim, Baek-Hyun; Bae, Hyunjeong; Perini, Steve; Lanagan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A sol-gel-derived powder synthesis method has been used to prepare BaTiO3-NaNbO3 (BT-NN) solid-solution ceramic samples with various compositions. Fine and homogeneous complex perovskite ceramics were obtained at lower processing temperatures than used in conventional solid-state processing. The ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the sol-gel-synthesized (1 - x)BaTiO3- xNaNbO3 [(1 - x)BT- xNN] ceramics in the wide composition range of 0 < x ≤ 0.7 were extensively studied. Structural and dielectric characterization results revealed that a low level of NN addition ( x = 0.04) to BT is sufficient to cause a continuous relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition, and the relaxor behavior was consistently observed at compositions with high NN content up to x = 0.7. A number of relaxor parameters including the Curie temperature, Burns temperature, freezing temperature, γ, diffuseness parameter ( δ), and activation energy were determined from the temperature and frequency dependency of the real part of the dielectric permittivity for various BT-NN compositions using the Curie-Weiss law and Vögel-Fulcher relationship. The systematic changes of these parameters with respect to composition indicate that a continuous crossover between BT-based relaxor and NN-based relaxor occurs at a composition near x = 0.4.

  18. FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE: Critical size in ferroelectric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridkin, Vladimir M.

    2006-02-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to determine the critical size in ferroelectricity. Due to the development of ferroelectric nanostructure technology, this fundamental problem had also become crucial for applied research. It is shown that although the theory predicts the existence of a finite critical size, ferroelectric polarization and its switching can be observed in monolayer films, at least in the case of ferroelectric vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer P[VDF-TrFE] films prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The experimental search for the critical size in perovskite ferroelectrics is briefly reviewed. It is shown that the Landau-Ginzburg theory predicts the critical size to be infinitely small if the extrinsic effect of the film-electrode strain mismatch is taken into account. Special features of the switching dynamics of ultrathin ferroelectric films are also considered.

  19. Molecule-displacive ferroelectricity in organic supramolecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Kubo, Kazuya; Yoshitake, Masashi; Liu, Zun-Qi; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2013-07-01

    Ferroelectricity is essential to many forms of current technology, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. In this circumstance, organic ferroelectrics are of particular importance because of their potential application in tomorrow's organic devices, and several pure organic ferroelectrics have been recently developed. However, some problems, such as current leakage and/or low working frequencies, make their application prospects especially for ferroelectric memory (FeRAM) not clear. Here, we describe the molecule-displacive ferroelectricity of supramolecular adducts of tartaric acid and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane N,N'-dioxide. The adducts show large spontaneous polarization, high rectangularity of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops even at high operation frequency (10 kHz), and high performance in polarization switching up to 1 106 times without showing fatigue. It opens great perspectives in terms of applications, especially in organic FeRAM.

  20. Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin; Shvedov, Vladlen; Sheng, Yan; Karpinski, Pawel; Koynov, Kaloian; Wang, Bingxia; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate infrared femtosecond laser-induced inversion of ferroelectric domains. This process can be realised solely by using tightly focused laser pulses without application of any electric field prior to, in conjunction with, or subsequent to the laser irradiation. As most ferroelectric crystals like LiNbO{sub 3}, LiTaO{sub 3}, and KTiOPO{sub 4} are transparent in the infrared, this optical poling method allows one to form ferroelectric domain patterns much deeper inside a ferroelectric crystal than by using ultraviolet light and hence can be used to fabricate practical devices. We also propose in situ diagnostics of the ferroelectric domain inversion process by monitoring the Čerenkov second harmonic signal, which is sensitive to the appearance of ferroelectric domain walls.