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1

Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams  

PubMed Central

This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

2014-01-01

2

Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.  

PubMed

This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

2014-01-01

3

Is Information Still Relevant?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information

Ma, Lia

2013-01-01

4

Brain Research, 2010, 1363: 117-127. Attention and processing of relevant visual information while simulated driving  

E-print Network

study aims to assess the impact of attentional workload modulation on cerebral activity during separately for two visual stimuli of interest: traffic lights (from green to amber) and direction signs distributed network similar in ST and DT and similar for both the traffic lights and the direction signs

Boyer, Edmond

5

Information Visualization and Visual Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In- formation visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There is a large number of information visualization techniques which have been developed over the last decade to support the exploration of large data sets. In

Daniel A. Keim

2002-01-01

6

Mandarin Visual Speech Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

Chen, Trevor H.

2010-01-01

7

Developing calendar visualizers for the information visualizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers

Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Robert DeLine

1994-01-01

8

Recent Relevance Research: Implications for Information Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses results from recent relevance research with implications for information professionals. The studies show that beyond the usual concern with high relevance and non-relevance judgments, partially relevant judgments by users are important. Calls for the adoption of a more complex view of human relevance judgments in the education and…

Greisdorf, Howard; Spink, Amanda

2000-01-01

9

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

10

Bioinformatics Visualization: Introduction to this Special Issue of Information Visualization  

E-print Network

Bioinformatics Visualization: Introduction to this Special Issue of Information Visualization Welcome to this special issue on Bioinformatics Visualization of the journal of Information Visualization. Bioinformatics involves the application of data-rich computationaland informatics methods to support

11

Information visualization as creative nonfiction  

E-print Network

Information visualizations are an important means through which we communicate knowledge. By considering visualizations as data-driven narratives, this thesis uses narrative thinking as an orienting concept to support the ...

Zhang, Jia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

12

Scientific Visualization and Information Architecture  

E-print Network

Scientific Visualization and Information Architecture John P. Boyd University of Michigan Ann Arbor: Inset Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2.10 Wide is Wonderful: Aesthetics

Boyd, John P.

13

The Value of Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and users of Information Visualization are convinced that it has value. This value can easily be communicated\\u000a to others in a face-to-face setting, such that this value is experienced in practice. To convince broader audiences, and also,\\u000a to understand the intrinsic qualities of visualization is more difficult, however. In this paper we consider information visualization\\u000a from different points of

Jean-Daniel Fekete; Jarke van Wijk; John Stasko; Chris North

2008-01-01

14

Information visualization for the people  

E-print Network

The design of information visualization, defined as the interactive, graphical presentation of data, is on the verge of a significant paradigm shift brought on by the continued maturation of the Information Age. Its ...

Danziger, Michael (Michael J.)

2008-01-01

15

Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

Thomas, James J.

1995-01-01

16

The information visualizer, an information workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its

Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay

1991-01-01

17

Visualizing conceptual information  

E-print Network

Foos-Grabers book, DEATHING: An Alternative for the Final Moments of Life. The visualization is both aesthetic in its expression and clearly communicative of the original ideas. Included is a discussion which centers on techniques and aesthetic...

Brunner, Matthew Conrad

1993-01-01

18

Visual-textual joint relevance learning for tag-based social image search.  

PubMed

Due to the popularity of social media websites, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to tag-based social image search. Both visual information and tags have been investigated in the research field. However, most existing methods use tags and visual characteristics either separately or sequentially in order to estimate the relevance of images. In this paper, we propose an approach that simultaneously utilizes both visual and textual information to estimate the relevance of user tagged images. The relevance estimation is determined with a hypergraph learning approach. In this method, a social image hypergraph is constructed, where vertices represent images and hyperedges represent visual or textual terms. Learning is achieved with use of a set of pseudo-positive images, where the weights of hyperedges are updated throughout the learning process. In this way, the impact of different tags and visual words can be automatically modulated. Comparative results of the experiments conducted on a dataset including 370+images are presented, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:22692911

Gao, Yue; Wang, Meng; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Shen, Jialie; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

2013-01-01

19

Priming by the variability of visual information  

PubMed Central

According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

2014-01-01

20

Priming by the variability of visual information.  

PubMed

According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This "priming by variance" phenomenon occurred with prime-target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

2014-05-27

21

Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance

Efthimiadis, Efthimis

2000-01-01

22

Making Information Visual: Seventh Grade Art Information and Visual Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventh grade students entering South East Junior High in Iowa City come from eight elementary feeder schools, as well as from schools around the world. Their information literacy skills and knowledge of reference sources vary, but since all seventh graders and new eighth graders are required to take one trimester of Visual Studies, all entering…

Shoemaker, Joel; Schau, Elizabeth; Ayers, Rachael

2008-01-01

23

Early Processing of Visual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction is given to a theory of early visual information processing. The theory has been implemented, and examples are given of images at various stages of analysis. It is argued that the first step of consequence is to compute a primitive but rich description of the grey-level changes present in an image. The description is expressed in a vocabulary

D. Marr

1976-01-01

24

Visualizing Information Flow in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive maps and visualizations of journal citation networks found in this resource enable the analysis of information flow between academic disciplines. The resources that are based on Eigenfactor Metrics, were developed through the collaboration of the Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner.

Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner

25

Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1  

E-print Network

Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1 Chapter VIII Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems http://puebla.turista.com.mx/ What is a portal? · Portal = an entry mechanism for an information system · A good portal = a portail

Laurini, Robert

26

Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1  

E-print Network

Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1 Chapter VI Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems http://puebla.turista.com.mx/ What is a portal? · Portal = an entry mechanism for an information system · A good portal = a portail allowing

Laurini, Robert

27

Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

1991-01-01

28

Visual Imagery as an Information Processing Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of visual imagery is explored as an information processing strategy, and its relationship is counterpointed to the linguistic system. The importance of visual imagery as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool to aid both visual and nonvisual performance and learning problems is discussed. (Author)

Forrest, Elliott B.

1981-01-01

29

Lighthouse: Showing the Way to Relevant Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighthouse is an on-line interface for a Web-based in- formation retrieval system. It accepts queries from a user, collects the retrieved documents from the search engine, or- ganizes and presents them to the user. The system inte- grates two known presentations of the retrieved results - the ranked list and clustering visualization - in a novel and ef- fective way.

Anton Leuski; James Allan

2000-01-01

30

Some informational aspects of visual perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also

Fred Attneave

1954-01-01

31

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams  

E-print Network

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams Julia Paredes Department of Computer.maurer@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Understanding information about software artifacts is key to successful Agile software software development teams. The results of the systematic mapping show that Agile teams use visualization

Maurer, Frank

32

NSF workshop on Visual Information Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important technologies needed across many traditional areas as well as emerging new frontiers of computing, is the management of visual information. For example, most of the Grand Challenge applications, under the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) initiative, require management of large volumes of non-alphanumeric information, computations, communication, and visualization of results. Considering the growing need

Ramesh Jain

1993-01-01

33

Aggressive children's memory for attachment relevant information  

E-print Network

This study examined a measure of children's memory for information from a story about a hypothetical mother and child, the Story Task, as a potential tool to delineate subtypes of aggressive children based on the pattern of information processing...

Collie, Claire Futamase

2004-09-30

34

Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

2012-01-01

35

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

36

Information Processing During Transient Responses in the Crayfish Visual System  

E-print Network

Information Processing During Transient Responses in the Crayfish Visual System Christopher J sustaining fiber responses in the crayfish visual system to light pulses using information processing: Neural information processing; spike generator efficiency; crayfish visual system 1 Introduction Sensory

37

Value-relevance of nonfinancial information: The wireless communications industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the value-relevance to investors of financial (accounting) and nonfinancial information of independent cellular companies and find that, on a stand-alone basis, financial information (earnings, book values, and cash flows) are largely irrelevant for security valuation. Nonfinancial indicators, such as POPS (a growth proxy) and Market Penetration (an operating performance measure), are highly value-relevant. However, combined with nonfinancial information,

Eli Amir; Baruch Lev

1996-01-01

38

How owls structure visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Recent studies on perceptual organization in humans claim that the ability to represent a visual scene as a set of coherent\\u000a surfaces is of central importance for visual cognition. We examined whether this surface representation hypothesis generalizes\\u000a to a non-mammalian species, the barn owl (Tyto alba). Discrimination transfer combined with random-dot stimuli provided the appropriate means for a series

Robert F. van der Willigen; Barrie J. Frost; Hermann Wagner

2003-01-01

39

Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands  

PubMed Central

An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner’s sensory system. In real-world interactions, what the child perceives critically depends on his own actions as these actions bring information into and out of the learner’s sensory field. The present analyses indicate how, in the case of a toddler playing with toys, these perception-action loops may simplify the learning environment by selecting relevant information and filtering irrelevant information. This paper reports new findings using a novel method that seeks to describe the visual learning environment from a young child’s point of view and measures the visual information that a child perceives in real-time toy play with a parent. The main results are 1) what the child perceives primarily depends on his own actions but also his social partner’s actions; 2) manual actions, in particular, play a critical role in creating visual experiences in which one object dominates; 3) this selecting and filtering of visual objects through the actions of the child provides more constrained and clean input that seems likely to facilitate cognitive learning processes. These findings have broad implications for how one studies and thinks about human and artificial learning systems. PMID:21031153

Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.; Shen, Hongwei; Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Thomas

2010-01-01

40

VISUAL PIGMENTS AND THE ACQUISITION OF VISUAL INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary All the information available to the brain for the interpretation of the visual scene comes from the number of photons absorbed by a very limited number of photoreceptor types which are characterized by their spectral sensitivity. In vertebrates there are considerable differences in the spectral absorption of the rods and cones making up the retinal mosaic of different animals

J. N. LYTHGOE; J. C. PARTRIDGE

1989-01-01

41

Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

2002-01-01

42

The Relevance of Information Systems Research: Informing the IS Practitioner Community; Informing Ourselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the relevance of Information Systems research to the practitioner community began in the 1990s. Though the issue has faded from top-tier journals, the problem remains. This article provides the first comprehensive consideration of the major papers relating to IS research rele- vance. It also recognizes that the problem of relevance is not one that is likely to be

Theresa A. Steinbach; Linda V. Knight

2006-01-01

43

Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

2003-01-01

44

A framework for medical visual information exchange on the web.  

PubMed

The web has become such an extensive health information repository in the world that it is increasingly difficult to search for relevant medical information. Most medical information available on the web is not peer reviewed, and is retrieved imprecisely by current web search mechanisms (i.e. based on keywords). This paper presents the MedISeek metadata model that allows one to describe medical visual information (i.e. medical images) of different modalities, including their properties, components, relationships and authorship. The model uses the web architecture and supports the international classification of diseases and related health problems (i.e. ICD-10). An RDF schema (Resource Description Framework (RDF), http://www.w3.org/RDF/.) derived from this metadata model is integrated to each medical image, and specifies the semantics of each property in the image. Thus, relevant information can be extracted directly from the images, and data integrity is better preserved in the web. A prototype, presented here, has been built to validate the metadata model, and the mechanism for medical visual information exchange on the web. Our preliminary experimental results indicate that authorized users of our system have been able to describe, store and retrieve medical images and their associated diagnostic information. PMID:16488771

Carro, Silvio Antonio; Scharcanski, Jacob

2006-04-01

45

Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

2010-01-01

46

Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

1993-01-01

47

prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions

Jeffrey Heer; Stuart K. Card; James A. Landay

2005-01-01

48

Automated identification of relevant patient information in a physician's workstation.  

PubMed Central

The introduction of computer-based patient records offers an opportunity to improve the ability of physicians to browse the medical record and to monitor patient events. We describe a methodology to identify relevant information in the patient record. This methodology combines a patient-specific physiological model with functions to determine relevance of patient information. The model consists of a qualitative representation of physiological parameters and influences, custom-tailored to a particular patient's problems, medications, and test results. We describe two applications of this model in the context of an integrated physician's workstation: automatic linking of relevant patient information for configuration of user-interface displays, and monitoring of patient events to prevent oversight of noteworthy information. PMID:8130467

Suermondt, H. J.; Tang, P. C.; Strong, P. C.; Young, C. Y.; Annevelink, J.

1993-01-01

49

Video Technology: Conveying Information Visually.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that videotaped communications, which provide timely information and cost savings, are beneficial to purchasers and vendors within the public and private library vertical market segment. Four distinct classifications of tapes used at the fall 1984 meeting of the Computer Dealer Exposition are discussed: marketing, informational,…

Bardes, D'Ellen

1985-01-01

50

Visual Display of Information using Word 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and Kay Gaisford, this page presents a module on the visual display of information using Microsoft Word 2003 in the cotext of digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this lesson, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, a handout on copyright basics for still images, two assignments with instructions and examples, and a quiz. The presentation covers design principles (contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity), text guidelines, image guidelines, and copyright information. This is an excellent resource not only for courses or programs focused specifically on DVL, but for many other fields to help create effective and well-designed promotional or informational materials.

51

Information Sharing during Diagnostic Assessments: What Is Relevant for Parents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended…

Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St. Pierre, Cherie

2011-01-01

52

Crossmodal information for visual and haptic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction we have performed a variety of experiments characterizing the detection, discrimination, and production of 3D shape. A stimulus set of 25 complex, natural appearing, noisy 3D target objects were statistically specified in the Fourier domain and manufactured using a 3D printer. A series of paired-comparison experiments examined subjects' unimodal (visual-visual and haptic-haptic) and crossmodal (visual-haptic) perceptual abilities. Additionally, subjects sculpted objects using uni- or crossmodal source information. In all experiments, the performance in the unimodal conditions were similar to one another and unimodal presentation fared better than crossmodal. Also, the spatial frequency of object features affected performance differentially across the range used in this experiment. The sculpted objects were scanned in 3D and the resulting geometry was compared metrically and statistically to the original stimuli. Objects with higher spatial frequency were harder to sculpt when limited to haptic input compared to only visual input. The opposite was found for objects with low spatial frequency. The psychophysical discrimination and comparison experiments yielded similar findings. There is a marked performance difference between the visual and haptic systems and these differences were systematically distributed along the range of feature details. The existence of non-universal (i.e. modality-specific) representations explain the poor crossmodal performance. Our current findings suggest that haptic and visual information is either integrated into a multi-modal form, or each is independent and somewhat efficient translation is possible. Vision shows a distinct advantage when dealing with higher frequency objects but both modalities are effective when comparing objects that differ by a large amount.

Phillips, Flip; Egan, Eric J. L.

2009-02-01

53

Visual-word-based duplicate image search with pseudo-relevance feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to improve the bag-of-visual-words (BOW) model for near-duplicate image retrieval, by introducing a more fine-grained pseudo-relevance feedback process. The BOW method is based on vector quantization of affine invariant descriptors of image patches. Despite its popularity and simplicity, the retrieval performance of BOW is often unsatisfactory due to the large and diverse variations of near-duplicate images. We thus

Jen-hao Hsiao; Chu-song Chen; Ming-syan Chen

2008-01-01

54

Facilitation of visual pattern recognition by extraction of relevant features from microscopic traffic data  

E-print Network

FACILITATION OF VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION BY EXTRACTION OF RELEVANT FEATURES FROM MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC DATA A Thesis by MATTHEW JAMES FIELDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Thesis by MATTHEW JAMES FIELDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Paul Nelson Committee Members...

Fields, Matthew James

2009-05-15

55

Facilitation of visual pattern recognition by extraction of relevant features from microscopic traffic data  

E-print Network

FACILITATION OF VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION BY EXTRACTION OF RELEVANT FEATURES FROM MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC DATA A Thesis by MATTHEW JAMES FIELDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Thesis by MATTHEW JAMES FIELDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Paul Nelson Committee Members...

Fields, Matthew James

2008-10-10

56

Cone Trees: animated 3D visualizations of hierarchical information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Enwrging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive aninlaiion offer potential solutions to this problenl, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized.We describe one of these Information Visualtzaiion techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The

George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card

1991-01-01

57

Feature saliency and feedback information interactively impact visual category learning  

PubMed Central

Visual category learning (VCL) involves detecting which features are most relevant for categorization. VCL relies on attentional learning, which enables effectively redirecting attention to object’s features most relevant for categorization, while ‘filtering out’ irrelevant features. When features relevant for categorization are not salient, VCL relies also on perceptual learning, which enables becoming more sensitive to subtle yet important differences between objects. Little is known about how attentional learning and perceptual learning interact when VCL relies on both processes at the same time. Here we tested this interaction. Participants performed VCL tasks in which they learned to categorize novel stimuli by detecting the feature dimension relevant for categorization. Tasks varied both in feature saliency (low-saliency tasks that required perceptual learning vs. high-saliency tasks), and in feedback information (tasks with mid-information, moderately ambiguous feedback that increased attentional load, vs. tasks with high-information non-ambiguous feedback). We found that mid-information and high-information feedback were similarly effective for VCL in high-saliency tasks. This suggests that an increased attentional load, associated with the processing of moderately ambiguous feedback, has little effect on VCL when features are salient. In low-saliency tasks, VCL relied on slower perceptual learning; but when the feedback was highly informative participants were able to ultimately attain the same performance as during the high-saliency VCL tasks. However, VCL was significantly compromised in the low-saliency mid-information feedback task. We suggest that such low-saliency mid-information learning scenarios are characterized by a ‘cognitive loop paradox’ where two interdependent learning processes have to take place simultaneously. PMID:25745404

Hammer, Rubi; Sloutsky, Vladimir; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

2015-01-01

58

Between Aesthetics and Utility: Designing Ambient Information Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike traditional infomation visualization, ambient information visualizations reside in the environment of the user rather than on the screen of a desktop computer. Currently, most dynamic infor- mation that is displayed in public places consists of text and num- bers. We argue that information visualization can be employed to make such' dynamic data more useful and appealing. However, visualizations intended

Tobias Skog; Sara Ljungblad; Lars Erik Holmquist

2003-01-01

59

ITCS 4121/5121: Information Visualization General Information Instructor: Jing Yang  

E-print Network

. Tufte, Edward. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (2nd Edition). Graphics Press, 2001. 3. Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information. Graphics Press, 1990. 4. Tufte, Edward. Visual Explanations

Yang, Jing

60

Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

1993-01-01

61

Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

2009-04-01

62

Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. PMID:25595505

Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

2015-05-15

63

Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

2005-01-01

64

Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually\\u000a relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks\\u000a in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for

Katie M. McCall; Alessandra H. Rellini; Brooke N. Seal; Cindy M. Meston

2007-01-01

65

Seeing without knowing: task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and recognition.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and knowledge activation to create a state of seeing without knowing-visual awareness of familiar stimuli without recognizing them. We rely on the fact that in order to experience a Kanizsa illusion, participants must be aware of its inducers. While people can indicate the orientation of the illusory rectangle with great ease (signifying that they have consciously experienced the illusion's inducers), almost 30% of them could not report the inducers' color. Thus, people can see, in the sense of phenomenally experiencing, but not know, in the sense of recognizing what the object is or activating appropriate knowledge about it. Experiment 2 tests whether relevance-based selection operates within objects and shows that, contrary to the pattern of results found with features of different objects in our previous studies and replicated in Experiment 1, selection does not occur when both relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. We discuss these findings in relation to the existing theories of consciousness and to attention and inattentional blindness, and the role of cognitive load, object-based attention, and the use of self-reports as measures of awareness. PMID:25716140

Eitam, Baruch; Shoval, Roy; Yeshurun, Yaffa

2015-03-01

66

COMP5048: Information Visualization Visual Perception and Graph Evaluation  

E-print Network

for graphic design ­ Cognitive walkthrough ­ Interviews ­ Questionnaires Notes on Assignment 2 · You do · We visualize to : ­ Understand data ­ Communicate · There are many ways of visualizing the same data · To make better visualizations, we need ­ Knowledge of how people make sense of data ­ Evaluate

Hong,Seokhee

67

Information Visualization Techniques in Bioinformatics during the Postgenomic Era  

PubMed Central

Information visualization techniques, which take advantage of the bandwidth of human vision, are powerful tools for organizing and analyzing a large amount of data. In the postgenomic era, information visualization tools are indispensable for biomedical research. This paper aims to present an overview of current applications of information visualization techniques in bioinformatics for visualizing different types of biological data, such as from genomics, proteomics, expression profiling and structural studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of information visualization in bioinformatics related to dealing with more complex biological information in the emerging fields of systems biology and systems medicine. PMID:20976032

Tao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol

2010-01-01

68

Visualization of multimodal image information in medicine.  

PubMed Central

Radiological and clinical practice can be enhanced by improved access to multimodal image informations. Analysis, visualization, method characteristic image processing and image synthesis is needed not only for the interpretation of the images but also for performing effective consultations with clinical colleagues and computer supported therapy planning and control strategies. The distributed system RADVIS (radiological visualization) is presented which enables the fast display, three dimensional visualization and the modality oriented analysis of multimodal image informations. Based on a unique image format, modality specific evaluation procedures and two- or three dimensional processing tools of image analysis produce the input data for therapy planning programs. The easy use of this multimedia visualisation tool enables radiologists and clinicians to deal with their image data. The description of methods and procedures of the prototype, as well as typical examples of radiologic practice will demonstrate the efficiency of the presented system. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5a Fig. 5b Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1482876

Englmeier, K. H.; Fink, U.; Hilbertz, T.

1992-01-01

69

Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

70

GYMNASTS UTILIZE VISUAL AND AUDITORY INFORMATION FOR BEHAVIOURAL SYNCHRONIZATION IN TRAMPOLINING  

PubMed Central

In synchronized trampolining, two gymnasts perform the same routine at the same time. While trained gymnasts are thought to coordinate their own movements with the movements of another gymnast by detecting relevant movement information, the question arises how visual and auditory information contribute to the emergence of synchronicity between both gymnasts. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the role of visual and auditory information in the emergence of coordinated behaviour in synchronized trampolining. Twenty female gymnasts were asked to synchronize their leaps with the leaps of a model gymnast, while visual and auditory information was manipulated. The results revealed that gymnasts needed more leaps to reach synchronicity when only either auditory (12.9 leaps) or visual information (10.8 leaps) was available, as compared to when both auditory and visual information was available (8.1 leaps). It is concluded that visual and auditory information play significant roles in synchronized trampolining, whilst visual information seems to be the dominant source for emerging behavioural synchronization, and auditory information supports this emergence. PMID:25177101

Koschnick, J.; Schmidt-Maaß, D.; Vinken, P.M.

2014-01-01

71

Gymnasts utilize visual and auditory information for behavioural synchronization in trampolining.  

PubMed

In synchronized trampolining, two gymnasts perform the same routine at the same time. While trained gymnasts are thought to coordinate their own movements with the movements of another gymnast by detecting relevant movement information, the question arises how visual and auditory information contribute to the emergence of synchronicity between both gymnasts. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the role of visual and auditory information in the emergence of coordinated behaviour in synchronized trampolining. Twenty female gymnasts were asked to synchronize their leaps with the leaps of a model gymnast, while visual and auditory information was manipulated. The results revealed that gymnasts needed more leaps to reach synchronicity when only either auditory (12.9 leaps) or visual information (10.8 leaps) was available, as compared to when both auditory and visual information was available (8.1 leaps). It is concluded that visual and auditory information play significant roles in synchronized trampolining, whilst visual information seems to be the dominant source for emerging behavioural synchronization, and auditory information supports this emergence. PMID:25177101

Heinen, T; Koschnick, J; Schmidt-Maaß, D; Vinken, P M

2014-08-01

72

Advance visual information, awareness, and anticipation skill.  

PubMed

The authors examined 13 skilled, 13 recreational, and 11 novice players' awareness of the advance visual information that they used to judge tennis serve direction. Participants viewed video clips of serve actions under 5 conditions of spatial occlusion. The authors assessed participants' awareness by comparing the different groups' confidence associated with correct and incorrect judgments and by conducting a postexperiment free-recall test. The results indicated that information from the ball toss and the arm + racquet region underpinned players' anticipation skill and that greater expertise was accompained by increasing awareness of the information on which judgments were based. The authors discuss the implications of the present results for researchers' use of confidence ratings to assess awareness in perceptual-judgment tasks. PMID:17827112

Jackson, Robin C; Mogan, Peter

2007-09-01

73

The effect of ecologically relevant variations in light level on the performance of Mongolian gerbils on two visual tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of rodent visual capacities are typically performed under standard laboratory illumination. However, light level can have subtle and complex effects on behavior in rodents. We tested Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) – a species that shows individual differences in activity pattern – on visual tasks at three ecologically relevant levels of ambient illuminance: approximating moonlight (1lx), dawn or dusk (10lx),

Magdalena E. Krysiak; Kaitlyn R. Bankieris; Qura Abid; Guan Hua Kui; Hillary R. Rodman

2011-01-01

74

A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

Lee, Sang Yun

2013-01-01

75

The "No-Paradigm" Programming Paradigm for Information Visualization  

E-print Network

Visualization. This environment has been used in a number of areas but is still evolving -- this flexibil- ity there are no physical objects to ground the concepts portrayed. The requirements of Information Visualization place, enabling the human visual system to derive insights from the spatial, color, and texture information

Blake, Edwin

76

VINSIA: visual navigator for surgical information access.  

PubMed

Information access at the point of care presents a different set of requirements than those for traditional search engines. Critical care in remote (e.g., battle field) and rural settings not only requires access to clinical guidelines and medical libraries with surgical precision but also with minimal user effort and time. Our development of a graphical, anatomy-driven navigator called Visual Navigator for Surgical Information Access (VINSIA) fulfills the goal for providing evidence-based clinical decision support, specifically in perioperative and critical care settings, to allow rapid and precise information access through a portable stand-alone system. It comes with a set of unique characteristics: (a) a high precision, interactive visual interface driven by human anatomy; (b) direct linkage of anatomical structures to associated content such as clinical guidelines, literature, and medical libraries; and (c) an administrative content management interface allowing only an accredited, expert-level curator to edit and update the clinical content to ensure accuracy and currency. We believe that the deployment of VINSIA will improve quality, safety, and evidence-based standardization of patient care. PMID:23820348

Luo, Lingyun; Rowbottom, James; Craker, John; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

2013-07-01

77

Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Park, Stephen K. (editor)

1989-01-01

78

Considerations for the Composition of Visual Scene Displays: Potential Contributions of Information from Visual and Cognitive Sciences (Forum Note)  

PubMed Central

Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing – that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display – therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations. PMID:22946989

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

2013-01-01

79

Translating Ensemble Weather Forecasts into Probabilistic User-Relevant Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather-related decisions increasingly rely on probabilistic information as a means of assessing the risk of one potential outcome over another. Ensemble forecasting presents one of the key approaches trying to grasp the uncertainty of weather forecasting. Moreover, in the future decision makers will rely on tools that fully integrate weather information into the decision making process. Through these decision support tools, weather information will be translated into impact information. This presentation will highlight the translation of gridded ensemble weather forecasts into probabilistic user-relevant information. Examples will be discussed that relate to the management of air traffic, noise and pollution dispersion, missile trajectory prediction, water resources and flooding, wind energy production, and road maintenance. The primary take-home message from these examples will be that weather forecasts have to be tailored with a specific user perspective in mind rather than a "one fits all" approach, where a standard forecast product gets thrown over the fence and the user has to figure out what to do with it.

Steiner, Matthias; Sharman, Robert; Hopson, Thomas; Liu, Yubao; Chapman, Michael

2010-05-01

80

The effect of social context on the use of visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social context modulates action kinematics. Less is known about whether social context also affects the use of task relevant\\u000a visual information. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the instruction to play table tennis competitively or cooperatively\\u000a affected the kind of visual cues necessary for successful table tennis performance. In two experiments, participants played\\u000a table tennis in a dark room

Stephan Streuber; Günther Knoblich; Natalie Sebanz; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Stephan de la Rosa

81

A content analysis of visual cancer information: prevalence and use of photographs and illustrations in printed health materials.  

PubMed

Researchers and practitioners have an increasing interest in visual components of health information and health communication messages. This study contributes to this evolving body of research by providing an account of the visual images and information featured in printed cancer communication materials. Using content analysis, 147 pamphlets and 858 images were examined to determine how frequently images are used in printed materials, what types of images are used, what information is conveyed visually, and whether or not current recommendations for the inclusion of visual content were being followed. Although visual messages were found to be common in printed health materials, existing recommendations about the inclusion of visual content were only partially followed. Results are discussed in terms of how relevant theoretical frameworks in the areas of behavior change and visual persuasion seem to be used in these materials, as well as how more theory-oriented research is necessary in visual messaging efforts. PMID:25061954

King, Andy J

2015-07-01

82

Acoustic-tactile rendering of visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visual information via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.

Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.

2012-03-01

83

Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

2010-01-01

84

Sex differences in memory for sexually-relevant information.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

McCall, Katie M; Rellini, Alessandra H; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

2007-08-01

85

Visual data mining using principled projection algorithms and information visualization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a flexible visual data mining framework which combines advanced projection algorithms from the machine learning domain and visual techniques developed in the information visualization domain. The advantage of such an interface is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. We integrate principled projection algorithms, such as generative topographic mapping (GTM) and hierarchical GTM (HGTM),

Dharmesh M. Maniyar; Ian T. Nabney

2006-01-01

86

Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

87

A Framework for User Interface Design in Visual Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the user interface framework of the VizIR project ((4)). VizIR is an open project to develop a Java-based, extendible and well-documented asset framework for visual information retrieval. The paper includes a description of the visual components and their class structure, the communication between panels and the communication between visual components and query engines. Visual components include media

Horst Eidenberger; Christian Breiteneder

2002-01-01

88

An Introduction to Information Visualization Techniques for  

E-print Network

Domains Social visualization might depict Baby names Conversations Newsgroup activities Email patterns is partially from Stasko's Infovis class slides. #12;3 5 Baby Name Visualization Baby Names, Visualization two months Lesson ­ To design a successful exploratory data analysis tool, one good strategy

Yang, Jing

89

The Potential for Synergy between Information Visualization and Software Engineering Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be provocative, it could be argued that information visualization is a tool in search of an application. This viewpoint becomes most apparent when one seeks to adopt and adapt practices from the information visualization field and attempt to apply them elsewhere. Software engineering is an appealing area in which a number of researchers have been seeking to leverage some

Orlena C. Z. Gotel; Francis T. Marchese; Stephen J. Morris

2008-01-01

90

Evaluating lossiness and fidelity in information visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an approach to measure visualization fidelity for encoding of data to visual attributes based on the number of unique levels that can be perceived; and a summarization across multiple attributes to compare relative lossiness across visualization alternatives. These metrics can be assessed at design time in order to compare the lossiness of different visualizations to aid in the selection between design alternatives. Examples are provided showing the application of these metrics to two different visualization design scenarios. Limitations and dependencies are noted along with recommendations for other metrics that can be used in conjunction with fidelity and lossiness to gauge effectiveness at design-time.

Brath, Richard; Banissi, Ebad

2015-01-01

91

On the assessment of visual communication by information theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.

Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

1993-01-01

92

Measuring Aesthetics for Information Visualization Daniel Filonik, Dominikus Baur  

E-print Network

Measuring Aesthetics for Information Visualization Daniel Filonik, Dominikus Baur Media Informatics Aesthetics is an unsolved problem of information visual- ization, because there is no satisfactory understanding of what constitutes aesthetic effect. This survey paper gives an overview of approaches to model

93

Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

2006-01-01

94

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities,

Harold H. Harris

1999-01-01

95

Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks  

PubMed Central

Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium. PMID:17101060

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

2006-01-01

96

Electronic processing of medical visual information.  

PubMed

The potential data base for electronic processing has recently been enlarged significantly to include static and dynamic visual information. Emergence of the videodisk and other technology now enables computer-assisted instruction to be audiovisual and audiovisual communication to be interactive. One consequence, now that audiovisual display has been wedded to computer systems, is that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in many medical subjects should no longer be considered acceptable unless it includes pictorial data. Therefore, the computer scientist must now master the principles and become knowledgeable in the skills of audiovisual communication to cope successfully with the impending revolution in education and to make good use of the newly available technology. Similarly, in planning storage and retrieval systems, images must be considered as part of the data. This presentation traces the development of interactive multimedial self-instruction by describing the innovative functions that have appeared in equipment during the past 13 years culminating in the QuadraSync. The low cost of some of these devices encourages their adoption. PMID:6172531

Leveridge, L L

1981-01-01

97

Adaptable Similarity Search using Non-Relevant Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many modern database applications require content-based similarity search capability in numeric attribute space. Further, users' no- tion of similarity varies between search ses- sions. Therefore online techniques for adap- tively reflning the similarity metric based on relevance feedback from the user are neces- sary. Existing methods use retrieved items marked relevant by the user to reflne the sim- ilarity metric,

T. V. Ashwin; Rahul Gupta; Sugata Ghosal

2002-01-01

98

Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

Jobson, Daniel J.

1991-01-01

99

Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

Abilock, Debbie

2008-01-01

100

Documentary Images: Visual Information Made to Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the nature of documentary images, which appear to be inherently true, self evident visual statements. However, a degree of visual literacy is required of viewers before appropriate image understanding can occur. The nature of the image as icon, index, and as symbol combined to provide a powerful reinforcement of historical and current assumptions regarding documentation. Image construction

Kenton S. Hyatt

1992-01-01

101

Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

2001-08-20

102

Impaired Filtering of Behaviourally Irrelevant Visual Information in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent proposal suggests that dyslexic individuals suffer from attentional deficiencies, which impair the ability to selectively process incoming visual information. To investigate this possibility, we employed a spatial cueing procedure in conjunction with a single fixation visual search task measuring thresholds for discriminating the…

Roach, Neil W.; Hogben, John H.

2007-01-01

103

TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1  

E-print Network

TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1 , Bongshin Lee1, 2 , Dana@wam.umd.edu +1-301-405-7445 ABSTRACT Biodiversity databases have recently become widely available to the public in the biodiversity domain. Users indicated that the system was usable and tree visualization aided

Golbeck, Jennifer

104

Exploring the Role of Individual Differences in Information Visualization  

E-print Network

different visualizations for interpreting geographical data. One of the ways in which visualization methods are used within Geographical Information Systems (GISs) is to show how an area of interest will change over time. Georgia Basin Quest ( GB-Quest) and QuestVis, both developed at the University of British

Conati, Cristina

105

Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

O'Sullivan, Carmel

2002-01-01

106

Using Probabilistic Models of Document Retrieval without Relevance Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retrieval experiments with the Cranfield collection of 1,400 documents used strategies based on a probabilistic model for an initial search and intermediate search when no relevant documents were known. Results show initial strategy is better than conventional strategies in retrieval effectiveness and number of queries needed to retrieve…

Croft, W. B.; Harper, D. J.

1979-01-01

107

Web-based visualization of Earth observation data and information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The visualization results of multi-dimensional and dynamically spatio-temporal information are diversified by the varying user demands. To realize the sharing of spatio-temporal data, information and knowledge, this paper proposes a technical framework for on-line generation and distribution of the visualization of spatio-temporal information to meet personality need from difference level user; then, describes the key technologies that are involved; final, introduces the implementation and application of the system by taking a marine disaster information system as an example.

Fang, Chaoyang; Lin, Hui; Wong, Chiu Wang Anthony

2008-12-01

108

The effect of social context on the use of visual information.  

PubMed

Social context modulates action kinematics. Less is known about whether social context also affects the use of task relevant visual information. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the instruction to play table tennis competitively or cooperatively affected the kind of visual cues necessary for successful table tennis performance. In two experiments, participants played table tennis in a dark room with only the ball, net, and table visible. Visual information about both players' actions was manipulated by means of self-glowing markers. We recorded the number of successful passes for each player individually. The results showed that participants' performance increased when their own body was rendered visible in both the cooperative and the competitive condition. However, social context modulated the importance of different sources of visual information about the other player. In the cooperative condition, seeing the other player's racket had the largest effects on performance increase, whereas in the competitive condition, seeing the other player's body resulted in the largest performance increase. These results suggest that social context selectively modulates the use of visual information about others' actions in social interactions. PMID:21863262

Streuber, Stephan; Knoblich, Günther; Sebanz, Natalie; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

2011-10-01

109

Lessons about Visualizing with Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article identifies online lesson plans that can be used to introduce visualizing, a comprehension skill important to both science and literacy learning. Each of the lessons meets NCTE/IRA English language arts standards. The article appears in the free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which is structured around the seven essential principles of climate science and literacy.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

110

Crossmodal information for visual and haptic discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction

Flip Phillips; Eric J. L. Egan

2009-01-01

111

Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

2011-01-01

112

Use of Visual Information for Phonetic Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy with which naive listeners can report sentences presented 12 dB below a background of continuous prose was compared with accuracy in four audio visually supplemented conditions. With monochrome displays of the talker showing (i) the face, (ii) the lips and (iii) four points at the centres of the lips and the corners of the mouth, accuracy improved by

Quentin Summerfield

1979-01-01

113

Interactive tree comparison for co-located collaborative information visualization.  

PubMed

In many domains increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of information visualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to support collaboration around information visualizations poses special challenges and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around information visualizations in a co-located setting, using a shared interactive tabletop display. We introduce an analysis of challenges and requirements for the design of co-located collaborative information visualization systems. We then present a new system that facilitates hierarchical data comparison tasks for this type of collaborative work. Our system supports multi-user input, shared and individual views on the hierarchical data visualization, flexible use of representations, and flexible workspace organization to facilitate group work around visualizations. PMID:17968069

Isenberg, Petra; Carpendale, Sheelagh

2007-01-01

114

Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

Ahn, Jae-wook

2010-01-01

115

Providing relevant health information to patient-centered healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient-centric healthcare is an emerging healthcare model that optimizes the healthcare system to focus on patient experience and outcomes for better health and well-being. It requires that patients as well as physicians should have the ability to obtain and understand health information, and make appropriate health decisions. A problem is how such health information should be gathered from a variety

J. Puustjarvi; L. Puustjarvi

2010-01-01

116

Representing Information Collections for Visual Cognition  

E-print Network

it easier and more entertaining to browse information in this representation. This research is applicable to represent the information resources in contexts such as search engines or digital libraries. The better representation will enhance the cognitive...

Koh, Eunyee

2009-05-15

117

Within- and cross-modal distance information disambiguate visual size-change perception.  

PubMed

Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional "auxiliary" (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property) sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond "bistable" stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy-though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning. PMID:20221263

Battaglia, Peter W; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O; Schrater, Paul R; Machulla, Tonja; Kersten, Daniel

2010-03-01

118

Using Visual Analytics and Information Visualization to Investigate In-Car Communication Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cars provide a large spectrum of electronic functional- ity which is realized by a great number of interconnected elec- tronic control units (ECUs). The constantly increasing complexity of these in-car communication networks challenges developers in terms of understandability. The goal of my PhD research is to find novel and suitable methods of visual analytics (VA) and information visualization (InfoVis)

Michael Sedlmair; Andreas Butz

119

Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

2012-01-01

120

VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION  

E-print Network

VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION Angeliki@usc.edu, shri@sipi.usc.edu ABSTRACT Emotion expression is an essential part of human interaction. Rich emotional information of ten speakers of both genders during emotional speech. We derive compact facial representations

Busso, Carlos

121

Estimating the Number of People in Buildings Using Visual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time pedestrian flow information and the count of people in determined areas is essential for a multitude of management and monitoring functions. The range of applications is wide and the focus here is on the development of statistical methods for people volume estimation in buildings. To count people, visual information from surveillance cameras is used. This is the first

Subhash Challa; Khalid Aboura; Konda Ravikanth; Suhrud Deshpande

2007-01-01

122

Natural technologies for knowledge work: information visualization and knowledge extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper ‘looks” into one of the most novel knowledge management technology products that has been brought to the market in the recent years. The authors describe two technologies, information visualization and knowledge extraction, for leveraging our natural abilities of vision, language and memory. They discuss a way for exploiting structure that is available in the information system in one

Ramana Rao; Ralph H. Sprague

1998-01-01

123

Internet-based information resources on aquatic alien species relevant to the Ponto-Caspian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open information systems are considered to be essential elements of dissemination of information on invasive alien species, and are powerful management tools. A review of available online information resources, relevant for the Ponto-Caspian Region, has revealed that they are not sufficient to serve the region. Development of the regional, Ponto-Caspian online information system on aquatic alien species is urgently needed,

VADIM E. PANOV

124

Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

2001-08-20

125

Visualization of information with an established order  

DOEpatents

Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

2007-02-13

126

Visual information for judging temporal range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

1993-01-01

127

Neural processing of visual information under interocular suppression: a critical review  

PubMed Central

When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visual information that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visual information is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevant information. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469

Sterzer, Philipp; Stein, Timo; Ludwig, Karin; Rothkirch, Marcus; Hesselmann, Guido

2014-01-01

128

Spectral information from minerals relevant for luminescence dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews basic spectral features of luminescence from minerals used in dating and allied research. Luminescence production is a result of multiple interactions within the imperfect crystal lattice and spectral information is not limited to the emission of light. Results of spectral investigations of luminescence emission during thermal stimulation (TL) or optical stimulation (OSL) form the main part of

M. R. Krbetschek; J. Götze; A. Dietrich; T. Trautmann

1997-01-01

129

WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

2002-06-09

130

Curvature and the Visual Perception of Shape: Theory on Information along Object Boundaries and the Minima Rule Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…

Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E. Charles

2012-01-01

131

Why high performance visual data analytics is both relevant and difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities-R&D and application-are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real-world problems.

Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Prabhat; Byna, Suren; Rübel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

2013-01-01

132

Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult  

SciTech Connect

Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

2012-12-01

133

Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

2005-01-01

134

Visual acuity and its implications for display systems: a review of previous, relevant research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes to be a comprehensive review of earlier papers by government, industry and university authors regarding performance of the human eye-brain system relative to resolution. An understanding as to the background and conditions of these studies shall be given. A summary of findings with regard visual resolution performance shall be reported, with consequent implications as to maximizing display system design.

Desjardins, Daniel D.

2014-06-01

135

Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway  

PubMed Central

The spatial components of a visual scene are processed neurally in a sequence of coarse features followed by fine features. This coarse-to-fine temporal stream was initially considered to be a cortical function, but has recently been demonstrated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that coarse-to-fine processing is present at earlier stages of visual processing in the retinal ganglion cells that supply lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. To compare coarse-to-fine processing in the cat’s visual system, we measured the visual responses of connected neuronal pairs from the retina and LGN, and separate populations of cells from each region. We found that coarse-to-fine processing was clearly present at the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Interestingly, peak and high-spatial-frequency cutoff responses were higher in the LGN than in the retina, indicating that there was a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine information from the retina to the LGN to the visual cortex. The analysis of early visual pathway receptive field characteristics showed that the physiological response interplay between the center and surround regions was consistent with coarse-to-fine features and may provide a primary role in the underlying mechanism. Taken together, the results from this study provided a framework for understanding the emergence and refinement of coarse-to-fine processing in the visual system. PMID:24251425

Moore, Bartlett D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Freeman, Ralph D.

2014-01-01

136

Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

2014-01-01

137

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS, MANUSCRIPT ID 1 The Five W's for Information Visualization  

E-print Network

, coordinated and multiple views, focus and context, health informatics, electronic medical record (EMR the application of the Five W's to health informatics. We find that most current health care informatics systems's for Information Visualization with Application to Healthcare Informatics Zhiyuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Bing

Mueller, Klaus

138

Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

Koroscik, Judith Smith

139

Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.  

PubMed

Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization. PMID:25280165

Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

2014-01-01

140

A Model of Object-Based Attention That Guides Active Visual Search to Behaviourally Relevant Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During active visual search for a colour-orientation conjunction target, scan paths tend to be guided to target coloured locations\\u000a (Motter & Belky, 1998). An active vision model, using biased competition, is able to replicate this behaviour. At the cellular\\u000a level, the model replicates spatial and object-based attentional effects over time courses observed in single cell recordings\\u000a in monkeys (Chelazzi et

Linda J. Lanyon; Susan L. Denham

2004-01-01

141

Lunar and solar influences on human visual disease: the relevance of oedema?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term visual acuity measurements from an eye affected with macular oedema revealed an unexpected rhythm. In order to see if the data bore any evidence of a celestial influence, we made further analyses. A time-series analysis revealed intrinsic rhythms with periods of about 30 days, i.e. circalunar rhythms. A plot of the data according to the phase of the Moon

W. Burke; J. Leung; D. F. Davey

2011-01-01

142

Lunar and solar influences on human visual disease: the relevance of oedema?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term visual acuity measurements from an eye affected with macular oedema revealed an unexpected rhythm. In order to see if the data bore any evidence of a celestial influence, we made further analyses. A time-series analysis revealed intrinsic rhythms with periods of about 30 days, i.e. circalunar rhythms. A plot of the data according to the phase of the Moon

W. Burke; J. Leung; D. F. Davey

2012-01-01

143

The prevalence effect in lateral masking and its relevance for visual search.  

PubMed

In stimulus displays with or without a single target amid 1,644 identical distractors, target prevalence was varied between 20, 50 and 80 %. Maximum gaze deviation was measured to determine the strength of lateral masking in these arrays. The results show that lateral masking was strongest in the 20 % prevalence condition, which differed significantly from both the 50 and 80 % prevalence conditions. No difference was observed between the latter two. This pattern of results corresponds to that found in the literature on the prevalence effect in visual search (stronger lateral masking corresponding to longer search times). The data add to similar findings reported earlier (Wertheim et al. in Exp Brain Res, 170:387-402, 2006), according to which the effects of many well-known factors in visual search correspond to those on lateral masking. These were the effects of set size, disjunctions versus conjunctions, display area, distractor density, the asymmetry effect (Q vs. O's) and viewing distance. The present data, taken together with those earlier findings, may lend credit to a causal hypothesis that lateral masking could be a more important mechanism in visual search than usually assumed. PMID:25567088

Geelen, B P; Wertheim, A H

2015-04-01

144

Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

2007-01-01

145

How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

2012-01-01

146

Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

2007-01-01

147

Information technology for active perception: Itap Visual communication today  

E-print Network

Information technology for active perception: Itap Visual communication today The message that is conveyed by an image depends very much on the scan- path, i.e., the sequence of eye move- ments attributes, luminance and color. Itap idea: The scan path and the active component of vision must become part

148

3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications  

E-print Network

3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications Christiaan Fluit, Marta Sabou and Frank van Harmelen 3.1 Introduction The Semantic Web is an extension of the current yet unheard of. Rather than being merely a vision, the Semantic Web has significant backing from

van Harmelen, Frank

149

Children's use of visual information in action planning  

E-print Network

information to use a) egocentric cues, b) allocentric cues, and c) the combination, in the form of visual background around a target. Children representing the age groups 5-, 7-, 9-, 11 years and adults participated in three experiments. All experiments were...

Cordova, Alberto

2012-02-14

150

Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's dis- ease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concur- rent manual task to facilitate typical speech production. Twenty listeners (10 experienced and 10 inexperienced) transcribed sentences while watching

Connie K. Keintz; Kate Bunton; Jeannette D. Hoit

2007-01-01

151

Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

2013-01-01

152

Towards Information Visualization and Clustering Techniques for MRI Data Sets  

E-print Network

of Information Visual- ization (IV) techniques and data mining algorithms for the analysis of Magnetic Resonance of a tumor to a treatment, based on the measurement of tumor size reduction, is no longer valid [3]. Dy and the endothelial permeability (kPS) of tumor vasculature, accepted surrogate markers of angiogenesis. HT-20 human

Castellani, Umberto

153

A scalability study of web-native information visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several web-native information visualization methods (SVG, HTML5's Canvas, native HTML) are studied to contrast their per- formances at different data scales. Using Java implementations of parallel coordinates and squarified treemaps for comparison, we ex- plore the design space of these web-based technologies in order to determine what design trade-offs are required.

Donald W. Johnson; T. J. Jankun-kelly

2008-01-01

154

Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information  

PubMed Central

During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions. PMID:23785341

Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco

2013-01-01

155

Visual Information About Time-to-Collision Between Two Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a forced-choice paradigm, human observers' sensitivity to visual information specifying a moving object's future time of arrival at a designated position in the field of view was evaluated. A geometrical analysis demonstrated that information specifying a first-order temporal relationship (i.e., without taking changes in velocity into account) is available in the combination of the relative rate of dilation of

Reinoud J. Bootsma; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

1993-01-01

156

Axis - For Information on Visual Artists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the Arts Councils of England, Wales and Scotland, and seven regional arts boards, Axis is "the largest interactive database of contemporary British art on the Internet." Created to provide information about artists and makers living/working in Britain to a national and international audience, the database curently offers over 12,500 images from 3,300 artists and makers. Users can search the database by artist name; browse by artwork type, material, and/or region; or conduct a free-text quick search. Initial returns include a thumbnail image with the work title and date and artist's name. Clicking on the image launches a new window with more detailed information, including dimensions, materials, techniques, characteristics, artistic approach, and a brief description, often written by the artist. Additional resources at the site include a collection of categorized links to other art sites, and CyberAxis, "a 3-D Virtual Gallery Space for debate, presentation and interaction" (Blaxxun Contact plug-in [Win 95/98/NT/2000] and free registration required).

157

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

158

Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map  

SciTech Connect

Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

Prokopowicz, P.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Cooper, P.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

159

Electronic patient records in action: Transforming information into professionally relevant knowledge.  

PubMed

The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare. PMID:25133770

Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans

2011-03-01

160

A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

1999-01-01

161

ProfileRank: Finding Relevant Content and Influential Users based on Information Diffusion  

E-print Network

mechanisms, recommendation systems, and vi- ral marketing/advertising campaigns on the Web. Two key concepts of effective information diffusion mechanisms, recom- mendation systems, and viral marketing/advertising campaigns. Two key concepts in information diffusion are influence and relevance. Influence is the ability

Zaki, Mohammed Javeed

162

Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256

Maekawa, Toshihiko; Katsuki, Satomi; Kishimoto, Junji; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ogata, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Takao; Ueno, Takefumi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kanba, Shigenobu

2013-01-01

163

Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

2003-01-01

164

Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby. PMID:22529369

Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

2012-01-01

165

Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review  

PubMed Central

Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

2014-01-01

166

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

2014-07-01

167

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

2012-07-01

168

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

2013-07-01

169

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

2011-07-01

170

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

2010-07-01

171

Real time visualization and characterization of platelet deposition under flow onto clinically relevant opaque surfaces.  

PubMed

Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across six opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2 O3 ), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 s(-1) . Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2 O3 , YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (p?

Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Woolley, Joshua R; Kameneva, Marina V; Antaki, James F; Wagner, William R

2015-04-01

172

Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

2012-01-01

173

The accuracy of aimed movements to visual targets during development: the role of visual information.  

PubMed

Children aged 1.5 to 8 years were required to touch accurately an illuminated target lamp located on a vertical board. Movements were made when visual information was complete (target lit for 3 s, room illuminated; partial (target lit for 3 s, room dark, and reduced (target lit for 0.7 s, room dark). Dependent variables were response accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Accuracy decreased with decreasing availability of visual information and improved with age under all conditions. Reaction times were shorter in the dark (Conditions 2 and 3) than in the light; they decreased with age up to age 5 and did not continue to decrease thereafter. Movement time did not change with age under Conditions 1 and 3 but tended to increase with age under Condition 2. Slower movements were more accurate at all ages, provided visual feedback could be utilized. Increased reliance on the strategy "slower movements yield higher accuracy" was held to account for developmental changes under Condition 2, whereas in Conditions 1 and 3 improvement in the efficiency of motor preprogramming was implicated. PMID:3734690

Brown, J V; Sepehr, M M; Ettlinger, G; Skreczek, W

1986-06-01

174

On the dynamic information underlying visual anticipation skill.  

PubMed

What information underwrites visual anticipation skill in dynamic sport situations? We examined this question on the premise that the optical information used for anticipation resides in the dynamic motion structures, or modes, that are inherent in the observed kinematic patterns. In Experiment 1, we analyzed whole-body movements involved in tennis shots to different directions and distances by means of principal component analysis. The shots differed in the few modes that captured most of the variance, especially as a function of shot direction. In Experiments 2 and 3, skilled and less skilled tennis players were asked to anticipate the direction of simulated shots on the basis of kinematic patterns in which only the constituent dynamic structures were manipulated. The results indicated that players predicted shot direction by picking up the information contained in multiple low-dimensional dynamic modes, suggesting that anticipation skill in tennis entails the extraction of this dynamic information from high-dimensional displays. PMID:18927005

Huys, Raoul; Smeeton, Nicholas J; Hodges, Nicola J; Beek, Peter J; Williams, A Mark

2008-10-01

175

Seeking Information with an Information Visualization System: A Study of Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain information visualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…

Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.

2011-01-01

176

ITCS 4121/5121: Information Visualization General Information Class meeting time: 11am 12:15pm TR Woodward Hall 135  

E-print Network

. Tufte, Edward. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (2nd Edition). Graphics Press, 2001. 3. Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information. Graphics Press, 1990. 4. Tufte, Edward. Visual Explanations

Yang, Jing

177

Learning the Relevance of Parking Information in VANETs1 Piotr Szczurek, Bo Xu, Ouri Wolfson  

E-print Network

Learning the Relevance of Parking Information in VANETs1 Piotr Szczurek, Bo Xu, Ouri Wolfson University Miami, FL, U.S.A. rishen@cis.fiu.edu ABSTRACT The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) has been by the communication limitations of a VANET, such as limited transmission range and bandwidth. This imposes a necessity

Wolfson, Ouri E.

178

Ontology driven data mining and information visualization for the networked home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is the process of extracting hidden knowledge from data. As more data is gathered, data mining is becoming an increasingly important tool to transform this data into information. Visualization is central to data mining. Information visualization is the process of turning abstract data into a visual shape easily understood by the user, making it possible for him\\/her to

Ilkka Niskanen; Julia Kantorovitch

2010-01-01

179

Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

2010-01-01

180

Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

2012-04-01

181

Public Transport Information System for Visually Impaired and Blind People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.

Markiewicz, Micha?; Skomorowski, Marek

182

Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through a Longitudinal Field Study  

E-print Network

a deep enough understanding of the discipline. Relatively few studies of intelligence analysts1 Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through of Technology ABSTRACT While intelligence analysis has been a primary target domain for visual analytics system

Stasko, John T.

183

A Biologically Inspired Bayesian Model of Visual Attention for Humanoid Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual attention of human being refers to the process of selectively choosing a set of relevant visual information for further processing. Human eyes are always exposed to enormous amount of visual information, not all of which are relevant to the current mental\\/behavioral state. The attention system helps to focus on a relevant region of a scene or an object of

Momotaz Begum; George K. I. Mann; Raymond G. Gosine

2006-01-01

184

From paragraph to graph: latent semantic analysis for information visualization.  

PubMed

Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at approximately 300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 x 10(7) projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

Landauer, Thomas K; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

2004-04-01

185

Visuomotor sensitivity to visual information about surface orientation.  

PubMed

We measured human visuomotor sensitivity to visual information about three-dimensional surface orientation by analyzing movements made to place an object on a slanted surface. We applied linear discriminant analysis to the kinematics of subjects' movements to surfaces with differing slants (angle away form the fronto-parallel) to derive visuomotor d's for discriminating surfaces differing in slant by 5 degrees. Subjects' visuomotor sensitivity to information about surface orientation was very high, with discrimination "thresholds" ranging from 2 to 3 degrees. In a first experiment, we found that subjects performed only slightly better using binocular cues alone than monocular texture cues and that they showed only weak evidence for combining the cues when both were available, suggesting that monocular cues can be just as effective in guiding motor behavior in depth as binocular cues. In a second experiment, we measured subjects' perceptual discrimination and visuomotor thresholds in equivalent stimulus conditions to decompose visuomotor sensitivity into perceptual and motor components. Subjects' visuomotor thresholds were found to be slightly greater than their perceptual thresholds for a range of memory delays, from 1 to 3 s. The data were consistent with a model in which perceptual noise increases with increasing delay between stimulus presentation and movement initiation, but motor noise remains constant. This result suggests that visuomotor and perceptual systems rely on the same visual estimates of surface slant for memory delays ranging from 1 to 3 s. PMID:14586027

Knill, David C; Kersten, Daniel

2004-03-01

186

TileBars: visualization of term distribution information in full text information access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of information retrieval has traditionally focused on textbases consisting of titles and abstracts. As a consequence, many underlying assumptions must be altered for retrieval from full-length text collections. This paper argues for mak- ing use of text structure when retrieving from full text doc- uments, and presents a visualization paradigm, called Tile- Bars, that demonstrates the usefulness of

Marti A. Hearst

1995-01-01

187

In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

2010-01-01

188

Effect of noise in processing of visual information  

PubMed Central

Background Information transmission and processing in the nervous system has stochastic nature. Multiple factors contribute to neuronal trial-to-trial variability. Noise and variations are introduced by the processes at the molecular and cellular level (thermal noise, channel current noise, membrane potential variations, biochemical and diffusion noise at synapses etc). The stochastic processes are affected by different physical (temperature, electromagnetic field) and chemical (drugs) factors. The aim of this study was experimental investigation of hypotheses that increase in the noise level in the brain affects processing of visual information. Change in the noise level was introduced by an external factor producing excess noise in the brain. Methods An exposure to 450 MHz low-frequency modulated microwave radiation was applied to generate excess noise. Such exposure has been shown to increase diffusion, alter membrane resting potential, gating variables and intracellular Calcium efflux. Nine healthy volunteers passed the experimental protocol at the lower (without microwave) and the higher (with microwave) noise level. Two photos (visual stimuli) of unfamiliar, young male faces were presented to the subjects, one picture after another. The task was to identify later the photos from a group of six photos and to decide in which order they were presented. Each subject had a total of eight sessions at the lower and eight at the higher noise level. Each session consisted of 50 trials; altogether a subject made 800 trials, 400 at the lower and 400 at the higher noise level. Student t-test was applied for statistical evaluation of the results. Results Correct recognition of both stimuli in the right order was better at the lower noise level. All the subjects under investigation showed higher numbers of right answers in trials at the lower noise level. Average number of correct answers from n=400 trials with microwave exposure was 50.3, without exposure 54.4, difference 7.5%, p<0.002. No difference between results at the lower and the higher noise level was revealed in the case of only partly correct or incorrect answers. Conclusions Our experimental results showed that introduced excess noise reduced significantly ability of the nervous system in correct processing of visual information. PMID:20522266

2010-01-01

189

Age differences in default and reward networks during processing of personally relevant information.  

PubMed

We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. PMID:22484520

Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa

2012-06-01

190

Information assurance visualizations for specific stages of situational awareness and intended uses: lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualization has proven to be a valuable tool for working more effectively with complex data and maintaining situational awareness in demanding operational domains. Unfortunately, many applications of visualization technology fall short of expectations because the technology is used inappropriately - the wrong tool applied in the wrong way. A study of visualization techniques as applied to one particularly demanding

Anita D'Amico; Michael Kocka

2005-01-01

191

ZuiScat: querying and visualizing information spaces on personal digital assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZuiScat is a visualization concept for querying large information spaces on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Retrieval results are presented in a dynamic scatterplot, which is enhanced by geometric and semantic zoom techniques to provide smooth transitions from abstract visual encodings to data content. The same visualization is also used to manage bookmarks and to serve as a powerful query history

Thorsten Büring; Harald Reiterer

2005-01-01

192

Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

2012-01-01

193

DaisyViz: A model-based user interface toolkit for interactive information visualization systems  

E-print Network

DaisyViz: A model-based user interface toolkit for interactive information visualization systems), various visualization, interaction tasks. To address these issues, we designed DaisyViz, a model visualization applications without traditional programming. DaisyViz is based on a user interface model

Giles, C. Lee

194

The effects of bromazepam on the early stage of visual information processing (P100).  

PubMed

The early stages of visual information processing, involving the detection and perception of simple visual stimuli, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to psychotropic agents. The present study investigated the effects of an acute dose of bromazepam (3 mg), compared with placebo, on the P100 component of the visual evoked potential and reaction time. The sample, consisting of 14 healthy subjects (6 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Results suggest that bromazepam (3 mg) impairs the initial stage of visual information processing, as observed by an increase in P100 latency. PMID:18094853

Puga, Fernanda; Sampaio, Isabel; Veiga, Heloisa; Ferreira, Camila; Cagy, Maurício; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

2007-12-01

195

Encoding and retaining information in the visuals and verbals of an educational movie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that when viewers watching an educational movie are presented simultaneously with information in two media-visual\\u000a and verbal \\/auditory, there is no competition fa resources. When encoding information in one medium, one is not hindered from\\u000a encoding information in the other; even when visual and linguistic information are presented sequentially, doubling study\\u000a time, the extraction of information is

Patricia Baggett; Andrzej Ehrenfeucht

1983-01-01

196

Intermittent visual information and the multiple time scales of visual motor control of continuous isometric force production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment, we examined the effect of intermittency (from 25.6 Hz to 0.2 Hz) of visual information on continuous isometric\\u000a force production as a function of force level (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]). The amount of\\u000a force variability decreased and the irregularity of force output increased as a function of increased visual intermittency\\u000a rate.

Jacob J. Sosnoff; Karl M. Newell

2005-01-01

197

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War M

Harris, Harold H.

1999-02-01

198

In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health\\/behavior. Findings indicate that information

Katrina Kubicek; William J. Beyer; George Weiss; Ellen Iverson; Michele D. Kipke

2010-01-01

199

Research on sharing of geographic information portrayal based on quantitative visual variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information portrayal standard within geographic information standards community in ISO 19117 is consisted of symbol specification, symbol assignment, portrayal services, cartographic finishing rules and implementation specification. The portrayal standard specifies a conceptual framework which includes classes, attributes, associations and operations and is the base of implementation and sharing of the geographic information portrayal. The portrayal standard associates geographic features with symbols. This paper starts up with the quantitative methodology for specifying visual variables. Consequently, visual variable values of geographic information portrayal are taken to be statistically analyzed on shape, size and color. Furthermore, a set of quantitative rules of visual variables within the geographic information portrayal system are retrieved. Meanwhile, a visual variable model for portrayal is founded in this paper. At last, the standard definition sharing of the portrayal is implemented with XML, which will become model base of geographic information portrayal and visual analyses for earth observation data.

Mei, Yang; Li, Lin; Zhu, Haihong

2008-12-01

200

Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Results Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (p<0.001), and more sun protection (p<0.001). Regarding gender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. Conclusions The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits. PMID:23573372

Cervinka, Renate

2013-01-01

201

Visual–vestibular stimulation interferes with information processing in young and older humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention has been implicated in postural control and other tasks requiring sensory integration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of attention in sensory-motor processing of vestibular and combined visual–vestibular information during seated rotations using a dual-task interference approach. We hypothesized that auditory information processing would be influenced by concurrent visual-ocular, vestibulo-ocular, or combined visual-vestibulo-ocular processing. We

Joseph M. Furman; Martijn L. T. M. Müller; Mark S. Redfern; J. Richard Jennings

2003-01-01

202

Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation  

E-print Network

Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback¶ University of Wisconsin­Madison Figure 1: Using visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from, kinesthet- ics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped

Radwin, Robert G.

203

A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

204

Unsupervised Topic Identification by Integrating Linguistic and Visual Information Based on Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an unsupervised topic identification method integrating linguis- tic and visual information based on Hid- den Markov Models (HMMs). We employ HMMs for topic identification, wherein a state corresponds to a topic and various features including linguistic, visual and audio information are observed. Our ex- periments on two kinds of cooking TV programs show the effectiveness of our

Tomohide Shibata; Sadao Kurohashi

2006-01-01

205

VisGets: Coordinated Visualizations for Web-based Information Exploration and Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common Web-based search interfaces, it can be difficult to formulate queries that simultaneously combine temporal, spatial, and topical data filters. We investigate how coordinated visualizations can enhance search and exploration of information on the World Wide Web by easing the formulation of these types of queries. Drawing from visual information seeking and exploratory search, we introduce VisGets - interactive

Marian Dörk; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale; Christopher Collins; Carey Williamson

2008-01-01

206

Tree-Maps: a space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for the visualization of hierarchically structured information. The Tree-Map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information.

Brian Johnson; Ben Shneiderman

1991-01-01

207

Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots  

E-print Network

Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots by Cecilia Rodriguez Aragon Doctor to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate

Hearst, Marti

208

Multi-Spectral Face Recognition -Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information  

E-print Network

Multi-Spectral Face Recognition - Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information Pradeep for face recognition using visual imagery as well as the physiological information extracted from thermal face recognition methods. For each subject in the database, we store facial images collected

209

Age differences in default and reward networks during processing of personally relevant information  

PubMed Central

We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one’s self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the “positivity bias” with aging. PMID:22484520

Grady, Cheryl L.; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa

2013-01-01

210

Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

2014-09-22

211

Selective Theta-Synchronization of Choice-Relevant Information Subserves Goal-Directed Behavior  

PubMed Central

Theta activity reflects a state of rhythmic modulation of excitability at the level of single neuron membranes, within local neuronal groups and between distant nodes of a neuronal network. A wealth of evidence has shown that during theta states distant neuronal groups synchronize, forming networks of spatially confined neuronal clusters at specific time periods during task performance. Here, we show that a functional commonality of networks engaging in theta rhythmic states is that they emerge around decision points, reflecting rhythmic synchronization of choice-relevant information. Decision points characterize a point in time shortly before a subject chooses to select one action over another, i.e., when automatic behavior is terminated and the organism reactivates multiple sources of information to evaluate the evidence for available choices. As such, decision processes require the coordinated retrieval of choice-relevant information including (i) the retrieval of stimulus evaluations (stimulus–reward associations) and reward expectancies about future outcomes, (ii) the retrieval of past and prospective memories (e.g., stimulus–stimulus associations), (iii) the reactivation of contextual task rule representations (e.g., stimulus–response mappings), along with (iv) an ongoing assessment of sensory evidence. An increasing number of studies reveal that retrieval of these multiple types of information proceeds within few theta cycles through synchronized spiking activity across limbic, striatal, and cortical processing nodes. The outlined evidence suggests that evolving spatially and temporally specific theta synchronization could serve as the critical correlate underlying the selection of a choice during goal-directed behavior. PMID:21119780

Womelsdorf, Thilo; Vinck, Martin; Leung, L. Stan; Everling, Stefan

2010-01-01

212

Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected

Nancy R. LaPelle; Roger S. Luckmann; E. Hatheway Simpson; Elaine Russo Martin

2006-01-01

213

An Evaluation of Information Visualization in Attention-Limited Environments  

E-print Network

available on computer desktops, cell phones, handheld computers, in- dash vehicle displays, and elsewhere, people can effectively interpret visualizations with minimal distraction to their primary task. Keywords

214

Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045

Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.

2013-01-01

215

Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

216

Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Visual Variables for Geographic Information Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an empirical, perception-based evaluation approach for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of longstanding cartographic design principles applied to 2D map displays. The approach includes bottom-up visual saliency models that are compared with eye-movement data collected in human-subject experiments on map stimuli embedded in the so-called flicker paradigm. The proposed methods are applied to the assessment of four commonly used visual variables for designing 2D maps: size, color value, color hue, and orientation. The empirical results suggest that the visual variable size is the most efficient (fastest) and most effective (accurate) visual variable to detect change under flicker conditions. The visual variable orientation proved to be the least efficient and effective of the tested visual variables. These empirical results shed new light on the implied ranking of the visual variables that have been proposed over 40 years ago. With the presented approach we hope to provide cartographers, GIScientists and visualization designers a systematic assessment method to develop effective and efficient geovisualization displays.

Garlandini, Simone; Fabrikant, Sara Irina

217

Cross-modal sensory integration of visual-tactile motion information: instrument design and human psychophysics.  

PubMed

Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration. PMID:23727955

Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M K

2013-01-01

218

Health Providers’ Perceptions of Novel Approaches to Visualizing Integrated Health Information  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives We evaluated the design of three novel visualization techniques for integrated health information with health care providers in older adult care. Through focus groups, we identified generalizable themes related to the visualization and interpretation of health information. Using these themes we address challenges with visualizing integrated health information and provide recommendations for designers. Methods We recruited ten health care providers to participate in three focus groups. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to code and extract themes related to the visualization of graphical displays. Results We identified a set of four common themes across focus groups related to: 1) Trust in data for decision-making; 2) Perceived level of detail for visualization (subthemes: holistic, individual components); 3) Cognitive issues (subthemes: training and experience; cognitive overload; contrast); and 4) Application of visual displays. Furthermore, recommendations are provided as part of the iterative design process for the visualizations. Conclusions Data visualization of health information is an important component of care, impacting both the accuracy and speed of decision making. There are both functional and cognitive elements to consider during the development of appropriate visualizations that integrate different components of health. PMID:23450366

Le, T.; Reeder, B.; Thompson, H.; Demiris, G.

2014-01-01

219

Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

1980-01-01

220

Visual Reliance for Balance Control in Older Adults Persists When Visual Information Is Disrupted by Artificial Feedback Delays  

PubMed Central

Sensory information from our eyes, skin and muscles helps guide and correct balance. Less appreciated, however, is that delays in the transmission of sensory information between our eyes, limbs and central nervous system can exceed several 10s of milliseconds. Investigating how these time-delayed sensory signals influence balance control is central to understanding the postural system. Here, we investigate how delayed visual feedback and cognitive performance influence postural control in healthy young and older adults. The task required that participants position their center of pressure (COP) in a fixed target as accurately as possible without visual feedback about their COP location (eyes-open balance), or with artificial time delays imposed on visual COP feedback. On selected trials, the participants also performed a silent arithmetic task (cognitive dual task). We separated COP time series into distinct frequency components using low and high-pass filtering routines. Visual feedback delays affected low frequency postural corrections in young and older adults, with larger increases in postural sway noted for the group of older adults. In comparison, cognitive performance reduced the variability of rapid center of pressure displacements in young adults, but did not alter postural sway in the group of older adults. Our results demonstrate that older adults prioritize vision to control posture. This visual reliance persists even when feedback about the task is delayed by several hundreds of milliseconds. PMID:24614576

Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

2014-01-01

221

An integration of GIS and virtual reality for visualization of large irrigated area spatial information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the application of geographic information systems (GIS) and virtual reality (VR) technology with visualization of irrigated area spatial information in order to improve irrigated area information management and presents a novel architecture for 3D irrigated area information management system. The functions of each module are describes. Based on shule river basin informatization project, a practical application of system is introduced.

Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qing; Li, Lijun

2007-11-01

222

The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information

Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

2011-01-01

223

Mobile Information Visualization aims to develop more efficient and satisfying user interfaces for searching and exploring large information spaces on small screens. If you have any questions  

E-print Network

Scat is a visualization concept for querying large information spaces on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Retrieval.; Reiterer, H.: ZuiScat: Querying and Visualizing Information Spaces on Personal Digital Assistants

Reiterer, Harald

224

IVORY - An Object-Oriented Framework for Physics-Based Information Visualization in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present IVORY, a newly developed, platform-independent framework for physics-based visualization. IVORY is especially designed for information visualization applications and multidi- mensional graph layout. It is fully implemented in Java 1.1 and its architecture features client-server setup, which allows to run the visualization even on thin clients. In addition, VRML 2.0 exports can be viewed by any VRML plugged-in WWW-browser.

T. C. Sprenger; Markus H. Gross; Daniel Bielser; T. Strasser

1998-01-01

225

Information and repetition change children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues.  

PubMed

Gaze cues and direct gaze attract visual attention. However, few studies have explored visual cues in children within realistic contexts. The effect of information and repetitive stimulus presentation has not been thoroughly studied with dynamic stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate how information affects the visual strategies of children measured by the number of fixations on certain areas of interest and their durations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of gaze cues and direct gaze. In two consecutive experiments, children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks were measured by an eye tracker. Gaze cues were only present in Experiment 1.The results showed that repetitive stimulus presentation and information caused children to change their visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues. However, the effect was larger when the gaze cues were not present. These findings in children were similar to those in adults. PMID:23829142

Ordqvist, Anna; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Leung, Denise; Fleischer, Håkan; Dahlman, Joakim; Girdler, Sonya; Falkmer, Torbjörn

2013-02-01

226

Using neural networks to understand the information that guides behavior: a case study in visual navigation.  

PubMed

To behave in a robust and adaptive way, animals must extract task-relevant sensory information efficiently. One way to understand how they achieve this is to explore regularities within the information animals perceive during natural behavior. In this chapter, we describe how we have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore efficiencies in vision and memory that might underpin visually guided route navigation in complex worlds. Specifically, we use three types of neural network to learn the regularities within a series of views encountered during a single route traversal (the training route), in such a way that the networks output the familiarity of novel views presented to them. The problem of navigation is then reframed in terms of a search for familiar views, that is, views similar to those associated with the route. This approach has two major benefits. First, the ANN provides a compact holistic representation of the data and is thus an efficient way to encode a large set of views. Second, as we do not store the training views, we are not limited in the number of training views we use and the agent does not need to decide which views to learn. PMID:25502385

Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; Baddeley, Bart; Husbands, Philip

2015-01-01

227

The Impact of Order Incongruence between a Task-Irrelevant Auditory Sequence and a Task-Relevant Visual Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel effect is reported in which serial recall of visual digits was disrupted to a greater degree by the presence of the same set of digits presented as an irrelevant auditory sequence than by the presence of irrelevant auditory consonants, but only when the order of the irrelevant digits was incongruent with that of the to-be-remembered digits…

Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2005-01-01

228

Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements  

PubMed Central

The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions. PMID:25202298

Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

2014-01-01

229

User information for designers: a visual research package  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the development of a flexible, visually-based on-line package, based on free sorting and multi-dimensional scaling to help designers research users' emotional and social responses to designed objects.

Anu Antikainen; Mirja Kälviäinen; Hugh Miller

2003-01-01

230

Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

2015-01-01

231

End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information  

E-print Network

End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information (called WIND - Web INteraction Design) that focuses on both designers' creativity and model executability Environment providing designers with visual functionality. Keywords: Interaction Design, Semantic Web

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

From talk back to tag clouds: Social media, information visualization and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talk back is a concept defined by Schon in his now classic study of the design studio. This paper draws upon the concept of talk back to reflectively consider the implications of social media and specifically tag cloud visualizations on design research and practice. Information visualizations were once most commonly associated with researchers with scholarly and\\/or design expertise. Tag clouds

Karen Louise Smith

2009-01-01

233

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

234

Information and Scientific Visualization: Separate but Equal or Happy Together at Last  

E-print Network

Institute Chris Johnson, University of Utah David H. Laidlaw, Brown University INTRODUCTION: Must we visualization encompassed visualizing geographically registered data from weather models. While these were data...scientific data are often physically based, whereas business information and other abstract data

Tory, Melanie

235

ZuiScat -Querying and Visualizing Information Spaces on Personal Digital Assistants  

E-print Network

ZuiScat - Querying and Visualizing Information Spaces on Personal Digital Assistants Thorsten B@inf.uni-konstanz.de Abstract ZuiScat is a visualization concept for querying large infor- mation spaces on Personal Digital, overview, focus 1. INTRODUCTION Due to improved performance and connectivity features, Personal Digital

Reiterer, Harald

236

Spatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates  

E-print Network

of the human brain using body-centred coordinates to code the spatial position of both visual and somatic the ®rst indication of such processing networks in the human brain. Introduction Sensory systems conveyingSpatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates Gaspare Galati

237

Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

2010-01-01

238

Remembering more than meets the eye: A study of memory confusions about incomplete visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this series of four experiments was to examine the possible role of spontaneous imagery in memory confusions about the way in which visual information had been experienced. After viewing pictures of familiar objects, complete or incomplete in visual form, participants were asked to remember the way in which the objects had been presented. Although, as predicted, memory

Mary Ann Foley; Hugh J. Foley; Rachel Scheye; Angelica M. Bonacci

2007-01-01

239

The Effects of Color and Background Information in Motion Visuals on Children's Memory and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether color and background information in motion visuals have different effects on memory and comprehension of students in various grade levels. A three-by-three factorial pretest-posttest design was used, comparing levels of visual complexity and grade levels. The instructional content was a 12-minute computer animation…

Chen, Lin Ching

240

Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information  

PubMed Central

To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4?), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information.

Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

2015-01-01

241

Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception.  

PubMed

The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the formation of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed an increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

2014-10-15

242

Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech  

E-print Network

Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech emotional gestures + articulation movements Focus Multispeaker emotional database Extraction IEMOCAP Database Dyadic acted emotional database Multimodal (audio, video, MOCAP, text

Busso, Carlos

243

Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark  

E-print Network

Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark University emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial

Gosselin, Frédéric

244

The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the Visual Information-Seeking Mantra: Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. This paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data

Ben Shneiderman

1996-01-01

245

The Influence of Visual Information on the Motor Control of Table Tennis Strokes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of social interaction (i.e., common coding theory) suggest that visual information about the interaction partner is critical for successful interpersonal action coordination. Seeing the interaction partner allows an observer to understand and predict the interaction partner's behavior. However, it is unknown which of the many sources of visual information about an interaction partner (e.g., body, end effectors, and\\/or interaction

Stephan Streuber; Betty J. Mohler; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Stephan de la Rosa

2012-01-01

246

Antipointing: perception-based visual information renders an offline mode of control.  

PubMed

Recent work by our group reported that mirror-symmetrical reaching movements (i.e., antipointing) are supported by perception-based visual information (Heath et al. 2009a). The present study was designed to determine if the perception-based visual information supporting antipointing results in a primarily offline mode of control; that is, a mode of control wherein the response unfolds with few-if any-online limb corrections. Participants reached directly to (propointing) or mirror-symmetrical (antipointing) to targets presented in the left and right visual fields. To examine the extent reaches were controlled online versus offline, we computed the proportion of variance (R (2)) explained by the position of the limb at 75% of movement time relative to the response's ultimate movement endpoint. The endpoints for propointing in left and right visual fields demonstrated robust endpoint accuracy and stability and were tied to low R (2) values. In contrast, antipointing elicited a marked degree of endpoint variability and were characterized by a visual-field specific pattern of endpoint bias. Moreover, the R (2) values for antipointing were more robust than propointing counterparts. Therefore, we propose that the metrical visual information supporting stimulus-driven propointing results in a primarily online mode of control whereas the relative nature of the perception-based visual information supporting antipointing results in an offline mode of control. More directly, we propose that the offline control of antipointing is attributed to the "slow" cognitive processing of visuoperceptual networks. PMID:20012599

Maraj, Anika; Heath, Matthew

2010-04-01

247

The effects of lossy compression on diagnostically relevant seizure information in EEG signals.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system. PMID:23047884

Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E

2013-01-01

248

Perceptual load improves the expression but not learning of relevant sequence information.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we investigated the hypothesis of Rowland and Shanks (2006a) that sequence learning of relevant information is resistant to variations in perceptual load. Under conditions of increased selection difficulty, participants incidentally learned a sequence of targets presented together with three distractors. Target and distractors were composed of pairs of letters and shared more or less features with each other, rendering perceptual identification of the target either more (high load) or less (low load) attention demanding. The expression of sequence learning improved significantly under high load conditions as compared to low load conditions. This could indicate that the cognitive system promotes the development of response-based sequence learning in order to cope with the attentional demands arising from high perceptual load. However, the learning process proved to be unaffected by perceptual load when tested under baseline conditions without distractors (Experiment 1) or under opposite load conditions as during training (Experiment 2). This demonstrates that sequence learning is not influenced by increasing selection demands and suggests that sequence learning runs independently of input attention. PMID:19261583

Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné; Soetens, Eric

2009-01-01

249

Voyagers and Voyeurs: Supporting Asynchronous Collaborative Information Visualization  

E-print Network

and implementation of sense.us, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization. As participants build consensus or make decisions they learn from their peers. Furthermore, some data sets are so. These considerations are not just hypothetical. For example, the manager of a business group in our company described

Heer, Jeffrey

250

The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

Turner, Sheldon

2013-01-01

251

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach  

E-print Network

, or in considering the control of focal cortical processing. Consideration of fixational eye movements necessarily, and the second characterized by bottom-up stimulus-driven factors governed by the specific nature of the visual stimulus. The importance of the former of these categories is well documented and perhaps most prominently

252

Information Processing Strategies and Pathways in the Primate Visual System.  

E-print Network

and Charles H. Anderson Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO INTRODUCTION The mammalian visual pathway is an amazingly complex and intricate system aspects of human vision are mentioned, our analysis will focus on the macaque monkey, which has a superb

Van Essen, David

253

Teaching Information Retrieval With Web-based Interactive Visualization  

E-print Network

of the tools on student learning, as well as student attitudes toward the tools, were investigated. The results in significant growth of knowledge. The majority of the students recognize the value of interactive visualization the dynamics of important processes that are usually hidden from the student's eye (Gordin & Pea, 1995

Brusilovsky, Peter

254

The table lens: merging graphical and symbolic representations in an interactive focus+context visualization for tabular information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visual- ization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most

Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card

1994-01-01

255

Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

2012-01-01

256

Contributions of visual and proprioceptive information to travelled distance estimation during changing sensory congruencies.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided evidence that visual and body-based cues (vestibular, proprioceptive and efference copy) are integrated using a weighted linear sum during walking and passive transport. However, little is known about the specific weighting of visual information when combined with proprioceptive inputs alone, in the absence of vestibular information about forward self-motion. Therefore, in this study, participants walked in place on a stationary treadmill while dynamic visual information was updated in real time via a head-mounted display. The task required participants to travel a predefined distance and subsequently match this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target using a game controller. Travelled distance information was provided either through visual cues alone, proprioceptive cues alone or both cues combined. In the combined cue condition, the relationship between the two cues was manipulated by either changing the visual gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 1) or the proprioceptive gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 2). Results demonstrated an overall higher weighting of proprioception over vision. These weights were scaled, however, as a function of which sensory input provided more stable information across trials. Specifically, when visual gain was constantly manipulated, proprioceptive weights were higher than when proprioceptive gain was constantly manipulated. These results therefore reveal interesting characteristics of cue-weighting within the context of unfolding spatio-temporal cue dynamics. PMID:24961739

Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

2014-10-01

257

Intelligent Visualization of Geo-Information on the Future Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization is a key component of the "Observation Web" and will become even more important in the future as geo data becomes more widely accessible. The common statement that "Data that cannot be seen, does not exist" is especially true for non-experts, like most citizens. The Web provides the most interesting platform for making data easily and widely available. However, today's Web is not well suited for the interactive visualization and exploration that is often needed for geo data. Support for 3D data was added only recently and at an extremely low level (WebGL), but even the 2D visualization capabilities of HTML e.g. (images, canvas, SVG) are rather limited, especially regarding interactivity. We have developed XML3D as an extension to HTML-5. It allows for compactly describing 2D and 3D data directly as elements of an HTML-5 document. All graphics elements are part of the Document Object Model (DOM) and can be manipulated via the same set of DOM events and methods that millions of Web developers use on a daily basis. Thus, XML3D makes highly interactive 2D and 3D visualization easily usable, not only for geo data. XML3D is supported by any WebGL-capable browser but we also provide native implementations in Firefox and Chromium. As an example, we show how OpenStreetMap data can be mapped directly to XML3D and visualized interactively in any Web page. We show how this data can be easily augmented with additional data from the Web via a few lines of Javascript. We also show how embedded semantic data (via RDFa) allows for linking the visualization back to the data's origin, thus providing an immersive interface for interacting with and modifying the original data. XML3D is used as key input for standardization within the W3C Community Group on "Declarative 3D for the Web" chaired by the DFKI and has recently been selected as one of the Generic Enabler for the EU Future Internet initiative.

Slusallek, P.; Jochem, R.; Sons, K.; Hoffmann, H.

2012-04-01

258

Enhancing RSS Feeds with Extracted Geospatial Information for Further Processing and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet users are flooded with information and are thankful for help in categorizing and visualizing textual content. Geographical\\u000a categorization is one of the most important criterion for filtering, grouping and prioritizing information as users are naturally\\u000a more interested in local information. We describe a way to extract geographical information from textual content using natural\\u000a language processing, and we display the

Marc Wick; Torsten Becker

2007-01-01

259

Information gathering within websites: Visualized links for navigation (VLN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental model for Web navigation has not changed much since the beginning of the development of Hypertext and Web search engines. Current browsing allows users to search by formulating queries, entering known URLs, and by navigation by following links embedded in webpages. Considerable research has focused on navigation mechanisms to improve the effectiveness of the process of finding relevant

Anwar Alhenshiri; Michael A. Shepherd; Carolyn R. Watters; Michael Bliemel

2010-01-01

260

Distinct Representation and Distribution of Visual Information by Specific Cell Types in Mouse Superficial Superior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role. PMID:25274823

Gale, Samuel D.

2014-01-01

261

Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.  

PubMed

The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role. PMID:25274823

Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

2014-10-01

262

Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced

Elizabeth F. Loftus; David G. Miller; Helen J. Burns

1978-01-01

263

Context-based Visual Feedback Recognition  

E-print Network

During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g.,head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and tosynchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visualfeedback, people often rely ...

Morency, Louis-Philippe

2006-11-15

264

Accessibility of Health Information on the Internet to the Visually Impaired User  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Web sites containing health information should be accessible to visually impaired persons. Methods: 139 web sites containing medical information addressing laymen or patients were evaluated with respect to their accessibility. A quantitative checklist which is based upon the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was used. Results: Only 18% (15 sites) achieved WAI (Web

Marc Lüchtenberg; Claudia Kuhli-Hattenbach; Yesim Sinangin; Christian Ohrloff; Rainer Schalnus

2008-01-01

265

Using Informative Peripheral Visual and Tactile Cues to Support Task and Interruption Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of using informative peripheral visual and tactile cues to support task switching and interruption management. Background: Effective support for the allocation of limited attentional resources is needed for operators who must cope with numerous competing task demands and frequent interruptions in data-rich, event-driven domains. One prerequisite for meeting this need is to provide information

Shameem Hameed; Thomas K. Ferris; Swapnaa Jayaraman; Nadine B. Sarter

2009-01-01

266

The Time Course of Visual Information Utilization during Fixations in Reading. Technical Report No. 278.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visual information is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…

Blanchard, Harry E.; And Others

267

Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

Snyder, Jaime

2012-01-01

268

The Natural Landscape Metaphor in Information Visualization:The Role of Commonsense Geomorphology  

E-print Network

The Natural Landscape Metaphor in Information Visualization:The Role of Commonsense Geomorphology with the current scientific understanding of geomorphologic processes. Our empir- ical results suggest that neither of geomorphology will probably not be required to successfully use an information landscape, we do sug- gest

Montello, Daniel R.

269

LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE  

PubMed Central

Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long-term experience shapes this adaptive process wherein the top-down connections provide selective gating of inputs to both cortical and subcortical structures to enhance neural responses to specific behaviorally-relevant attributes of the stimulus. A theoretical framework for a neural network is proposed involving coordination between local, feedforward, and feedback components that can account for experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representations at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. The ability to record brainstem and cortical pitch relevant responses concurrently may provide a new window to evaluate the online interplay between feedback, feedforward, and local intrinsic components in the hierarchical processing of pitch relevant information.

Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

2015-01-01

270

Visual information about past, current and future properties of irregular target paths in isometric force tracking.  

PubMed

In visual-motor tracking, information about past, current, and future properties of a target path can be available but, because they are typically manipulated independently, the relative contribution of these information categories to tracking performance is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of visual information pertaining to past, current, and future states of the target path in guiding isometric tracking performance as a function of the irregularity of the target path (sine wave, brown/pink noise, white noise). The findings from local and global properties of the force output showed that the role of visual information about the past, current, and future states of target paths is dependent on the regularity of the signal to be tracked. The brown/pink noise pathway condition was most strongly influenced by future and past-future visual information for both local error properties (lead/lag, root mean square error (RMSE)) and global properties of the force output (ApEn, cross correlation). The highly irregular white noise pathway did not benefit from past or future information and the highly regular sine wave was only influenced for the local error properties of RMSE and lead/lag. It appears that visual information about past and future tracking states is more effective with a pathway that is middling with respect to regularity/irregularity. This is consistent with the role of visual information in tracking to be dependent on the potential adaptability for change in the dimension of the motor output. PMID:25214307

Mazich, Molly M; Studenka, Breanna E; Newell, Karl M

2015-01-01

271

Aspect windows, 3-D visualizations, and indirect comparisons of information retrieval systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We built two Information Retrieval systemsthat were targeted for the TREC-6 "aspect oriented" retrieval track. The systems were built to testthe usefulness of different visualizations in an interactiveIR setting---in particular, an "aspect window" forthe chosen task, and a 3-D visualization of documentinter-relationships. We studied 24 users of the system inorder to investigate: whether the systems were more effectivethan a control

Russell C. Swan; James Allan

1998-01-01

272

Application of Information Visualization Technologies in Masters' Experience Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiences which belong to a kind of tacit knowledge were gradually summarized by the experts during their long working procedures. To analyze and inherit those experiences are worthwhile to the social construction and improvement. We build a platform composed of some visualization methods and analysis methods to present and analyze the data (from database, paper, web and etc.). So that students can intuitively understand the academic thinking of masters better than before. The platform has been applied in investigating the masters’ experiences of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the positive results were also introduced.

Wuqi, Song; Jifa, Gu

273

NOAA's Honua: Visualizations of Complex Environmental Information in Formal and Informal Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.

McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

274

Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information  

PubMed Central

As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

2013-01-01

275

Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference. PMID:25475568

Fukumura, Kumiko

2014-12-01

276

Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding. Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be. The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes. The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early. PMID:24098919

2013-01-01

277

Informative 3D Visualization of Multiple Protein Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continued growth of three dimensional structural information databases comes a corresponding increase in interest in this data for the study of new sequences and an ever-increasing incentive to improve automatic structure annotation methods. We examined various methods of presenting structural information in 3D, focussing on means of identifying regions of interest and the display of related structures. Using

Paulo Lai; Warren Kaplan; W. Bret Church; Raymond K. Wong

2004-01-01

278

The deliver and visualization of geospatial information in mobile GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of mobile communications and wireless Internet technology, the mobile computing environment makes it possible to get any information from Internet at anytime and anywhere. However, client of mobile GIS has the diversity including cellular telephones, PDAs and vehicle terminals, etc. Therefore, mobile GIS must take this diversity into consideration and offer the service of spatial information running

Zuo Xiaoqing; Li Qingquan

2005-01-01

279

Combining Computational Analyses and Interactive Visualization to Enhance Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA USA ABSTRACT Exploratory search and information-seeking support systems at- tempt to go beyond simple information retrieval and assist people integrate several computational text analysis techniques, including document sum- marization, document

Stasko, John T.

280

Visualizing Collections of Information by People, Topic, and Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most information retrieval systems return a list of results in response to a user query. Many tasks, such as understanding which topics are active or who are the key people associated with topics, can better be addressed with a higher-level summary showing important trends and correlations in information creation and use. We describe the design and evaluation of GridViz, an

Jeremy Goecks; Edward Cutrell; Susan Dumais; George Robertson

281

Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.

Dilling, L.

2009-12-01

282

Combining physical and semantical navigation in three-dimensional information visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of information visualization is in permanent expansion and new and innovative ways of visualizing large volumes of abstract data are being developed. The use of virtual metaphoric worlds is one of them, but these visualizations per se are only truly useful if the user is provided a means of exploring the information. A common way of data exploration is navigation. In the case of three-dimensional (3D) information visualization, navigation as a means of information exploration attains even more importance due to the extra exploitable dimension. Nonetheless, navigation in large virtual worlds is still a difficult task and not only for naive users; there is anecdotal evidence that electronic navigation is considered difficult even by the virtual worlds builders. Wayfinding, knowing where to go, is sometimes perceived as the hardest part; other times, it is the locomotion, getting there, that is found difficult. This paper presents a navigation strategy that attempts to solve these problems by combining physical/metaphoric navigation with semantic navigation. We present a framework for navigating large virtual worlds that relies heavily on the use of visual metaphors. The combination of physical and semantic navigation embedded in the metaphor components allows for a powerful data exploration and electronic navigation mechanism.

Russo Dos Santos, Cristina; Gros, Pascal; Abel, Pierre

2002-03-01

283

A visual object stimulus database with standardized similarity information.  

PubMed

Although many visual stimulus databases exist, none has data on item similarity levels for multiple items of each kind of stimulus. We present such data for 50 sets of grayscale object photographs. Similarity measures between pictures in each set (e.g., 25 different buttons) were collected using a similarity-sorting method (Goldstone, Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 26(4):381-386, 1994). A validation experiment used data from 1 picture set and compared responses from standard pairwise measures. This showed close agreement. The similarity-sorting measures were then standardized across picture sets, using pairwise ratings. Finally, the standardized similarity distances were validated in a recognition memory experiment; false alarms increased when targets and foils were more similar. These data will facilitate memory and perception research that needs to make comparisons between stimuli with a range of known target-foil similarities. PMID:23055161

Migo, Ellen M; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R

2013-06-01

284

Characterizing the role of disparity information in alleviating visual crowding.  

PubMed

The ability to identify a target is reduced by the presence of nearby objects, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. The extent to which crowding impairs our perception is generally governed by the degree of similarity between a target stimulus and its surrounding flankers. Here we investigated the influence of disparity differences between target and flankers on crowding. Orientation discrimination thresholds for a parafoveal target were first measured when the target and flankers were presented at the same depth to establish a flanker separation that induced a significant elevation in threshold for each individual. Flankers were subsequently fixed at this spatial separation while the disparity of the flankers relative to the target was altered. For all participants, thresholds showed a systematic decrease as flanker-target disparity increased. The resulting tuning function was asymmetric: Crowding was lower when the target was perceived to be in front of the flankers rather than behind. A series of control experiments confirmed that these effects were driven by disparity, as opposed to other factors such as flanker-target separation in three-dimensional (3-D) space or monocular positional offsets used to create disparity. When flankers were distributed over a range of crossed and uncrossed disparities, such that the mean was in the plane of the target, there was an equivalent or greater release of crowding compared to when all flankers were presented at the maximum disparity of that range. Overall, our results suggest that depth cues can reduce the effects of visual crowding, and that this reduction is unlikely to be caused by grouping of flankers or positional shifts in the monocular image. PMID:25424981

Astle, Andrew T; McGovern, David P; McGraw, Paul V

2014-01-01

285

AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

2001-01-01

286

Visually navigating the RMS Titanic with SLAM information filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a vision-based large-area simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm that respects the constraints of low-overlap imagery typical of underwater vehicles while exploiting the information associated with the inertial sensors that are routinely available on such platforms. We present a novel strategy for ef?ciently accessing and maintaining consistent covariance bounds within a SLAM information ?lter, greatly increasing the

Ryan Eustice; Hanumant Singh; John J. Leonard; Matthew Walter; Robert Ballard

2005-01-01

287

How do batters use visual, auditory, and tactile information about the success of a baseball swing?  

PubMed

Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation between the point of contact and "sweet spot") was compared for no feedback (N), visual alone, auditory alone, and tactile alone. Swings were more accurate for all single-modality combinations as compared to no feedback, and visual produced the greatest accuracy. In Experiment 2, the congruency between visual, tactile, and auditory was varied so that in some trials, the different modalities indicated that the simulated ball contacted the bat at different points. Results indicated that batters combined information but gave more weight to visual. Batting training manuals, which typically only discuss visual cues, should emphasize the importance of auditory and tactile feedback in baseball batting. PMID:19791635

Gray, Rob

2009-09-01

288

Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display  

PubMed Central

Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

289

Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display.  

PubMed

Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

2010-01-01

290

76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...following information: Name of the institution or site. Respondent, title, and full contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Jerry Holmberg, Senior Advisor for Blood Safety, Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

2011-06-10

291

Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes  

PubMed Central

Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

2014-01-01

292

Exploring Applications of Building Information Modeling for Enhancing Visualization and Information Access in Engineering and Construction Education Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motivation for this research stems from the authors' experience where they have witnessed the challenges students face in grasping certain concepts because of difficulty visualizing the concepts being taught. The research aims to understand how new digital tools can help students overcome these challenges and how to measure their effectiveness. Three applications of building information modeling in Civil Engineering

Javier Irizarry; Pavan Meadati; Wasim S. Barham; Amin Akhnoukh

2012-01-01

293

Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

2005-01-01

294

Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

2011-01-01

295

Animating Talk and Texts: Culturally Relevant Teacher Read-Alouds of Informational Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the classroom interactions surrounding teacher read-alouds of nonfiction texts in the classroom of a teacher who strived for cultural relevancy. Participants in this study were one European American teacher and her upper-elementary students who lived in the surrounding working-class neighborhood; all but two students…

May, Laura

2011-01-01

296

Visual presentation as a welcome alternative to textual presentation of gene annotation information.  

PubMed

The functions of a gene are traditionally annotated textually using either free text (Gene Reference Into Function or GeneRIF) or controlled vocabularies (e.g., Gene Ontology or Disease Ontology). Inspired by the latest word cloud tools developed by the Information Visualization Group at IBM Research, we have prototyped a visual system for capturing gene annotations, which we named Gene Graph Into Function or GeneGIF. Fully developing the GeneGIF system would be a significant effort. To justify the necessity and to specify the design requirements of GeneGIF, we first surveyed the end-user preferences. From 53 responses, we found that a majority (64%, p < 0.05) of the users were either positive or neutral toward using GeneGIF in their daily work (acceptance); in terms of preference, a slight majority (51%, p > 0.05) of the users favored visual presentation of information (GeneGIF) compared to textual (GeneRIF) information. The results of this study indicate that a visual presentation tool, such as GeneGIF, can complement standard textual presentation of gene annotations. Moreover, the survey participants provided many constructive comments that will specify the development of a phase-two project (http://128.248.174.241/) to visually annotate each gene in the human genome. PMID:20865558

Desai, Jairav; Flatow, Jared M; Song, Jie; Zhu, Lihua J; Du, Pan; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Lu, Hui; Lin, Simon M; Kibbe, Warren A

2010-01-01

297

WPI-CS-TR-05-14 July 2005 Delivering Relevant and Useful Information with IMPACT  

E-print Network

, choosing sources that are likely to provide useful information, such as weather near their home for a variety of reasons. Browsing requires the user to choose a source and seek out useful information useful information. Systems that rely on static rules and preferences, such as receiving traffic alerts

Wills, Craig E.

298

An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment  

E-print Network

toolkit for IB assessment using Microsoft Office (called IB-Radar and IB-Compass), and a Geographical Information System (GIS) toolkit for bridging knowledge (called IB-GIS) in IB assessment, etc. A case study is used to demonstrate how the KIV approach...

Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

2006-01-01

299

Heuristic Search and Information Visualization Methods for School Redistricting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an application of AI search and information visu- alization techniques to the problem of school redistricting, in which students are assigned to home schools within a county or school district. This is a multicriteria optimization prob- lem in which competing objectives must be considered, such as school capacity, busing costs, and socioeconomic distri- bution. Because of the complexity

Marie Desjardins; Blazej Bulka; Ryan Carr; Andrew Hunt; Priyang Rathod; Penny Rheingans

2006-01-01

300

Feature Selection Based on Mutual Information: Criteria of Max-Dependency, Max-Relevance, and Min-Redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature

Hanchuan Peng; Fuhui Long; Chris H. Q. Ding

2005-01-01

301

On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

302

CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources  

PubMed Central

During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

2012-01-01

303

In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

2009-01-01

304

ORTHOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS AND VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING* Daisy L. Hung+ and Ovid J. L. Tzeng+  

E-print Network

-up processes). With respect to the higher-level processing (concept-driven, or top-down processes), readingORTHOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS AND VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING* Daisy L. Hung+ and Ovid J. L. Tzeng of children. This coincidence may imply that different cognitive processes are required for achieving reading

305

How Do Schizophrenia Patients Use Visual Information to Decode Facial Emotion? Junghee Lee*,1,2  

E-print Network

How Do Schizophrenia Patients Use Visual Information to Decode Facial Emotion? Junghee Lee*,1 & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6968; 2 of schizophrenia patients, but the underlying mechanism of this impairment remains unclear. This study investigated

Gosselin, Frédéric

306

The Effects of Alcohol and of Varying Amounts of Visual Information on a Balancing Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of dynamic balancing test has been devised. Eight subjects carried out experiments in which the effects of alcohol and the effects of varying amounts of visual information on sway and oscillation were studied. It was concluded that peripheral vision was a crucial factor in the effective performance of the test, and it was noted that quite modest

G. H. BEGBIE

1966-01-01

307

The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

2012-01-01

308

Perceptions of trustworthiness online: the role of visual and textual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

People increasingly rely on social networking websites to initiate personal and professional relationships. This requires that a considerable amount of trust be placed in strangers solely on the basis of their online profiles. This paper examines how the nature of online information affects how trustworthy online daters are perceived. Visual (i.e., photographs) and textual (i.e., \\

Catalina L. Toma

2010-01-01

309

Weighted integration of visual position information Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience,  

E-print Network

Weighted integration of visual position information Center for Molecular and Behavioral for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USAAdam P. Morris Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Krekelberg, Bart

310

Information Attracts Attention: A Probabilistic Account of the Cross-Race Advantage in Visual Search  

E-print Network

Information Attracts Attention: A Probabilistic Account of the Cross-Race Advantage in Visual at recognizing faces from their own race than from different races (Shapiro & Penrod, 1986; Bothwell, Brigham, & Malpass, 1989), an effect commonly known as the other-race effect. The causes of this effect have been

Cottrell, Garrison W.

311

Visualizing RDF(S)-based Information Alexandru Telea, Flavius Frasincar, Geert-Jan Houben  

E-print Network

Visualizing RDF(S)-based Information Alexandru Telea, Flavius Frasincar, Geert-Jan Houben Eindhoven.tue.nl Abstract As RDF reaches maturity, there is an increasing need for tools that support it. A common and natural representation for RDF data is a directed labeled graph. Although there are tools to edit and

Telea, Alexandru C.

312

A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method

Liyuan Xing; Qixiang Ye; Weigang Zhang; Qingming Huang; Hua Yu

2005-01-01

313

Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 01-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organizations listed in this reference circular provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and referral, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

314

Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 96-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and consultation, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations offer guidance to families…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

315

Young Children's Comprehension of Television: The Role of Visual Information and Intonation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several current television series for preschool children convey stories, not through meaningful dialogue, but through visual information and intonational cues embedded within nonsensical dialogue. This study examined young children's ability to construct meaning from such materials. Participating were 135 preschoolers, 3 to 5 years old. Subjects…

Fisch, Shalom M.; Brown, Susan K. McCann; Cohen, David I.

316

AUTOMATED GRASPING OF REAL-WORLD OBJECTS USING VISUAL AND TACTILE INFORMATION  

E-print Network

are tolerant of robot, hand, and camera-related positioning errors. The grasps are executed using a three designed for grasping sheet metal parts. The hand has a CCD camera mounted in its palm which is usedAUTOMATED GRASPING OF REAL-WORLD OBJECTS USING VISUAL AND TACTILE INFORMATION PETER A. BENDER

Bone, Gary

317

Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

2013-01-01

318

How People Read Books Online: Mining and Visualizing Web Logs for Use Information  

E-print Network

usage of an online digital library of children's books (the International Children's Digital LibraryHow People Read Books Online: Mining and Visualizing Web Logs for Use Information Rong Chen1 , Anne}@cs.umd.edu Abstract. This paper explores how people read books online. Instead of observing individuals, we analyze

Golbeck, Jennifer

319

Extracting Semantic Information from Basketball Video Based on Audio-Visual Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a mechanism for extracting semantic information from basketball video sequence using audio and video\\u000a features. After we divide the input video into shots by a simple cut detection algorithm using visual information, we analyze\\u000a audio signal data to predict the location of an important event from which a cheering sound happens to start using the

Kyungsu Kim; Junho Choi; Namjung Kim; Pankoo Kim

2002-01-01

320

Toward an Improved Haptic Zooming Algorithm for Graphical Information Accessed by Individuals Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

2013-01-01

321

London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual

Kimball, Miles A.

2006-01-01

322

Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

1989-01-01

323

The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L; Fajen, Brett R

2015-01-01

324

The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L.; Fajen, Brett R.

2015-01-01

325

Information Filtering with Submaps for Inertial Aided Visual Odometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with the fusion of inertial measurements (accelerations and angular velocities) with imagery data (feature points extracted in a video stream) in a recursive bundle adjustment framework for indoor position and attitude estimation. Recursive processing is achieved by a combination of local submaps and the Schur complement. The Schur complement is used to reduce the problem size at regular intervals while retaining the information provided by past measurements. Local submaps provide a way to propagate the gauge constraints and thereby to alleviate the detrimental effects of linearization errors in the prior. Though the presented technique is not real-time capable in its current implementation, it can be employed to process arbitrarily long trajectories. The presented system is evaluated by comparing the estimated trajectory of the system with a reference trajectory of a prism attached to the system, which was recorded by a total station.

Kleinert, M.; Stilla, U.

2015-03-01

326

77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Office of Federal...Procurement Policy, Office of Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice...information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance...ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective...

2012-07-18

327

The Nature of Syntactic Priming - Relevance and Interplay of Semantic and Syntactic Information   

E-print Network

It is an ongoing matter of debate, what the nature of syntactic priming effects, and hence, the nature of grammatical information in language processing is. Two specific issues are the fo-cus of the current examination: firstly, the possible...

Köhne, Judith

2007-11-28

328

Visual speech information: A help or hindrance in perceptual processing of dysarthric speech.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of visual speech information on perceptual processing of neurologically degraded speech. Fifty listeners identified spastic dysarthric speech under both audio (A) and audiovisual (AV) conditions. Condition comparisons revealed that the addition of visual speech information enhanced processing of the neurologically degraded input in terms of (a) acuity (percent phonemes correct) of vowels and consonants and (b) recognition (percent words correct) of predictive and nonpredictive phrases. Listeners exploited stress-based segmentation strategies more readily in AV conditions, suggesting that the perceptual benefit associated with adding visual speech information to the auditory signal-the AV advantage-has both segmental and suprasegmental origins. Results also revealed that the magnitude of the AV advantage can be predicted, to some degree, by the extent to which an individual utilizes syllabic stress cues to inform word recognition in AV conditions. Findings inform the development of a listener-specific model of speech perception that applies to processing of dysarthric speech in everyday communication contexts. PMID:25786958

Borrie, Stephanie A

2015-03-01

329

Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes, such as the QR code and PDF417, do not carry visual information. This work proposes a visually meaningful 2-D barcode (or 2-D image code) that carries not only hidden information, but also visual information. Watermarking is employed to hide information in a meaningful cover image to produce the 2-D image code. The 2-D image code can be printed or displayed and then captured using a camera-equipped mobile device. The hidden information is extracted for innovative applications. To resist distortions in the print-and-photo process, a perceptual shaping algorithm, based on Watson's DCT-based perceptual model, is proposed for use in the data hiding procedure. The detection performance that can be achieved using two classes of position-detection patterns is evaluated, and the best pattern is then used as a part of the 2-D image code. A web service is provided for generating the 2-D image codes and a Java-based decoder is developed for mobile phones. The results of practical experiments reveal the applicability, robustness, and high capacity of the proposed 2-D image code.

Liu, Jen-Chang; Shieh, Hsiang-An

2011-01-01

330

Development of a culturally relevant consumer health information website for Harlem, New York.  

PubMed

The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. PMID:24740963

Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

2014-09-01

331

Static and dynamic visual information about the size and passability of an aperture  

PubMed Central

The role of static, eyeheight-scaled information in perceiving the passability of and guiding locomotion through apertures is well established. However, eyeheight-scaled information is not the only source of visual information about size and passability. In this study, we tested the sufficiency of two other sources of information, both of which are available only to moving observers (i.e., are dynamic) and specify aperture size in intrinsic, body-scaled units. The experiment was conducted in an immersive virtual environment that was monocularly viewed through a head-mounted display. Subjects walked through narrow openings between obstacles, rotating their shoulders as necessary, while head and shoulder position were tracked. The task was performed in three virtual environments that differed in terms of the availability of eyeheight-scaled information and the two dynamic sources of information. Analyses focused on the timing and amplitude of shoulder rotation as subjects walked through apertures, as well as walking speed and the number of collisions. Subjects successfully timed and appropriately scaled the amplitude of shoulder rotation to fit through apertures in all three conditions. These findings suggest that visual information other than eyeheight-scaled information can be used to guide locomotion through apertures. PMID:22132505

Fath, Aaron J.; Fajen, Brett R.

2012-01-01

332

NEONATAL VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN COCAINE-EXPOSED AND NON-EXPOSED INFANTS  

PubMed Central

This study investigated early neonatal visual preferences in 267 poly drug exposed neonates (131 cocaine-exposed and 136 non-cocaine exposed) whose drug exposure was documented through interviews and urine and meconium drug screens. Infants were given four visual recognition memory tasks comparing looking time to familiarized stimuli of lattices and rectangular shapes to novel stimuli of a schematic face and curved hourglass and bull’s eye forms. Cocaine-exposed infants performed more poorly, after consideration of confounding factors, with a relationship of severity of cocaine exposure to lower novelty score found for both self-report and biologic measures of exposure, Findings support theories which link prenatal cocaine exposure to deficits in information processing entailing attentional and arousal organizational systems. Neonatal visual discrimination and attention tasks should be further explored as potentially sensitive behavioral indicators of teratologic effects. PMID:25717215

Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert; Fagan, Joseph; Minnes, Sonia; Salvator, Ann; Bolek, Tina; Becker, Michael

2014-01-01

333

Effects of informed consent for individual genome sequencing on relevant knowledge  

PubMed Central

Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.45, 31.10 for postgraduate education and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared to less than college degree) and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic whites compared to other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9 to 7.7, p<0.0001) and sequencing benefits knowledge subscale (7.0 to 7.5, p<0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge, and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. PMID:22694298

Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Facio, Flavia M.; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Brooks, Stephanie; Eidem, Haley; Linn, Amy; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

2012-01-01

334

Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.  

PubMed

This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

2013-08-01

335

Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence  

PubMed Central

Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

2013-01-01

336

Visualizing electrocardiographic information on a patient specific model of the heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of atrial tachycardia by radio-frequency ablation is a complex and minimally invasive procedure. In most cases the surgeon uses fluoroscopic imaging to guide catheters into the atria. After recording activation potentials from the electrodes on the catheter, which has to be done for different catheter positions, the physiologist has to fuse both the activation times derived from the potentials with the fluoroscopic images and extract from these a 3D anatomical model of the atrium. This model will provide him with the necessary information to locate the ablation regions. To alleviate the problem of mentally reconstructing these different sources of information, we propose a virtual environment that has the ability to visualize the electrodes information onto a patient specific model of the atria. This 3D atrium surface model is derived from pre-operatively taken MR-images. Within the system this model is visualized in 3 different ways: two views correspond to the 2 fluoroscopes images, which are shown registred in the background while the third one can be freely manipulated by the physiologist. The system allows to annotate measurements onto the 3D model. Since the heart is not a static organ, tools are provided to modify previous annotations interactively. The information contained in the measurements can than be dispersed across the heart after extrapolation and interpolation and subsequently visualized by color coding the surface model. Preliminary clinical evaluation on 30 patients indicates that the combined representation of the activation times and the heart model provides a thorough and more accurate insight into the possible causes and solutions to the tachycardia than would be obtained using solely the fluoroscopes images and mental reconstruction. Unlike other tachycardia visualization software, our approach starts with a patient specific surface model which in itself provides extra insight into the problem. Furthermore it can be used very interactively by the physiologist as a kind of 3D sketchbook where he can enter, delete, ... different measurements, tissue types. Finally, the system can visualize at any stage of the surgery a model containing all information at hand. In this paper we present a system to represent electrocardiographic information that allows the physiologist to mark measurements which can than be visualized on a patient specific atrium model by color coding. First clinical evaluation indicates that this approach offers a considerable amount of added value.

De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Anne, Wim; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbuchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

2003-05-01

337

Visualization Rhetoric: Framing Effects in Narrative Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that \\

Jessica Hullman; Nicholas Diakopoulos

2011-01-01

338

Is fair value accounting information relevant and reliable? Evidence from capital market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In financial reporting, US and international accounting standard-setters have issued several disclosure and measurement and recognition standards for financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant capital market literature that examines the usefulness of fair value accounting information to investors. In conducting my review, I highlight findings that are of interest not just to academic researchers,

Wayne R. Landsman

2007-01-01

339

The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

2006-01-01

340

Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information  

PubMed Central

Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC). PMID:16095527

Abel, David L; Trevors, Jack T

2005-01-01

341

DELIVERING TIME-RELEVANT WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

EMPACT was created in 1996 to take advantage of new technologies that make it possible to provide environmental information to the public in near real time. EMPACT is working with the 86 largest metropolitan areas of the country to help communities in these areas: Collecting, ma...

342

Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

1991-01-01

343

Using deformable templates to infer visual speech dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual image of a talker provides information complementary to the acoustic speech waveform, and enables improved recognition accuracy, especially in environments corrupted by high acoustic noise or multiple talkers. Because most of the phonologically relevant visual information is from the mouth and lips, it is important to infer accurately and robustly their dynamics; moreover it is desirable to extract

Marcus E. Hennecke; K. Venkatesh Prasad; David G. Stork

1994-01-01

344

Locomotion-induced hippocampal theta is independent of visual information in rats during movement through a pipe.  

PubMed

Behavioural correlates of the hippocampal theta rhythm have been suggested to include voluntary motor behaviours and spatial learning. The involvement of visual information during these processes is still undetermined. Therefore, our aim was to clarify the contribution of locomotion and visual information to the generation of hippocampal theta during locomotion. Forty-one Wistar-Kyoto male rats (8-9 weeks old) were separated into active or passive movement groups that travelled through a pipe, which was either lit or unlit. Animals were implanted with a bipolar electrode in the hippocampus for local field potential recording. Head and leg movements were recorded by accelerometer and leg electromyogram, respectively, and stress levels were assessed by heart rate measurement. Theta power (4-12 Hz) was divided into medium theta (MT, 6-10 Hz) and low theta (LT, 4-6 Hz) power. There was a significant effect of locomotion (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA) on theta power, MT power, and theta mean power frequency. Visual information, however, had no significant effect, nor did the interaction between locomotion and visual information. The lack of visual information effect could not be explained by differences in movement patterns or stress levels, because these two measures did not differ between the lit and unlit conditions. Our results indicate that visual information is not essential for locomotion-induced hippocampal theta, implying that theta oscillation during spatial learning does not reflect sensory processing of visual information. PMID:20888366

Chen, C Y; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Y Y; Kuo, Terry B J

2011-01-20

345

A Document Model Based on Relevance Modeling Techniques for Semi-structured Information Warehouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last decade, data warehouse and OLAP techniques have helped companies to gather, organize and analyze the structured\\u000a data they produce. Simultaneously, digital libraries have applied Information Retrieval mechanisms to query their repositories\\u000a of unstructured text-rich documents. In this paper we explain how XML allows for the convergence of these two approaches,\\u000a making possible the development of warehouses for

Juan Manuel Pérez; Rafael Berlanga; María José Aramburu

346

Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

2014-01-01

347

Visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum and comparative information from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease.  

PubMed

Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

2014-07-01

348

Why are programmes for offenders with personality disorder not informed by the relevant scientific findings?  

PubMed

This paper examines the evidence to justify intervening in those with personality disorder, specifically antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association 1994). The evidence from randomized controlled trials in the mental health literature is reviewed and found to be deficient with only five trials satisfying Cochrane criteria, all of which had a reduction in substance misuse as their primary outcome, rather than a change in the personality disorder per se.Next, I consider the contribution of Thomas Kuhn to explain why it is difficult to develop a scientific basis in forensic mental health. I argue that, because forensic mental health is inclusive in its purpose (interacting with the law, social services and the penal system, all of which have different rules and agendas), it is difficult to develop a consensus on fundamentals, this consensus being a hallmark of a science.Finally, I argue that despite the absence of evidence from mental health, providers for ASPD are in a fortunate position in being able to draw upon the correctional literature. This is relevant, provided that we agree that a reduction in offending is the primary outcome. While mental health can learn much from correctional practice, it can also enhance the efficacy of the latter by, for instance, drawing attention to the specific vulnerabilities of the personality structure that might impede programme delivery in correctional settings. Means of achieving a conjunction of mental health and correctional practice are urgently required as this would be beneficial to both. PMID:18467278

Duggan, Conor

2008-08-12

349

Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

2014-05-01

350

Visual tracking with spatio-temporal Dempster-Shafer information fusion.  

PubMed

A key problem in visual tracking is how to effectively combine spatio-temporal visual information from throughout a video to accurately estimate the state of an object. We address this problem by incorporating Dempster-Shafer (DS) information fusion into the tracking approach. To implement this fusion task, the entire image sequence is partitioned into spatially and temporally adjacent subsequences. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for object/nonobject classification on each of these subsequences, the outputs of which act as separate data sources. To combine the discriminative information from these classifiers, we further present a spatio-temporal weighted DS (STWDS) scheme. In addition, temporally adjacent sources are likely to share discriminative information on object/nonobject classification. To use such information, an adaptive SVM learning scheme is designed to transfer discriminative information across sources. Finally, the corresponding DS belief function of the STWDS scheme is embedded into a Bayesian tracking model. Experimental results on challenging videos demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracking approach. PMID:23529089

Li, Xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhongfei; van den Hengel, Anton; Wang, Hanzi

2013-08-01

351

Visual information and multi-joint coordination patterns in one-leg stance.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of visual information on the multi-joint coordination patterns in maintaining one-leg stance. 12 participants stood still on their left leg for two 1 min trials with and without visual information. The multi-joint coordination patterns in the frontal plane were examined using a frequency domain principal component analysis (PCAf) on 14 joint angular motion time series. The factor loading spectra of PC1 showed two distinct multi-joint postural coordination strategies that relate to the mechanical constraints on balance identified by Hof (2007) [7]. The more prevalent strategy was the coordination of the left ankle-left knee or the left ankle only motion that is related to the "moving the center of pressure" strategy. A 2nd multi-joint coordination strategy showed larger factor loading of the trunk and upper limbs (i.e., shoulders and elbows) in addition to the left ankle implying the role of the upper limbs to generate "counter-rotational torque against the sway of the center of mass (COM)". With eyes open, the participants predominantly utilized the 1st strategy to maintain balance but switched to the 2nd strategy when visual information was not available during the stance. The role of visual information in determining the prevalence of two dominant multi-joint coordination kinematic patterns in one-leg stance reflects the redundant and emergent properties of the postural control system that channel the biomechanical constraints on balance arising from the interaction of the task, environment and the individual. PMID:24388780

Wang, Zheng; Molenaar, Peter C M; Challis, John H; Jordan, Kimberlee; Newell, Karl M

2014-03-01

352

Dissociation of the neural systems for working memory maintenance of verbal and nonspatial visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory for names and faces was investigated to ascertain whether verbal and nonspatial visual information is maintained\\u000a in working memory by separate neural systems. The subjects performed a delayed match-to-sample task for famous or unfamous\\u000a faces and names and a sensorimotor control task. Several occipital, temporal, parietal, and prefrontal areas were activated\\u000a during all memory delays, in comparison with

Pia Rämä; Joseph B. Sala; Joseph S. Gillen; James J. Pekar; Susan M. Courtney

2001-01-01

353

Dyslexic children suffer from less informative visual cues to control posture.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulation of the characteristics of visual stimulus on postural control in dyslexic children. A total of 18 dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room, as still as possible, and looked at a target at different conditions of distance between the participant and a moving room frontal wall (25-150 cm) and vision (full and central). The first trial was performed without vision (baseline). Then four trials were performed in which the room remained stationary and eight trials with the room moving, lasting 60s each. Mean sway amplitude, coherence, relative phase, and angular deviation were calculated. The results revealed that dyslexic children swayed with larger magnitude in both stationary and moving conditions. When the room remained stationary, all children showed larger body sway magnitude at 150 cm distance. Dyslexic children showed larger body sway magnitude in central compared to full vision condition. In the moving condition, body sway magnitude was similar between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children but the coupling between visual information and body sway was weaker in dyslexic children. Moreover, in the absence of peripheral visual cues, induced body sway in dyslexic children was temporally delayed regarding visual stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that poor postural control performance in dyslexic children is related to how sensory information is acquired from the environment and used to produce postural responses. In conditions in which sensory cues are less informative, dyslexic children take longer to process sensory stimuli in order to obtain precise information, which leads to performance deterioration. PMID:24864051

Razuk, Milena; Barela, Jose A

2014-09-01

354

Model-based classification of visual information for content-based retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most existing approaches to content-based retrieval rely on query by example, or user sketch based on low-level features. However, these are not suitable for semantic (object level) distinctions. In other approaches, information is classified according to a predefined set of classes and classification is either performed manually or by using class-specific algorithms. Most of these systems lack flexibility: the user does not have the ability to define or change the classes, and new classification schemes require implementation of new class-specific algorithms and/or the input of an expert. In this paper, we present a different approach to content-based retrieval and a novel framework for classification of visual information, in which (1) users define their own visual classes and classifiers are learned automatically, and (multiple fuzzy-classifiers and machine learning techniques are combined for automatic classification at multiple levels (region, perceptual, object-part, object and scene). We present The Visual Apprentice, an implementation of our framework for still images and video that uses a combination of lazy-learning, decision trees, and evolution programs for classification and grouping. Our system is flexible, in that models can be changed by users over time, different types of classifiers are combined, and user-model definitions can be applied to object and scene structure classification. Special emphasis is placed on the difference between semantic and visual classes, and between classification and detection. Examples and results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of our approach to perform visual classification and detection.

Jaimes, Alejandro; Chang, Shih-Fu

1998-12-01

355

Latency of modality-specific reactivation of auditory and visual information during episodic memory retrieval.  

PubMed

This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the latency of modality-specific reactivation in the visual and auditory cortices during a recognition task to determine the effects of reactivation on episodic memory retrieval. Nine right-handed healthy young adults participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted of a word-encoding phase and two recognition phases. Three encoding conditions were included: encoding words alone (word-only) and encoding words presented with either related pictures (visual) or related sounds (auditory). The recognition task was conducted in the MEG scanner 15?min after the completion of the encoding phase. After the recognition test, a source-recognition task was given, in which participants were required to choose whether each recognition word was not presented or was presented with which information during the encoding phase. Word recognition in the auditory condition was higher than that in the word-only condition. Confidence-of-recognition scores (d') and the source-recognition test showed superior performance in both the visual and the auditory conditions compared with the word-only condition. An equivalent current dipoles analysis of MEG data indicated that higher equivalent current dipole amplitudes in the right fusiform gyrus occurred during the visual condition and in the superior temporal auditory cortices during the auditory condition, both 450-550?ms after onset of the recognition stimuli. Results suggest that reactivation of visual and auditory brain regions during recognition binds language with modality-specific information and that reactivation enhances confidence in one's recognition performance. PMID:25756907

Ueno, Daisuke; Masumoto, Kouhei; Sutani, Kouichi; Iwaki, Sunao

2015-04-15

356

Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

1979-01-01

357

GIN AUSTRIA. Assuring quality and relevance on Internet-health-informations for patients.  

PubMed

GIN AUSTRIA (Gesundheitsinformationsnetz AUSTRIA) offers patients and consumers reliable medical knowledge about diseases, wellness and disease management in an understandable way and enables them to quick and incessant access to informations about the Austrian health system and Austrian health organizations. To improve the quality of the database and to achieve full customer (patients, citizens) satisfaction a systematic approach for implementing total quality management is also applied. Focusing the attention on understanding and responding to customer needs, systematic and continuous improving of the IS and total involvement of all participants are the three core TQM principles at this project. The second focus of the project is the development and the implementation (prototype) of a medical dictionary or rather medical thesaurus as interface for patients, who are not used to scientific terms and expressions. This interface is based on the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH-Thesaurus (german version). PMID:10724952

Göbel, G; Pfeiffer, K P

1999-01-01

358

Does head extension and flexion increase postural instability in elderly subjects when visual information is kept constant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the effects of flexing and extending the head on the postural stability and mean anterior-posterior (A-P) center of mass (CM) position during upright stance in the elderly. To ensure visual input to stability was not a confounding variable, visual information was kept as constant as possible for all head positions. Twelve healthy elderly subjects (72 .3

John G. Buckley; Vijay Anand; Andy Scally; David B. Elliott

2004-01-01

359

Processing Visual Temporal Information and Its Relationship to Psychometric Intelligence: Converging Evidence for the Temporal Resolution Power Hypothesis of Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to previous studies there is a well-established functional relationship between temporal resolution power (TRP), assessed by auditory psychophysical timing tasks, and psychometric intelligence. Here we investigated whether the relationship between psychometric intelligence and temporal information processing can be also observed in the visual modality. For this purpose, performance on four visual psychophysical timing tasks (duration discrimination with filled and

Judith Haldemann; Corinne Stauffer; Stefan Troche; Thomas Rammsayer

2011-01-01

360

Meaning Metaphor for Visualizing Search Results Nicolas Bonnel  

E-print Network

difficult to extract the relevant information for a given search. The search en- gines, which are a way interface enabling him to quickly find the relevant information. The context of our work is web search, soMeaning Metaphor for Visualizing Search Results Nicolas Bonnel France Telecom, Division R&D 4 rue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues  

PubMed Central

Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

362

Age Trends in Visual Exploration of Social and Nonsocial Information in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing children and 51 children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 18. Results indicated a sharp increase in visual exploration with age and a decrease in perseverative and detail-focused attention for both groups of children. However, increased age was associated with greater increases in visual exploration for typically developing children than for those children with ASD. The developmental differences were most pronounced for attention to certain nonsocial stimuli as children with ASD demonstrated a disproportionate attentional bias for these stimuli from very early in life. Disproportionate visual attention to certain nonsocial objects relative to social stimuli in ASD spanned from early to late childhood, and thus may represent both an early and a persistent characteristic of the disorder. PMID:22639682

Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel; Bodfish, James W.

2011-01-01

363

Effects of Visual Information on Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of the Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of visual information on wind-evoked escape behavior in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Most agitated crickets were found to retreat into a shelter made of cardboard installed in the test arena within a short time. As this behavior was thought to be a type of escape, we confirmed how a visual image of a shelter affected wind-evoked escape behavior. Irrespective of the brightness of the visual background (black or white) or the absence or presence of a shelter, escape jumps were oriented almost 180° opposite to the source of the air puff stimulus. Therefore, the direction of wind-evoked escape depends solely depended on the direction of the stimulus air puff. In contrast, the turning direction of the crickets during the escape was affected by the position of the visual image of the shelter. During the wind-evoked escape jump, most crickets turned in the direction in which a shelter was presented. This behavioral nature is presumably necessary for crickets to retreat into a shelter within a short time after their escape jump. PMID:25186926

Kanou, Masamichi; Matsuyama, Akane; Takuwa, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

364

Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.  

PubMed

The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and ?1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation. PMID:25515745

Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

2014-01-01

365

Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

2010-10-01

366

A comprehensive wiring diagram of the protocerebral bridge for visual information processing in the Drosophila brain.  

PubMed

How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB) is a major part of the insect central complex (CX), a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into a common three-dimensional framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. Circuitry properties such as mirroring, convergence, divergence, tiling, reverberation, and parallel signal propagation were observed; their functional and evolutional significance is discussed. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry may provide guidelines for further investigations on transformation of sensory (e.g., visual) input into locomotor commands in fly brains. PMID:23707064

Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Hua, Tzu-En; Chen, Chun-Chao; Dickson, Barry J; Greenspan, Ralph J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

2013-05-30

367

Informative features of local field potential signals in primary visual cortex during natural image stimulation.  

PubMed

The local field potential (LFP) is of growing importance in neurophysiology as a metric of network activity and as a readout signal for use in brain-machine interfaces. However, there are uncertainties regarding the kind and visual field extent of information carried by LFP signals, as well as the specific features of the LFP signal conveying such information, especially under naturalistic conditions. To address these questions, we recorded LFP responses to natural images in V1 of awake and anesthetized macaques using Utah multielectrode arrays. First, we have shown that it is possible to identify presented natural images from the LFP responses they evoke using trained Gabor wavelet (GW) models. Because GW models were devised to explain the spiking responses of V1 cells, this finding suggests that local spiking activity and LFPs (thought to reflect primarily local synaptic activity) carry similar visual information. Second, models trained on scalar metrics, such as the evoked LFP response range, provide robust image identification, supporting the informative nature of even simple LFP features. Third, image identification is robust only for the first 300 ms following image presentation, and image information is not restricted to any of the spectral bands. This suggests that the short-latency broadband LFP response carries most information during natural scene viewing. Finally, best image identification was achieved by GW models incorporating information at the scale of ?0.5° in size and trained using four different orientations. This suggests that during natural image viewing, LFPs carry stimulus-specific information at spatial scales corresponding to few orientation columns in macaque V1. PMID:25505104

Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Shushruth, S; Davis, Tyler; Ichida, Jennifer M; House, Paul A; Greger, Bradley; Angelucci, Alessandra; Tasdizen, Tolga

2015-03-01

368

A Scalability Study of Web-Native Information Visualization Donald W. Johnson T.J. Jankun-Kelly  

E-print Network

-Kelly Mississippi State University ABSTRACT Several web-native information visualization methods (SVG, HTML5's-dimensional raster graphics (HTML5's Canvas [15]), and 3- dimensional modeling (VRML and its successor X3D [24

Jankun-Kelly, T. J.

369

Visual landmark information gains control of the head direction signal at the lateral mammillary nuclei.  

PubMed

The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS ? LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

Yoder, Ryan M; Peck, James R; Taube, Jeffrey S

2015-01-28

370

Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

2015-01-01

371

The attentional blink impairs detection and delays encoding of visual information: evidence from human electrophysiology.  

PubMed

This article explores the time course of the functional interplay between detection and encoding stages of information processing in the brain and the role they play in conscious visual perception. We employed a multitarget rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) approach and examined the electrophysiological P3 component elicited by a target terminating an RSVP sequence. Target-locked P3 activity was detected both at frontal and parietal recording sites and an independent component analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct P3 components. The posterior P3b varied with intertarget lag, with diminished amplitude and postponed latency at short relative to long lags-an electroencephalographic signature of the attentional blink (AB). Under analogous conditions, the anterior P3a was also reduced in amplitude but did not vary in latency. Collectively, the results provide an electrophysiological record of the interaction between frontal and posterior components linked to detection (P3a) and encoding (P3b) of visual information. Our findings suggest that, although the AB delays target encoding into working memory, it does not slow down detection of a target but instead reduces the efficacy of this process. A functional characterization of P3a in attentive tasks is discussed with reference to current models of the AB phenomenon. PMID:25390207

Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Dux, Paul E; Wyble, Brad; Doro, Mattia; Sessa, Paola; Meconi, Federica; Jolicœur, Pierre

2015-04-01

372

Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

1993-01-01

373

Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

374

Iowa Flood Information System: Towards Integrated Data Management, Analysis and Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview and live demonstration of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.

Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

2012-04-01

375

Visual information underpinning skilled anticipation: The effect of blur on a coupled and uncoupled in situ anticipatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled interceptive actions are understood to be the result of neural processing—and visual information— which is distinct\\u000a from that used for uncoupled perceptual responses. To examine the visual information used for action and perception, skilled\\u000a cricket batters anticipated the direction of balls bowled toward them using a coupled movement (an interceptive action that preserved the natural coupling between perception and

David L. Mann; Bruce Abernethy; Damian Farrow

2010-01-01

376

Mentally ill and non-mentally ill defendants' abilities to understand information relevant to adjudication: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The legal construct of competence to stand trial, or "adjudicative competence," is based on the premise that some mentally disordered defendants have impaired abilities when compared with most defendants and that adjudication should be barred if these competence-related abilities are significantly impaired. Where the line is drawn between sufficient and insufficient abilities has important consequences: as a result of being adjudicated incompetent, defendants may be detained and treated involuntarily and their trials will be delayed. However, no studies have systematically compared the capacities of relevant groups of defendants. In this study, 84 criminal defendants--42 of whom were hospitalized as incompetent and 42 of whom were regarded as unquestionably competent--were administered three instruments measuring capacity to understand legally relevant information. Incompetent defendants performed more poorly on all measures of understanding. Twenty-eight incompetent defendants were administered the measures a second time, after restoration to competence. Restored defendants improved their performance on all measures of understanding and their performance was similar to that of normal, competent defendants. PMID:8807159

Hoge, S K; Poythress, N; Bonnie, R; Eisenberg, M; Monahan, J; Feucht-Haviar, T; Oberlander, L

1996-01-01

377

Filtering of Visual Information in the Tectum by an Identified Neural Circuit  

PubMed Central

The optic tectum of zebrafish is involved in behavioral responses that require the detection of small objects. The superficial layers of the tectal neuropil receive input from retinal axons, while its deeper layers convey the processed information to premotor areas. Imaging with a genetically encoded calcium indicator revealed that the deep layers, as well as the dendrites of single tectal neurons, are preferentially activated by small visual stimuli. This spatial filtering relies on GABAergic interneurons (using the neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid) that are located in the superficial input layer and respond only to large visual stimuli. Photo-ablation of these cells with KillerRed, or silencing of their synaptic transmission, eliminates the size tuning of deeper layers and impairs the capture of prey. PMID:21030657

Bene, Filippo Del; Wyart, Claire; Robles, Estuardo; Tran, Amanda; Looger, Loren; Scott, Ethan K.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Baier, Herwig

2011-01-01

378

Feature selection based on mutual information: criteria of max-dependency, max-relevance, and min-redundancy.  

PubMed

Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature selection algorithm by combining mRMR and other more sophisticated feature selectors (e.g., wrappers). This allows us to select a compact set of superior features at very low cost. We perform extensive experimental comparison of our algorithm and other methods using three different classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machine, and linear discriminate analysis) and four different data sets (handwritten digits, arrhythmia, NCI cancer cell lines, and lymphoma tissues). The results confirm that mRMR leads to promising improvement on feature selection and classification accuracy. PMID:16119262

Peng, Hanchuan; Long, Fuhui; Ding, Chris

2005-08-01

379

Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

2012-03-01

380

Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.  

PubMed

Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

2014-09-01

381

Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions  

PubMed Central

Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices. PMID:25339872

Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

2014-01-01

382

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Second Edition). By Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT, 2001. 197pp., hardcover. ISBN  

E-print Network

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Second Edition). By Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press the review copy of the second edition of Tufte's "The Visual Display of Quantitative Information". The first edition is viewed as the best of Tufte's several books, at least amongst the data visualization community

Cook, Di

383

Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual but not acoustic information to find hidden food items.  

PubMed

Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies. PMID:19236142

Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

2009-02-01

384

Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual, but not acoustic information to find hidden food items  

PubMed Central

Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but only little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins’ ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task’s contingencies. PMID:19236142

Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

2008-01-01

385

A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications  

E-print Network

A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications Zo´e Drey1 environment into a visual pro- gramming language. A taxonomy describes the relevant entities of a given to taxonomical information. We have implemented a visual environment to develop taxonomies and orchestration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials in analytic information processing style: evidence in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Habituation is considered one of the most basic mechanisms of learning. Habituation deficit to several sensory stimulations has been defined as a trait of migraine brain and also observed in other disorders. On the other hand, analytic information processing style is characterized by the habit of continually evaluating stimuli and it has been associated with migraine. We investigated a possible correlation between lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials and analytic cognitive style in healthy subjects. According to Sternberg-Wagner self-assessment inventory, 15 healthy volunteers (HV) with high analytic score and 15 HV with high global score were recruited. Both groups underwent visual evoked potentials recordings after psychological evaluation. We observed significant lack of habituation in analytical individuals compared to global group. In conclusion, a reduced habituation of visual evoked potentials has been observed in analytic subjects. Our results suggest that further research should be undertaken regarding the relationship between analytic cognitive style and lack of habituation in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25260654

Buonfiglio, Marzia; Toscano, M; Puledda, F; Avanzini, G; Di Clemente, L; Di Sabato, F; Di Piero, V

2015-03-01

387

Visual apparent motion can be modulated by task-irrelevant lexical information.  

PubMed

Previous studies have repeatedly demonstrated the impact of Gestalt structural grouping principles upon the parsing of motion correspondence in ambiguous apparent motion. Here, by embedding Chinese characters in a visual Ternus display that comprised two stimulus frames, we showed that the perception of visual apparent motion can be modulated by activation of task-irrelevant lexical representations. Each frame had two disks, with the second disk of the first frame and the first disk of the second frame being presented at the same location. Observers could perceive either "element motion," in which the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary, or "group motion," in which both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. More reports of group motion, as opposed to element motion, were obtained when the embedded characters formed two-character compound words than when they formed nonwords, although this lexicality effect appeared to be attenuated by the use of the same characters at the overlapping position across the two frames. Thus, grouping of visual elements in a changing world can be guided by both structural principles and prior world knowledge, including lexical information. PMID:21264743

Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

2011-05-01

388

[Deficit in suppression of interference in visual information processing by schizophrenic subjects].  

PubMed

Although many studies have indicated information processing deficits in schizophrenic patients, the precise nature and underlying causes of these deficits remain largely uncertain. One prominent hypothesis is that these patients show insufficient attentional inhibition. This deficit to inhibition has been linked to certain cognitive disorders in schizophrenic patients, including attention deficits, as well as to some clinical symptoms, especially those involving delusional thought, hallucinations,and poor contact with reality. The hypothesis of deficient attentional inhibition, although attractive in some ways, is difficult to work with, because it is not easy to directly measure "attentional inhibition". Several studies involving normal subjects have linked attentional inhibition with performance on a task demanding the suppression of distracting information: the presumption is that efficient attentional inhibition will permit rapid responses because the distracting information will be quickly suppressed, allowing undistracted processing of the target information. The present study measures schizophrenic patients' performance on a task demanding suppression of rapidly-presented visual information. An important methodological feature of this study is that performance is measured in terms of "percent correct responses" rather than the reaction time measures typically used in tasks demanding distractor suppression, such as Stroop-like selective attention tasks. Since reaction times are not considered, the results cannot be interpreted in terms of deficient response organization and execution. Schizophrenic (18) and normal (18) subjects underwent trials in which a visual target was the second of two stimuli presented in rapid succession. Interference produced by a non-target significantly impaired perception of the target for schizophrenic patients. This effect persisted longer in the schizophrenic subjects possibly because of deficient attentional inhibition. PMID:10858917

Gagnon, J F; Everett, J; LaJeunesse, C; Gosselin, N; Lavoie, K

2000-01-01

389

Maturity determination and information visualization of new forming processes considering uncertain indicator values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operative or strategic decision-making during the development of novel objects is complicated and mostly based on fuzzy assumptions or uncertain information. Consideration of information uncertainty would enhance the reliability of any evaluation of the current development status of new objects. Decisions could be made with a higher safety. The development status equates to the maturity and is to be assessed by previously elicited indicators in relation to phase-dependent requirements. Within this paper, a reference-model based maturity method considering uncertain indicators is introduced for enabling the determination and assurance of the development status in a quantitative and systematic way. The method is applied within the development of a novel metal forming process namely the Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming, which aims to unite the advantages of sheet metal and bulk metal forming. Additionally techniques for visualizing the determined maturity value are proposed to support subsequent decision processes in the context of maturity assurance or improvement.

Weckenmann, A.; Akkasoglu, G.

2012-04-01

390

Towards an Infrastructure for Large-Scale Information Analysis, Visualization, Information Retrieval Research & Education  

E-print Network

4th , 2002. This research in progress aims to develop an advanced infrastructure for teaching with researchers at 1 Cross-disciplinary DL's comprise ISI's Journal Citation Reports (http Retrieval Research & Education Katy Börner & Javed Mostafa School of Library and Information Science School

Börner, Katy

391

How visual timing and form information affect speech and non-speech processing.  

PubMed

Auditory speech processing is facilitated when the talker's face/head movements are seen. This effect is typically explained in terms of visual speech providing form and/or timing information. We determined the effect of both types of information on a speech/non-speech task (non-speech stimuli were spectrally rotated speech). All stimuli were presented paired with the talker's static or moving face. Two types of moving face stimuli were used: full-face versions (both spoken form and timing information available) and modified face versions (only timing information provided by peri-oral motion available). The results showed that the peri-oral timing information facilitated response time for speech and non-speech stimuli compared to a static face. An additional facilitatory effect was found for full-face versions compared to the timing condition; this effect only occurred for speech stimuli. We propose the timing effect was due to cross-modal phase resetting; the form effect to cross-modal priming. PMID:25190328

Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

2014-10-01

392

Binocular depth inversion as a paradigm of reduced visual information processing in prodromal state, antipsychotic-naïve and treated schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binocular depth inversion illusion test (BDII) represents a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing\\u000a that manifests in various experimental and naturally occurring psychotic states. This study explores impairment of visual\\u000a processing in different major psychiatric diseases investigating 313 subjects, suffering of either an initial prodromal state\\u000a of psychosis (IPS) or a first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve paranoid schizophrenia (SZ-N) as well

Dagmar Koethe; Laura Kranaster; Carolin Hoyer; Sonja Gross; Miriam A. Neatby; Frauke Schultze-Lutter; Stephan Ruhrmann; Joachim Klosterkötter; Martin Hellmich; F. Markus Leweke

2009-01-01

393

Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: The relevance of information on adenoma detection.  

PubMed

Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers' perspective) for a cohort of US 50-years-old persons to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50-75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70 and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29-44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT's sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT's unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over an NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. PMID:25403937

Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

2015-06-15

394

Visual dominance: An information-processing account of its origins and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that in many situations, visual input tends to dominate other modalities in perceptual and memorial reports and in speeded responses. Visual dominance appears to be related to the relatively weak capacity of visual inputs to alert the organism to their occurrence. In response to this reduced alerting, Ss tend to keep their attention tuned to the visual modality. This

Michael I. Posner; Mary J. Nissen; Raymond M. Klein

1976-01-01

395

On the Theoretical Possibility of Quantum Visual Information Transfer to the Human Brain  

E-print Network

The feasibility of wave function collapse in the human brain has been the subject of vigorous scientific debates since the advent of quantum theory. Scientists like Von Neumann, London, Bauer and Wigner (initially) believed that wave function collapse occurs in the brain or is caused by the mind of the observer. It is a legitimate question to ask how human brain can receive subtle external visual quantum information intact when it must pass through very noisy and complex pathways from the eye to the brain? There are several approaches to investigate information processing in the brain, each of which presents a different set of conclusions. Penrose and Hameroff have hypothesized that there is quantum information processing inside the human brain whose material substrate involves microtubules and consciousness is the result of a collective wavefunction collapse occurring in these structures. Conversely, Tegmark stated that owing to thermal decoherence there cannot be any quantum processing in neurons of the brain and processing in the brain must be classical for cognitive processes. However, Rosa and Faber presented an argument for a middle way which shows that none of the previous authors are completely right and despite the presence of decoherence, it is still possible to consider the brain to be a quantum system. Additionally, Thaheld, has concluded that quantum states of photons do collapse in the human eye and there is no possibility for collapse of visual quantum states in the brain and thus there is no possibility for the quantum state reduction in the brain. In this paper we conclude that if we accept the main essence of the above approaches taken together, each of them can provide a different part of a teleportation mechanism.

V. Salari; M. Rahnama; J. A. Tuszynski

2010-12-13

396

Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

2013-01-01

397

Viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in visual working memory.  

PubMed

Objects are not represented individually in visual working memory (VWM), but in relation to the contextual information provided by other memorized objects. We studied whether the contextual information provided by the spatial configuration of all memorized objects is viewpoint-dependent. We ran two experiments asking participants to detect changes in locations between memory and probe for one object highlighted in the probe image. We manipulated the changes in viewpoint between memory and probe (Exp. 1: 0°, 30°, 60°; Exp. 2: 0°, 60°), as well as the spatial configuration visible in the probe image (Exp. 1: full configuration, partial configuration; Exp. 2: full configuration, no configuration). Location change detection was higher with the full spatial configuration than with the partial configuration or with no spatial configuration at viewpoint changes of 0°, thus replicating previous findings on the nonindependent representations of individual objects in VWM. Most importantly, the effect of spatial configurations decreased with increasing viewpoint changes, suggesting a viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in VWM. We discuss these findings within the context of this special issue, in particular whether research performed within the slots-versus-resources debate and research on the effects of contextual information might focus on two different storage systems within VWM. PMID:24470259

Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

2014-04-01

398

Once and for all-How people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.  

PubMed

Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

2015-03-01

399

Availability Issues in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301

Costa, Daniel G.; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

2014-01-01

400

Availability issues in wireless visual sensor networks.  

PubMed

Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301

Costa, Daniel G; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

2014-01-01

401

EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WEB SEARCH Nicolas Bonnel  

E-print Network

the relevant information for a given search since available data on the World Wide Web is con- stantly of the presented approach, which is to offer the user a search interface enabling him to quickly find the relevantEFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WEB SEARCH RESULTS Nicolas Bonnel IRISA Rennes, France

Boyer, Edmond

402

IR and visual image registration based on mutual information and PSO-Powell algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared and visual image registration has a wide application in the fields of remote sensing and military. Mutual information (MI) has proved effective and successful in infrared and visual image registration process. To find the most appropriate registration parameters, optimal algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm or Powell search method, are often used. The PSO algorithm has strong global search ability and search speed is fast at the beginning, while the weakness is low search performance in late search stage. In image registration process, it often takes a lot of time to do useless search and solution's precision is low. Powell search method has strong local search ability. However, the search performance and time is more sensitive to initial values. In image registration, it is often obstructed by local maximum and gets wrong results. In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm, which combined PSO algorithm and Powell search method, is proposed. It combines both advantages that avoiding obstruction caused by local maximum and having higher precision. Firstly, using PSO algorithm gets a registration parameter which is close to global minimum. Based on the result in last stage, the Powell search method is used to find more precision registration parameter. The experimental result shows that the algorithm can effectively correct the scale, rotation and translation additional optimal algorithm. It can be a good solution to register infrared difference of two images and has a greater performance on time and precision than traditional and visible images.

Zhuang, Youwen; Gao, Kun; Miu, Xianghu

2014-11-01

403

A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

2005-07-01

404

Visual information processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.

Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

1992-01-01

405

Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age  

PubMed Central

Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

2009-01-01

406

Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation, texture, etc. Direct volume rendering techniques do conventionally not make use of these semantics. The transfer function actively prevents the use of these semantic parameters for the description of visualization mappings. In our work on semantic layers we propose an alternative method to achieve meaningful visualization mappings from volumetric attributes to visual appearance. Semantic parameters are used to describe meaningful intervals of data and the rendering techniques. Visualization rules are used to specify a visualization mapping from expert semantics to illustration semantics. Our method enables a multi-dimensional mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple visual abstractions. Semantic values for volumetric attributes and for visual abstractions are represented as membership functions of fuzzy sets. Visualization rules are specified by the user to establish the semantic visualization mapping from various volume attributes to given visual abstractions. The visualization rules are interactively evaluated on modern graphics processing units using fuzzy logic arithmetics. With this approach it is possible to establish a visualization mapping between semantics from expert domains and scientific illustration techniques.

Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

2009-04-01

407

A comparative analysis of integrating visual information in local neuronal ensembles  

PubMed Central

Spike directivity, a new measure that quantifies the transient charge density dynamics within action potentials provides better results in discriminating different categories of visual object recognition. Specifically, intracranial recordings from medial temporal lobe (MTL) of epileptic patients have been analyzed using firing rate, interspike intervals and spike directivity. A comparative statistical analysis of the same spikes from a local ensemble of four selected neurons shows that electrical patterns in these neurons display higher separability to input images compared to spike timing features. If the observation vector includes data from all four neurons then the comparative analysis shows a highly significant separation between categories for spike directivity (p = 0.0023) and does not display separability for interspike interval (p = 0.3768) and firing rate (p = 0.5492). Since electrical patterns in neuronal spikes provide information regarding different presented objects this result shows that related information is intracellularly processed in neurons and carried out within a millisecond-level time domain of action potential occurrence. This significant statistical outcome obtained from a local ensemble of four neurons suggests that meaningful information can be electrically inferred at the network level to generate a better discrimination of presented images. PMID:22480985

Aur, Dorian

2013-01-01

408

Perceptual assimilation of lexical tone: The roles of language experience and visual information.  

PubMed

Using Best's (1995) perceptual assimilation model (PAM), we investigated auditory-visual (AV), auditory-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) perception of Thai tones. Mandarin and Cantonese (tone-language) speakers were asked to categorize Thai tones according to their own native tone categories, and Australian English (non-tone-language) speakers to categorize Thai tones into their native intonation categories-for instance, question or statement. As comparisons, Thai participants completed a straightforward identification task, and another Australian English group identified the Thai tones using simple symbols. All of the groups also completed an AX discrimination task. Both the Mandarin and Cantonese groups categorized AO and AV Thai falling tones as their native level tones, and Thai rising tones as their native rising tones, although the Mandarin participants found it easier to categorize Thai level tones than did the Cantonese participants. VO information led to very poor categorization for all groups, and AO and AV information also led to very poor categorizations for the English intonation categorization group. PAM's predictions regarding tone discriminability based on these category assimilation patterns were borne out for the Mandarin group's AO and AV discriminations, providing support for the applicability of the PAM to lexical tones. For the Cantonese group, however, PAM was unable to account for one specific discrimination pattern-namely, their relatively good performance on the Thai high-rising contrast in the auditory conditions-and no predictions could be derived for the English groups. A full account of tone assimilation will likely need to incorporate considerations of phonetic, and even acoustic, similarity and overlap between nonnative and native tone categories. PMID:25465395

Reid, Amanda; Burnham, Denis; Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan; Attina, Virginie; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Best, Catherine T

2015-02-01

409

Object-Based Visual Attention in 8-Month-Old Infants: Evidence from an Eye-Tracking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention is one of the infant's primary tools for gathering relevant information from the environment for further processing and learning. The space-based component of visual attention in infants has been widely investigated; however, the object-based component of visual attention has received scarce interest. This scarcity is…

Bulf, Hermann; Valenza, Eloisa

2013-01-01

410

Police interviews with suspected child sex offenders: does use of empathy and question type influence the amount of investigation relevant information obtained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using transcripts of 26 real-life interviews with suspected child sex offenders from England, this study examined the use of empathy and the impact of question type on the amount of investigation relevant information (IRI) obtained. There were no significant differences in the amount of IRI obtained in the interviews as a function of the use of empathy by police officers.

Gavin Oxburgh; James Ost; Julie Cherryman

2010-01-01

411

Visual attention as a multilevel selection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural visual scenes are cluttered and contain many different objects that cannot all be processed simultaneously. Therefore,\\u000a attentional mechanisms are needed to select relevant and to filter out irrelevant information. Evidence from functional brain\\u000a imaging reveals that attention operates at various processing levels within the visual system and beyond. First, the lateral\\u000a geniculate nucleus appears to be the first stage

Sabine Kastner; Mark A. Pinsk

2004-01-01

412

Visual processing in the central bee brain  

PubMed Central

Visual scenes comprise enormous amounts of information from which nervous systems extract behaviorally relevant cues. In most model systems, little is known about the transformation of visual information as it occurs along visual pathways. We examined how visual information is transformed physiologically as it is communicated from the eye to higher order brain centers using bumblebees, which are known for their visual capabilities. We recorded intracellularly in vivo from thirty neurons in the central bumblebee brain (the lateral protocerebrum) and compared these neurons to 132 neurons from more distal areas along the visual pathway, namely the medulla and the lobula. In these three brain regions (medulla, lobula and central brain), we examined correlations between the neurons’ branching patterns and their responses primarily to color, but also to motion stimuli. Visual neurons projecting to the anterior central brain were generally color sensitive, while neurons projecting to the posterior central brain were predominantly motion sensitive. The temporal response properties differed significantly between these areas, with an increase in spike time precision across trials and a decrease in average reliable spiking as visual information processing progressed from the periphery to the central brain. These data suggest that neurons along the visual pathway to the central brain are not only segregated with regard to the physical features of the stimuli (e.g. color and motion), but also differ in the way they encode stimuli, possibly to allow for efficient parallel processing to occur. PMID:19675233

Paulk, Angelique C.; Dacks, Andrew M.; Phillips-Portillo, James; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Gronenberg, Wulfila

2009-01-01

413

Mixed Methods Analysis and Information Visualization: Graphical Display for Effective Communication of Research Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we introduce various graphical methods that can be used to represent data in mixed research. First, we present a broad taxonomy of visual representation. Next, we use this taxonomy to provide an overview of visual techniques for quantitative data display and qualitative data display. Then, we propose what we call "crossover" visual

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Dickinson, Wendy B.

2008-01-01

414

Role of the precuneus in the detection of incongruency between tactile and visual texture information: A functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Visual clues as to the physical substance of manufactured objects can be misleading. For example, a plastic ring can appear to be made of gold. However, we can avoid misidentifying an object?s substance by comparing visual and tactile information. As compared to the spatial properties of an object (e.g., orientation), however, little information regarding physical object properties (material properties) is shared between vision and touch. How can such different kinds of information be compared in the brain? One possibility is that the visuo-tactile comparison of material information is mediated by associations that are previously learned between the two modalities. Previous studies suggest that a cortical network involving the medial temporal lobe and precuneus plays a critical role in the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether these brain regions are involved in the visuo-tactile comparison of material properties. The stimuli consisted of surfaces in which an oriented plastic bar was placed on a background texture. Twenty-two healthy participants determined whether the orientations of visually- and tactually-presented bar stimuli were congruent in the orientation conditions, and whether visually- and tactually-presented background textures were congruent in the texture conditions. The texture conditions revealed greater activation of the fusiform gyrus, medial temporal lobe and lateral prefrontal cortex compared with the orientation conditions. In the texture conditions, the precuneus showed greater response to incongruent stimuli than to congruent stimuli. This incongruency effect was greater for the texture conditions than for the orientation conditions. These results suggest that the precuneus is involved in detecting incongruency between tactile and visual texture information in concert with the medial temporal lobe, which is tightly linked with long-term memory. PMID:25281887

Kitada, Ryo; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Okamoto, Yuko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

2014-10-01

415

What Visual Information Do Children and Adults Consider while Switching between Tasks? Eye-Tracking Investigation of Cognitive Flexibility Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the visual information that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to…

Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnes; Dufau, Stephane; Lucenet, Joanna

2010-01-01

416

Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

2014-01-01

417

Goal-Directed Grasping: The Dimensional Properties of an Object Influence the Nature of the Visual Information Mediating Aperture Shaping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visual information supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects…

Holmes, Scott A.; Heath, Matthew

2013-01-01

418

Assessing the potential information content of multicomponent visual signals: a machine learning approach.  

PubMed

Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision 'eigenface' technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis. Discriminant function analyses established whether these perceptual dimensions could be used to reliably classify species identity, individual identity, age and sex, and, if so, identify the dimensions that carry this information. Across the 12 species studied, we found that both overall face pattern and focal trait differences could be used to categorize species and individuals reliably, whereas correct classification of age category and sex was not possible. This pattern makes sense, as guenons often form mixed-species groups in which familiar conspecifics develop complex differentiated social relationships but where the presence of heterospecifics creates hybridization risk. Our approach should be broadly applicable to the investigation of visual signal function across the animal kingdom. PMID:25652832

Allen, William L; Higham, James P

2015-03-01

419

Postural control in down syndrome: the use of somatosensory and visual information to attenuate body sway.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual and somatosensory information on body sway in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Nine adults with DS (19-29 years old) and nine control subjects (CS) (19-29 years old) stood in the upright stance in four experimental conditions: no vision and no touch; vision and no touch; no vision and touch; and vision and touch. In the vision condition, participants looked at a target placed in front of them; in the no vision condition, participants wore a black cotton mask. In the touch condition, participants touched a stationary surface with their right index finger; in the no touch condition, participants kept their arms hanging alongside their bodies. A force plate was used to estimate center of pressure excursion for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. MANOVA revealed that both the individuals with DS and the control subjects used vision and touch to reduce overall body sway, although individuals with DS still oscillated more than did the CS. These results indicate that adults with DS are able to use sensory information to reduce body sway, and they demonstrate that there is no difference in sensory integration between the individuals with DS and the CS. PMID:17715457

Gomes, Matheus M; Barela, José A

2007-07-01

420

From Objects to Landmarks: The Function of Visual Location Information in Spatial Navigation  

PubMed Central

Landmarks play an important role in guiding navigational behavior. A host of studies in the last 15?years has demonstrated that environmental objects can act as landmarks for navigation in different ways. In this review, we propose a parsimonious four-part taxonomy for conceptualizing object location information during navigation. We begin by outlining object properties that appear to be important for a landmark to attain salience. We then systematically examine the different functions of objects as navigational landmarks based on previous behavioral and neuroanatomical findings in rodents and humans. Evidence is presented showing that single environmental objects can function as navigational beacons, or act as associative or orientation cues. In addition, we argue that extended surfaces or boundaries can act as landmarks by providing a frame of reference for encoding spatial information. The present review provides a concise taxonomy of the use of visual objects as landmarks in navigation and should serve as a useful reference for future research into landmark-based spatial navigation. PMID:22969737

Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Mattingley, Jason B.

2012-01-01

421

Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking  

PubMed Central

Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

Saunders, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

422

Visual Interactive and Location Activated Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we proposed an application on smart phones for interactive mobile learning. Image recognition technology is used to link physical objects seen through the camera to relevant information. Through the built-in camera on the smart phone, visual interactive learning can be realized. With the GPS sensor, location activated learning is also possible. Combining both the camera and the

Yiqun Li; Aiyuan Guo; Jimmy Addison Lee; Yan Gao; Yii Leong Ling

2012-01-01

423

Method for Examination and Documentation of Basic Information and Metadata from Published Reports Relevant to the Study of Stormwater Runoff Quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A readily accessible archive of information that is valid, current, and technically defensible is needed to make informed highway-planning, design, and management decisions. The National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS) is a cataloging and assessment of the documentation of information relevant to highway-runoff water quality available in published reports. The report review process is based on the NDAMS review sheet, which was designed by the USGS with input from the FHWA, State transportation agencies, and the regulatory community. The report-review process is designed to determine the technical merit of the existing literature in terms of current requirements for data documentation, data quality, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and technical issues that may affect the use of historical data. To facilitate the review process, the NDAMS review sheet is divided into 12 sections: (1) administrative review information, (2) investigation and report information, (3) temporal information, (4) location information (5) water-quality-monitoring information, (6) sample-handling methods, (7) constituent information, (8) sampling focus and matrix, (9) flow monitoring methods, (10) field QA/QC, (11) laboratory, and (12) uncertainty/error analysis. This report describes the NDAMS report reviews and metadata documentation methods and provides an overview of the approach and of the quality-assurance and quality-control program used to implement the review process. Detailed information, including a glossary of relevant terms, a copy of the report-review sheets, and reportreview instructions are completely documented in a series of three appendixes included with this report. Therefore the reviews are repeatable and the methods can be used by transportation research organizations to catalog new reports as they are published.

Dionne, Shannon G.; Granato, Gregory E.; Tana, Cameron K.

1999-01-01

424

A Periodic Table of Visualization Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website shows the diversity of visualization methods that are out there. Visualization types are presented in a 'periodic' table; rolling over each 'element' gives an example of the visualization style. Basic categories include data visualization, information visualization, concept visualization, strategy visualization, metaphor visualization, and compound visualization.

Ralph and Eppler Lengler

425

[Pathways for the transmission of visual information in the protocerebrum of the drone fly Eristalis tenax].  

PubMed

Studies have been made on the structure of neuropiles and visual pathoways in the brain of the fly E. tenax L. (Diptera, Syrphidae). The retina is projected on laminar structures in the visual ganglia only; other protocerebrum neuropiles lack this projection. All the comissures connecting contralateral visual ganglia, consist of several hundreds of fibers, whereas the binocular zone of both eyes includes more than 4,000 ommatidia. Neither the visual ganglia, nor other protocerebrum neuropiles may serve as a substrate for topographic imposition of projections of the corresponding parts in both retines. The mechanism of binocular interaction in insects presumably differs from that in mammals (primates, carnovores). PMID:1020555

Pichka, V E

1976-01-01

426

New Methods for the Visualization of Electric Power System Information Thomas J. Overbye  

E-print Network

system visualization techniques to help in this task. These techniques include animation of power system utilities were vertically integrated "natural" monopolies serving captive markets. That is, the electric

427

Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

Hyman, Harvey

2012-01-01

428

Stereoscopic visualization of laparoscope image using depth information from 3D model.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic surgery is indispensable from the current surgical procedures. It uses an endoscope system of camera and light source, and surgical instruments which pass through the small incisions on the abdomen of the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Conventional laparoscope (endoscope) systems produce 2D colored video images which do not provide surgeons an actual depth perception of the scene. In this work, the problem was formulated as synthesizing a stereo image of the monocular (conventional) laparoscope image by incorporating into them the depth information from a 3D CT model. Various algorithms of the computer vision including the algorithms for the feature detection, matching and tracking in the video frames, and for the reconstruction of 3D shape from shading in the 2D laparoscope image were combined for making the system. The current method was applied to the laparoscope video at the rate of up to 5 frames per second to visualize its stereo video. A correlation was investigated between the depth maps calculated with our method with those from the shape from shading algorithm. The correlation coefficients between the depth maps were within the range of 0.70-0.95 (P<0.05). A t-test was used for the statistical analysis. PMID:24444752

Kumar, Atul; Wang, Yen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Jen; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

2014-03-01

429

Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information  

PubMed Central

The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

2013-01-01

430

The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.  

PubMed

Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

2013-04-01

431

The Value-Relevance of Derivative Disclosures by Commercial Banks: A Comprehensive Study of Information Content Under SFAS Nos. 119 and 133  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the value-relevance of banks' derivative disclosures under Statements of Financial Accounting Standards\\u000a (SFAS) Nos. 119 and 133. Using the complete time-series of SFAS No. 119 disaggregated notional value disclosures and the most\\u000a recently available SFAS No. 133 fair value data, this study investigates whether such expanded disclosures provide incremental\\u000a information content beyond earnings and book value. Our

Li Wang; Pervaiz Alam; Stephen Makar

2005-01-01

432

Processing spatial information in the sensorimotor branch of the visual system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We distinguish two representations of visual space: a cognitive representation drives perception, and a sensorimotor representation controls visually guided behavior. Spatial values in the two representations are separated with the Roelofs effect: a target within an off-center frame appears biased in a location opposite the direction of the frame. The effect appears for a verbal measure (cognitive) but not for

Bruce Bridgeman; Andrea Gemmer; Trish Forsman; Valerie Huemer

2000-01-01

433

How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

Gray, Rob

2009-01-01

434

Visual Form, Ethics, and a Typology of Purpose: Teaching Effective Information Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams's proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those…

Rosenquist, Christina

2012-01-01

435

The Effect of Visual Mental Imagery on Speed and Accuracy of Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two instructional variables, visual illustrations and visual mental imagery, were compared for their influences on learning and cognitive strategies. It was hypothesized, based on dual-code theory, that attempts to combine the two would facilitate learning. In a completely randomized factorial design, treatments consisted of 4 versions of a…

Hodes, Carol L.

436

Interactions Between Visual Working Memory and Selective Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between working memory and selective attention has traditionally been discussed as operating in one direc- tion: Attention filters incoming information, allowing only relevant information into short-term processing stores. This study tested the prediction that the contents of visual working memory also influence the guidance of selective attention. Participants held a sample object in working memory on each trial.

Paul E. Downing

2000-01-01

437

Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.  

PubMed

Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342

Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

2011-12-01

438

Experience-dependent visual cue integration based on consistencies between visual and haptic percepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the hypothesis that observers can use haptic percepts as a standard against which the relative reliabilities of visual cues can be judged, and that these reliabilities determine how observers combine depth information provided by these cues. Using a novel visuo-haptic virtual reality environment, subjects viewed and grasped virtual objects. In Experiment 1, subjects were trained under motion relevant

Joseph E. Atkins; Jozsef Fiser; Robert A. Jacobs

2001-01-01

439

Supra-additive contribution of shape and surface information to individual face discrimination as revealed by fast periodic visual stimulation.  

PubMed

Face perception depends on two main sources of information--shape and surface cues. Behavioral studies suggest that both of them contribute roughly equally to discrimination of individual faces, with only a small advantage provided by their combination. However, it is difficult to quantify the respective contribution of each source of information to the visual representation of individual faces with explicit behavioral measures. To address this issue, facial morphs were created that varied in shape only, surface only, or both. Electrocephalogram (EEG) were recorded from 10 participants during visual stimulation at a fast periodic rate, in which the same face was presented four times consecutively and the fifth face (the oddball) varied along one of the morphed dimensions. Individual face discrimination was indexed by the periodic EEG response at the oddball rate (e.g., 5.88 Hz/5 = 1.18 Hz). While shape information was discriminated mainly at right occipitotemporal electrode sites, surface information was coded more bilaterally and provided a larger response overall. Most importantly, shape and surface changes alone were associated with much weaker responses than when both sources of information were combined in the stimulus, revealing a supra-additive effect. These observations suggest that the two kinds of information combine nonlinearly to provide a full individual face representation, face identity being more than the sum of the contribution of shape and surface cues. PMID:25540264

Dzhelyova, Milena; Rossion, Bruno

2014-01-01

440

Supporting Multimedia Learning with Visual Signalling and Animated Pedagogical Agent: Moderating Effects of Prior Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment examined the effects of visual signalling to relevant information in multiple external representations and the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent (APA). Students learned electric circuit analysis using a computer-based learning environment that included Cartesian graphs, equations and electric circuit diagrams. The…

Johnson, A. M.; Ozogul, G.; Reisslein, M.

2015-01-01

441

Modeling Drivers' Visual Attention Allocation While Interacting With In-Vehicle Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 experiments, the authors examined how characteristics of a simulated traffic environment and in-vehicle tasks impact driver performance and visual scanning and the extent to which a computational model of visual attention (SEEV model) could predict scanning behavior. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated task-relevant information bandwidth and task priority. In Experiment 2, the authors examined task bandwidth and

William J. Horrey; Christopher D. Wickens; Kyle P. Consalus

2006-01-01

442

Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speed sensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimal multivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noises corrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors' outputs are so dangerous that their negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of the car. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our full attention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noises on the car's electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. The experimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the relevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensor design techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today's cars need.

Hernandez, Wilmar

2005-01-01

443

Top-Down and Bottom-Up Visual Information Processing of Non-Social Stimuli in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…

Maekawa, Toshihiko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Inada, Naoko; Oribe, Naoya; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kamio, Yoko

2011-01-01

444

Processing spatial information in the sensorimotor branch of the visual system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We distinguish two representations of visual space: a cognitive representation drives perception, and a sensorimotor representation,controls visually guided,behavior. Spatial values in the two,representations are separated,with the Roelofs effect: a target within an off-center frame appears,biased in a location opposite the direction of the frame. The effect appears for a verbal measure,(cognitive) but not for a jab at the target

Bruce Bridgeman; Andrea Gemmer; Trish Forsman; Valerie Huemer

445

Local Search and Information Visualization Methods for School Redistricting Marie desJardins, Blazej Bulka, Ryan Carr, Andrew Hunt, Priyang Rathod, and Penny Rheingans  

E-print Network

Local Search and Information Visualization Methods for School Redistricting Marie des: Emerging Applications Application Domain: School Redistricting AI Techniques and Issues: Heuristic Search of school redistricting, in which students are assigned to home schools within a county or school district

Rheingans, Penny

446

Heuristic Search and Information Visualization Methods for School Redistricting Marie desJardins, Blazej Bulka, Ryan Carr, Eric Jordan, and Penny Rheingans  

E-print Network

Heuristic Search and Information Visualization Methods for School Redistricting Marie des- alization techniques to the problem of school redistricting, in which students are assigned to home schools in finding multiple qual- itatively different redistricting plans that represent different tradeoffs

Rheingans, Penny

447

Abstract--A central role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is to allow the identification and visualisation of relevant  

E-print Network

, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand (email: csch050@ec.auckland.ac.nz, trebor, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand (email: h.w.guesgen@massey.ac.nz) measuring instrumentsAbstract--A central role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is to allow the identification

Amor, Robert

448

Role of Information Relevance, Source Credibility, and Decisional Consequence on Attitude Change, and the Verbal Attitude-Overt Behavior Correspondence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious problem in the area of attitude research is the low relationship between verbal attitude and supposedly related overt behavior. A study tested a model derived from M. Deutsch's proposition on persuasive communication stating that for communication to be effective in a conflict situation, it must convey to the information receiver the…

Edeani, David O.

449

Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

Tutunjian, Damon A.

2010-01-01

450

Can a Broad-Based School Indicator System Capture Information Relevant to Increasing Educational Opportunities and Improving Student Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecticut's school-accountability law, Connecticut General Statute 10-220(c), requires reporting on a broad-based system of educational indicators that include measures of student needs, school resources, school performance (process), and student performance. This paper presents findings of a study that, using information from Connecticut's…

Lucco, Robert J.; And Others

451

Design and Development of a Linked Open Data-Based Health Information Representation and Visualization System: Potentials and Preliminary Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse difficult. Linked Open Data (LOD)—a new Semantic Web set of best practice of standards to publish and link heterogeneous data—can be applied to the representation and management of public level health data to alleviate such challenges. However, the technologies behind building LOD systems and their effectiveness for health data are yet to be assessed. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Linked Data technologies are potential options for health information representation, visualization, and retrieval systems development and to identify the available tools and methodologies to build Linked Data-based health information systems. Methods We used the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for data representation, Fuseki triple store for data storage, and Sgvizler for information visualization. Additionally, we integrated SPARQL query interface for interacting with the data. We primarily use the WHO health observatory dataset to test the system. All the data were represented using RDF and interlinked with other related datasets on the Web of Data using Silk—a link discovery framework for Web of Data. A preliminary usability assessment was conducted following the System Usability Scale (SUS) method. Results We developed an LOD-based health information representation, querying, and visualization system by using Linked Data tools. We imported more than 20,000 HIV-related data elements on mortality, prevalence, incidence, and related variables, which are freely available from the WHO global health observatory database. Additionally, we automatically linked 5312 data elements from DBpedia, Bio2RDF, and LinkedCT using the Silk framework. The system users can retrieve and visualize health information according to their interests. For users who are not familiar with SPARQL queries, we integrated a Linked Data search engine interface to search and browse the data. We used the system to represent and store the data, facilitating flexible queries and different kinds of visualizations. The preliminary user evaluation score by public health data managers and users was 82 on the SUS usability measurement scale. The need to write queries in the interface was the main reported difficulty of LOD-based systems to the end user. Conclusions The system introduced in this article shows that current LOD technologies are a promising alternative to represent heterogeneous health data in a flexible and reusable manner so that they can serve intelligent queries, and ultimately support decision-making. However, the development of advanced text-based search engines is necessary to increase its usability especially for nontechnical users. Further research with large datasets is recommended in the future to unfold the potential of Linked Data and Semantic Web for future health information systems development. PMID:25601195

Kauppinen, Tomi; Keßler, Carsten; Fritz, Fleur

2014-01-01

452

What counts for ‘counting’? Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, respond appropriately to relevant and irrelevant information in a quantity judgment task  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman animals quantify all manner of things, and the way in which this is done is fairly well understood. However, little research has been conducted to determine how they know what is or is not relevant in the instances in which they quantify stimuli. We assessed how four chimpanzees chose between two sets of food items when the items were distributed across separate spatial arrays. Each item was covered by a container, and then was revealed in sequence so that neither whole set was visible at one time. After all containers were revealed, some were revealed again. The chimpanzees should have ignored items that were seen a second time and instead enumerated each item only once. In another test, some of the items were transposed in location and then uncovered again. Here, the chimpanzees needed to recognize that the newly shown food items were ones they already had seen. Overall, the chimpanzees were successful in selecting the truly larger array of items despite these potential distracting re-presentations of items. Discrimination performance also reflected analogue magnitude estimation because comparisons of sets that differed by larger amounts were easier than comparisons that differed by smaller amounts. Thus, chimpanzee quantity judgments for nonvisible sets of items are inexact, but they include an aspect of control for determining when items are uniquely presented versus re-presented. PMID:23750039

Beran, Michael J.; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Garland, Alexis; Evans, Theodore A.

2013-01-01

453

Optic flow instructs retinotopic map formation through a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information  

PubMed Central

Retinotopic maps are plastic in response to changes in sensory input; however, the experience-dependent instructive cues that organize retinotopy are unclear. In animals with forward-directed locomotion, the predominant anterior to posterior optic flow activates retinal ganglion cells in a stereotyped temporal to nasal sequence. Here we imaged retinotectal axon arbor location and structural plasticity to assess map refinement in vivo while exposing Xenopus tadpoles to visual stimuli. We show that the temporal sequence of retinal activity driven by natural optic flow organizes retinotopy by regulating axon arbor branch dynamics, whereas the opposite sequence of retinal activity prevents map refinement. Our study demonstrates that a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information controls experience-dependent topographic map plasticity. This organizational principle is likely to apply to other sensory modalities and projections in the brain. PMID:25385606

Cline, Hollis T.

2014-01-01

454

Libraries for the Blind in the Information Age: Guidelines for Development. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 86  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visually impaired people have the same information needs as sighted people. Just as sighted people might read a newspaper, listen to a CD or download electronic information from the Internet, visually impaired people also want access to relevant information in their chosen accessible format. Developing an efficient library service for…

Kavanagh, Rosemary, Ed.; Skold, Beatrice Christensen, Ed.

2005-01-01

455

Flow Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site for a class on flow visualization showcases the work of engineering and fine arts students. Eleven galleries present student images showing fluids and clouds, with information about both the science and the photography. Some movies are included. Course information and details about the equipment used are also provided, along with links to other web resources on weather, fluids, and art.

Hertzberg, Jean R.

456

Visualizing Oceans of Data: Using learning research to inform the design of student interfaces to climate data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be climate literate, students must be data-literate. To connect with the evidence behind scientists' assertions about climate change, students (and other novices) must be able to distinguish long-term trends from short-term variability in graphs, recognize the distribution of sea surface temperature or precipitation changes on maps, and discern important patterns in animations that display changes in data over time. Although the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near digital, sharable, real-time and archived earth systems data has the potential to transform how climate science is taught by connecting students directly with evidence to support their understanding, online interfaces to scientific data are typically industrial-strength - built by scientists for scientists - and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. To inform efforts at bridging scientific data portals to the classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by student learners and their instructors. The >70 cross-cutting and specific guidelines in our project report are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schema theory and Universal Design for Learning. The components of the human visual system and associated cognitive processes are highly specialized and have evolved in response to survival demands of the three-dimensional world humans have lived in for thousands of years. Because the use of two-dimensional representations, such as maps and graphs, and the use and navigation of Web interfaces has developed quite recently in human history, our visual perception system is not specifically adapted to these tasks. Therefore, it's critical to understand how to design two-dimensional media to take advantage of the strengths of our highly evolved and complex visual system and to compensate for its weaknesses. Looking at the design of data interfaces through this lens helps us understand, for example, why red stands out (finding ripe berries in a bush), why movement grabs our attention (hunting and avoiding predators), and why variations in light luminance and shading work better than variations in color hue for perceiving shape and form. This presentation will, through specific examples, explain how to avoid the pitfalls and make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user interface and visualizations so that it doesn't exceed the amount of information the learner can actively process; 2) drawing attention to important features and patterns; and 3) enabling customization of visualizations and tools to meet the needs of diverse learners

Krumhansl, R.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Foster, J.; Baker, I.

2013-12-01

457

Visualizing Oceans of Data: Using learning research to inform the design of student interfaces to climate data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be climate literate, students must be data-literate. To connect with the evidence behind scientists' assertions about climate change, students (and other novices) must be able to distinguish long-term trends from short-term variability in graphs, recognize the distribution of sea surface temperature or precipitation changes on maps, and discern important patterns in animations that display changes in data over time. Although the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near digital, sharable, real-time and archived earth systems data has the potential to transform how climate science is taught by connecting students directly with evidence to support their understanding, online interfaces to scientific data are typically industrial-strength - built by scientists for scientists - and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. To inform efforts at bridging scientific data portals to the classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by student learners and their instructors. The >70 cross-cutting and specific guidelines in our project report are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schema theory and Universal Design for Learning. The components of the human visual system and associated cognitive processes are highly specialized and have evolved in response to survival demands of the three-dimensional world humans have lived in for thousands of years. Because the use of two-dimensional representations, such as maps and graphs, and the use and navigation of Web interfaces has developed quite recently in human history, our visual perception system is not specifically adapted to these tasks. Therefore, it's critical to understand how to design two-dimensional media to take advantage of the strengths of our highly evolved and complex visual system and to compensate for its weaknesses. Looking at the design of data interfaces through this lens helps us understand, for example, why red stands out (finding ripe berries in a bush), why movement grabs our attention (hunting and avoiding predators), and why variations in light luminance and shading work better than variations in color hue for perceiving shape and form. This presentation will, through specific examples, explain how to avoid the pitfalls and make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user interface and visualizations so that it doesn't exceed the amount of information the learner can actively process; 2) drawing attention to important features and patterns; and 3) enabling customization of visualizations and tools to meet the needs of diverse learners

Krumhansl, R.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Foster, J.; Baker, I.

2011-12-01

458

Moving images: psychoanalytically informed visual methods in documenting the lives of women migrants and asylum seekers.  

PubMed

While feminist arts-based projects have gained legitimacy, theory guiding the use of visual images in field research has lagged. Drawing on psychoanalytic-feminist theory and participatory action research methods, the article presents a study carried out with women refugee and asylum seekers that focuses on their experiences in seeking a place of safety in the United Kingdom. The aim was to produce through photography and videography a collective account of asylum as a daily process. In discussing the study, the authors provide a psychoanalytic framework for working through ethical, political, and methodological dilemmas in the use of visual imagery in feminist research. PMID:24058106

Haaken, Janice K; O'Neill, Maggie

2014-01-01

459

Personalized visual aesthetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How is visual information linked to aesthetic experience, and what factors determine whether an individual finds a particular visual experience pleasing? We have previously shown that individuals' aesthetic responses are not determined by objective image features but are instead a function of internal, subjective factors that are shaped by a viewers' personal experience. Yet for many classes of stimuli, culturally shared semantic associations give rise to similar aesthetic taste across people. In this paper, we investigated factors that govern whether a set of observers will agree in which images are preferred, or will instead exhibit more "personalized" aesthetic preferences. In a series of experiments, observers were asked to make aesthetic judgments for different categories of visual stimuli that are commonly evaluated in an aesthetic manner (faces, natural landscapes, architecture or artwork). By measuring agreement across observers, this method was able to reveal instances of highly individualistic preferences. We found that observers showed high agreement on their preferences for images of faces and landscapes, but much lower agreement for images of artwork and architecture. In addition, we found higher agreement for heterosexual males making judgments of beautiful female faces than of beautiful male faces. These results suggest that preferences for stimulus categories that carry evolutionary significance (landscapes and faces) come to rely on similar information across individuals, whereas preferences for artifacts of human culture such as architecture and artwork, which have fewer basic-level category distinctions and reduced behavioral relevance, rely on a more personalized set of attributes.

Vessel, Edward A.; Stahl, Jonathan; Maurer, Natalia; Denker, Alexander; Starr, G. G.

2014-02-01

460

A REPOSITORY OF INFORMATION VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT THE DESIGN OF 3D VIRTUAL CITY MODELS  

E-print Network

applications such as urban planning, navigation, pedestrian behaviour, historical information, and disaster management. These applications require rich information models that associate urban objects not only information, such as historical facts, planning projects, pollutant concentration, noise level, etc. Finding

Genève, Université de

461

Within- and cross-modal distance information disambiguate visual size- perception  

E-print Network

Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains ...

Battaglia, Peter W.

462

Do Object-Category Selective Regions in the Ventral Visual Stream Represent Perceived Distance Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that scenes and objects elicit a highly selective response in specific brain regions in the ventral visual cortex. An inherent difference between these categories that has not been explored yet is their perceived distance from the observer (i.e. scenes are distal whereas objects are proximal). The current study aimed to test…

Amit, Elinor; Mehoudar, Eyal; Trope, Yaacov; Yovel, Galit

2012-01-01

463

#FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media  

E-print Network

visualization of the top 100 ranked anomalous retweeting threads during the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. The circles containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its

Toronto, University of

464

The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…

Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

2007-01-01

465

Interactive Information Visualization of a Million Items Jean-Daniel Fekete* Catherine Plaisant  

E-print Network

visible for a given display size is also a challenge for designers of visualizations on small devices like Human Computer Interaction Laboratory University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 +1 (301) 405 2768 techniques capable of handling a million items (effectively visible and manageable on screen). We evaluate

Golbeck, Jennifer

466

Visual Information Alone Changes Behavior and Physiology during Social Interactions in a Cichlid Fish (Astatotilapia burtoni)  

PubMed Central

Social behavior can influence physiological systems dramatically yet the sensory cues responsible are not well understood. Behavior of male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in their natural habitat suggests that visual cues from conspecifics contribute significantly to regulation of social behavior. Using a novel paradigm, we asked whether visual cues alone from a larger conspecific male could influence behavior, reproductive physiology and the physiological stress response of a smaller male. Here we show that just seeing a larger, threatening male through a clear barrier can suppress dominant behavior of a smaller male for up to 7 days. Smaller dominant males being “attacked” visually by larger dominant males through a clear barrier also showed physiological changes for up to 3 days, including up-regulation of reproductive- and stress-related gene expression levels and lo