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Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visualinformation processing. PMID:24184882
It is a well-known fact that attention is crucial for driving a car. This innovative study aims to assess the impact of attentional workload modulation on cerebral activity during a simulated driving task using magnetoencephalography (MEG). A car simulator equipped with a steering wheel, turn indicators, an accelerator and a brake pedal has been specifically designed to be used with MEG. Attentional demand has been modulated using a radio broadcast. During half of the driving scenarios, subjects could ignore the broadcast (simple task, ST) and during the other half, they had to actively listen to it in order to answer 3 questions (dual task, DT). Evoked magnetic responses were computed in both conditions separately for two visual stimuli of interest: traffic lights (from green to amber) and direction signs (arrows to the right or to the left) shown on boards. The cortical sources of these activities have been estimated using a minimum-norm current estimates modeling technique. Results show the activation of a large distributed network similar in ST and DT and similar for both the traffic lights and the direction signs. This network mainly involves sensory visual areas as well as parietal and frontal regions known to play a role in selective attention and motor areas. The increase of attentional demand affects the neuronal processing of relevantvisualinformation for driving, as early as the perceptual stage. By demonstrating the feasibility of recording MEG activity during an interactive simulated driving task, this study opens new possibilities for investigating issues regarding drivers' activity. PMID:20920486
Welcome to InformationVisualization! I am delighted to be able to introduce to you the first issue of the peer-reviewed international journal dedicated to the research and practice of informationvisualization. The new journal will cover a variety of aspects of informationvisualization, ranging from fundamental research to practical applications. InformationVisualization aims to provide a forum that can accommodate
While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…
|While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…
|The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…
It remains challenging for informationvisualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which informationvisualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how informationvisualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process. PMID:20975131
There are so many opportunities to transmit text information on the Web. Since texts on the Web are not always written by professional writers, those may not be coherent or may be hard to be comprehended. Therefore, we should take too much time and energy to grasp topic relevance of a text. This paper describes HINATA system that visualizes texts using light and shadow based on topic relevance. Topic is defined as a set of words such as nouns contained in a title of a text. The light expresses sentences related to a topic, and the shadow expresses sentences unrelated to a topic. This visualization method efficiently supports users for finding the parts related to a topic, and for grasping relations between sentences of a text and a topic. Experimental results showed that the proposed system could support users for understanding how a text was related to a topic.
The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers
Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Robert DeLine
Informationvisualization, aided by ever more accessi- ble computational resources, continues to grow in popular- ity and significance. The capability to generate complex im- agery by computer is often necessary but not always suffi- cient to gain the desired insight. The success of a visual rep- resentation in a given context may be affected by many vari- ables, not the
This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the InformationVisualizer, and its
Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay
Readership of auto advertising by new and old car owners was investigated in order to test some predictions of Festinger's theory of dissonance concerning selective exposure to information following decisions. It was found that new car owners read advertisements of their own car more often than of cars they considered but did not buy and other cars not involved in
Danuta Ehrlich; Isaiah Guttman; Peter Schönbach; Judson Mills
|Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…
Great technological advances have enabled researchers to generate an enormous amount of data. Data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in scientific research. With this wealth of information, we have an opportunity to understand the molecular causes of human diseases. However, the unprecedented scale, resolution, and variety of data pose new analytical challenges. Visual representation of data offers insights that can lead to new understanding, whether the purpose is analysis or communication. This presentation shows how art, design, and traditional illustration can enable scientific discovery. Examples will be drawn from the Broad Institute’s Data Visualization Initiative, aimed at establishing processes for creating informativevisualization models.
In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context. PMID:22157061
|Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…
An introduction is given to a theory of early visualinformation processing. The theory has been implemented, and examples are given of images at various stages of analysis. It is argued that the first step of consequence is to compute a primitive but rich description of the grey-level changes present in an image. The description is expressed in a vocabulary
Background The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevantinformation efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure is usually similar and simple. Likely, it involves a search engine and a visualization interface. Different words or combination reflects different research topics. The objective of this study is to automate this tedious procedure by recording those words/terms in a database and online sources, and use the information for an automated search and retrieval. The retrieved information will be available anytime and anywhere through a secure web server. Results We developed such a database that stored searching terms, journals and et al., and implement a piece of software for searching the medical subject heading-indexed sources such as the Medline and other online sources automatically. The returned information were stored locally, as is, on a server and visible through a Web-based interface. The search was performed daily or otherwise scheduled and the users logon to the website anytime without typing any words. The system has potentials to retrieve similarly from non-medical subject heading-indexed literature or a privileged information source such as a clinical information system. The issues such as security, presentation and visualization of the retrieved information were thus addressed. One of the presentation issues such as wireless access was also experimented. A user survey showed that the personalized online searches saved time and increased and relevancy. Handheld devices could also be used to access the stored information but less satisfactory. Conclusion The Web-searching software or similar system has potential to be an efficient tool for both bench scientists and clinicians for their daily information needs.
This paper introduces a novel representation, called the InfoCrystalTM, that can be used as a visualization tool as well as a visual query language to help users search for information. The InfoCrystal visualizes all the possible relationships among N concepts. Users can assign relevance weights to the concepts and use thresholding to select relationships of interest. The InfoCrystal allows users
As the size and complexity of data sets increases, the need to "see" them more clearly increases as well. In the past, many scientists saw "fancy" data and informationvisualization as necessary for "outreach," but not for research. In this talk, I wlll demonstrate, using specific examples, why more and more scientists--not just astronomers--are coming to rely upon the development of new visualization strategies not just to present their data, but to understand it. Principal examples will be drawn from the "Astronomical Medicine" project at Harvard's Initiative in Innovative Computing, and from the "Seamless Astronomy" effort, which is co-sponsored by the VAO (NASA/NSF) and Microsoft Research.
In this paper, we describe the process and result of creating a visualization to capture the past 10 years of history in the field of InformationVisualization, as part of the annual InfoVis Conference Contest. We began with an XML file containing data provided by the contest organizers, scrubbed and augmented the data, and created a database to hold the
Tzu-Wei Hsu; Lee Inman; Dave McColgin; Kevin Stamper
We take a new, scenario based look at evaluation in informationvisualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the informationvisualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given informationvisualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study. PMID:22144529
One of the most important technologies needed across many traditional areas as well as emerging new frontiers of computing, is the management of visualinformation. For example, most of the Grand Challenge applications, under the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) initiative, require management of large volumes of non-alphanumeric information, computations, communication, and visualization of results. Considering the growing need
The particular kind of presentation we consider are information maps, which spatially array graph- ical symbols representing items of information and their attributes. We propose a method for designing visually searchable maps based on experimental results about what kinds of visual search are easy. Ide- ally, their users should be able to do query by attention, answering questions about the
Lighthouse is an on-line interface for a Web-based in- formation retrieval system. It accepts queries from a user, collects the retrieved documents from the search engine, or- ganizes and presents them to the user. The system inte- grates two known presentations of the retrieved results - the ranked list and clustering visualization - in a novel and ef- fective way.
Digital information displays are becoming more common in public spaces such as museums, galleries, and libraries. However, the public nature of these locations requires special considerations concerning the design of informationvisualization in terms of visual representations and interaction techniques. We discuss the potential for, and challenges of, informationvisualization in the museum context based on our practical experience with EMDialog, an interactive information presentation that was part of the Emily Carr exhibition at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary. EMDialog visualizes the diverse and multi-faceted discourse about this Canadian artist with the goal to both inform and provoke discussion. It provides a visual environment that allows for exploration of the interplay between two integrated visualizations, one for information access along temporal, and the other along contextual dimensions. We describe the results of an observational study we conducted at the museum that revealed the different ways visitors approached and interacted with EMDialog, as well as how they perceived this form of information presentation in the museum context. Our results include the need to present information in a manner sufficiently attractive to draw attention and the importance of rewarding passive observation as well as both short- and longer term information exploration. PMID:18988962
Highlighting was the basic viewing control mechanism in computer graphics and visualization to guide users' attention in reading diagrams, images, graphs and digital texts. As the rapid growth of theory and practice in informationvisualization, highlighting has extended its role that acts as not only a viewing control, but also an interaction control and a graphic recommendation mechanism in knowledge
In this paper a visualinformation retrieval project (VizIR) is presented. The goal of the project is the implementation of an open Content- based Visual Retrieval (CBVR) prototype as basis for further research on the major problems of CBVR. The motivation behind VizIR is: an open platform would make research (especially for smaller institutions) easier and more efficient. The intention
Horst Eidenberger; Christian Breiteneder; Martin Hitz
Informationvisualization has been a research topic for many years, leading to a mature field where guidelines and practices are well established. Knowledge visualization, in contrast, is a relatively new area of research that has received more attention recently due to the interest from the business com- munity in Knowledge Management. In this paper we present the CmapTools software as
Alberto J. Cañas; Roger Carff; Greg Hill; Marco M. Carvalho; Marco Arguedas; Thomas C. Eskridge; James Lott; Rodrigo Carvajal
BackgroundVision provides the most salient information with regard to the stimulus motion. However, it has recently been demonstrated that static visual stimuli are perceived as moving laterally by alternating left-right sound sources. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear; it has not yet been determined whether auditory motion signals, rather than auditory positional signals, can directly contribute to visual
Two experiments were conducted to understand the processes through which 5th graders discriminate relevant from irrelevant information when solving mathematical story problems. Visual scanning was recorded and coded as directed toward relevantinformation, irrelevant information, the question, workspace, and elsewhere. Experiment 1 focused on the…
The core of geographic informationvisualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic informationvisualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic informationvisualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic informationvisualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic informationvisualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic informationvisualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".
The effectiveness of informationvisualization largely depends on the ease and accuracy with which users can access the information. Visual clutter in a display can detract from a users ability to properly read the information. An ideal visualization need...
Commercial off-the-shelf television equipment was evaluated in the combat environment of the Republic of Vietnam (RVN) to determine its capability to provide visualinformation system support of combat operations. Even though the type of equipment demonst...
In visualization, we use the terms data, information and knowledge extensively, often in an interrelated context. In many cases, they indicate different levels of abstraction, understanding, or truthfulness. For example, \\
Min Chen; David S. Ebert; Hans Hagen; Robert S. Laramee; Robert Van Liere; Kwan-liu Ma; William Ribarsky; Gerik Scheuermann; Deborah Silver
Eye movements determine the location and velocity of the retinal image. Thus, to understand how we see it is necessary to understand both how eye movements are controlled and how they effect visualinformation processing. The proposed research is concerne...
Motion in the visual periphery of lizards, and other animals, often causes a shift of visual attention toward the moving object.\\u000a This behavioral response must be more responsive to relevant motion (predators, prey, conspecifics) than to irrelevant motion\\u000a (windblown vegetation). Early stages of visual motion detection rely on simple local circuits known as elementary motion detectors\\u000a (EMDs). We presented a
Adam C. Pallus; Leo J. Fleishman; Philip M. Castonguay
The goal of this paper is to present a informationvisualization application capable of opening and synchronizing information between two or more datasets. We have chosen this approach to address some of the limitations of various applications. Also, the application uses multiple coordinated views and multiple simultaneous datasets. We highlight the application layout configuration by the user, including the flexibility to specify the number of data views and to associate different datasets for each visualization techniques.
de Moraes Lourenço, Rodrigo Augusto; Guimarães, Rafael Veras; Carneiro, Nikolas Jorge S.; Meiguins, Aruanda Simões Gonçalves; Meiguins, Bianchi Serique
Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visualinformation to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visualinformation, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.
The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.
McCrickard, D.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center; Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
|Two important processes in the acquisition of visually presented information are the ability to maintain discrete perceptual events as separate in time and the ability to abstract information from brief exposures. Five phenomena were measured which appear to reflect these abilities. Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) is the intermittency rate at…
From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and Kay Gaisford, this page presents a module on the visual display of information using Microsoft Word 2003 in the cotext of digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this lesson, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, a handout on copyright basics for still images, two assignments with instructions and examples, and a quiz. The presentation covers design principles (contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity), text guidelines, image guidelines, and copyright information. This is an excellent resource not only for courses or programs focused specifically on DVL, but for many other fields to help create effective and well-designed promotional or informational materials.
In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment and therefore to access to their profiles in order to compute the preferences of the entire group. For this reason, we assume that group members may be i) totally unknown, ii) completely or iii) partially known by the system. As we describe in the paper, in the first case, the system uses a group profile that is built statistically according to the results of a preliminary study. In the second case, the model of the group is created from the profiles of known users. In the third situation the group interests are modeled by integrating preferences of known members with a statistical prediction of the interests of unknown ones. Evaluation results proved that adapting news display to the group was more effective in matching the members’ interests in all the three cases than the in the non-adaptive modality.
The web has become such an extensive health information repository in the world that it is increasingly difficult to search for relevant medical information. Most medical information available on the web is not peer reviewed, and is retrieved imprecisely by current web search mechanisms (i.e. based on keywords). This paper presents the MedISeek metadata model that allows one to describe medical visualinformation (i.e. medical images) of different modalities, including their properties, components, relationships and authorship. The model uses the web architecture and supports the international classification of diseases and related health problems (i.e. ICD-10). An RDF schema (Resource Description Framework (RDF), http://www.w3.org/RDF/.) derived from this metadata model is integrated to each medical image, and specifies the semantics of each property in the image. Thus, relevantinformation can be extracted directly from the images, and data integrity is better preserved in the web. A prototype, presented here, has been built to validate the metadata model, and the mechanism for medical visualinformation exchange on the web. Our preliminary experimental results indicate that authorized users of our system have been able to describe, store and retrieve medical images and their associated diagnostic information. PMID:16488771
|Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…
Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.
...supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevantinformation may include, but is not limited to: (1) Statistics, with sources, or, if unavailable, the best estimates pertaining to: (i) The total cargo carried in the...
The research aimed at examining attentional selectivity in a visual search paradigm using pictures of animals that have provided a recurrent threat in an evolutionary perspective (i.e., snakes and spiders) and pictures of animals that have supposedly posed no such threat (i.e., cats and fish). Experiment 1 showed no advantage of fear-relevant stimuli over non-fear-relevant animal stimuli. However, an attentional
For human vision to be explained by a computational theory, the first question is plain: What are the problems that the brain solves when we see? It is argued that vision is the construction of efficient symbolic descriptions from images of the world. An important aspect of vision is therefore the choice of representations for the different kinds of information in a visual scene. An overall framework is suggested for extracting shape information from images, in which the analysis proceeds through three representations: (1) the primal sketch, which makes explicit the intensity changes and local two-dimensional geometry of an image; (2) 2 1/2-D sketch, which is a viewer-centred representation of the deplth, orientation and discontinuities of the visible surfaces; and (3) the 3-D model representation, which allows an object-centred description of the three-dimensional structure and organization of a viewed shape. The critical act in formulating computational theories for process capable of constructing these representations is the discovery of valid constraints on the way the world behaves, that provide sufficient additional information to allow recovery of the desired characteristic. Finally, once a computational theory for a process has been formulated, algorithms for implementing it may be designed, and their performance compared with that of the human visual processor. PMID:6106238
Despite a diversity of software architectures supporting informationvisualization, it is often difficult to identify, evaluate, and re-apply the design solutions implemented within such frameworks. One popular and effective approach for addressing such difficulties is to capture successful solutions in design patterns, abstract descriptions of interacting software components that can be customized to solve design problems within a particular context. Based upon a review of existing frameworks and our own experiences building visualization software, we present a series of design patterns for the domain of informationvisualization. We discuss the structure, context of use, and interrelations of patterns spanning data representation, graphics, and interaction. By representing design knowledge in a reusable form, these patterns can be used to facilitate software design, implementation, and evaluation, and improve developer education and communication. PMID:17080809
Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction we have performed a variety of experiments characterizing the detection, discrimination, and production of 3D shape. A stimulus set of 25 complex, natural appearing, noisy 3D target objects were statistically specified in the Fourier domain and manufactured using a 3D printer. A series of paired-comparison experiments examined subjects' unimodal (visual-visual and haptic-haptic) and crossmodal (visual-haptic) perceptual abilities. Additionally, subjects sculpted objects using uni- or crossmodal source information. In all experiments, the performance in the unimodal conditions were similar to one another and unimodal presentation fared better than crossmodal. Also, the spatial frequency of object features affected performance differentially across the range used in this experiment. The sculpted objects were scanned in 3D and the resulting geometry was compared metrically and statistically to the original stimuli. Objects with higher spatial frequency were harder to sculpt when limited to haptic input compared to only visual input. The opposite was found for objects with low spatial frequency. The psychophysical discrimination and comparison experiments yielded similar findings. There is a marked performance difference between the visual and haptic systems and these differences were systematically distributed along the range of feature details. The existence of non-universal (i.e. modality-specific) representations explain the poor crossmodal performance. Our current findings suggest that haptic and visualinformation is either integrated into a multi-modal form, or each is independent and somewhat efficient translation is possible. Vision shows a distinct advantage when dealing with higher frequency objects but both modalities are effective when comparing objects that differ by a large amount.
In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…
|In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…
Web sites are designed for graphical mode of interaction. Sighted users can visually segment Web pages and quickly identify relevantinformation. On the contrary, individu- als with visual disabilities have to use screen readers to browse the Web. As screen readers process pages sequen- tially and read through everything, Web browsing becomes time-consuming and strenuous. Although, the use of short-
Jalal Mahmud; Yevgen Borodin; Dipanjan Das; I. V. Ramakrishnan
|Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…
Using conversation analytic methodology, in this article, we examine two prosodic variants of the German response token achja and their use in everyday interaction. Whereas achJA, with prosodic prominence (in form of higher amplitude) on the second syllable, is used to claim remembering of relevant but just now recalled information, ?achja, with prosodic prominence (in form of a pitch peak)
The purpose of our work was to develop heuristics for visualizing and interpreting gene-environment interactions (GEIs) and to assess the dependence of candidate visualization metrics on biological and study-design factors. Two information-theoretic metrics, the k-way interaction information (KWII) and the total correlation information (TCI), were investigated. The effectiveness of the KWII and TCI to detect GEIs in a diverse range of simulated data sets and a Crohn disease data set was assessed. The sensitivity of the KWII and TCI spectra to biological and study-design variables was determined. Head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) methods were obtained. The KWII and TCI spectra, which are graphical summaries of the KWII and TCI for each subset of environmental and genotype variables, were found to detect each known GEI in the simulated data sets. The patterns in the KWII and TCI spectra were informative for factors such as case-control misassignment, locus heterogeneity, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium. The KWII and TCI spectra were found to have excellent sensitivity for identifying the key disease-associated genetic variations in the Crohn disease data set. In head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and PDT methods, the results from visual interpretation of the KWII and TCI spectra performed satisfactorily. The KWII and TCI are promising metrics for visualizing GEIs. They are capable of detecting interactions among numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental variables for a diverse range of GEI models.
We present a model for building, visualizing, and interacting with multiscale representations of informationvisualization techniques using hierarchical aggregation. The motivation for this work is to make visual representations more visually scalable and less cluttered. The model allows for augmenting existing techniques with multiscale functionality, as well as for designing new visualization and interaction techniques that conform to this new
This paper presents a new information model to help intelligence analysts in organizing, querying, and visualizing the information present in large volumes of unstructured data sources such as text reports, multi-media, and human discourse. Our primary goal is to create a system that would combine the human pattern recognition abilities of intelligence analysis with the storage and processing capabilities of computers. Our system models the collective mental map of intelligence analysts in the form of the Correlation Graph, a modified graph data structure with objects and events as nodes and subjective probabilistic correlations between them as edges. Objects are entities such as people, places, and things. Events are actions that involve the objects. A taxonomy is also associated with the model to enable intelligence domain specific querying of the data. Graph drawing techniques are used to visualize the information represented by the correlation graph. Through real world examples, we demonstrate that the resulting information model can be used for efficient representation, presentation, and querying to discover novel patterns in the intelligence data via graph visualization techniques.
Visualization refers to various types of graphic representation of geospatial information ranging from static to dynamic presentation (cartographic visualization), to exploratory data analysis (scientific visualization). Visualization projects carried out by Natural Resources Canada focus primarily on the former: web-based, interactive, dynamic representation of information, suitable for effective communication of geospatial concepts in support of decision making. The general objective of
Unlike traditional infomation visualization, ambient informationvisualizations reside in the environment of the user rather than on the screen of a desktop computer. Currently, most dynamic infor- mation that is displayed in public places consists of text and num- bers. We argue that informationvisualization can be employed to make such' dynamic data more useful and appealing. However, visualizations intended
The visual analysis of time dependent data is an essential task in many application fields. However, visualizing large time dependent data collected within a spatial context is still a challenging task. In this paper, we therefore describe an approach for visualizing spatio-temporal data on maps. The approach is based on two commonly used concepts: 3D informationvisualization and information hiding.
Christian Tominski; Petra Schulze-wollgast; Heidrun Schumann
In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visualinformation. Our framework unifies concepts from the literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content - based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visualinformation. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of
Background Relevance assessment is a major problem in the evaluation of information retrieval systems. The work presented here introduces a new parameter, "Relevance Similarity", for the measurement of the variation of relevance assessment. In a situation where individual assessment can be compared with a gold standard, this parameter is used to study the effect of such variation on the performance of a medical information retrieval system. In such a setting, Relevance Similarity is the ratio of assessors who rank a given document same as the gold standard over the total number of assessors in the group. Methods The study was carried out on a collection of Critically Appraised Topics (CATs). Twelve volunteers were divided into two groups of people according to their domain knowledge. They assessed the relevance of retrieved topics obtained by querying a meta-search engine with ten keywords related to medical science. Their assessments were compared to the gold standard assessment, and Relevance Similarities were calculated as the ratio of positive concordance with the gold standard for each topic. Results The similarity comparison among groups showed that a higher degree of agreements exists among evaluators with more subject knowledge. The performance of the retrieval system was not significantly different as a result of the variations in relevance assessment in this particular query set. Conclusion In assessment situations where evaluators can be compared to a gold standard, Relevance Similarity provides an alternative evaluation technique to the commonly used kappa scores, which may give paradoxically low scores in highly biased situations such as document repositories containing large quantities of relevant data.
This paper analyzes the DNA code of several species in the perspective of information content. For that purpose several concepts and mathematical tools are selected towards establishing a quantitative method without a priori distorting the alphabet represented by the sequence of DNA bases. The synergies of associating Gray code, histogram characterization and multidimensional scaling visualization lead to a collection of plots with a categorical representation of species and chromosomes. PMID:22001546
Machado, J A Tenreiro; Costa, António C; Quelhas, Maria Dulce
The relevance vector machine (RVM) is a sparse regression kernel model. It not only generates a much sparser model but provides better generalization performance than the standard support vector machine (SVM). Relevance vectors and support vectors are both selected from the input vector set. This may limit model flexibility. Recently, we propose Relevance Units Machine (RUM). RUM treats relevance units (RUs) as part of the parameters of the model. However, the number of RUs must be selected before using RUM. In this paper, we use Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to select the number of the RUs. The experiment results show that based on AIC RUM maintains all the advantages of RVM and offers superior sparsity.
The purpose of this study was to examine typically developing infants' integration of audio-visual sensory information as a fundamental process involved in early word learning. One hundred sixty pre-linguistic children were randomly assigned to watch one of four counterbalanced versions of audio-visual video sequences. The infants' eye-movements were recorded and their looking behavior was analyzed throughout three repetitions of exposure-test-phases.
This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended…
Learning to categorize objects can transform how they are perceived, causing relevant perceptual dimensions predictive of object category to become enhanced. For example, an expert mycologist might become attuned to species-specific patterns of spacing between mushroom gills but learn to ignore cap textures attributable to varying environmental conditions. These selective changes in perception can persist beyond the act of categorizing objects and influence our ability to discriminate between them. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we demonstrate that such category-specific perceptual enhancements are associated with changes in the neural discriminability of object representations in visual cortex. Regions within the anterior fusiform gyrus became more sensitive to small variations in shape that were relevant during prior category learning. In addition, extrastriate occipital areas showed heightened sensitivity to small variations in shape that spanned the category boundary. Visual representations in cortex, just like our perception, are sensitive to an object's history of categorization. PMID:22490547
Folstein, Jonathan R; Palmeri, Thomas J; Gauthier, Isabel
Radiological and clinical practice can be enhanced by improved access to multimodal image informations. Analysis, visualization, method characteristic image processing and image synthesis is needed not only for the interpretation of the images but also for performing effective consultations with clinical colleagues and computer supported therapy planning and control strategies. The distributed system RADVIS (radiological visualization) is presented which enables the fast display, three dimensional visualization and the modality oriented analysis of multimodal image informations. Based on a unique image format, modality specific evaluation procedures and two- or three dimensional processing tools of image analysis produce the input data for therapy planning programs. The easy use of this multimedia visualisation tool enables radiologists and clinicians to deal with their image data. The description of methods and procedures of the prototype, as well as typical examples of radiologic practice will demonstrate the efficiency of the presented system. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5a Fig. 5b Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9
In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visualinformation. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visualinformation. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way
BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevantinformation efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure
According to signal detection theoretical analyses, visual signals occurring at a cued location are detected more accurately, whereas frequently occurring ones are reported more often but are not better distinguished from noise. However, conventional analyses that estimate sensitivity and bias by comparing true- and false-positive rates offer limited insights into the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Here, we reassessed the prior influences of signal probability and relevance on visual contrast detection using a reverse-correlation technique that quantifies how signal-like fluctuations in noise predict trial-to-trial variability in choice discarded by conventional analyses. This approach allowed us to estimate separately the sensitivity of true and false positives to parametric changes in signal energy. We found that signal probability and relevance both increased energy sensitivity, but in dissociable ways. Cues predicting the relevant location increased primarily the sensitivity of true positives by suppressing internal noise during signal processing, whereas cues predicting greater signal probability increased both the frequency and the sensitivity of false positives by biasing the baseline activity of signal-selective units. We interpret these findings in light of "predictive-coding" models of perception, which propose separable top-down influences of expectation (probability driven) and attention (relevance driven) on bottom-up sensory processing. PMID:22331901
Wyart, Valentin; Nobre, Anna Christina; Summerfield, Christopher
Informationvisualization techniques, which take advantage of the bandwidth of human vision, are powerful tools for organizing and analyzing a large amount of data. In the postgenomic era, informationvisualization tools are indispensable for biomedical research. This paper aims to present an overview of current applications of informationvisualization techniques in bioinformatics for visualizing different types of biological data, such as from genomics, proteomics, expression profiling and structural studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of informationvisualization in bioinformatics related to dealing with more complex biological information in the emerging fields of systems biology and systems medicine.
Information access at the point of care presents a different set of requirements than those for traditional search engines. Critical care in remote (e.g., battle field) and rural settings not only requires access to clinical guidelines and medical libraries with surgical precision but also with minimal user effort and time. Our development of a graphical, anatomy-driven navigator called Visual Navigator for Surgical Information Access (VINSIA) fulfills the goal for providing evidence-based clinical decision support, specifically in perioperative and critical care settings, to allow rapid and precise information access through a portable stand-alone system. It comes with a set of unique characteristics: (a) a high precision, interactive visual interface driven by human anatomy; (b) direct linkage of anatomical structures to associated content such as clinical guidelines, literature, and medical libraries; and (c) an administrative content management interface allowing only an accredited, expert-level curator to edit and update the clinical content to ensure accuracy and currency. We believe that the deployment of VINSIA will improve quality, safety, and evidence-based standardization of patient care. PMID:23820348
Purpose – This paper seeks to offer a rationale and practical suggestions for the integration of visual literacy instruction and information literacy instruction practice and theory. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper aligns visual literacy and information literacy competency standards, revealing connections and opportunities for practical integration during library instruction and traditional classroom instruction. Findings – On analysis of 11 visual literacy
The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually\\u000a relevantinformation. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks\\u000a in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for
Katie M. McCall; Alessandra H. Rellini; Brooke N. Seal; Cindy M. Meston
This work presents a computational framework for the adap- tive integration of information from dierent visual algorithms. The ap- proach takes advantage of the richness of visualinformation by adap- tively considering a variety of visual properties such as color, depth, mo- tion, and shape. Using a probabilistic approach and uncertainty metrics, the resulting framework makes appropriate decisions about the
In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visualinformation via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.
Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.
A prominent model of how the brain regulates attention proposes that the anterior cingulate cortex monitors the occurrence of conflict between incompatible response tendencies and signals this information to a cognitive control system in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cognitive control is thought to resolve conflict through the attentional biasing of perceptual processing, emphasizing task-relevant stimulus information. It is not known, however, whether conflict resolution is mediated by amplifying neural representations of task-relevantinformation, inhibiting representations of task-irrelevant information, or both. Here we manipulated trial-by-trial levels of conflict and control during a Stroop task using face stimuli, while recording hemodynamic responses from human visual cortex specialized for face processing. We show that, in response to high conflict, cognitive control mechanisms enhance performance by transiently amplifying cortical responses to task-relevantinformation rather than by inhibiting responses to task-irrelevant information. These results implicate attentional target-feature amplification as the primary mechanism for conflict resolution through cognitive control. PMID:16286928
Speech recognition from visual-only faces is difficult, but can be improved by prior information about what is said. Here, we investigated how the human brain uses prior information from auditory speech to improve visual-speech recognition. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, participants performed a visual-speech recognition task, indicating whether the word spoken in visual-only videos matched the preceding auditory-only speech, and a control task (face-identity recognition) containing exactly the same stimuli. We localized a visual-speech processing network by contrasting activity during visual-speech recognition with the control task. Within this network, the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) showed increased activity and interacted with auditory-speech areas if prior information from auditory speech did not match the visual speech. This mismatch-related activity and the functional connectivity to auditory-speech areas were specific for speech, i.e., they were not present in the control task. The mismatch-related activity correlated positively with performance, indicating that posterior STS was behaviorally relevant for visual-speech recognition. In line with predictive coding frameworks, these findings suggest that prediction error signals are produced if visually presented speech does not match the prediction from preceding auditory speech, and that this mechanism plays a role in optimizing visual-speech recognition by prior information. PMID:23023154
Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing – that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visualinformation on the display – therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations.
Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn
We present a model for building, visualizing, and interacting with multiscale representations of informationvisualization techniques using hierarchical aggregation. The motivation for this work is to make visual representations more visually scalable and less cluttered. The model allows for augmenting existing techniques with multiscale functionality, as well as for designing new visualization and interaction techniques that conform to this new class of visual representations. We give some examples of how to use the model for standard informationvisualization techniques such as scatterplots, parallel coordinates, and node-link diagrams, and discuss existing techniques that are based on hierarchical aggregation. This yields a set of design guidelines for aggregated visualizations. We also present a basic vocabulary of interaction techniques suitable for navigating these multiscale visualizations. PMID:20224139
It is common for small groups to gather around visual dis- plays of information. Imagine a team of practitioners ex- amining a medical record or a team of executives looking at charts showing latest sales trends. My PhD research aims at supporting such collaborative work around visual displays of information. It informs the design of software to sup- port this
The use of multivariate informationvisualization techniques is intrinsically difficult because the multidimensional nature of data cannot be effectively presented and understood on real-world displays, which have limited dimensionalities. However, the necessity to use these techniques in daily life is increasing as the amount and complexity of data grows explosively in the information age. Thus, multivariate informationvisualization techniques that
Ji Soo Yi; Rachel Melton; John T. Stasko; Julie A. Jacko
This paper addresses the challenge of social legitimacy issues for the technical solutions to environmental problems, and the role of Information Systems to resolve such issues. The paper outlines the Georgia Watershed Information System (GWIS), a comprehensive environmental information system, and one of its scientific visualization interfaces. This paper presents a novel scientific visualization tool based on unique components and
Ibrahim Demir; Feng Jiang; Rodrigo Villarroel Walker; Amanda K. Parker; M. Bruce Beck
We evaluated the relevance of interocular asymmetry of optic disc size to the level of intraocular pressure and the extent of optic disc and visual field changes in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Fifty-two eyes of 26 patients with NTG were measured for optic disc topography using a computerized image analysis system (IMAGEnet, Topcon), diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP), and Octopus automated visual
Goji Tomita; Kristina Nyman; Christina Raitta; Mitsuya Kawamura
This review of scientific visualization in the social sciences contains an extensive review of recent lit - erature and Internet sources on visualization and discusses the extent to which four key visualization technologies—the World Wide Web, multimedia, virtual reality, and computer graphics—are preva- lent in the different social sciences. The review includes examples taken from political science, psy - chology,
This paper describes mechanisms for asynchronous collaboration in the context of informationvisualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design and implementation of sense.us, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization types. The site supports view sharing, discussion, graphical annotation, and social navigation and includes novel interaction elements. We
Jeffrey Heer; Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg
Several authors have hypothesized that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visualinformation has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996b). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on
Jackie Andrade; Eva Kemps; Yves Werniers; Jon May; Arnaud Szmalec
This paper describes the user interface framework of the VizIR project ((4)). VizIR is an open project to develop a Java-based, extendible and well-documented asset framework for visualinformation retrieval. The paper includes a description of the visual components and their class structure, the communication between panels and the communication between visual components and query engines. Visual components include media
The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevantinformation. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information.
McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.
(1) Human crystalline lens and vision In order to investigate the hue changes in eyes with UV-absorbing intraocular lenses (IOLs) and tinted IOLs, we simulated the changes in the chromaticity coordinates of the 16 colors of the Farnsworth dichotomous test-panel D-15 (panel D-15), considering the ratio of the spectral transmittance of the IOL and the human crystalline lens, and the results were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. The chromaticity coordinates of each color for UV-absorbing IOLs shifted to close to the origin of coordinates while retaining their hue circle. However, the chromaticity coordinates for the eyes with tinted IOLs did not change much compared to the coordinates for phakic eyes. As a result, it was suggested that cyanopsia after UV-absorbing IOL implantation could be explained by this simulation. As far as the color perception is concerned, it was also felt that tinted IOLs were superior to UV-absorbing intraocular lenses. Next, in order to evaluate the hue changes after IOL implantation, the achromatic point settings were measured once before surgery and several times at intervals after surgery after taking off the eyepatch. Four subjects participated in the experiments. There was a large shift into the "yellowish" region of color space immediately after taking off the eyepatch after cataract surgery. Then, the achromatic point returned to the chromaticity near the achromaticpoint measured prior to the surgery, with the time course of a long time, compared to color constancy in our daily life, which takes as long as several hundreds of seconds to reach an asymptote. Therefore, the mechanism of achromatic point shifts after cataract surgery may be different from the color-constancy mechanism in everyday life. (2) Molecular genetics and vision We demonstrated new clinical and genetic aspects of congenital red-green color vision defects, congenital achromatopsia, enhanced s-cone syndrome (ESCS), and Oguchi disease in Japanese patients. We clinically diagnosed 88 male dichromats(31 protanopes, 56 deuteranopes, and one unclassified subject). This subject had a new form of X-linked pigment gene with a unique arrangement of exon 5(Y277 from the long-wavelength-sensitive gene and A 285 from the middle-wavelength-sensitive gene). Mutational analysis of patients with achromatopsia disclosed CNGA3 mutations (p.R 436 W, p.L633 P) in one of 14 patients, suggesting low frequency (7%, 1/14) of CNGA3 mutations in the Japanese population. Three novel NR2E3 mutations (p.R 104 Q, p.R 334 G, p.Q 350 X) were identified in both mild and severe forms of ESCS. A novel homozygous GRK1 mutation (p.P 391 H) was found in the Oguchi disease patient with reduced cone responses. This is the first reported Japanese patient with GRK1 -associated Oguchi disease. 3. Information processing of the visual cortex and vision Regarding information processing in the visual cortex, we developed the stimulus to improve identifying retinotopy of the human visual cortex. We performed two types of fMRI experiments. One provided a quick method of mapping retinotopy using a composite stimulus with both ring- and wedge-shaped stimuli. The other provided a method which can show the horizontal meridian clearer. We explored the activation of the visual cortex associated with color perception. In our studies of the color center, we first researched the symptoms and lesions of cerebral achromatopsia, and we next performed the fMRI experiments with a pseudoisochromatic plate test and with a color arrangement test. After this we also performed the fMRI experiments with a complex color painting. We realized objective perimetry with functional brain images. We first developed the software to depict a visual field from the signals of MR imaging. Next we performed the experiment with hemifield stimulation and showed the possibility of its clinical application. Then we showed its reproducibility, performing the experiment with more complicated letter-shaped masked visual stimulation. Finally, we applied the technique to patients with cerebral dy
MRI Neuroimaging provides a rich source of image content including structural (MRI, Diffusion DTI), functional (fMRI, Perfusion ASL), and metabolic (MRS) information. Today MRI capabilities allow to acquire these imaging techniques in one session in most cases. In order to be of diagnostic value, the immense and diverse data needs to be (i) automatically post-processed to extract the relevantinformation, e.g. 3D brain maps from 4D fMRI, and to be (ii) fused and visualized to correlate the voxel-based findings. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of automatic relevantinformation retrieval and fusion of MRI, fMRI, DTI, ASL, and MRS data of a pediatric population into a single semantic data representation. By using advanced imaging, we may able to detect a larger spectrum of abnormalities in the neonatal brain. Each imaging application, provides unique information about the physiology (fMRI, ASL), the anatomy (DTI), and the biochemistry (MRS) of the newborn brain in relation to normal development and brain injury. By being able to integrate this technology, we will be able to combine biochemical, physiologic and anatomic information which can provide unique insight about not only the normal development of the brain, but also injury of the neonatal brain.
Erberich, Stephan G.; Nielsen, Jon F.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bluml, Stefan; Seri, Istvan; Nelson, Marvin D.
In this research, we proposed and validated an approach to using informationvisualization to augment search engines in supporting the analysis of business stakeholder information on the Web. We report in this paper findings from a preliminary evaluation comparing a visualization prototype with a traditional method of stakeholder analysis (Web browsing and searching). We found that the prototype achieved a
In this paper the visualinformation retrieval project VizIRis presented. The goal of the project is the implementation of an open visualinformation retrieval (VIR) prototype as basis for further research on major problems of VIR. The motivation behind VizIR is the implementation of an open platform for supporting and facilitating research, teaching, the exchange of research results and research
Without supports of effective modeling in visual worlds, even if the visualinformation can be displayed in real worlds, it is difficult to recognize and extract its features and to confirm or verify the identities and the characteristics. Direct mappings target at refining and abstracting multimedia information by cognitive technology and differential technology to efficiently improve our human performance and
The ability to localize visual objects is a fundamental component of human behavior and requires the integration of position information from object components. The retinal eccentricity of a stimulus and the locus of spatial attention can affect object localization, but it is unclear whether these factors alter the global localization of the object, the localization of object components, or both. We used psychophysical methods in humans to quantify behavioral responses in a centroid estimation task. Subjects located the centroid of briefly presented random dot patterns (RDPs). A peripheral cue was used to bias attention towards one side of the display. We found that although subjects were able to localize centroid positions reliably, they typically had a bias towards the fovea and a shift towards the locus of attention. We compared quantitative models that explain these effects either as biased global localization of the RDPs or as anisotropic integration of weighted dot component positions. A model that allowed retinal eccentricity and spatial attention to alter the weights assigned to individual dot positions best explained subjects’ performance. These results show that global position perception depends on both the retinal eccentricity of stimulus components and their positions relative to the current locus of attention.
Wright, Jessica M.; Morris, Adam P.; Krekelberg, Bart
Development of intuitive visualizations requires a systematic approach that includes a focus on the user. Creating interactive\\u000a visualizations for complex systems often requires the integration of information from existing systems and sensor data to\\u000a provide the operator with real-time information. The objective of this research was to fuse information from sensor technology\\u000a with flightline maintenance information to support aircraft maintenance
Jennie J. Gallimore; Elizabeth Matthews; Ron Cagle; Paul Faas; Jason Seyba; Vaughan Whited
Design patterns have proven to be a useful means to make the process of designing, developing, and reusing software systems more efficient. In the area of informationvisualization, researchers have proposed design patterns for different functional components of the visualization pipeline. Since many visualization techniques need to display derived data as well as raw data, the data transformation stage is very important in the pipeline, yet existing design patterns are, in general, not sufficient to implement these data transformation techniques. In this paper, we propose two design patterns, operatorcentric transformation and data modifier, to facilitate the design of data transformations for informationvisualization systems. The key idea is to use operators to describe the data derivation and introduce data modifiers to represent the derived data. We also show that many interaction techniques can be regarded as operators as defined here, thus these two design patterns could support a wide range of visualization techniques. In addition, we describe a third design pattern, modifier-based visual mapping, that can generate visual abstraction via linking data modifiers to visual attributes. We also present a framework based on these three design patterns that supports coordinated multiple views. Several examples of multivariate visualizations are discussed to show that our design patterns and framework can improve the reusability and extensibility of informationvisualization systems. Finally, we explain how we have ported an existing visualization tool (XmdvTool) from its old data-centric structure to a new structure based on the above design patterns and framework.
Xie, Zaixian; Guo, Zhenyu; Ward, Matthew O.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.
Information uncertainty is inherent in many problems and is often subtle and complicated to understand. Although visualization is a powerful means for exploring and understanding information, information uncertainty visualization is ad hoc and not widespread. This paper identifies two main barriers to the uptake of information uncertainty visualization: firstly, the difficulty of modeling and propagating the uncertainty information; and secondly, the difficulty of mapping uncertainty to visual elements. To overcome these barriers, we extend the spreadsheet paradigm to encapsulate uncertainty details within cells. This creates an inherent awareness of the uncertainty associated with each variable. The spreadsheet can hide the uncertainty details, enabling the user to think simply in terms of variables. Furthermore, the system can aid with automated propagation of uncertainty information, since it is intrinsically aware of the uncertainty. The system also enables mapping the encapsulated uncertainty to visual elements via the formula language and a visualization sheet. Support for such low-level visual mapping provides flexibility to explore new techniques for information uncertainty visualization. PMID:17993702
The computation of visualinformation from both visual hemispheres is often of functional relevance when solving orientation and navigation tasks. The vCH-cell is a motion-sensitive wide-field neuron in the visual system of the blowfly Calliphora, a model system in the field of optic flow processing. The vCH-cell receives input from various other identified wide-field cells, the receptive fields of which are located in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral visual field. The relevance of this connectivity to the processing of naturalistic image sequences, with their peculiar dynamical characteristics, is still unresolved. To disentangle the contributions of the different input components to the cell's overall response, we used electrophysiologically determined responses of the vCH-cell and its various input elements to tune a model of the vCH-circuit. Their impact on the vCH-cell response could be distinguished by stimulating not only extended parts of the visual field of the fly, but also selected regions in the ipsi- and contralateral visual field with behaviorally generated optic flow. We show that a computational model of the vCH-circuit is able to account for the neuronal activities of the counterparts in the blowfly's visual system. Furthermore, we offer an insight into the dendritic integration of binocular visual input. PMID:21519385
The computation of visualinformation from both visual hemispheres is often of functional relevance when solving orientation and navigation tasks. The vCH-cell is a motion-sensitive wide-field neuron in the visual system of the blowfly Calliphora, a model system in the field of optic flow processing. The vCH-cell receives input from various other identified wide-field cells, the receptive fields of which are located in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral visual field. The relevance of this connectivity to the processing of naturalistic image sequences, with their peculiar dynamical characteristics, is still unresolved. To disentangle the contributions of the different input components to the cell's overall response, we used electrophysiologically determined responses of the vCH-cell and its various input elements to tune a model of the vCH-circuit. Their impact on the vCH-cell response could be distinguished by stimulating not only extended parts of the visual field of the fly, but also selected regions in the ipsi- and contralateral visual field with behaviorally generated optic flow. We show that a computational model of the vCH-circuit is able to account for the neuronal activities of the counterparts in the blowfly's visual system. Furthermore, we offer an insight into the dendritic integration of binocular visual input.
Attention speeds up information processing. Although this finding has a long history in experimental psychology, it has found\\u000a less regard in computational models of visual attention. In psychological research, two frameworks explain the function of\\u000a attention.Selection for perception emphasizes that perception- or consciousness-related processing presupposes selection of relevantinformation, whereas selection for action emphasizes that action constraints make selection necessary.
The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data. PMID:20975161
Twelve (12) experiments are described in this report. The first nine (9) are concerned with the hypothesis that the identification of the values of stimulus features in multielement visual displays requires serial processing. Contrary to this hypothesis, ...
This report used a combination of physiological and anatomical approaches to elucidate the functional organization of visual cortex in the macaque monkey. One project was a single cell analysis of texture vision, using texture patterns of the type develop...
Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an informationvisualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.
Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.
Previous studies have shown that learning to reach accurately with an imposed visuomotor rotation requires a remapping of the relationship between vision and motor output. In this preliminary study, we examine how the brain works out the appropriate motor adjustments, in this case for both arms, based on visual images. Specifically, we investigate how visual errors seen while adapting reaches to visual targets affect the movements of both the trained and untrained hand. In our task subjects learned to make accurate reaches to targets in four visual feedback conditions: rotated 45 degrees, rotated 105 degrees, reversed left to right and rotated 45 degrees plus reversed. In all conditions the rotation was applied to the subject's feedback of their hand and not the targets. In the reversed and rotated-reversed condition, when the subject used their right hand, the feedback looked like their left hand (and vice versa). After a training period with one hand (e.g., right) subjects were tested with the opposite hand (e.g., left) on the same task. We predicted that after reaching with the right hand with reversed visual feedback the control of the left arm would also be altered-more so than after learning an equal-sized adjustment to right-arm reaching with a rotated, but non-reversed, view of their hand movements. Our results showed that people were able to learn the visuomotor adaptation with reversed visual feedback, but more interestingly, that learning occurred for the untrained hand as well for the reversed conditions alone. Here, vision alone--when it resembles the image of the opposite hand--led to improved initial performance for this opposite, untrained arm when reaching in a similar task. The brain seems to take advantage of reversed visual feedback of the arm to adjust the motor commands to the untrained arm in a way that facilitates transfer of the adaptation from one arm to the other. PMID:19146286
The Mismatch Negativity component of the auditory event-related brain potentials can be used as a probe to study the representation of sounds in Auditory Sensory Memory (ASM). Yet, it has been shown that an auditory MMN can also be elicited by an illusory auditory deviance induced by visual changes. This suggests that some visualinformation may be encoded in ASM and is accessible to the auditory MMN process. However, it is not known whether visualinformation influences ASM representation for any audiovisual event or whether this phenomenon is limited to specific domains in which strong audiovisual illusions occur. To highlight this issue, we have compared the topographies of MMNs elicited by non-speech audiovisual stimuli deviating from audiovisual standards on the visual, the auditory or both dimensions. Contrary to what occurs with audiovisual illusions, each unimodal deviants elicited sensory-specific MMNs and the MMN to audiovisual deviants included both sensory components. The visual MMN was however different from a genuine visual MMN obtained in a visual-only control oddbbal paradigm, suggesting that auditory and visualinformation interacts before the MMN process occurs. Furthermore, the MMN to audiovisual deviants was significantly different from the sum of the two sensory-specific MMNs, showing that the processes of visual and auditory change detection are not completely independent.
Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visualinformation (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visualinformation (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visualinformation for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (< 50 years) normally sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visualinformation.
Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.
Serendipity, a trigger of exciting yet unexpected discoveries, is an important but comparatively neglected factor in information seeking, research, and ideation. We suggest that serendipity can be facilitated through visualization. To explore this, we introduce the Bohemian Bookshelf, which aims to support serendipitous discoveries in the context of digital book collections. The Bohemian Bookshelf consists of five interlinked visualizations each
|Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…
Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.
Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…
Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.
|A recent proposal suggests that dyslexic individuals suffer from attentional deficiencies, which impair the ability to selectively process incoming visualinformation. To investigate this possibility, we employed a spatial cueing procedure in conjunction with a single fixation visual search task measuring thresholds for discriminating the…
This paper addresses the visualization of the collaboration history in the development of software items using a simple interactive representation called Revision Tree. The visualization presents detailed information on a single software item with the intention of supporting the awareness of the project managers and developers about the item evolution and the collaboration taking place on its development. We considered
Roberto Therón; Antonio González; Francisco J. García; Pablo Santos
...SALES AND SERVICES] [Part 813 - VISUALINFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM] [Sec. 813.1 - Purpose of the visualinformation documentation (VIDOC...THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUALINFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM...
...2010-07-01 false Official requests for visualinformation productions or materials... RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUALINFORMATION MATERIALS Â§ 811.3 Official requests for visualinformation productions or...
...811 - RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUALINFORMATION MATERIALS--] [Sec. 811.6 - Visualinformation product/material loans...SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUALINFORMATION MATERIALS-- Sec....
...RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUALINFORMATION MATERIALS--] [Sec. 811.3 - Official requests for visualinformation productions or materials...RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUALINFORMATION MATERIALS--...
This paper describes how to make use of human visual capability to improve information security. Here in this paper, two pilot studies are shown; a content protection scheme with image tainting, and a user authentication scheme with unclear images.
In this paper we present a new approach for using semantic wikis for collaborative patent search and annotation. We describe an extension that allows integrating interactive visualizations into semantic wikis for getting deeper insights into the classificatory, geographical, and temporal distribution of large patent sets. This approach differs from typical wiki usage scenarios in the sense that it combines automatic
The Informedia Digital Video Library contains over a thousand hours of video, consuming over a terabyte of disk space. This paper summarizes the multimedia abstractions used to represent this video in prior systems and introduces the visualization techniques employed to browse and navigate multiple video documents at once.
Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction
This commentary discusses why most IS acade- mic research today lacks relevance to practice and suggests tactics, procedures, and guidelines that the IS academic community might follow in their research efforts and articles to introduce rel- evance to practitioners. The commentary begins by defining what is meant by relevancy in the context of academic research. It then explains why there
|Argues that like other technological innovations, the rise of the digital information age is contributing to shape people's mode of cognition. Reviews the use of computers in teaching and learning in terms of their impact on our ability to process parallel data, access information in a non-linear order, and visualizeinformation. (Author/LRW)|
Our earlier study (Chen, Orthner, & Sell, 2005) showed that it is possible to record the searching strategy, to search and retrieve literature information automatically, and to visualize the retrieved information through a Web interface. The objective of this study was to update the current sys- tem into a prototype of the Literature and Information Tracking System to search, retrieve
In a world of widespread information access, information can overwhelm collaborators, even with visualizations to help. We extend prior work to study the effect of shared information on collaboration. We analyzed the success and discussion process of remote pairs trying to identify a serial killer in multiple crime cases. Each partner had half of the evidence, or each partner had
Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Susan R. Fussell; Sara B. Kiesler; Aniket Kittur
Large multi-touch displays are expanding the possibilities of multiple-coordinated views by allowing multiple people to interact with data in concert or independently. We present Lark, a system that facilitates the coordination of interactions with informationvisualizations on shared digital workspaces. We focus on supporting this coordination according to four main criteria: scoped interaction, temporal flexibility, spatial flexibility, and changing collaboration styles. These are achieved by integrating a representation of the informationvisualization pipeline into the shared workspace, thus explicitly indicating coordination points on data, representation, presentation, and view levels. This integrated meta-visualization supports both the awareness of how views are linked and the freedom to work in concert or independently. Lark incorporates these four main criteria into a coherent visualization collaboration interaction environment by providing direct visual and algorithmic support for the coordination of data analysis actions over shared large displays. PMID:19834173
Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...
In many domains increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of informationvisualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to support collaboration around informationvisualizations poses special challenges and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around informationvisualizations in a co-located setting, using a shared interactive tabletop display. We introduce an analysis of challenges and requirements for the design of co-located collaborative informationvisualization systems. We then present a new system that facilitates hierarchical data comparison tasks for this type of collaborative work. Our system supports multi-user input, shared and individual views on the hierarchical data visualization, flexible use of representations, and flexible workspace organization to facilitate group work around visualizations. PMID:17968069
Many animals - including insects - navigate visually through their environment. Solitary foraging desert ants are known to acquire visualinformation from the surrounding panorama and use it to navigate along habitual routes or to pinpoint a goal such as the nest. Returning foragers that fail to find the nest entrance engage in searching behaviour, during which they continue to use vision. The characteristics of searching behaviour have typically been investigated in unfamiliar environments. Here we investigated in detail the nest-searching behaviour of Melophorus bagoti foragers within the familiar visual environment of their nest. First, by relating search behaviour to the information content of panoramic (360 deg) images, we found that searches were more accurate in visually cluttered environments. Second, as observed in unfamiliar visual surrounds, searches were dynamic and gradually expanded with time, showing that nest pinpointing is not rigidly controlled by vision. Third, contrary to searches displayed in unfamiliar environments, searches observed here could be modelled as a single exponential search strategy, which is similar to a Brownian walk, and there was no evidence of a Lévy walk. Overall, our results revealed that searching behaviour is remarkably flexible and varies according to the relevance of information provided by the surrounding visual scenery. PMID:23125338
Schultheiss, Patrick; Wystrach, Antoine; Legge, Eric L G; Cheng, Ken
People typically interact with informationvisualizations using a mouse. Their physical movement, orientation, and distance to visualizations are rarely used as input. We explore how to use such spatial relations among people and visualizations (i.e., proxemics) to drive interaction with visualizations, focusing here on the spatial relations between a single user and visualizations on a large display. We implement interaction techniques that zoom and pan, query and relate, and adapt visualizations based on tracking of users' position in relation to a large high-resolution display. Alternative prototypes are tested in three user studies and compared with baseline conditions that use a mouse. Our aim is to gain empirical data on the usefulness of a range of design possibilities and to generate more ideas. Among other things, the results show promise for changing zoom level or visual representation with the user's physical distance to a large display. We discuss possible benefits and potential issues to avoid when designing informationvisualizations that use proxemics. PMID:24051805
Concept-oriented views of electronic medical records are desirable, yet difficult to create. We have developed a system that creates concept-oriented views by identifying relevant patient information, however, previous such systems have received little evaluation. We present here an evaluation of our system's ability to identify relevant patient data and generate concept-oriented views, along with the clinical impact of the generated views. The evaluation was carried out in three parts: First, using physicians and medical literature as gold standards, the system's sensitivity and specificity in identifying relevantinformation were measured. In some areas, the system demonstrated sensitivity comparable to that of physicians. Second, concept-oriented views were compared with original records and shown to contain significantly less non-specific information. Third, physician volunteers, when answering questions about patient cases using the concept-oriented views and traditional source-oriented views generated by the system, showed a significantly greater accuracy in information retrieval using concept-oriented views.
Informationvisualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual InformationVisualization (or Casual Infovis) as a complement to more traditional infovis domains. Traditional infovis systems, techniques, and methods do not easily lend themselves to the broad range of user populations, from expert to novices, or from work tasks to more everyday situations. We propose definitions, perspectives, and research directions for further investigations of this emerging subfield. These perspectives build from ambient informationvisualization , social visualization, and also from artistic work that visualizesinformation . We seek to provide a perspective on infovis that integrates these research agendas under a coherent vocabulary and framework for design. We enumerate the following contributions. First, we demonstrate how blurry the boundary of infovis is by examining systems that exhibit many of the putative proper ties of infovis systems, but perhaps would not be considered so. Second, we explore the notion of insight and how, instead of a monolithic definition of insight, there may be multiple types, each with particular characteristics. Third, we discuss design challenges for systems intended for casual audiences. Finally we conclude with challenges for system evaluation in this emerging subfield. PMID:17968058
Modern cars provide a large spectrum of electronic functional- ity which is realized by a great number of interconnected elec- tronic control units (ECUs). The constantly increasing complexity of these in-car communication networks challenges developers in terms of understandability. The goal of my PhD research is to find novel and suitable methods of visual analytics (VA) and informationvisualization (InfoVis)
Visualinformation concerning characteristics of the environment is critical for safe navigation. The purpose of this study\\u000a was to determine the importance of vision from the lower visual field for negotiating multi-surface terrain. Ten healthy young\\u000a adults and ten healthy older adults walked across a walkway where the middle portion consisted of solid, rock, slippery, compliant,\\u000a tilt, and irregular surfaces
|This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…
Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.
This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…
Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.
The amount of information a sensory neuron carries about a stimulus is directly related to response reliability. We recorded from individual neurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) while presenting randomly modulated visual stimuli. The responses to repeated stimuli were reproducible, whereas the responses evoked by nonrepeated stimuli drawn from the same ensemble were variable. Stimulus-dependent information was quantified
Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visualinformation processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
|Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visualinformation processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
VxInsight provides a visual mechanism for browsing, exploring and retrieving information from a database. The graphical display conveys information about the relationship between objects in several ways and on multiple scales. In this way, individual objects are always observed within a larger context. For example, consider a database consisting of a set of scientific papers. Imagine that the papers have
B. N. Wylie; K. W. Boyack; G. S. Davidson; D. K. Johnson
This paper highlights the importance of uncertainty visualization in information fusion, reviews general methods of representing uncertainty and presents perceptual and cognitive principles from Tufte, Chambers and Bertin as well as users experiments documented in the literature. Examples of uncertainty representations in information fusion are analyzed using these general theories. These principles can be used in future theoretical evaluations of
In many domains, increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of informationvisualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to
Multilingual retrieval (querying of multiple document collections each in a different language) can be achieved by combining several individual techniques which enhance retrieval: machine translation to cross the language barrier, relevance feedback to add words to the initial query, decompounding for languages with complex term structure, and data fusion to combine monolingual retrieval results from different languages. Using the CLEF
The development of new methods and concepts to visualize massive amounts of data holds the promise to revolutionize the way scientific results are analyzed, especially when tasks such as classification and clustering are involved, as in the case of sensing and biosensing. In this paper we employ a suite of software tools, referred to as PEx-Sensors, through which projection techniques are used to analyze electrical impedance spectroscopy data in electronic tongues and related sensors. The possibility of treating high dimension datasets with PEx-Sensors is advantageous because the whole impedance vs. frequency curves obtained with various sensing units and for a variety of samples can be analyzed at once. It will be shown that non-linear projection techniques such as Sammon's Mapping or IDMAP provide higher distinction ability than linear methods for sensor arrays containing units capable of molecular recognition, apparently because these techniques are able to capture the cooperative response owing to specific interactions between the sensing unit material and the analyte. In addition to allowing for a higher sensitivity and selectivity, the use of PEx-Sensors permits the identification of the major contributors for the distinguishing ability of sensing units and of the optimized frequency range. The latter will be illustrated with sensing units made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films to detect phytic acid, whose capacitance data were visualized with Parallel Coordinates. Significantly, the implementation of PEx-Sensors was conceived so as to handle any type of sensor based on any type of principle of detection, representing therefore a generic platform for treating large amounts of data for sensors and biosensors. PMID:21283854
Paulovich, Fernando V; Moraes, Marli L; Maki, Rafael Mitsuo; Ferreira, Marystela; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F
Visualization tools have been invaluable in the process of scientific discovery by providing researchers with insights gained through graphical tools and techniques. At PNL, the Multidimensional Visualization and Advanced Browsing (MVAB) project is extending visualization technology to the problems of intelligence analysis of textual documents by creating spatial representations of textual information. By representing an entire corpus of documents as points in a coordinate space of two or more dimensions, the tools developed by the MVAB team give the analyst the ability to quickly browse the entire document base and determine relationships among documents and publication patterns not readily discernible through traditional lexical means.
Thomas, J.; Pennock, K.; Fiegel, T.; Wise, J.; Pottier, M.; Schur, A.; Crow, V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lantrip, D. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
The goal of this chapter is to help authors recognize and avoid a set of pitfalls that recur in many rejected information\\u000a visualization papers, using a chronological model of the research process. Selecting a target paper type in the initial stage\\u000a can avert an inappropriate choice of validation methods. Pitfalls involving the design of a visual encoding may occur during
Visualinformation is essential in human motor control, and especially in the continuous modulation of isometric force. The\\u000a gain of visual feedback, that is, the amount of space used to represent change in force, has been shown to affect both the\\u000a magnitude and time-dependent properties of variability in the force output. However, little is known regarding the interacting\\u000a effects of
This paper describes how the handling of visual media objects is implemented in the visualinformation retrieval project VizIR. Essentially, four areas are concerned: media access, media representation in user interfaces, visualisation of media-related data and media transport over the network. The paper offers detailed technical descriptions of the solutions developed in VizIR for these areas. Unified media access for
Radial visualization, or the practice of displaying data in a circular or elliptical pattern, is an increasingly common technique in informationvisualization research. In spite of its prevalence, little work has been done to study this visualization paradigm as a methodology in its own right. We provide a historical review of radial visualization, tracing it to its roots in centuries-old statistical graphics. We then identify the types of problem domains to which modern radial visualization techniques have been applied. A taxonomy for radial visualization is proposed in the form of seven design patterns encompassing nearly all recent works in this area. From an analysis of these patterns, we distill a series of design considerations that system builders can use to create new visualizations that address aspects of the design space that have not yet been explored. It is hoped that our taxonomy will provide a framework for facilitating discourse among researchers and stimulate the development of additional theories and systems involving radial visualization as a distinct design metaphor. PMID:19590103
Draper, Geoffrey M; Livnat, Yarden; Riesenfeld, Richard F
Introduction Schizophrenia is currently diagnosed on the basis of patient reports and clinical observations. A diagnosis based on aetiology is inherently more reliable due to being closer to the disease process than the overt clinical manifestations. Accordingly, recent research in schizophrenia has focused on the development of biomarkers in a bit to improve the reliability and neurobiological relevance of the diagnosis. Visualinformation processing is one of these promising fields of recent biomarker research. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available literature regarding deficits in schizophrenia detectable through psychophysical (contrast and motion sensitivity, visual backward-masking), ERP (P1 and N1 visual evoked potentials) and oscillatory (signal power and phase-locking factor of evoked oscilations) measures and their validity as trait or state biomarkers of the disease. The methodology included a search on articles related to visualinformation processing in schizophrenia on the PubMed database. Expert opinion Biomarker research in schizophrenia is a rapidly expanding area. Evidence exists to suggest that both psychotic and manic symptoms are associated with visual processing abnormalities. A specific impairment confined to the magnocellular component of the visual system might be a trait biomarker of schizophrenia.
Koychev, Ivan; El-Deredy, Wael; Deakin, John Francis William
Recent research has demonstrated that auditory and visualinformation have similar mnemonic properties. The relative influence of verbal, auditory, and visual stimulus materials on the primacy effect in free recall was studied. Significant primacy effects were obtained when either verbal or auditory-input stimuli were presented. However, primacy effects were suppressed when pictorial materials were used, principally because of elevation of recall for midlist and later elements. Instructions to use visual mental imagery at encoding suppressed primacy effects for verbal materials, but not for auditory materials, indicating that although auditory information processing is probably similar to phonological processing within working memory, auditory processing may share cognitive resources with visuospatial processing. Results are shown to be predictable and interpretable within the item-specific/relational information distinction of Hunt and Einstein (e.g., 1981), and within the working-memory theory of Baddeley (e.g., 1986). PMID:8708635
How much can be seen in a single brief exposure? This is an important problem because our normal mode of seeing greatly resembles a sequence of brief exposures. In this report, the following experiments were conducted to study quantitatively the information that becomes available to an observer following a brief exposure. Lettered stimuli were chosen because these contain a relatively
Segregation of information flow along a dorsally directed pathway for processing object location and a ventrally directed pathway for processing object identity is well established in the visual and auditory systems, but is less clear in the somatosensory system. We hypothesized that segregation of location vs. identity information in touch would be evident if texture is the relevant property for stimulus identity, given the salience of texture for touch. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the pathways for haptic and visual processing of location and texture are segregated, and the extent of bisensory convergence. Haptic texture-selectivity was found in the parietal operculum and posterior visual cortex bilaterally, and in parts of left inferior frontal cortex. There was bisensory texture-selectivity at some of these sites in posterior visual and left inferior frontal cortex. Connectivity analyses demonstrated, in each modality, flow of information from unisensory non-selective areas to modality-specific texture-selective areas and further to bisensory texture-selective areas. Location-selectivity was mostly bisensory, occurring in dorsal areas, including the frontal eye fields and multiple regions around the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Many of these regions received input from unisensory areas in both modalities. Together with earlier studies, the activation and connectivity analyses of the present study establish that somatosensory processing flows into segregated pathways for location and object identity information. The location-selective somatosensory pathway converges with its visual counterpart in dorsal frontoparietal cortex, while the texture-selective somatosensory pathway runs through the parietal operculum before converging with its visual counterpart in visual and frontal cortex. Both segregation of sensory processing according to object property and multisensory convergence appear to be universal organizing principles.
...access to relevantinformation about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information...facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the...
Tests of rodent visual capacities are typically performed under standard laboratory illumination. However, light level can have subtle and complex effects on behavior in rodents. We tested Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) - a species that shows individual differences in activity pattern - on visual tasks at three ecologically relevant levels of ambient illuminance: approximating moonlight (1 lx), dawn or dusk (10 lx), and low daylight (100 lx). A jumping task and a grating discrimination quantified depth perception and grating acuity, respectively. Illuminance variations had important effects on behavior. Gerbils jumped faster in lower light on the depth discrimination task, but were also less accurate than in bright light. Daytime activity levels (possibly reflecting variations in activity pattern) mediated these effects, with animals that were awake during a lower proportion of daytime hours exhibiting a trend toward jumping faster with lower light level as compared to more day-active gerbils. Moreover, while illuminance did not affect acuity overall, it interacted with activity levels in a complex way: in both the darkest and lowest light levels, animals that were awake during a greater proportion of daytime hours showed higher acuity levels than animals that were less active during the day. These results indicate that gerbils show behavioral profiles in vision tasks that represent an interaction between visual ability and illuminance-sensitive motivational or emotional actors, perhaps including chronotype. Thus, the most ecologically relevant assessments of the visual performance of rodents will likely be achieved by testing at species-specific preferred light levels. PMID:21906663
Search over enterprise data is essential to every aspect of an enterprise because it helps users fulfill their information needs. Similar to Web search, most queries in enterprise search are keyword queries. However, enterprise search is a unique research problem because, compared with the data in traditional IR applications (e.g., text data), enterprise data includes information stored in different formats.
Patient-centric healthcare is an emerging healthcare model that optimizes the healthcare system to focus on patient experience and outcomes for better health and well-being. It requires that patients as well as physicians should have the ability to obtain and understand health information, and make appropriate health decisions. A problem is how such health information should be gathered from a variety
Most of the effort in today’s digital investigations centres on the data collection and analysis of existing information from the hard disks of computer systems. Little has been done on the level of information that can be recovered from only the computer system memory (RAM) while the application is still running. In this paper, we present the results of an
Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.
Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.
We have developed a software platform for multimodal integration and visualization of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of breast cancer. The image visualization platform allows multimodality 3D image visualization and manipulation of datasets, such as a variety of 3D rendering technique, and the ability to simultaneously control multiple fields of view. This platform enables quantitative and qualitative analysis of structural and functional diagnostic data, using both conventional & molecular imaging. The functional parameters, together with morphological parameters from MR can be suitably combined and correlated to the absolute diagnosis from histopathology. Fusion of the multimodal datasets will eventually lead to a significant improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection. Fusion may also allow a priori structural information derived from MRI to be incorporated into the reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography images. We will present the early results of image visualization and registration on multimodal breast cancer data, DOT and MRI.
College students' strategies to discriminate relevant from irrelevant information in algebra story problems were identified and compared to strategies used by younger students in previous studies. College students identified numbers relevant for solution (Experiment 1) or provided verbal reports as they computed answers (Experiment 2). Type of information examined, sequence and duration of examination, and verbal reports were analyzed. College
Although previous research has suggested that examining the interplay between internal and external representations can benefit our understanding of the role of informationvisualization (InfoVis) in human cognitive activities, there has been little work detailing the nature of internal representations, the relationship between internal and external representations and how interaction is related to these representations. In this paper, we identify and illustrate a specific kind of internal representation, mental models, and outline the high-level relationships between mental models and external visualizations. We present a top-down perspective of reasoning as model construction and simulation, and discuss the role of visualization in model based reasoning. From this perspective, interaction can be understood as active modeling for three primary purposes: external anchoring, information foraging, and cognitive offloading. Finally we discuss the implications of our approach for design, evaluation and theory development. PMID:20975137
The size, dimensionality and the limited range of the data values makes visualization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets challenging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of 3D VizStruct, a novel multi-dimensional data visualization technique for SNP datasets capable of identifying informative SNPs in genome-wide association studies. VizStruct is an interactive visualization technique that reduces multi-dimensional data to three dimensions using a combination of the discrete Fourier transform and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The performance of 3D VizStruct was challenged with several diverse, biologically relevant published datasets including the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus, the human Y-chromosome in several populations and a multi-locus genotype dataset of coral samples from four populations. In every case, the SNPs and or polymorphic markers identified by the 3D VizStruct mapping were predictive of the underlying biology. PMID:16899448
The size, dimensionality and the limited range of the data values makes visualization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets challenging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of 3D VizStruct, a novel multi-dimensional data visualization technique for SNP datasets capable of identifying informative SNPs in genome-wide association studies. VizStruct is an interactive visualization technique that reduces multi-dimensional data to three dimensions using a combination of the discrete Fourier transform and the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performance of 3D VizStruct was challenged with several diverse, biologically relevant published datasets including the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus, the human Y-chromosome in several populations and a multi-locus genotype dataset of coral samples from four populations. In every case, the SNPs and or polymorphic markers identified by the 3D VizStruct mapping were predictive of the underlying biology.
Funded by the Arts Councils of England, Wales and Scotland, and seven regional arts boards, Axis is "the largest interactive database of contemporary British art on the Internet." Created to provide information about artists and makers living/working in Britain to a national and international audience, the database curently offers over 12,500 images from 3,300 artists and makers. Users can search the database by artist name; browse by artwork type, material, and/or region; or conduct a free-text quick search. Initial returns include a thumbnail image with the work title and date and artist's name. Clicking on the image launches a new window with more detailed information, including dimensions, materials, techniques, characteristics, artistic approach, and a brief description, often written by the artist. Additional resources at the site include a collection of categorized links to other art sites, and CyberAxis, "a 3-D Virtual Gallery Space for debate, presentation and interaction" (Blaxxun Contact plug-in [Win 95/98/NT/2000] and free registration required).
Content-based multimedia information retrieval (MIR) has become one of the most active research areas in the past few years. Many retrieval approaches based on extracting and representing visual properties of multimedia data have been developed. While these approaches establish the viability of MIR based on visual features, techniques for incorporating human expertise directly during the query process to improve retrieval
Yong Rui; T. S. Huang; Sharad Mehrotra; Michael Ortega
The paper describes an approach to IV that involves spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The application arena is large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, etc. The basic idea is that text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents.
James A. Wise; James J. Thomas; Kelly Pennock; David Lantrip; Marc Pottier; Anne Schur; V. Crow
Although previous research has suggested that examining the interplay between internal and external representations can benefit our understanding of the role of informationvisualization (InfoVis) in human cognitive activities, there has been little work detailing the nature of internal representations, the relationship between internal and external representations and how interaction is related to these representations. In this paper, we identify
|Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…
Large multi-touch displays are expanding the possibilities of multiple-coordinated views by allowing multiple people to interact with data in concert or independently. We present Lark, a system that facilitates the coordination of interactions with informationvisualizations on shared digital workspaces. We focus on supporting this coordination according to four main criteria: scoped interaction, temporal flexibility, spatial flexibility, and changing collaboration
Matthew Tobiasz; Petra Isenberg; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale
|We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…
|User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…
Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an informationvisualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness
Lucille T. Nowell; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Theodore E. Tanasse
The first year of the grant was spent in setting up the laboratory, and in starting research on a number of different projects. All are concerned with the visual processing of information in the perception of objects. A series of experiments has explored ...
Policy Makers, System Administrators and Designers in health care are often deluged by the complexity of maintaining a reliable information exchange platform involving multiple systems. Often two factors are taken for granted in such health data exchange settings: that the communication between systems is reliable and that the messages transmitted between systems contain quality data. We are presenting an approach to meaningfully analyzing and visualizinginformation exchange to provide situational awareness in data exchange platforms. PMID:16779300
\\u000a Recently, language acquisition with aids of multi-modal information have drawn more and more attention. However, semantic\\u000a grounding of verbs has been less concerned due to their complex semantic representation. This paper proposed a novel way to\\u000a combine visualinformation into semantic representation of Chinese verb. While introducing original representation of two\\u000a constituents, which are verb frame and argument from Frame
|The authors describe the use of case studies in a program of extracurricular library instruction and explain the benefits of case teaching in developing information literacy. The paper presents details of example cases and analyzes surveys to evaluate the impact of case teaching on student satisfaction. (Contains 3 tables.)|
The paper reviews basic spectral features of luminescence from minerals used in dating and allied research. Luminescence production is a result of multiple interactions within the imperfect crystal lattice and spectral information is not limited to the emission of light. Results of spectral investigations of luminescence emission during thermal stimulation (TL) or optical stimulation (OSL) form the main part of
M. R. Krbetschek; J. Götze; A. Dietrich; T. Trautmann
Data transformation, the process of preparing raw data for effective visualization, is one of the key challenges in informationvisualization. Although researchers have developed many data transformation techniques, there is little empirical study of the general impact of data transformation on visualization. Without such study, it is difficult to systematically decide when and which data transformation techniques are needed. We thus have designed and conducted a two-part empirical study that examines how the use of common data transformation techniques impacts visualization quality, which in turn affects user task performance. Our first experiment studies the impact of data transformation on user performance in single-step, typical visual analytic tasks. The second experiment assesses the impact of data transformation in multi-step analytic tasks. Our results quantify the benefits of data transformation in both experiments. More importantly, our analyses reveal that (1) the benefits of data transformation vary significantly by task and by visualization, and (2) the use of data transformation depends on a user's interaction context. Based on our findings, we present a set of design recommendations that help guide the development and use of data transformation techniques. PMID:18988978
Describes the third in a series of studies investigating effects of psychological variable of encoding specificity on cognitive learning, test design, and visualization during instruction and testing. Encoding specificity, its application to classroom learning and testing, and its significance to educational technology are explained. The first two…
...To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated...to Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated...leadworkshop.icfi.com. Please direct questions regarding workshop...considers the most meaningful new science to inform our...
A long-term project to visualize the medical terminology contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Dispensing Information (DI) is described. In the process of completing the project, several technologies were used and user response was evaluated. A database that covers the visualization of over 7,800 prescription, nonprescription, and medical devices has been completed. Several applications which were produced in interactive
Bill G. Felkey; J. Tyrone Gibson; Kenneth N. Barker; Robert E. Pearson
Top-down signals from frontal cortex (FC) are conjectured to play a critical role in cognitive control of sensory processing. To explore this interaction, we compared activity in ferret FC and primary auditory cortex (A1) during auditory and visual tasks requiring discrimination between classes of reference and target stimuli. FC responses were behaviorally-gated, selectively encoded the timing and invariant behavioral meaning of target stimuli, could be rapid in onset, and sometimes persisted for hours following behavior. This mirrors earlier findings in A1that attention triggered rapid, selective, persistent, task-related changes in spectrotemporal receptive fields. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) revealed behaviorally-gated changes in inter-areal coherence, selectively modulated between FC and focal regions of A1 responsive to target sounds. These results suggest that A1 and FC dynamically establish a functional connection during auditory behavior that shapes the flow of sensory information and maintains a persistent trace of recent task-relevant stimulus features.
Fritz, Jonathan B.; David, Stephen V.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Yin, Pingbo; Shamma, Shihab A.
|A search for stained glass bibliographic information using DIALINDEX identified 57 DIALOG files from a variety of subject categories and 646 citations as relevant. Files include applied science, biological sciences, chemistry, engineering, environment/pollution, people, business research, and public affairs. Eleven figures illustrate the search…
Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby.
Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.
For some years now, the Braille League has been thinking about ways of improving information of the public with visual impairment about the assistance and services that it can seek. The conclusion that this information was inadequate was highlighted by all those in charge of assisting people with disabilities. As one of the key moments is the announcement of the diagnosis, the association wanted to contact health professionals in order to measure the level of information in their possession and pass on their expectations. Two approaches were used. First, there was a questionnaire that ophthalmologists completed at the Ophtalmologica Belgica 2010 conference. The topics raised were very diverse: their professional context, conditions of announcement, information given to patients, information requested by patients, and their wishes for the future. Moreover, semi-structured interviews enabled various areas of the study to be examined in greater depth: definition of impairment, conditions of announcement of the diagnosis, non-medical aspects, conclusion about lack of information and avenues for improvement. This study confirmed that ophthalmologists lack information on the subject of the psychosocial components of disability and have poor awareness of the existing aids and services. After the presentation of the results, a series of recommendations was made so that the announcement of the diagnosis could be optimal, so as to enable patients to embark on a process of adaptation and acceptance of their visual impairment. PMID:22003766
College students' strategies to discriminate relevant from irrelevant information in algebra story problems were identified and compared to strategies used by younger students in previous studies. College students identified numbers relevant for solution (Experiment 1) or provided verbal reports as they computed answers (Experiment 2). Type of…
|Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…
We approach Information Retrieval (IR) from a User eXperience (UX) perspective. Through introducing a model for Information Retrieval eXperience (IRX), this paper operationalizes a perspective on IR that reaches beyond topicality. Based on a document's topicality, complexity, and emotional value, a model of relevance is proposed to influence user's IRX and, consequently, the synthesis and use of the retrieved information.
Frans van der Sluis; Egon L. van den Broek; Betsy van Dijk; O. Hoeber; Y. Li; X. J. Huang
Background Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. Methodology Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID) and inter sound distance (ISD) whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. Conclusions With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives.
Tan, Shern Shiou; Maul, Tomas Henrique Bode; Mennie, Neil Russell
Normally, people have difficulties recognizing objects from novel as compared to learned views, resulting in increased reaction times and errors. Recent studies showed, however, that this "view-dependency" can be reduced or even completely eliminated when novel views result from observer's movements instead of object movements. This observer movement benefit was previously attributed to extra-retinal (physical motion) cues. In two experiments, we demonstrate that dynamic visualinformation (that would normally accompany observer's movements) can provide a similar benefit and thus a potential alternative explanation. Participants performed sequential matching tasks for Shepard-Metzler-like objects presented via head-mounted display. As predicted by the literature, object recognition performance improved when view changes (45° or 90°) resulted from active observer movements around the object instead of object movements. Unexpectedly, however, merely providing dynamic visualinformation depicting the viewpoint change showed an equal benefit, despite the lack of any extra-retinal/physical self-motion cues. Moreover, visually simulated rotations of the table and hidden target object (table movement condition) yielded similar performance benefits as simulated viewpoint changes (scene movement condition). These findings challenge the prevailing notion that extra-retinal (physical motion) cues are required for facilitating object recognition from novel viewpoints, and highlight the importance of dynamic visual cues, which have previously received little attention. PMID:21075836
The visualization of hierarchies is very important for digital information management and presentation systems. Especially in the context of Personal Information Manage- ment, file browsers play a very important role. Currently the most common file browser visualizations are Windows Explorer and the simple zoomable visualization offered by Microsoft Windows. This work explores the issue of file browser visualization through a
Maria Golemati; Akrivi Katifori; Eugenia G. Giannopoulou; Ilias Daradimos; Costas Vassilakis
...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists Â§ 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any...
Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visualinformation to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that informationvisualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and informationvisualization in other safety-related applications where the user's primary task is something other than looking at the computer interface, such as emergency response, air traffic control, or operating a motor vehicle.
Recent studies have shown that processing words according to a survival scenario leads to superior retention relative to control\\u000a conditions. Here, we examined whether a survival recall advantage could be elicited by using pictures. Furthermore, in Experiment\\u000a 1, we were interested in whether survival processing also results in improved memory for details. Undergraduates rated the\\u000a relevance of pictures in a
Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty. Traditional uncertainty visualization techniques, such as those that change primitive attributes or employ animation, can create large amounts of clutter or actively distract when visualizing geospatially uncertain events within large datasets. To effectively identify geo-spatial trends within the Global Terrorism Database of the START Center, we have developed a novel usage of squarified treemaps that maintains the strengths of traditional map-viewing but incorporates some measure of data verity.
Jones, Josh; Chang, Remco; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ribarsky, William
Use of visualinformation in interceptive actions requiring large-scale changes to movement timing was investigated. The task consisted of intercepting a moving target on a monitor screen through an angular arm movement. In half of the trials, the initial target velocity of 8 cm\\/s was unexpectedly decreased to 4 cm\\/s or increased to 12 cm\\/s, leaving 800 ms to target arrival after velocity change.
Luis A. Teixeira; Romeo Chua; Paul Nagelkerke; Ian M. Franks
Abstract—We describe the design and deployment of Dashiki, a public website where users may collaboratively build visualization dashboards,through,a combination of a wiki-like syntax and,interactive editors. Our goals are to extend,existing research on social data analysis into presentation and organization of data from multiple sources, explore new metaphors for these activities, and participate more fully in the web!s information ecology by
Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…
In general edge detection evaluation, the edge detectors are examined, analyzed, and compared either visually or with a metric for specific an application. This analysis is usually independent of the characteristics of the image-gathering, transmission and display processes that do impact the quality of the acquired image and thus, the resulting edge image. We propose a new information theoretic analysis of edge detection that unites the different components of the visual communication channel and assesses edge detection algorithms in an integrated manner based on Shannon's information theory. The edge detection algorithm here is considered to achieve high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. Thus, by setting initial conditions of the visual communication system as constant, different edge detection algorithms could be evaluated. This analysis is normally limited to linear shift-invariant filters so in order to examine the Canny edge operator in our proposed system, we need to estimate its "power spectral density" (PSD). Since the Canny operator is non-linear and shift variant, we perform the estimation for a set of different system environment conditions using simulations. In our paper we will first introduce the PSD of the Canny operator for a range of system parameters. Then, using the estimated PSD, we will assess the Canny operator using information theoretic analysis. The information-theoretic metric is also used to compare the performance of the Canny operator with other edge-detection operators. This also provides a simple tool for selecting appropriate edgedetection algorithms based on system parameters, and for adjusting their parameters to maximize information throughput.
...Shipping or transmitting visualinformation documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visualinformation documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...
...Shipping or transmitting visualinformation documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visualinformation documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...
In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.
The Accelerator Electronic Support Group (AES) is the group responsible for maintaining over 100 subsystems of the Nuclear Physics Accelerator at Jefferson Lab. Presently, there are 30 employees in the AES group. It is each individual's responsibility to make entries into the AES Database. This Access/Visual Basic based database is the center for all work performed to the Accelerator by the AES group. At any time, an AES technologist can supply valuable information needed to track pending maintenance, data analysis of recurring problems, inventory tracking and the ability to export all of this information to a web based electronic log generated by Jefferson Lab Operations Group.
As the world of medicine becomes increasingly digitized, the Web has become a de facto resource for physicians to quickly glean pertinent clinical information to carry out diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. At present, physicians face the dual challenge of judging the relevance of the information and trusting its Web source. This paper proposes a trust-relevance framework for conceptualizing computer-accessed medical information resources, a set of criteria for evaluating these information resources, and descriptions of a sample of available online resources. It also presents a usable framework for evaluating information retrieval innovations and explains the different capabilities of representative information retrieval tools and applications. By demystifying the concepts associated with information resources, search engines, and retrieval tools, and presenting a reasonable view of current opportunities as well as future possibilities, the authors hope to provide guidance so physicians can more rapidly adopt innovative computer-assisted search tools for acquiring information that facilitate patient care decision-making. PMID:17091794
The latest results in the development of the software tool 'Procession' is presented. The research underlying Procession delivers a conceptual 3D framework for the interpretation of non-physical construction industry processes. Procession is the implementation of the proposed 3D framework, as an informationvisualization software tool. The conceptual transformation of construction clients' informational needs into 3D visual structures is documented. Also discussed is the development of an 'intelligent' software process to calculate the relevance of individual project elements. This is used to determine the representation of project elements within a 3D surface. Construction is not short of technologies for visualizing physical building models. However, it would seem that little or no consideration has been given to improving the intelligibility of non-physical construction processes. This type of information is usually known as Project Planning data and is concerned with the individual tasks that make up construction projects. While, there are software applications that allow access to this data for the professional members of the project team, clients are currently without a suitable tool. Procession's data surface is an abstract representation of three selected project dimensions. Its 3D progress reports provide construction clients with an 'at-a-glance' indication of project 'health'.
In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visualinformation, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1
Naseem Al-Aidroos; Stephen M. Emrich; Susanne Ferber; Jay Pratt
A prominent model of how the brain regulates attention proposes that the anterior cingulate cortex monitors the occurrence of conflict between incompatible response tendencies and signals this information to a cognitive control system in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cognitive control is thought to resolve conflict through the attentional biasing of perceptual processing, emphasizing task-relevant stimulus information. It is not known, however,
|This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…
Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have relevant positive and negative impacts on environmental sustainability on various levels: First-order effects such as increasing electronic waste streams; second-order effects such as improved energy-efficiency of production; third-order effects such as a product-to-service shift in consumption or rebound effects in transport. In the simulation study described in this article, all known relevant effects on
Lorenz M. Hilty; Peter Arnfalk; Lorenz Erdmann; James Goodman; Martin Lehmann; Patrick A. Wäger
An overview is provided of the various methods for analyzing biosensing data, with emphasis on informationvisualization approaches such as multidimensional projection techniques. Emphasis is placed on the importance of data analysis methods, with a description of traditional techniques, including the advantages and limitations of linear and non-linear methods to generate layouts that emphasize similarity/dissimilarity relationships among data instances. Particularly important are recent methods that allow processing high-dimensional data, thus taking full advantage of the capabilities of modern equipment. In this area, now referred to as e-science, the choice of appropriate data analysis methods is crucial to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors and biosensors. Two types of systems deserving attention in this context are electronic noses and electronic tongues, which are made of sensor arrays whose electrical or electrochemical responses are combined to provide "finger print" information for aromas and tastes. Examples will also be given of unprecedented detection of tropical diseases, made possible with the use of multidimensional projection techniques. Furthermore, ways of using these techniques along with other informationvisualization methods to optimize biosensors will be discussed. PMID:22911268
Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Constantino, Carlos J L; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F
We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.
Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick
This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.
Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological informationvisualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.
Compared the effects of auditory and visual stimulation on RT and movement time (MT) for discrete motor responses with the effects of visual stimulation studied by previous investigators. Under audio stimulation, the correlation between MT and information processed was .92, under visual stimulation, it was .97. The amount of information processed affected MTs but not RT. However, type of stimuli
Image extraction and visualinformation processing using bacteriorhodopsin (bR)-based bioelectronic devices is presented. Image extraction was achieved using a photoreceptor consisting of bR and spiropyran films. The undesired signals from the photoreceptor were automatically eliminated from the whole signal by spiropyran films acting as an optical noise filter that increases the target signal to an undesired signal ratio. For the information processing, the photoreceptor consisting of bR and lipid films deposited with different configurations was used and the target signals were processed to achieve the pattern recognition. The pattern recognition was based on not only the response variability of bacteriorhodopsin, induced by different film configurations, but also on the initial learning process. The input patterns were predicted by simple calculation with the known signals through the initial learning process. PMID:11679271
Min, J; Choi, H G; Oh, B K; Lee, W H; Paek, S H; Choi, J W
Sensory neuroscience seeks to understand how the brain encodes natural environments. However, neural coding has largely been studied using simplified stimuli. In order to assess whether the brain’s coding strategy depends on the stimulus ensemble, we apply a new information-theoretic method that allows unbiased calculation of neural filters (receptive fields) from responses to natural scenes or other complex signals with strong multipoint correlations. In the cat primary visual cortex we compare responses to natural inputs with those to noise inputs matched for luminance and contrast. We find that neural filters adaptively change with the input ensemble so as to increase the information carried by the neural response about the filtered stimulus. Adaptation affects the spatial frequency composition of the filter, enhancing sensitivity to under-represented frequencies in agreement with optimal encoding arguments. Adaptation occurs over 40 s to many minutes, longer than most previously reported forms of adaptation.
Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Sugihara, Hiroki; Kurgansky, Andrei V.; Rebrik, Sergei P.; Stryker, Michael P.; Miller, Kenneth D.
Information communication rate for a conventional display with three spatially separated windows was compared with rate for a serial display in which data frames were presented sequentially in one window. For both methods, each frame contained a randomly selected digit with various amounts of additional display 'clutter.' Subjects recalled the digits in a prescribed order. Large rate differences were found, with faster serial communication for all levels of the clutter factors. However, the rate difference was most pronounced for highly cluttered displays. An explanation for the latter effect in terms of visual masking in the retinal periphery was supported by the results of a second experiment. The working hypothesis that serial displays can speed information transfer for automatic but not for controlled processing is discussed.
The effects of visual, acoustic, and tactile information on 5 blind and 5 sighted children's locomotion on slopes (10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees) were investigated. Children's ages ranged from 5.8 to 7.7 years (M= 6.8, SD= 0.7). The sighted children performed the task of walking up and down different slopes blindfolded and with full vision. Locomotion modes, locomotor skill, gait deviation, and time to complete the task were analyzed. Walking was the preferred locomotion mode up to 20 degrees, but steeper slopes were perceived as "non-walkable." Doubly multivariate MANOVAs revealed an effect of visualinformation (blindfolded vs full vision) on the sighted children's gait patterns, and a significant interaction between cue condition and group (blind vs blindfolded), underlining a distinct influence of the cues in the gait patterns of the two groups of children. Acoustic and tactile cues were generally more effective for the blind than for the sighted blindfolded children. PMID:23033757
|This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…
Visual feedback and non-visualinformation play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visualinformation in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visualinformation is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visualinformation adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking.
Generally, the designs of digital image processing algorithms and image gathering devices remain separate. Consequently, the performance of digital image processing algorithms is evaluated without taking into account the artifacts introduced into the process by the image gathering process. However, experiments show that the image gathering process profoundly impacts the performance of digital image processing and the quality of the resulting images. Huck et al. proposed one definitive theoretic analysis of visual communication channels, where the different parts, such as image gathering, processing, and display, are assessed in an integrated manner using Shannon's information theory. In this paper, we perform an end-to-end information theory based system analysis to assess edge detection methods. We evaluate the performance of the different algorithms as a function of the characteristics of the scene, and the parameters, such as sampling, additive noise etc., that define the image gathering system. The edge detection algorithm is regarded to have high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. This goal can be achieved only by jointly optimizing all processes. People generally use subjective judgment to compare different edge detection methods. There is not a common tool that can be used to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms, and to give people a guide for selecting the best algorithm for a given system or scene. Our information-theoretic assessment becomes this new tool to which allows us to compare the different edge detection operators in a common environment.
Researchers often conduct visual world studies to investigate how listeners integrate linguistic information with prior context. Such studies are likely to generate anticipatory baseline effects (ABEs), differences in listeners' expectations about what a speaker might mention that exist before a critical speech stimulus is presented. ABEs show that listeners have attended to and accessed prior contextual information in time to influence the processing of the critical speech stimulus. However, further evidence is required to show that the information actually did influence subsequent processing. ABEs can compromise the validity of inferences about information integration if they are not appropriately controlled. We discuss four solutions: statistical estimation, experimental control, elimination of "on-target" trials, and neutral gaze. An experiment compares the performance of these solutions, and suggests that the elimination of on-target trials introduces bias in the direction of ABEs, due to the statistical phenomenon of regression toward the mean. We conclude that statistical estimation, possibly coupled with experimental control, offers the most valid and least biased solution. PMID:20961518
This paper investigates the impact of earnings management on value relevance of accounting information in the context of Japan. Researchers carrying out earnings management research usually rely on the Jones (1991) or the modified Jones model (1995) to disaggregate accruals into its discretionary and non-discretionary components. However, because of criticisms leveled against extant models of discretionary accruals, this study instead
We present in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the mutual information based feature selection algorithms. We point out the limitations of some recent work in this area then propose an improvement to overcome the weak points. The experiment results confirm that we achieve a better feature sets compared with the two recent developed algorithms, which are Maximum Relevance and
Computer Forensics has grown rapidly in recent years. The current computer forensic investigation paradigm is laborious and requires significant expertise on the part of the investigators. This paper proposes a highly automatic and efficient framework to provide the Case-Relevanceinformation, by binding computer intelligence technology to the current computer forensic framework. Computer intelligence is expected to offer more assistance in
|Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevantinformation: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…
|Data on 2,380 searches of online information retrieval systems are analyzed using a mathematical model to determine the relationship between two measures of effectiveness--documents read and relevant references. The nature and relative merits of these two variables are discussed, as well as the findings, and seven references are listed. (RBF)|
The access and use of relevantinformation is a crucial aspect of cognition. This chapter examines this issue within a research program of how people are reminded of earlier problems during the learning of a cognitive skill. This discussion focusses on us...
This quasi-experiment using a real/simulator model investigated differences in cognitive flexibility in high and low hypnotizable participants. Using the variables of hypnotizability (low/high), consciousness (nonhypnotized/hypnotized), mood (happy/sad), and visual-information processing (global/local), reaction times and target detection paradigms of the subjects were evaluated during both nonhypnotic and hypnotic states. Flexibility in cognitive processing was operationalized as the ability to overcome the typical global precedence and answer quickly about the nonprevalent local features. It was observed that the low hypnotizable participants were not influenced in their preference for the global or local dimension by any manipulated variable, whereas the high hypnotizables were more flexible. PMID:23153385
The purpose of our visualinformation retrieval tool is to extract from a database images that are similar to an image query. Color features are generally used to define a measure of similarity between images, as they are usually very robust to noise, image degradation, changes in size, resolution or orientation. Nevertheless, the most often features suffer objectively from the lack of color spatial knowledge. Then, our purpose is to merge two classical methods : the color pyramid and the interest points detection, well-known for grey level image analysis. The pertinence of this new method is demonstrated by an evaluation and a comparison with others keypoints detectors. We show the interest for image indexation with concrete tests on our large images database, using the icobra system.
VxInsight provides a visual mechanism for browsing, exploring and retrieving information from a database. The graphical display conveys information about the relationship between objects in several ways and on multiple scales. In this way, individual objects are always observed within a larger context. For example, consider a database consisting of a set of scientific papers. Imagine that the papers have been organized in a two dimensional geometry so that related papers are located close to each other. Now construct a landscape where the altitude reflects the local density of papers. Papers on physics will form a mountain range, and a different range will stand over the biological papers. In between will be research reports from biophysics and other bridging disciplines. Now, imagine exploring these mountains. If we zoom in closer, the physics mountains will resolve into a set of sub-disciplines. Eventually, by zooming in far enough, the individual papers become visible. By pointing and clicking you can learn more about papers of interest or retrieve their full text. Although physical proximity conveys a great deal of information about the relationship between documents, you can also see which papers reference which others, by drawing lines between the citing and cited papers. For even more information, you can choose to highlight papers by a particular researcher or a particular institution, or show the accumulation of papers through time, watching some disciplines explode and other stagnate. VxInsight is a general purpose tool, which enables this kind of interaction with wide variety of relational data: documents, patents, web pages, and financial transactions are just a few examples. The tool allows users to interactively browse, explore and retrieve information from the database in an intuitive way.
Objective To describe and categorize contextual informationrelevant to patients’ medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease like asthma. Methods We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our Patient Advocates facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical informationrelevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe 1) researchers’ journals of these unique communications, 2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management, 3) Patient Advocates’ formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment-making, and 4) observations of patients’ interactions with the clinical practices. Results In 83 journals, patients’ social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. Patient Advocate assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. Conclusions These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevantinformation from all patients and especially those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to accessing care, and confirming understanding of medical information.
Black, Heather L.; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J.
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:
Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War M
The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270
Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung
Measurement of visual quality is crucial for many image and video processing applications. Traditionally, quality assessment (QA) algorithms predict visual quality by comparing a distorted signal against a reference, typically by modeling the Human Visual Sys- tem (HVS). In this paper, we adopt a new paradigm for video quality assessment that is an extension of our previous work on still
|An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visualinformation, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal…
Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.
One of the unique applications of Mixed and Augmented Reality (MR \\/ AR) systems is that hidden and occluded objects can be readily visualized. We call this specialized use of MR\\/AR, Obscured InformationVisualization (OIV). In this paper, we describe the beginning of a research program designed to develop such visualizations through the use of principles derived from perceptual psychology
In this paper we suggest a different approach that considers visualizations in the wider domain of communication and defines a model capable of taking into account the context in which visualizations act as communication tools. In this perspective we consider visualizations as transformation processes within the Data-Information-Knowledge (DIK) continuum. In the paper we discuss the continuum, and apply the transformation
Luca Masud; Francesca Valsecchi; Paolo Ciuccarelli; Donato Ricci; Giorgio Caviglia
Would users, when having a first glance on Websites, expect that visually appealing Websites contain better information than Websites that are less appealing? And if they looked longer, would that change their judgment? We created two versions for 12 homepages of websites, one with low visual appeal, the other one with high visual appeal. Through a pre-test, we made sure
Even though informationvisualization (InfoVis) research has matured in recent years, it is generally acknowledged that the field still lacks supporting, encompassing theories. In this paper, we argue that the distributed cognition framework can be used to substantiate the theoretical foundation of InfoVis. We highlight fundamental assumptions and theoretical constructs of the distributed cognition approach, based on the cognitive science literature and a real life scenario. We then discuss how the distributed cognition framework can have an impact on the research directions and methodologies we take as InfoVis researchers. Our contributions are as follows. First, we highlight the view that cognition is more an emergent property of interaction than a property of the human mind. Second, we argue that a reductionist approach to study the abstract properties of isolated human minds may not be useful in informing InfoVis design. Finally we propose to make cognition an explicit research agenda, and discuss the implications on how we perform evaluation and theory building. PMID:18988961
The production and perception of coordinated rhythmic movement are very specifically structured. For production and perception, 0 degree mean relative phase is stable, 180 degrees is less stable, and no other state is stable without training. It has been hypothesized that perceptual stability characteristics underpin the movement stability characteristics, which has led to the development of a phase-driven oscillator model (e.g., Bingham, 2004a, 2004b). In the present study, a novel perturbation method was used to explore the identity of the perceptual information being used in rhythmic movement tasks. In the three conditions, relative position, relative speed, and frequency (variables motivated by the model) were selectively perturbed. Ten participants performed a judgment task to identify 0 degree or 180 degrees under these perturbation conditions, and 8 participants who had been trained to visually discriminate 90 degrees performed the task with perturbed 90 degrees displays. Discrimination of 0 degree and 180 degrees was unperturbed in 7 out of the 10 participants, but discrimination of 90 degrees was completely disrupted by the position perturbation and was made noisy by the frequency perturbation. We concluded that (1) the information used by most observers to perceive relative phase at 0 degree and 180 degrees was relative direction and (2) becoming an expert perceiver of 90 degrees entails learning a new variable composed of position and speed. PMID:18459257
An application of memory-based reasoning (MBR) for determining the relevancy of retrieved information, customized for the needs and preferences of an individual user, is presented. The use of MBR method in conjunction with a classification scheme such as k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) can set the foundation for an intelligent agent for search of patterns in databases. An intelligent agent is an
This paper center around the problem of automated visual content classification. To enable classification based image or visual object retrieval, we propose a new image representation scheme called visual context descriptor (VCD) that is a multidimensional vector in which each element represents the frequency of a unique visual property of an image or a region. VCD utilizes the predetermined quality dimensions (i.e., types of features and quantization level) and semantic model templates mined in priori. Not only observed visual cues, but also contextually relevantvisual features are proportionally incorporated in VCD. Contextual relevance of a visual cue to a semantic class is determined by using correlation analysis of ground truth samples. Such co-occurrence analysis of visual cues requires transformation of a real-valued visual feature vector (e.g., color histogram, Gabor texture, etc.,) into a discrete event (e.g., terms in text). Good-feature to track, rule of thirds, iterative k-means clustering and TSVQ are involved in transformation of feature vectors into unified symbolic representations called visual terms. Similarity-based visual cue frequency estimation is also proposed and used for ensuring the correctness of model learning and matching since sparseness of sample data causes the unstable results of frequency estimation of visual cues. The proposed method naturally allows integration of heterogeneous visual or temporal or spatial cues in a single classification or matching framework, and can be easily integrated into a semantic knowledge base such as thesaurus, and ontology. Robust semantic visual model template creation and object based image retrieval are demonstrated based on the proposed content description scheme.
Park, Youngchoon; Golshani, Forouzan; Panchanathan, Sethuraman
Humans can perceive affordances both for themselves and for others, and affordance perception is a function of perceptual-motor experience involved in playing a sport. Two experiments investigated the enhanced affordance perception of athletes. In Experiment 1, basketball players and nonbasketball players provided perceptual reports for sports-relevant (maximum standing-reach and reach-with-jump heights) and non-sports-relevant (maximum sitting height) affordances for self and other. Basketball players were more accurate at perceiving maximum reach-with-jump for another person than were nonbasketball players, but were no better at perceiving maximum reach or sitting heights. Experiment 2 investigated the informational basis for this enhanced perceptual ability of basketball players by evaluating whether kinematics inform perceivers about action-scaled (e.g., force-production dependent), but not body-scaled (i.e., geometrically determined), affordances for others, and whether basketball experience enhances sensitivity to kinematic information. Only basketball players improved at perceiving an action-scaled affordance (maximum reach-with-jump), but not body-scaled affordances (maximum standing-reach and sit) with exposure to kinematic information, suggesting that action-scaled affordances may be specified by kinematic information to which athletes are already attuned by virtue of their sport experience. PMID:21113859
Visualizing the Earth, its processes, and its evolution through time is a fundamental aspect of geoscience. The use of visualizations - diagrams, images, animations, maps, and more - is an essential tool in helping students to visualize the Earth and its processes. This site aggregates resources and results from two workshops on Teaching with Visualizations. The first, Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, was held at Carleton College in Northfield, MN in February, 2004. A follow-up workshop was held at the fall 2004 meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, CA.
While informationvisualization technologies have transformed our life and work, designing informationvisualization systems still faces challenges. Non-expert users or end-users need toolkits that allow for rapid design and prototyping, along with supporting unified data structures suitable for different data types (e.g., tree, network, temporal, and multi-dimensional data), various visualization, interaction tasks. To address these issues, we designed DaisyViz, a
Attention has been implicated in postural control and other tasks requiring sensory integration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of attention in sensory-motor processing of vestibular and combined visual–vestibular information during seated rotations using a dual-task interference approach. We hypothesized that auditory information processing would be influenced by concurrent visual-ocular, vestibulo-ocular, or combined visual-vestibulo-ocular processing. We
Joseph M. Furman; Martijn L. T. M. Müller; Mark S. Redfern; J. Richard Jennings
|A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevantinformation on…
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
Communication between patients and health care providers may require sharing of data and knowledge that is complex and of high-volume. To support communication of these types of information, visualization techniques and tools can reduce cognitive burden in informed patient-centered health decisions and empower patients in their own care. Designing and implementing effective visualization depend on iterative consideration of cognitive needs
Generalized association plots (GAP) (Chen, 1996; 1999; 2002) is an informationvisualization environment for high dimensional data structure without dimension reduction. There is no limit for sample size and variable number. Three matrix maps for raw data matrix, object proximity matrix, and variable proximity matrix are created for visually extracting grouping structures for objects and variables and the interaction information
In common Web-based search interfaces, it can be difficult to formulate queries that simultaneously combine temporal, spatial, and topical data filters. We investigate how coordinated visualizations can enhance search and exploration of information on the World Wide Web by easing the formulation of these types of queries. Drawing from visualinformation seeking and exploratory search, we introduce VisGets - interactive
Marian Dörk; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale; Christopher Collins; Carey Williamson
What a human's eye tells a human's brain? In this paper, we analyze the information capacity of visual attention. Our hypothesis is that the limit of perceptible spatial frequency is related to observing time. Given more time, one can obtain higher resolution - that is, higher spatial frequency information, of the presented visual stimuli. We de- signed an experiment to
Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visualinformation is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision.
Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Fried, Shelley I.
We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one’s self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevantinformation involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the “positivity bias” with aging.
We propose an empirical, perception-based evaluation approach for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of longstanding cartographic design principles applied to 2D map displays. The approach includes bottom-up visual saliency models that are compared with eye-movement data collected in human-subject experiments on map stimuli embedded in the so-called flicker paradigm. The proposed methods are applied to the assessment of four commonly used visual variables for designing 2D maps: size, color value, color hue, and orientation. The empirical results suggest that the visual variable size is the most efficient (fastest) and most effective (accurate) visual variable to detect change under flicker conditions. The visual variable orientation proved to be the least efficient and effective of the tested visual variables. These empirical results shed new light on the implied ranking of the visual variables that have been proposed over 40 years ago. With the presented approach we hope to provide cartographers, GIScientists and visualization designers a systematic assessment method to develop effective and efficient geovisualization displays.
Predictions of task performance based on the information required by the task, visualinformation acquired from the source, information transmission channel characteristics, and human information processing limitations are compared to actual performance on tasks viewed directly or remotely either monoscopically or stereoscopically, under different motion conditions. The tasks require varying amounts of information and channel capacity for proficient task completion
Curtis S. Ikehara; Robert E. Cole; John O. Merritt
|Interactive visualization is a powerful educational tool. It has been used to enhance the teaching of various subjects from computer science to chemistry to engineering. In computer science education, this powerful tool is used almost exclusively in programming and data structure courses. This paper suggests that visualization could be very…
There is a growing need for methods and tools to illuminate the social contexts of interaction environments created by the World Wide Web, Usenet newsgroups, email lists, and other network interaction media. We present here a framework for creating visualizations of the social connections created in and through network interaction media. Using graph-drawing methods, visualizations can be created for a
There is a growing need for methods and tools to illuminate the social contexts of interaction environments created by the World Wide Web, Usenet newsgroups, email lists, and other network interaction media. We present here a framework for creating visualizations of the social connections created in and through network interaction media. Using graph-drawing methods, visualizations can be created for a
A great corpus of studies reports empirical evidence of how informationvisualization supports comprehension and analysis of data. The benefits of visualization for synchronous group knowledge work, however, have not been addressed extensively. Anecdotal evidence and use cases illustrate the benefits of synchronous collaborative informationvisualization, but very few empirical studies have rigorously examined the impact of visualization on group knowledge work. We have consequently designed and conducted an experiment in which we have analyzed the impact of visualization on knowledge sharing in situated work groups. Our experimental study consists of evaluating the performance of 131 subjects (all experienced managers) in groups of 5 (for a total of 26 groups), working together on a real-life knowledge sharing task. We compare (1) the control condition (no visualization provided), with two visualization supports: (2) optimal and (3) suboptimal visualization (based on a previous survey). The facilitator of each group was asked to populate the provided interactive visual template with insights from the group, and to organize the contributions according to the group consensus. We have evaluated the results through both objective and subjective measures. Our statistical analysis clearly shows that interactive visualization has a statistically significant, objective and positive impact on the outcomes of knowledge sharing, but that the subjects seem not to be aware of this. In particular, groups supported by visualization achieved higher productivity, higher quality of outcome and greater knowledge gains. No statistically significant results could be found between an optimal and a suboptimal visualization though (as classified by the pre-experiment survey). Subjects also did not seem to be aware of the benefits that the visualizations provided as no difference between the visualization and the control conditions was found for the self-reported measures of satisfaction and participation. An implication of our study for informationvisualization applications is to extend them by using real-time group annotation functionalities that aid in the group sense making process of the represented data. PMID:19834174
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of abnormal curvature observed in spine and it progresses rapidly during the puberty period. The most followed clinical way of assessing the spinal deformity is subjective by measuring the characteristic angles of spinal curve from a set of radiographic images. This paper presents a web-based information system (called ScolioMedIS) based on parameterized 3D anatomical models of the spine to quantitatively assess the deformity and to minimize the amount of radiation exposure by reducing the number of radiographs required. The main components of the system are 3D parametric solid model of spine, back surfaces, relevant clinical information and scoliosis ontology. The patient-specific spine model is regenerated from the parametric model and surface data using anatomical information extracted from radiographic images. The system is designed to take inherent advantage of Web for facilitating multi-center data collection and collaborative clinical decisions. The preliminary analysis of patient data showed promising results, which involve improved documentation standard, clinical decision knowledge base record, facilitated exchange and retrieval of medical data between institutions in multi-center clinical studies, 3D visualization of spinal deformity, and permanent monitoring of treatments. PMID:22591768
The human relevance framework (HRF) outlines a four-part process, beginning with data on the mode of action (MOA) in laboratory animals, for evaluating the human relevance of animal tumors. Drawing on U.S. EPA and IPCS proposals for animal MOA analysis, the HRF expands those analyses to include a systematic evaluation of comparability, or lack of comparability, between the postulated animal MOA and related information from human data sources. The HRF evolved through a series of case studies representing several different MOAs. HRF analyses produced divergent outcomes, some leading to complete risk assessment and others discontinuing the process, according to the data available from animal and human sources. Two case examples call for complete risk assessments. One is the default: When data are insufficient to confidently postulate a MOA for test animals, the animal tumor data are presumed to be relevant for risk assessment and a complete risk assessment is necessary. The other is the product of a data-based finding that the animal MOA is relevant to humans. For the specific MOA and endpoint combinations studied for this article, full risk assessments are necessary for potentially relevant MOAs involving cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in animals and humans (Case Study 6, chloroform) and formation of urinary-tract calculi (Case Study 7, melamine). In other circumstances, when data-based findings for the chemical and endpoint combination studied indicate that the tumor-related animal MOA is unlikely to have a human counterpart, there is little reason to continue the risk assessment for that combination. Similarly, when qualitative considerations identify MOAs specific to the test species or quantitative considerations indicate that the animal MOA is unlikely to occur in humans, such hazard findings are generally conclusive and further risk assessment is not necessary for the endpoint-MOA combination under study. Case examples include a tumor-related protein specific to test animals (Case Study 3, d-limonene), the tumor consequences of hormone suppression typical of laboratory animals but not humans (Case Study 4, atrazine), and chemical-related enhanced hormone clearance rates in animals relative to humans (Case Study 5, phenobarbital). The human relevance analysis is highly specific for the chemical-MOA-tissue-endpoint combination under analysis in any particular case: different tissues, different endpoints, or alternative MOAs for a given chemical may result in different human relevance findings. By providing a systematic approach to using MOA data, the HRF offers a new tool for the scientific community's overall effort to enhance the predictive power, reliability and transparency of cancer risk assessment. PMID:14727733
Meek, M E Bette; Bucher, John R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Vicki; Hill, Richard N; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Longfellow, David G; Pastoor, Timothy; Seed, Jennifer; Patton, Dorothy E
The participation of different afferent systems in organization of internal reference frame was studied. For this was chosen the task of visual comparison that executed in different experimental conditions: in upright standing, with inclined body or head in frontal plane and availability or non-availability visualinformation about external environment. Results showed that dominant orientation of referent stimulus (minimal value of mean error and minimal variability of responses) was connected with body position, mainly head position but not with gravity and visual vertical even when visual environment was available. It means that for creating the internal representing of vertical CNS mainly uses proprioceptive information about longitudinal axis of body. PMID:21780677
Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.
Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.
This research produced a descriptive classification of the task behaviors and cognitive processing associated with performing a beyond-visual-range (BVR) air combat mission. An F-15C defensive counter air mission scenario was analyzed to identify the crit...
Recent results on robust density-based clustering have indicated that the uncertainty associated with the actual measurements can be exploited to locate objects that are atypical for a reason unrelated to measurement errors. In this paper, we develop a constrained robust mixture model, which, in addition, is able to nonlinearly map such data for visual exploration. Our robust visual mining approach aims to combine statistically sound density-based analysis with visual presentation of the density structure, and to provide visual support for the identification and exploration of "genuine" peculiar objects of interest that are not due to the measurement errors. In this model, an exact inference is not possible despite the latent space being discretised, and we resort to employing a structured variational EM. We present results on synthetic data as well as a real application, for visualising peculiar quasars from an astrophysical survey, given photometric measurements with errors.
When completely independent images are presented to each eye, fusion normally cannot occur. Instead, either an involuntary alternation occurs between the two images (binocular rivalry) or one of the images is 'suppressed,' and visual performance is degrad...
Baruch College began an information studies minor that reinforces the principles of information literacy. However, it did not employ a visual component as a method of teaching information literacy skills. To fill this gap, a new course, using the process of researching and preparing an exhibit script to teach undergraduates information literacy skills, was developed. In this course, students have
|The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
We investigated the tactile cuing of visual spatial attention using spatially-informative (75% valid) and spatially-noninformative\\u000a (25% valid) tactile cues. The participants performed a visual change detection task following the presentation of a tactile\\u000a spatial cue on their back whose location corresponded to one of the four visual quadrants on a computer monitor. The participants\\u000a were explicitly instructed to use the
Chanon M. Jones; Rob Gray; Charles Spence; Hong Z. Tan
Abstract Relevance feedback techniques,have demon- strated to be a powerful,means,to improve,the results obtained when,a user submits,a query to an information retrieval system as the world wide web search engines. These kinds of techniques,modify,the user original query taking into account the relevance judgements,provided,by him on the retrieved documents, making it more similar to those he judged as relevant. This way, the
Geospatial visualizations are becoming a larger part of society. From using maps to go from one location to another to using battlefield visualizations to help the military, geospatial visualizations are becoming a larger part of people's lives. At the same time, large displays are becoming more prominent in people's lives. From large fifty-monitor tiled displays to dual monitor desktop systems people are using larger displays more often in their daily lives. This dissertation summarizes our work with large displays and geospatial visualizations. We show dramatic increases in performance of more than ten times performance improvement when using larger displays that offer a greater number of pixels. We show performance improvements for a range of tasks from simple navigation to complex pattern finding tasks. This dissertation contributes to the fields of human-computer interaction and informationvisualization in that it shows performance improvements as analytical force multipliers and explains why such performance exists. It explains how virtual navigation (mouse and keyboard input) correlates to physical navigation (body movement) to explain performance improvements. In addition, this dissertation explains how semantic zooming, space scale, task scale, and task type all are variables that influence human behavior in both navigation and performance. This dissertation addresses primarily geospatial informationvisualizations, but extends to other generic spatially oriented visualizations. The impacts of large displays for both geospatial informationvisualizations and generic spatially oriented visualizations are explained.
Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.
Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.
Relevance feedback techniques have demon- strated to be a powerful means to improve the results obtained when a user submits a query to an information retrieval system as the world wide web search engines. These kinds of techniques modify the user original query taking into account the relevance judgements provided by him on the retrieved documents, making it more similar
In a simulated aircraft navigation task, a fusion technique known as triangulation was used to improve the accuracy and onscreen availability of location information from two separate radars. Three experiments investigated whether the reduced cognitive processing required to extract information from the fused environment led to impoverished retention of visual-spatial information. Experienced pilots and students completed various simulated flight missions and were required to make a number of location estimates. Following a retention interval, memory for locations was assessed. Experiment 1 demonstrated, in an applied setting, that the retention of fused information was problematic and Experiment 2 replicated this finding under laboratory conditions. Experiment 3 successfully improved the retention of fused information by limiting its availability within the interface, which it is argued, shifted participants' strategies from over-reliance on the display as an external memory source to more memory-dependent interaction. These results are discussed within the context of intelligent interface design and effective human-machine interaction. PMID:18484395
Waldron, Samuel M; Patrick, John; Duggan, Geoffrey B; Banbury, Simon; Howes, Andrew
|The method described permits visual analysis of information retrieval (IR) experiment results in classic control and treatment group protocols. It is an additional analysis technique for the evaluation of IR procedures that may be conducted within the rich terrain of human visual acuity, supported by two well-known statistical measures. (Contains…
House flies, Musca domestica, respond to visual contrasts on the substrate if a resource is associated with the contrasting patterns. Visible resource patch boundaries serve as a signal to flies that they are about to leave a rewarding patch. Searching flies respond to such visualinformation by walking along the resource patch boundary and turning back into the patch at
Commercial telerobotic surgery systems for soft tissue surgery are generally limited to visual imaging, though it is possible to simultaneously view picture-in-picture visualiza- tion of another workstation. However, it is not easy to correlate such information with the primary endoscopic view since it may not relate to the surface visible in the visual endoscopic images. As critical surfaces as well
Thiusius R. Savarimuthu; Brian Minnillo; Russell H. Taylor; Hiep Nguyen; Rajesh Kumar
|We present the first comprehensive review of research into hemianopic dyslexia since Mauthner's original description of 1881. We offer an explanation of the reading impairment in patients with unilateral homonymous visual field disorders and clarify its functional and anatomical bases. The major focus of our review is on visualinformation…
Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Zihl, Josef
The hypothesis that in developmental dyslexia the integration of visually presented information and language processing is dysfunctional is tested. Results of processing visually presented letter strings during EEG recordings are presented. The task difficulty of the letter strings was standardised individually and automatically by a computer program. EEG was recorded during rest conditions and different levels of reading performance. 30
There are difficulties in presenting nontextual or dynamic information to blind or visually impaired users through computers. This article examines the potential of haptic and auditory trajectory playback as a method of teaching shapes and gestures to visually impaired people. Two studies are described which test the success of teaching simple shapes. The first study examines haptic trajectory playback alone,
Talk back is a concept defined by Schon in his now classic study of the design studio. This paper draws upon the concept of talk back to reflectively consider the implications of social media and specifically tag cloud visualizations on design research and practice. Informationvisualizations were once most commonly associated with researchers with scholarly and\\/or design expertise. Tag clouds
Four studies test the proposition that when people look back to past selves as a means of gauging current status, the visual perspective they assume determines the kind of information that they consider in making their judgments of change. In this way, visual perspective, coupled with the kind of change for which people are looking, determines how much change is
Camille S. Johnson; Dirk Smeesters; S. Christian Wheeler
Movement accuracy depends crucially on the ability to detect errors while actions are being performed. When inaccuracies occur repeatedly, both an immediate motor correction and a progressive adaptation of the motor command can unfold. Of all the movements in the motor repertoire of humans, saccadic eye movements are the fastest. Due to the high speed of saccades, and to the impairment of visual perception during saccades, a phenomenon called “saccadic suppression”, it is widely believed that the adaptive mechanisms maintaining saccadic performance depend critically on visual error signals acquired after saccade completion. Here, we demonstrate that, contrary to this widespread view, saccadic adaptation can be based entirely on visualinformation presented during saccades. Our results show that visual error signals introduced during saccade execution–by shifting a visual target at saccade onset and blanking it at saccade offset–induce the same level of adaptation as error signals, presented for the same duration, but after saccade completion. In addition, they reveal that this processing of intra-saccadic visualinformation for adaptation depends critically on visualinformation presented during the deceleration phase, but not the acceleration phase, of the saccade. These findings demonstrate that the human central nervous system can use short intra-saccadic glimpses of visualinformation for motor adaptation, and they call for a reappraisal of current models of saccadic adaptation.
This study examined the effects of visualization ability on search time in databases with different hierarchical structures. It was designed to determine whether manipulation of the hierarchical structures of information could accommodate the needs of low?visualization ability users. The task consisted of finding specific “target” files in each of the four different data structures that varied in depth of organization.
We demonstrate a novel approach for the real time visualization and quantification of the 3D spatial frequencies in an image domain. Our approach is based on the spectral encoding of spatial frequency principle and permits the formation of an image as a color map in which spatially separated spectral wavelengths correspond to the dominant 3D spatial frequencies of the object. We demonstrate that our approach can visualize and analyze the dominant axial internal structure for each image point in real time and with nanoscale sensitivity to structural changes. Computer modeling and experimental results of instantaneous color visualization and quantification of 3D structures of a model system and biological samples are presented.
Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Uttam, Shikhar; Bista, Rajan K.; Zhao, Chengquan; Liu, Yang
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a selection algorithm of relevant records for the notification of incident cases of cancer on the basis of the individual data available in a multi-sourceinformation system. Methods: This work was conducted on data for the year 2008 in the general cancer registry of Poitou-Charentes region (France). The selection algorithm hierarchizes information according to its level of relevance for tumoral topography and tumoral morphology independently. The selected data are combined to form composite records. These records are then grouped in respect with the notification rules of the International Agency for Research on Cancer for multiple primary cancers. The evaluation, based on recall, precision and F-measure confronted cases validated manually by the registry's physicians with tumours notified with and without records selection. Results: The analysis involved 12,346 tumours validated among 11,971 individuals. The data used were hospital discharge data (104,474 records), pathology data (21,851 records), healthcare insurance data (7508 records) and cancer care centre's data (686 records). The selection algorithm permitted performances improvement for notification of tumour topography (F-measure 0.926 with vs. 0.857 without selection) and tumour morphology (F-measure 0.805 with vs. 0.750 without selection). Conclusion: These results show that selection of information according to its origin is efficient in reducing noise generated by imprecise coding. Further research is needed for solving the semantic problems relating to the integration of heterogeneous data and the use of non-structured information. PMID:23615926
A computational model of object-based selective visual attention is introduced. What are the units of selective attention is always the focus of selective attention. Most existing computational model of selective attention is space-based, but more and more neuroscience experiments indicate that it is object-based. For object-based attention, how to define \\
The classic McGurk study showed that presentation of one syllable in the visual modality simultaneous with a different syllable in the auditory modality creates the perception of a third, not presented syllable. The current study presented dichotic syllable pairs (one in each ear) simultaneously with video clips of a mouth pronouncing the syllables from one of the ears, or pronouncing a syllable that was not part of the dichotic pair. When asked to report the auditory stimuli, responses were shifted towards selecting the auditory stimulus from the side that matched the visual stimulus. PMID:20497397
...Visual Arts Registry Statements by visual artists and owners of buildings, or their...public record of informationrelevant to an artist's integrity right to prevent destruction...Copyright Office. (2) Statements by artists. Statements by artists regarding a...
...Visual Arts Registry Statements by visual artists and owners of buildings, or their...public record of informationrelevant to an artist's integrity right to prevent destruction...Copyright Office. (2) Statements by artists. Statements by artists regarding a...
On April 1, 2005, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) started a new applied research project (ARP) in the Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) thrust: Informationvisualization and management for enhanced domain awareness in maritime security (11he)...
This Final Report provides an analysis of the current state of the art for InformationVisualization, as it applies to Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (MISR). It comprises a Literature Survey, an Annotated Bibliography, a Product R...
...4) The date needed and a statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture or television materials to the Defense VisualInformation Center (DVIC), 1363 Z Street, Building 2730,...
Sensor networks, or sensor webs, which consist of a large number of interconnected sensing devices, have recently been the subject of extensive research. Typical applications of sensor networks include monitoring of possibly very large, remote and\\/or inaccessible areas, surveillance, and smart environments, like meeting rooms, buildings, homes, and highways. Our focus is on visual sensor networks, which are networks of
K. Obraczka; R. Manduchi; J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aveces
Tactile displays are now becoming available in a form that can be easily used in a user interface. This paper describes a new form of tactile output. , or tactile icons, are structured, abstract messages that can be used to communicate messages non-visually. A range of different parameters can be used for Tacton construction including: frequency, amplitude and duration of
This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visualinformation during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled through use of a motorized chair that rotated the participant around his or her vertical axis.
Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers.
Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L
The effect of harmonious versus non-harmonious color combinations in one aspect of informationvisualization effectiveness is considered. One focus is the relative suitability of two competing paradigms for determining color combinations that are harmonious. A second focus is the suitability of using opposing (i.e., opponent) colors for feature presentation in informationvisualization. The effects are considered for color item overlays on crowded and noncrowded displays. A statistical analysis of human responses is also presented.
The human visual system is intrinsically noisy. The benefits of internal noise as part of visual code are controversial. Here the information-theoretic properties of multiplicative (i.e. signal-dependent) neural noise are investigated. A quasi-linear communication channel model is presented. The model shows that multiplicative power law neural noise promotes the minimum information transfer after efficient coding. It is demonstrated that Weber's
We investigated the effects of visual speech information (articulatory gestures) on the perception of second language (L2)\\u000a sounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that listeners often fail to hear the difference between certain non-native phonemic\\u000a contrasts, such as in the case of Spanish native speakers regarding the Catalan sounds \\/?\\/ and \\/e\\/. Here, we tested whether\\u000a adding visualinformation about the
Objectives: To determine the relevant weighted goals and criteria for use in the selection of an automated patient care information system (PCIS) using a modified Delphi technique to achieve consensus. Design: A three-phase, six-round modified Delphi process was implemented by a ten-member PCIS selection task force. The first phase consisted of an exploratory round. It was followed by the second phase, of two rounds, to determine the selection goals and finally the third phase, of three rounds, to finalize the selection criteria. Results: Consensus on the goals and criteria for selecting a PCIS was measured during the Delphi process by reviewing the mean and standard deviation of the previous round's responses. After the study was completed, the results were analyzed using a limits-of-agreement indicator that showed strong agreement of each individual's responses between each of the goal determination rounds. Further analysis for variability in the group's response showed a significant movement to consensus after the first goal-determination iteration, with consensus reached on all goals by the end of the second iteration. Conclusion: The results indicated that the relevant weighted goals and criteria used to make the final decision for an automated PCIS were developed as a result of strong agreement among members of the PCIS selection task force. It is therefore recognized that the use of the Delphi process was beneficial in achieving consensus among clinical and nonclinical members in a relatively short time while avoiding a decision based on political biases and the “groupthink” of traditional committee meetings. The results suggest that improvements could be made in lessening the number of rounds by having information available through side conversations, by having other statistical indicators besides the mean and standard deviation available between rounds, and by having a content expert address questions between rounds.
Chocholik, Joan K.; Bouchard, Susan E.; Tan, Joseph K. H.; Ostrow, David N.
Content-based visualinformation (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visualinformation produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visualinformation retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently, visual retrieval alone does not achieve the performance necessary for real-world clinical applications. Most of the common visual retrieval techniques have a MAP (Mean Average Precision) of around 2-3%, which is much lower than that achieved using textual retrieval (MAP=29%). Advanced machine learning techniques, together with good training data, have been shown to improve the performance of visual retrieval systems in the past. Multimodal retrieval (basing retrieval on both visual and textual information) can achieve better results than purely visual, but only when carefully applied. In many cases, multimodal retrieval systems performed even worse than purely textual retrieval systems. On the other hand, some multimodal retrieval systems demonstrated significantly increased early precision, which has been shown to be a desirable behavior in real-world systems.
Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William
Interaction cost is an important but poorly understood factor in visualization design. We propose a framework of interaction costs inspired by Norman's Seven Stages of Action to facilitate study. From 484 papers, we collected 61 interaction-related usability problems reported in 32 user studies and placed them into our framework of seven costs: (1) Decision costs to form goals; (2) System-power costs to form system operations; (3) Multiple input mode costs to form physical sequences; (4) Physical-motion costs to execute sequences; (5) Visual-cluttering costs to perceive state; (6) View-change costs to interpret perception; (7) State-change costs to evaluate interpretation. We also suggested ways to narrow the gulfs of execution (2-4) and evaluation (5-7) based on collected reports. Our framework suggests a need to consider decision costs (1) as the gulf of goal formation. PMID:18988958
4DIVAS was conceived for two purposes. The first purpose was to fill the void between the current generation of GIS and high-end, image-only visualization systems. The gap existing between these two systems can be summarized as the limitation of relational database oriented GIS to deal with time and the poor connection in visualization systems to databases of any kind. The second purpose was to permit spatio-temporal modeling and query, functionalities currently underdeveloped in the commercial arena. At the Hanford Site, there are many potential applications for such a system, especially in the monitoring and modeling of potential constituent plumes in the subsurface hydrology over time, among others. In its current form, 4DIVAS exists as a proof-of-concept functional prototype and is therefore more of a technology than a product at this time.
Social visualization systems have emerged to support collective intelligence-driven analysis of a growing influx of open data. As with many other online systems, social signals (e.g., forums, polls) are commonly integrated to drive use. Unfortunately, the same social features that can provide rapid, high-accuracy analysis are coupled with the pitfalls of any social system. Through an experiment involving over 300
Before re-engineering a large and complex software system, it is wise to study its change history in order to identify the most valuable and problematic parts. Unfortunately, typical change histories contain thousands of entries, therefore the challenge is to discover those changes which are relevant for both the current and future situations of our product and process. We demonstrate how
The fundamental model for Web navigation has not changed much since the beginning of the development of Hypertext and Web search engines. Current browsing allows users to search by formulating queries, entering known URLs, and by navigation by following links embedded in webpages. Considerable research has focused on navigation mechanisms to improve the effectiveness of the process of finding relevant
Anwar Alhenshiri; Michael A. Shepherd; Carolyn R. Watters; Michael Bliemel
This discussion of the information-processing model of learning as it relates to research in educational media traces research in conceptual organization to its beginnings in mathematical models of information-processing; addresses research hypotheses con...
The development of the information society results in the fact that an ever increasing amount of information is stored in\\u000a computer databases, and a growing number of practical activities depend on efficient retrieval and association of the data.\\u000a In the case of textual information, the problem of retrieving the information on a specific subject is comparatively simple\\u000a (although it has
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-informative vision and visual interference upon haptic spatial processing, which supposedly derives from an interaction between an allocentric and egocentric reference frame. To this end, a haptic parallelity task served as baseline to determine the participant-dependent biasing influence of the egocentric reference frame. As expected, large systematic participant-dependent deviations from veridicality were observed. In the second experiment we probed the effect of non-informative vision on the egocentric bias. Moreover, orienting mechanisms (gazing directions) were studied with respect to the presentation of haptic information in a specific hemispace. Non-informative vision proved to have a beneficial effect on haptic spatial processing. No effect of gazing direction or hemispace was observed. In the third experiment we investigated the effect of simultaneously presented interfering visualinformation on the haptic bias. Interfering visualinformation parametrically influenced haptic performance. The interplay of reference frames that subserves haptic spatial processing was found to be related to both the effects of non-informative vision and visual interference. These results suggest that spatial representations are influenced by direct cross-modal interactions; inter-participant differences in the haptic modality resulted in differential effects of the visual modality.
van Rheede, Joram J.; Postma, Albert; Kappers, Astrid M. L.
Modern programmable GPUs represent a vast potential in terms of performance and visual flexibility for informationvisualization research, but surprisingly few applications even begin to utilize this potential. In this paper, we conjecture that this may be due to the mismatch between the high-level abstract data types commonly visualized in our field, and the low-level floating-point model supported by current GPU shader languages. To help remedy this situation, we present a refinement of the traditional informationvisualization pipeline that is amenable to implementation using GPU shaders. The refinement consists of a final image-space step in the pipeline where the multivariate data of the visualization is sampled in the resolution of the current view. To concretize the theoretical aspects of this work, we also present a visual programming environment for constructing visualization shaders using a simple drag-and-drop interface. Finally, we give some examples of the use of shaders for well-known visualization techniques. PMID:19834178
Visual morphing techniques were used together with a high-quality vocoder to study the audiovisual contribution of talker gender to the identification of frequency-shifted vowels. A nine-step continuum ranging from ``bit'' to ``bet'' was constructed from natural recorded syllables spoken by an adult female talker. Upward and downward frequency shifts in spectral envelope (scale factors of 0.85 and 1.0) were applied in combination with shifts in fundamental frequency, F0 (scale factors of 0.5 and 1.0). Downward frequency shifts generally resulted in malelike voices whereas upward shifts were perceived as femalelike. Two separate nine-step visual continua from ``bit'' to ``bet'' were also constructed, one from a male face and the other a female face, each producing the end-point words. Each step along the two visual continua was paired with the corresponding step on the acoustic continuum, creating natural audiovisual utterances. Category boundary shifts were found for both acoustic cues (F0 and formant frequency shifts) and visual cues (visual gender). The visual gender effect was larger when acoustic and visualinformation were matched appropriately. These results suggest that visualinformation provided by the speech signal plays an important supplemental role in talker normalization.
A variety of perceptual correspondences between auditory and visual features have been reported, but few studies have investigated how rhythm, an auditory feature defined purely by dynamics relevant to speech and music, interacts with visual features. Here, we demonstrate a novel crossmodal association between auditory rhythm and visual clutter. Participants were shown a variety of visual scenes from diverse categories and asked to report the auditory rhythm that perceptually matched each scene by adjusting the rate of amplitude modulation (AM) of a sound. Participants matched each scene to a specific AM rate with surprising consistency. A spatial-frequency analysis showed that scenes with greater contrast energy in midrange spatial frequencies were matched to faster AM rates. Bandpass-filtering the scenes indicated that greater contrast energy in this spatial-frequency range was associated with an abundance of object boundaries and contours, suggesting that participants matched more cluttered scenes to faster AM rates. Consistent with this hypothesis, AM-rate matches were strongly correlated with perceived clutter. Additional results indicated that both AM-rate matches and perceived clutter depend on object-based (cycles per object) rather than retinal (cycles per degree of visual angle) spatial frequency. Taken together, these results suggest a systematic crossmodal association between auditory rhythm, representing density in the temporal domain, and visual clutter, representing object-based density in the spatial domain. This association may allow for the use of auditory rhythm to influence how visual clutter is perceived and attended. PMID:23423817
This research examines the relative value relevance to investors of non-financial performance variables, traditional accounting variables (earnings and changes in abnormal earnings) and other financial statement information in the airline industry. Consistent with prior research, earnings and changes in abnormal earnings are employed to represent traditional accounting information. The findings suggest that accounting earnings, changes in abnormal earnings and non-financial
Richard Riley Jr.; Timothy A. Pearson; Greg Trompeter
Professionals involved in the creation of text-based communication face a number of challenges. These include overburdened and often uninterested users juxtaposed with the writer's desire to communicate relevant topical information. Uninvolved users are likely to ignore the message. This may be exacerbated by increases in text length designed to increase the amount and\\/or detail of information to be communicated. An
BRUCE A. HUHMANN; DAVID L. MOTHERSBAUGH; GEORGE R. FRANKE
|This study examined infants' change in visualinformation pick-up, from an infant-like stimulus-locked visual scanning pattern to an adult-like cognitive control of visualinformation pick-up. Subjects were 21 children between 25 and 42 months of age. Eye movements were videotaped in a preferential looking situation and later analyzed as still…
Experiences which belong to a kind of tacit knowledge were gradually summarized by the experts during their long working procedures. To analyze and inherit those experiences are worthwhile to the social construction and improvement. We build a platform composed of some visualization methods and analysis methods to present and analyze the data (from database, paper, web and etc.). So that students can intuitively understand the academic thinking of masters better than before. The platform has been applied in investigating the masters’ experiences of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the positive results were also introduced.
We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will become an interface between humans and online digital information. We have been designing ambient information displays to explore the use of kinetic physical objects to present information at the periphery of human perception.This paper reports the design of a large-scale Pinwheels installation made of 40 computer-controlled pinwheel units in a museum
As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks.
As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451
The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have
Jeffrey D. Saffer; Cory L. Albright; Augustin J. Calapristi; Guang Chen; Vernon L. Crow; Scott D. Decker; Kevin M. Groch; Susan L. Havre; Joel Malard; Tonya J. Martin; Nancy E. Miller; Philip J. Monroe; Lucy T. Nowell; Deborah A. Payne; Jorge F. Reyes Spindola; Randall E. Scarberry; Heidi J. Sofia; Lisa C. Stillwell; Gregory S. Thomas; Sarah J. Thurston; Leigh K. Williams; Sean J. Zabriskie; MG Hicks
Information obtained from calibrated cameras by means of computer vision is integrated with location events from an ultrasonic tracking system deployed in an indoor office. This results in improved estimates of state and location which are used to augment the environmental model maintained by a sentient computing system. Fusion of the different sources of information takes place at a high
Spatial information played a very important role in these emergency responses. Map can easily show where and how the emergency event is happening. In order to map the emergency response information on real time, Geographically Encoded Objects for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds which called GeoRSS technology is used. GeoRSS technology is a way to encode location in RSS feeds.
A new color coding scheme which can fully retrieve the directional information of diffusion tensor image (DTI) with maximum use of the color space is proposed and implemented. This new scheme overcomes the loss of directional information in conventional schemes and easy to implement. Comparison between the new scheme and the conventional color coding method are presented using the DTI
Software evolution analysis provides a valuable source of information that can be used both to understand a system's design and predict its future development. While for many program comprehension purposes, it is sufficient to model a single version of a system, there are types of information that can only be recovered when the history of a system is taken into
Commercially available scheduling tools such as Primavera and Microsoft Project fail to provide information pertaining to the spatial aspects of construction project. A methodology using geographical information systems (GIS) is developed to represent spatial aspects of the construction progress graphically by synchronizing it with construction schedule. The spatial aspects are depicted by 3D model developed in AutoCAD and construction schedule
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.
McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.
This paper presents INSYDER, a content- based visual-information-seeking system for the Web. The Web can be seen as one huge digital library offering a variety of very useful information for business analysts. INSYDER addresses these possibilities and offers power- ful retrieval and visualisation functionalities. The main focus during the development was on the usability of the system. Therefore, a variety
|A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visualinformation is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…
Purpose: Web sites containing health information should be accessible to visually impaired persons. Methods: 139 web sites containing medical information addressing laymen or patients were evaluated with respect to their accessibility. A quantitative checklist which is based upon the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was used. Results: Only 18% (15 sites) achieved WAI (Web
Marc Lüchtenberg; Claudia Kuhli-Hattenbach; Yesim Sinangin; Christian Ohrloff; Rainer Schalnus
When people are looking for visual arts information - information related to images - how do they characterize their needs? We analyze a set of 404 queries to identify the attributes that people provide to the Google Answers ™ 'ask an expert' online reference system. The results suggest directions to take in developing an effective organization and features for an
When people are looking for visual arts information-information related to images-how do they characterize their needs? We analyze a set of 404 queries to identify the attributes that people provide to the Google Answers™ 'ask an expert' online reference system. The results suggest directions to take in developing an effective organization and features for an image digital library.
Sally Jo Cunningham; David Bainbridge; Masood Masoodian
The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…
|The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…
This paper deals with the extraction of part of the visualinformation presented in streets, roads, and motorways. This information, provided by either traffic or road signs and route-guidance signs, is extremely important for safe and suc- cessful driving. An automatic system that is capable of extracting and identifying these signs automatically would help human drivers enormously; navigation would be
Arturo De La Escalera; Jose M. Armingol; José Manuel Pastor; Francisco José Rodríguez
Responding relevantly to an information-soliciting utterance (ISU) is required of a school-age child many times daily. For the' child with pragmatic language difficulties, this may be especially problematic, yet clinicians have had few data to design intervention for improving these skills. This small-scale study looks at the ability of a child with pragmatic language difficulties to respond relevantly to ISUs
This study examined visualinformation processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students' learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visualinformation. Results from three experiments consistently indicated no differences in learning between three-dimensional and two-dimensional presentations among hearing or deaf students. Analyses of students' allocation of visual attention and the influence of various demographic and experimental variables suggested considerable flexibility in deaf students' receptive communication skills. Nevertheless, the findings also revealed a robust advantage in learning in favor of hearing students. PMID:16628250
Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie
We understand the world by making saccadic eye movements to various objects. However, it is unclear how a saccade can be aimed at a particular object, because two kinds of visualinformation, what the object is and where it is, are processed separately in the dorsal and ventral visual cortical pathways. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that a basal ganglia circuit through the tail of the monkey caudate nucleus (CDt) guides such object-directed saccades. First, many CDt neurons responded to visual objects depending on where and what the objects were. Second, electrical stimulation in the CDt induced saccades whose directions matched the preferred directions of neurons at the stimulation site. Third, many CDt neurons increased their activity before saccades directed to the preferred objects and directions of the neurons in a free-viewing condition. Our results suggest that CDt neurons receive both "what" and "where" information and guide saccades to visual objects. PMID:22875934
Sociological work that has engaged with the issue of patient involvement in health care suggests it needs to be recognised that decision-making is not simply an individual cognitive act contained in a single consultation, but a process that is distributed across multiple encounters in relation to a range of agents and non-human actors. Drawing on such conceptualisations of decision-making, and based on semi-structured interviews with 24 General Practitioners (GPs) in the United Kingdom about the prescription of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, this paper explores the preemptive work that GPs perform when attempting to achieve patient involvement in healthcare decisions. The paper identifies a set of repertoires through which they evaluate and coordinate often contradictory forms of knowledge, transforming them into information that they think is relevant to patients, and which will potentially facilitate meaningful involvement in healthcare decisions. The study concludes by suggesting that such fluid and context sensitive practices are a necessary strategy for navigating complex health environments, which can be justified and underpinned by a relational model of autonomy. However, work needs to be done to explore how such judgments can be calibrated to mesh with the decision-making preferences of patients and what new approaches and standards for practice this would require. PMID:24034957
A new color coding scheme which can fully retrieve the directional information of diffusion tensor image (DTI) with maximum use of the color space is proposed and implemented. This new scheme overcomes the loss of directional information in conventional schemes and easy to implement. Comparison between the new scheme and the conventional color coding method are presented using the DTI data of human brain. PMID:17272072
Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty.
Josh Jones; Remco Chang; Thomas Butkiewicz; William Ribarsky
\\u000a Information networks in Wikipedia evolve as users collaboratively edit articles that embed the networks. These information\\u000a networks represent both the structure and content of community’s knowledge and the networks evolve as the knowledge gets updated.\\u000a By observing the networks evolve and finding their evolving patterns, one can gain higher order knowledge about the networks\\u000a and conduct longitudinal network analysis to
This paper describes a vision-based large-area simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm that respects the constraints of low-overlap imagery typical of underwater vehicles while exploiting the information associated with the inertial sensors that are routinely available on such platforms. We present a novel strategy for ef?ciently accessing and maintaining consistent covariance bounds within a SLAM information ?lter, greatly increasing the
Ryan Eustice; Hanumant Singh; John J. Leonard; Matthew Walter; Robert Ballard
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is an electrophysiological brain activity recording technique that has been widely revisited in recent years, not only for clinical monitoring, but also for prosthetic applications. However, the extent and limitations of the technique are poorly understood. Higher areas of human and macaque ventral visual cortices are known to have functional domain structures that are selective to certain categories, and population vectors that have been derived from visually evoked single-unit activity (SUA) recording in this region have been shown to form category clusters. How can visually evoked potentials recorded with ECoG from the same region be exploited to extract category information? To answer this question, the development of a simultaneous ECoG and SUA recording device by the modification of a previously reported flexible mesh ECoG probe with a microelectromechanical system has been promising (Toda et al., 2011). Indeed, Toda et al. conducted simultaneous recordings and reported that mesh ECoG signals exhibited comparable or better signal variabilities compared to conventional methods in the rat visual cortex. With this approach, we conducted intensive simultaneous ECoG and SUA recordings from the macaque anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. We compared how basic visual category and fine information is decoded from different recording modalities. Our preliminary results indicated that ECoG signals from the IT cortex may be a useful source for reading out certain levels of category information from visual input. PMID:23735526
The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources and tools has resulted in a large increase in the level of interaction between S`COOL participants and the NASA team. With the posting of the new Excel tools, we anticipate a large increase in active data analysis by our K-12 teachers and students. www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/usedata.html
Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.
The immense growth of MEDLINE coupled with the realization that a vast amount of biomedical knowledge is recorded in free-text format, has led to the appearance of a large number of literature mining techniques aiming to extract biomedical terms and their inter-relations from the scientific literature. Ontologies have been extensively utilized in the biomedical domain either as controlled vocabularies or to provide the framework for mapping relations between concepts in biology and medicine. Literature-based approaches and ontologies have been used in the past for the purpose of hypothesis generation in connection with drug discovery. Here, we review the application of literature mining and ontology modeling and traversal to the area of drug repurposing (DR). In recent years, DR has emerged as a noteworthy alternative to the traditional drug development process, in response to the decreased productivity of the biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, systematic approaches to DR have been developed, involving a variety of in silico, genomic and high-throughput screening technologies. Attempts to integrate literature mining with other types of data arising from the use of these technologies as well as visualization tools assisting in the discovery of novel associations between existing drugs and new indications will also be presented. PMID:21712342
Uncertainty is one important feature of spatial information quality and attracting much more attentions recently. The visualization is an effective way to express the magnitude, pattern and propagation of the uncertainty. In this paper, the visualization method of geospatial information uncertainty in Landsat ETM+ imagery is put forward and described. Firstly, an improved fuzzy reasoning classification method is proposed, and farmland and grassland information are extracted from the ETM+ imagery respectively based on the algorithm. Then the uncertainty of the classification is analyzed, measured and visualized supported by GIS. The uncertainty can be expressed and visualized by different spatial distribution range of cropland and grassland when adjusting their membership values setting. The uncertainty threshold supplies a visual cognition for data users to know the data quality better and make full use of the data more correctly. At the same time, aiming at the overlay areas with similar membership values, other ancillary information can help to improve the classification accuracy and conquer the difficulties in distinguishing cropland from grassland in Landsat ETM+.
The USPHS Hospital at New Orleans has served as the operational environment and live data source for a program of testing, research and evaluation of the utility of CRT alpha-numeric data entry and display terminals for hospital information system applica...
A picture of a scene is used to extract information for an adaptive control algorithm. The object of interest is first located by means of a classifier. The position and orientation of the object are determined from a binary picture. The desired path which the gripper of the manipulator is to follow is specified by discrete points, first is the
BACKGROUND: Information transmission and processing in the nervous system has stochastic nature. Multiple factors contribute to neuronal trial-to-trial variability. Noise and variations are introduced by the processes at the molecular and cellular level (thermal noise, channel current noise, membrane potential variations, biochemical and diffusion noise at synapses etc). The stochastic processes are affected by different physical (temperature, electromagnetic field) and
Hiie Hinrikus; Deniss Karai; Jaanus Lass; Anastassia Rodina
In this paper we introduce Statement Map, a project de- signed to help users navigate the vast amounts of informa- tion on the internet and come to informed opinions on top- ics of interest. It does this by mining the Web for a variety of viewpoints and presenting them to users together with supporting evidence in a way that makes
Koji Murakami; Eric Nichols; Suguru Matsuyoshi; Asuka Sumida; Shouko Masuda; Kentaro Inui; Yuji Matsumoto
The fifth in a series of articles on microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval describes characteristics of and presents test results for seven programs in the following categories: personal information managers, including 3by5/RediReference, askSam, Dayflo Tracker, and Ize; Personal Librarian, a relevance ranking program; and…
The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons’ clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at
Kirsteen R. Burton; Andrew Howard; Massey Beveridge
Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevantvisualinformation from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…
Motion parallax has been shown to be an effective and unamhiguous:source of information about the structure of three-dimensional\\u000a (3-D) surfaces, both when an observer makes lateral movementswith respect to a stationary surface and when the surface translates\\u000a with respect to a stationary observer (Rogers & Graham, 1979). When the same pattern of relative motions among parts of the\\u000a simulated surface
Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.
Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes.
van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.
Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130
van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L
Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account. PMID:23400856
Conflicting visual speech information can influence the perception of acoustic speech, causing an illusory percept of a sound not present in the actual acoustic speech (the McGurk effect). We examined whether participants can voluntarily selectively attend to either the auditory or visual modality by instructing participants to pay attention to the information in one modality and to ignore competing information from the other modality. We also examined how performance under these instructions was affected by weakening the influence of the visualinformation by manipulating the temporal offset between the audio and video channels (experiment 1), and the spatial frequency information present in the video (experiment 2). Gaze behaviour was also monitored to examine whether attentional instructions influenced the gathering of visualinformation. While task instructions did have an influence on the observed integration of auditory and visual speech information, participants were unable to completely ignore conflicting information, particularly information from the visual stream. Manipulating temporal offset had a more pronounced interaction with task instructions than manipulating the amount of visualinformation. Participants' gaze behaviour suggests that the attended modality influences the gathering of visualinformation in audiovisual speech perception. PMID:22308887
|Responding relevantly to an information-soliciting utterance (ISU) is required of a school-age child many times daily. For the child with pragmatic language difficulties, this may be especially problematic, yet clinicians have had few data to design intervention for improving these skills. This small-scale study looks at the ability of a child…
The functions of a gene are traditionally annotated textually using either free text (Gene Reference Into Function or GeneRIF) or controlled vocabularies (e.g., Gene Ontology or Disease Ontology). Inspired by the latest word cloud tools developed by the InformationVisualization Group at IBM Research, we have prototyped a visual system for capturing gene annotations, which we named Gene Graph Into Function or GeneGIF. Fully developing the GeneGIF system would be a significant effort. To justify the necessity and to specify the design requirements of GeneGIF, we first surveyed the end-user preferences. From 53 responses, we found that a majority (64%, p < 0.05) of the users were either positive or neutral toward using GeneGIF in their daily work (acceptance); in terms of preference, a slight majority (51%, p > 0.05) of the users favored visual presentation of information (GeneGIF) compared to textual (GeneRIF) information. The results of this study indicate that a visual presentation tool, such as GeneGIF, can complement standard textual presentation of gene annotations. Moreover, the survey participants provided many constructive comments that will specify the development of a phase-two project (http://18.104.22.168/) to visually annotate each gene in the human genome.
Desai, Jairav; Flatow, Jared M.; Song, Jie; Zhu, Lihua J.; Du, Pan; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Lu, Hui; Lin, Simon M.
|The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…
A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.
Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.
The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visualinformation is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day. PMID:22810559
Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R
Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.
Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.
The Database Referencing of Array Genes ONline (DRAGON) database system consists of information derived from publicly available databases including UniGene, SWISS-Prot, Pfam, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Through a Web-accessible interface, the DRAGON Annotate tool rapidly supplies information pertaining to a range of biological characteristics of all the genes in any large-scale gene expression data set. The subsequent inclusion of this information during data analysis and visualization allows for deeper insight into gene expression patterns. The set of DRAGON View tools provides methods for the analysis and visualization of expression patterns in relation to annotated information. Instead of incorporating the standard set of clustering and graphing tools available in many large-scale expression data analysis software packages, DRAGON View has been specifically designed to allow for the analysis of expression data in relation to the biological characteristics of gene sets. PMID:18428707
Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing…
Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.
Image processing sensors are emerging as an important measurement option in mineral processing, mainly due to their non-intrusive characteristics. Their principal application areas have been the determination of ore size distributions in grinding and froth features in flotation. The incorporation of visualinformation in control loops is the logical step. However, the excessive processing required brings a new problem that
We developed an intelligent informationvisualization tool that enables public health officials to be aware of health-related trends in any geographic area of interest, based on Twitter data. Monitoring and detecting emergent crisis events in advance such as natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and terrorism is vital for protecting public health. The goal of our tool is to support situation awareness
S. P. Moon; Yikun Liu; S. O. Entezari; A. Pirzadeh; Andrew Pappas; Mark S. Pfaff
|The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the effects of visualinformation, background knowledge, and academic reading experience, and (2) to identify the non-native readers' problems in comprehending Japanese academic texts. Sixty-three foreign students studying at universities and graduate schools in Japan participated in this…
ACTIVEMAP is a visualization tool that enables users to gain greater awareness of the location of people in their workplace environment, increasing each person's ability to seek out colleagues for informal, face-to-face interac- tions. Our initial implementation of the tool places images of each person's face on a map of the building. We have explored variations on how to best
People increasingly rely on social networking websites to initiate personal and professional relationships. This requires that a considerable amount of trust be placed in strangers solely on the basis of their online profiles. This paper examines how the nature of online information affects how trustworthy online daters are perceived. Visual (i.e., photographs) and textual (i.e., \\
A visualinformation directed microphone array system is presented in this paper. This system uses a real-time mouth tracking system to direct a beam-former focusing on the mouth. The microphone array system is implemented on a PC with a Signalogic 8-channel DSP board and reports a better signal-to-noise ratio sound capturing in a high noise environment.
As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visualinformation. Firstly, a supervised classification method
Video clip retrieval plays a critical role in the content-based sports video retrieval. This paper proposes a content-based retrieval strategy of sports video clip in which visual and auditory features and text information are extracted to locate similar video clips. Because in sports game play scenes are concerned and interested for most audiences, a long sport video is first automatically
In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as visual, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and
|Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…
Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun
We address the problem of detecting non-transient anomalies in visualinformation. By non-transient anomalies we mean changes in the way environments look that are persistent across time. Such changes may include leaving unattended bags at airport corridors, putting graffiti in building walls or damaging public property. Detecting non- transient anomalies is critical to security and surveillance in indoor and outdoor
Michael E. Kounavis; Joel Morrissette; Sadagopan Srinivasan; Raj Yavatkar
This paper reports on a 1999 study of services to visually impaired users in United Kingdom (U.K.) public libraries. Data were gathered using a mail questionnaire survey of all U.K. public library authorities: 208 in all, of whom 141 responded. Findings are reported in the following areas: (1) information needs; (2) the context of the provision of…
To aid designers of digital library interfaces and web sites in creating comprehensible, predictable and controllableenvironments for their users, we define and discuss the benefits of previews and overviews as visual informationrepresentations. Previews and overviews are graphic or textual representations of information abstracted from primaryinformation objects. They serve as surrogates for those objects. When utilized properly, previews and overviews allow
Stephan Greene; Gary Marchionini; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman; AB STRACT
A series of four experiments was conducted to investigate whether the nature of a visual display affects short-term memory for numeric information extracted from it. Three different kinds of displays were chosen for study: a digital counter, a moving scal...
|The result of a number of experiemental studies of human auditory and visualinformation processing behavior and their possible relationship to the student pilot's acquisition of flying skill were explored in terms of a conceptual model developed for this study. The results were interpreted in terms of the potential interfering effects of the…
For visualizing surgical information (operation plans) directly onto the patient a projector-based augmented reality system is used for cranio-maxillofacial surgery. A prototype is introduced which has been evaluated in the first clinical cases. In a new setup with a second video projector it is now possible to give additionally 3D information for localization and orientation (6DoF). With this method the repositioning of a bone segment is intuitive and exact applicable. PMID:15718736
In this paper, we propose a mechanism for extracting semantic information from basketball video sequence using audio and video\\u000a features. After we divide the input video into shots by a simple cut detection algorithm using visualinformation, we analyze\\u000a audio signal data to predict the location of an important event from which a cheering sound happens to start using the
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visualinformation presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment. PMID:9849103
Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L
Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity. PMID:22473894
Visual field loss after brain lesions is commonly determined using perimetric tests of light detection (perimetry). Many patients with visual field defects complain about perceptual difficulties in areas that are perimetrically normal. To look at a potential cause for such difficulties, we topographically determined temporal characteristics of visualinformation processing in those patients and compared them to those of healthy subjects. In nine patients with visual field loss we measured thresholds of double-pulse resolution (DPR), i.e., the minimum perceivable duration of a temporal gap between two light pulses, at eccentricities up to 20°. Furthermore, high-resolution maps of visual reaction times (RT) were obtained in a computer-based campimetric test. Performance was compared to healthy controls from a cross-sectional study of temporal perception across the life span (Toelz Temporal Topography Study). Compared to healthy subjects, DPR thresholds and RTs in patients are elevated in the entire visual field, including areas that are perimetrically intact. Performance on temporal variables depends on the degree of intactness of the respective visual field position. DPR thresholds correlate considerably with RTs, and both parameters increase with eccentricity. However, whereas DPR thresholds are increased around blind regions relative to the intact field, this is not the case for RTs. Temporal processing in patients with cerebral vision loss is impaired to a certain extent independently from perimetric light detection performance. This may partly explain reported subjective perceptual problems. The findings may have important implications for visual rehabilitation, i.e., the potential generalization of light detection training to temporal processing performance. PMID:20974114
Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Strasburger, Hans
Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings. PMID:20649445
Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwämmlein, Eva; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863
In controlled experiments on the relation of display size (i.e., the number of pixels) and the usability of visualizations, the size of the information space can either be kept constant or varied relative to display size. Both experimental approaches have limitations. If the information space is kept constant then the scale ratio between an overview of the entire information space and the lowest zoom level varies, which can impact performance; if the information space is varied then the scale ratio is kept constant, but performance cannot be directly compared. In other words, display size, information space, and scale ratio are interrelated variables. We investigate this relation in two experiments with interfaces that implement classic informationvisualization techniques-focus+context, overview+detail, and zooming-for multi-scale navigation in maps. Display size varied between 0.17, 1.5, and 13.8 megapixels. Information space varied relative to display size in one experiment and was constant in the other. Results suggest that for tasks where users navigate targets that are visible at all map scales the interfaces do not benefit from a large display: With a constant map size, a larger display does not improve performance with the interfaces; with map size varied relative to display size, participants found interfaces harder to use with a larger display and task completion times decrease only when they are normalized to compensate for the increase in map size. The two experimental approaches show different interaction effects between display size and interface. In particular, focus+context performs relatively worse at a large display size with variable map size, and relatively worse at a small display size with a fixed map size. Based on a theoretical analysis of the interaction with the visualization techniques, we examine individual task actions empirically so as to understand the relative impact of display size and scale ratio on the visualization techniques' performance and to discuss differences between the two experimental approaches. PMID:24051800
Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…
Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi
The objective of this paper is to show how approaches for user-centered informationvisualization design and development are being applied in the context of healthcare where users are not familiar with informationvisualization techniques. We base our design methods on user-centered frameworks in which 'prototyping' plays an important role in the process. We modify existing approaches to involve prototyping at
Lian Chee Koh; Aidan Slingsby; Jason Dykes; Tin Seong Kam
|In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…
Vision identifies objects rapidly and efficiently. In contrast, object recognition by touch is much slower. Furthermore, haptics usually serially accumulates information from different parts of objects, whereas vision typically processes object information in parallel. Is haptic object identification slower simply due to sequential information acquisition and the resulting memory load or due to more fundamental processing differences between the senses? To compare the time course of visual and haptic object recognition, we slowed visual processing using a novel, restricted viewing technique. In an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment, participants discriminated familiar, nameable from unfamiliar, unnamable objects both visually and haptically. Analyses focused on the evoked and total fronto-central theta-band (5–7?Hz; a marker of working memory) and the occipital upper alpha-band (10–12?Hz; a marker of perceptual processing) locked to the onset of classification. Decreases in total upper alpha-band activity for haptic identification of objects indicate a likely processing role of multisensory extrastriate areas. Long-latency modulations of alpha-band activity differentiated between familiar and unfamiliar objects in haptics but not in vision. In contrast, theta-band activity showed a general increase over time for the slowed-down visual recognition task only. We conclude that haptic object recognition relies on common representations with vision but also that there are fundamental differences between the senses that do not merely arise from differences in their speed of processing.
Martinovic, Jasna; Lawson, Rebecca; Craddock, Matt
|This article describes the classroom interactions surrounding teacher read-alouds of nonfiction texts in the classroom of a teacher who strived for cultural relevancy. Participants in this study were one European American teacher and her upper-elementary students who lived in the surrounding working-class neighborhood; all but two students…
|Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…
Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…
Four studies test the proposition that when people look back to past selves as a means of gauging current status, the visual perspective they assume determines the kind of information that they consider in making their judgments of change. In this way, visual perspective, coupled with the kind of change for which people are looking, determines how much change is perceived. The studies demonstrate that in the first-person perspective, experiential information is weighted more heavily than content information, whereas in the third-person perspective, the converse is true. In addition, the effects of perceived change on behavior are revealed, such that greater perceived positive change is associated with behaviors that are congruent with that change, whereas greater perceived negative change is associated with behaviors that are incongruent with that change. Theoretical implications, as well as implications for behavioral interventions, are discussed. PMID:22059849
Johnson, Camille S; Smeesters, Dirk; Wheeler, S Christian
In this paper we address visual communications via printing channels from an information-theoretic point of view as communications with side information. The solution to this problem addresses important aspects of multimedia data processing, security and management, since printed documents are still the most common form of visualinformation representation. Two practical approaches to side information communications for printed documents are analyzed in the paper. The first approach represents a layered joint source-channel coding for printed documents. This approach is based on a self-embedding concept where information is first encoded assuming a Wyner-Ziv set-up and then embedded into the original data using a Gel'fand-Pinsker construction and taking into account properties of printing channels. The second approach is based on Wyner-Ziv and Berger-Flynn-Gray set-ups and assumes two separated communications channels where an appropriate distributed coding should be elaborated. The first printing channel is considered to be a direct visual channel for images ("analog" channel with degradations). The second "digital channel" with constrained capacity is considered to be an appropriate auxiliary channel. We demonstrate both theoretically and practically how one can benefit from this sort of "distributed paper communications".
Ego-identity has been defined as a theory of self (e.g., Moshman, 1999) in which identity exploration is the instrument used for the construction of the theory (Grotevant, 1987). It is thought that those who are engaged in identity exploration actively seek out information and test hypotheses about their theory of self and that they process information, especially information related to
The role of static eyeheight-scaled information in perceiving the passability of and guiding locomotion through apertures is well established. However, eyeheight-scaled information is not the only source of visualinformation about size and passability. In this study we tested the sufficiency of two other sources of information, both of which are available only to moving observers (ie are dynamic) and specify aperture size in intrinsic body-scaled units. The experiment was conducted in an immersive virtual environment that was monocularly viewed through a head-mounted display. Subjects walked through narrow openings between obstacles, rotating their shoulders as necessary, while head and shoulder position were tracked. The task was performed in three virtual environments that differed in terms of the availability of eyeheight-scaled information and the two dynamic sources of information. Analyses focused on the timing and amplitude of shoulder rotation as subjects walked through apertures, as well as walking speed and the number of collisions. Subjects successfully timed and appropriately scaled the amplitude of shoulder rotation to fit through apertures in all three conditions. These findings suggest that visualinformation other than eyeheight-scaled information can be used to guide locomotion through apertures. PMID:22132505
The role of static, eyeheight-scaled information in perceiving the passability of and guiding locomotion through apertures is well established. However, eyeheight-scaled information is not the only source of visualinformation about size and passability. In this study, we tested the sufficiency of two other sources of information, both of which are available only to moving observers (i.e., are dynamic) and specify aperture size in intrinsic, body-scaled units. The experiment was conducted in an immersive virtual environment that was monocularly viewed through a head-mounted display. Subjects walked through narrow openings between obstacles, rotating their shoulders as necessary, while head and shoulder position were tracked. The task was performed in three virtual environments that differed in terms of the availability of eyeheight-scaled information and the two dynamic sources of information. Analyses focused on the timing and amplitude of shoulder rotation as subjects walked through apertures, as well as walking speed and the number of collisions. Subjects successfully timed and appropriately scaled the amplitude of shoulder rotation to fit through apertures in all three conditions. These findings suggest that visualinformation other than eyeheight-scaled information can be used to guide locomotion through apertures.
Assessment of image visual quality is of fundamental importance to numerous image and video processing applications. Visualinformation fidelity is a novel criterion that is based on modeling of natural scene statistics, image distortion and the human visual distortion. Traditionally, image QA algorithms interpret image quality as fidelity or similarity with a "reference" or "perfect" image. We apply the VIF method on image enhancement effect which takes distorted image as "reference" image instead of "perfect" image to assess the quality of enhanced image. It provides clear advantages over the traditional approaches because VIF index is combined with HVS features under certain conditions. In particular, it can be measured only rely on the original image and enhanced image. We validate the performance of our method with an extensive subjective study to show that it outperforms current methods in our testing.
We describe the design and deployment of Dashiki, a public website where users may collaboratively build visualization dashboards through a combination of a wiki-like syntax and interactive editors. Our goals are to extend existing research on social data analysis into presentation and organization of data from multiple sources, explore new metaphors for these activities, and participate more fully in the web!s information ecology by providing tighter integration with real-time data. To support these goals, our design includes novel and low-barrier mechanisms for editing and layout of dashboard pages and visualizations, connection to data sources, and coordinating interaction between visualizations. In addition to describing these technologies, we provide a preliminary report on the public launch of a prototype based on this design, including a description of the activities of our users derived from observation and interviews. PMID:19834175
This paper addresses some key issues relating to the development of new technology for clinical information systems (CIS) in relation to imaging and visualizing data. With the increasing importance of molecular and cellular biology, a new type of medicine, molecular based medicine, is now developing. This will significantly alter the way in which medicine is practiced. The view is presented that CIS will need to operate seamlessly across the Biological Continuum, i.e., the hierarchy of the human organism comprising systems, viscera, tissue, cells, proteins, and genes. We propose a multilayered visualization interface, which operates across the Biological Continuum, based on Web-based technology. A visualization interface package for two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data at the visceral and cellular levels is described. Two application examples are presented: 1) MR knee images, at the visceral level and 2) endothelial nuclei images, acquired from confocal laser microscopy, at the cellular level. PMID:17390983
Poh, Chueh-Loo; Kitney, Richard I; Shrestha, Rasu B K
Neural populations across cortical layers perform different computational tasks. However, it is not known whether information in different layers is encoded using a common neural code or whether it depends on the specific layer. Here we studied the laminar distribution of information in a large-scale computational model of cat primary visual cortex. We analyzed the amount of information about the input stimulus conveyed by the different representations of the cortical responses. In particular, we compared the information encoded in four possible neural codes: (1) the information carried by the firing rate of individual neurons; (2) the information carried by spike patterns within a time window; (3) the rate-and-phase information carried by the firing rate labelled by the phase of the Local Field Potentials (LFP); (4) the pattern-and-phase information carried by the spike patterns tagged with the LFP phase. We found that there is substantially more information in the rate-and-phase code compared with the firing rate alone for low LFP frequency bands (less than 30 Hz). When comparing how information is encoded across layers, we found that the extra information contained in a rate-and-phase code may reach 90 % in Layer 4, while in other layers it reaches only 60 %, compared to the information carried by the firing rate alone. These results suggest that information processing in primary sensory cortices could rely on different coding strategies across different layers. PMID:22907135
Basalyga, Gleb; Montemurro, Marcelo A; Wennekers, Thomas
Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature
Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Conclusion Many critical information needs of PH practitioners are not being met efficiently or at all. We propose a dual strategy of: 1) promoting incremental improvements in existing information delivery systems based on the expressed preferences of the PH users of the systems and 2) the concurrent development and rigorous evaluation of new models of information organization and delivery that draw on successful resources already operating to deliver information to clinical medical practitioners.
LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R
Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100-200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740
Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna
I propose to treat natural language semantics as a branch of pragmatics, identied in the way of C.S. Peirce, F.P. Ramsey, and R. Carnap as decision-theory. The notion of relevance plays a key role. It is explicated traditionally, distinguished from a recent homo- phone, and applied in its natural framework of issue-based commu- nication. Empirical emphasis is on implicature and
How is working memory for different visual categories supported in the brain? Do the same principles of cortical specialization that govern the initial processing and encoding of visual stimuli also apply to their short-term maintenance? We investigated these questions with a delayed discrimination paradigm for faces, bodies, flowers, and scenes and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Activity during encoding followed the well-known specialization in posterior areas. During the delay interval, activity shifted to frontal and parietal regions but was not specialized for category. Conversely, activity in visual areas returned to baseline during that interval but showed some evidence of category specialization on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). We conclude that principles of cortical activation differ between encoding and maintenance of visual material. Whereas perceptual processes rely on specialized regions in occipitotemporal cortex, maintenance involves the activation of a frontoparietal network that seems to require little specialization at the category level. We also confirm previous findings that MVPA can extract information from fMRI signals in the absence of suprathreshold activation and that such signals from visual areas can reflect the material stored in memory.
Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Klein, Christoph; Downing, Paul E.
Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial search mechanisms. Performance is measured for difficult and error-prone searches among heterogeneous background elements and for easy and accurate searches among homogeneous background elements. Contrary to the claims of time-limited serial attention, searches in heterogeneous backgrounds instead exhibited nearly identical search dynamics for display sizes up to 12 items. A review and new analyses indicate that most difficult as well as easy visual searches operate as an unlimited-capacity parallel analysis over the visual field within a single eye fixation, which suggests limitations in the availability of information, not temporal bottlenecks in analysis or comparison. Serial properties likely reflect overt attention expressed in eye movements. PMID:20873936
This study investigated the influence of visual cues and perceptual style on static and dynamic balance performance. Twenty-five field dependent (FD) and twenty-five field independent (FI) participants performed tests of static and dynamic balance under five different vision conditions. Balance performance was measured using the Biodex Balance System. The vision conditions included: eyes open with visual feedback (EOFB), without visual feedback (EOEC), viewing lines tilted 18 degrees (EOTL), eyes open without any visual cues (EONC), and eyes closed (EC). All participants were more stable when visual cues were present. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups on the static balance task in any of the vision conditions. A significant difference was found between the two groups on the dynamic balance task. In three of the vision conditions (EOFB, EOEC, EOTL), the FI group was found to be more stable than the FD group. Movement of the body required during a dynamic balance task generates vestibular and somatosensory information which FI individuals may be more efficient in translating into greater stability as compared with FD individuals. PMID:20702896
The World Wide Web (web) provides the same type of information to widely different users and these users must then find the information suitable for their use in the package offered. The authors present the DI2ADEM project designed to take the user into account and intended to provide this user with appropriate medical information. To do that, DI2ADEM is suggesting an adaptive hypermedia based on the management of a meta-knowledge of the user and a knowledge of the information that can be circulated. An adaptive hypermedia prototype devoted to paediatric oncology was implemented on the intranet network of a university hospital.
A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevantinformation on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection.
The challenging problem of computational bioimage analysis receives growing attention from life sciences. Fluorescence microscopy is capable of simultaneously visualizing multiple molecules by staining with different fluorescent dyes. In the analysis of the result multichannel images, segmentation of ROIs resembles only a first step which must be followed by a second step towards the analysis of the ROI's signals in the different channels. In this paper we present a system that combines image segmentation and informationvisualization principles for an integrated analysis of fluorescence micrographs of tissue samples. The analysis aims at the detection and annotation of cells of the Islets of Langerhans and the whole pancreas, which is of great importance in diabetes studies and in the search for new anti-diabetes treatments. The system operates with two modules. The automatic annotation module applies supervised machine learning for cell detection and segmentation. The second informationvisualization module can be used for an interactive classification and visualization of cell types following the link-and-brush principle for filtering. We can compare the results obtained with our system with results obtained manually by an expert, who evaluated a set of example images three times to account for his intra-observer variance. The comparison shows that using our system the images can be evaluated with high accuracy which allows a considerable speed up of the time-consuming evaluation process. PMID:19969439
Herold, Julia; Zhou, Luxian; Abouna, Sylvie; Pelengaris, Stella; Epstein, David; Khan, Michael; Nattkemper, Tim W
An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visualinformation, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals but requires the comparison of information from more than a single spatial location or temporal point. This study examined speed discrimination in adolescents (ages 13-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Compared to healthy controls (n=17), individuals with ASD (n=19) showed similarly precise speed discrimination when two comparison motion stimuli (random dot patterns) were presented closely in time (0.5s). With a longer temporal interval (3s) between the motion stimuli, individuals with ASD outperformed healthy controls on speed discrimination. On a second task--global motion perception--in which individuals were asked to detect coherent motion, individuals with ASD exhibited slightly degraded performance levels. The observed temporally selective enhancement in speed discrimination indicates that a local processing advantage in autism develops over a longer temporal range and is not limited to the spatial domain. These results suggest a dynamic perceptual mechanism for understanding, and therapeutically addressing, atypical visual processing in this neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:22261399
Chen, Y; Norton, D J; McBain, R; Gold, J; Frazier, J A; Coyle, J T
The human ability to derive control-oriented visual field information from tele-operated helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) in nap-of-the-earth flight is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a forward looking infrared radiation camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proven effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo- vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the control-oriented visual field information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the HMD, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.
|Coroners' records are an accessible source of information on suicides. To assess their usefulness in relation to the investigation of specific methods of suicide, we examined coroners records for 492 suicides across 24 jurisdictions in England. Generally data on demographic variables were well recorded. Information on contact with general…
|Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate…
Investigators are interested in determining whether lifetime behavioral traits and specific mood states experienced close to death affect brain gene and protein expression as assessed in post-mortem human brains. Major obstacles to conducting this type of research are the uncertain reliability of the post-mortem psychiatric diagnoses and clinical information because of the retrospective nature of the information. In this study, we addressed the concordance of clinical information obtained through an informant compared with information obtained through a clinician interview of the subject. To test this, we measured both lifetime and within the week psychiatric symptoms of subjects (n=20) and an informant, their next-of-kin (n=20) who were asked identical questions. We found Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV axis 1 diagnoses by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview proportion of positive agreement for major depression was 0.97, bipolar disorder was 0.81, whereas proportion of negative agreement was 0.97 for schizophrenia. Symptom scale intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval were: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms=0.59 (0.23, 0.81), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale=0.58 (0.19, 0.81), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Young Mania Rating Scale=0.61 (0.30, 0.82), Barratt Impulsiveness Score=0.36 (-0.11, 0.70) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire=0.48 (-0.15, 0.83). We show that DSM-IV diagnoses; lifetime impulsivity severity, childhood trauma score and symptom scores were significantly consistent between the subjects and their informants. These data suggest, with some limitations, that both retrospective and informant obtained information can provide useful clinical information in post-mortem research. PMID:23321811
Thompson, P M; Bernardo, C G; Cruz, D A; Ketchum, N S; Michalek, J E
It is troublesome to set the display parameters of every feature class in feature-based zoom view. In order to solve that problem mentioned above, this paper used some data to verify raster-based map information measurement, expanded raster-based map information measurement to vector map, and then discussed how to use information amount to automatically control feature classes' display or not, rather than setting all kinds of display parameters in advance. That adaptive visualization technology would dynamically calculate the current information amount in map view. If the current information amount was below the minimal allowance value, the more detailed feature class would be overlaid on view. The technology presented in this paper was more adaptive than that technology to set display parameters beforehand.
The human brain undertakes highly sophisticated information processing facilitated by the interaction between its sub-regions.\\u000a We present a novel method for interregional connectivity analysis, using multivariate extensions to the mutual information\\u000a and transfer entropy. The method allows us to identify the underlying directed information structure between brain regions,\\u000a and how that structure changes according to behavioral conditions. This method is
Joseph T. Lizier; Jakob Heinzle; Annette Horstmann; John-Dylan Haynes; Mikhail Prokopenko
This paper presents a new warning method for increasing drivers' sensitivity for recognizing hazardous factors in the driving environment. The method is based on a subliminal effect. The results of many experiments performed by three dimensional head-mounted display shows that the response time for detecting a flashing mark tended to decrease when a subliminal mark was shown in advance. Priming effects are observed in subliminal visualinformation. This paper also proposes a scenario for implementing this method in real vehicles.
Background Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of GIS to properly handle temporal information is increasingly recognised as a significant constraint. The effective representation and visualization of both spatial and temporal dimensions therefore is expected to significantly enhance our ability to undertake environmental health research using time-referenced geospatial data. Especially for diseases with long latency periods (such as cancer) the ability to represent, quantify and model individual exposure through time is a critical component of risk estimation. In response to this need a STIS – a Space Time Information System has been developed to visualize and analyze objects simultaneously through space and time. Results In this paper we present a "first use" of a STIS in a case-control study of the relationship between arsenic exposure and bladder cancer in south eastern Michigan. Individual arsenic exposure is reconstructed by incorporating spatiotemporal data including residential mobility and drinking water habits. The unique contribution of the STIS is its ability to visualize and analyze residential histories over different temporal scales. Participant information is viewed and statistically analyzed using dynamic views in which values of an attribute change through time. These views include tables, graphs (such as histograms and scatterplots), and maps. In addition, these views can be linked and synchronized for complex data exploration using cartographic brushing, statistical brushing, and animation. Conclusion The STIS provides new and powerful ways to visualize and analyze how individual exposure and associated environmental variables change through time. We expect to see innovative space-time methods being utilized in future environmental health research now that the successful "first use" of a STIS in exposure reconstruction has been accomplished.
AvRuskin, Gillian A; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Meliker, Jaymie R; Slotnick, Melissa J; Kaufmann, Andrew M; Nriagu, Jerome O
We evaluated the role of visual and non-visualinformation in the control of smooth pursuit movements during tracking of a self-moved target. Previous works have shown that self-moved target tracking is characterised by shorter smooth pursuit latency and higher maximal velocity than eye-alone tracking. In fact, when a subject tracks a visual target controlled by his own arm, eye movement and arm movement are closely synchronised. In the present study, we showed that, in a condition where the direction of motion of a self-moved visual target was opposite to that of the arm (same amplitude, same velocity, but opposite direction of movement), the resulting smooth pursuit eye movements occurred with low latency, and continued for about 140 ms in the direction of the arm movement rather than in the direction of the actual visual target movement. After 140 ms, the eye movement direction reversed through a combination of smooth pursuit and saccades. Subsequently, while arm and visual target still moved in opposite directions, smooth pursuit occurred in pace with the visual target motion. Subjects were also submitted to a series of 60 tracking trials, for which the arm-to-target motion relationship was systematically reversed. Under these conditions subjects were able to initiate early smooth pursuit in the actual direction of the visual target. Overall, these results confirm that non-visualinformation produced by the arm motor system can trigger and control smooth pursuit. They also demonstrate the plasticity of the neuronal network handling eye-arm coordination control. PMID:7789438
Behavioural correlates of the hippocampal theta rhythm have been suggested to include voluntary motor behaviours and spatial learning. The involvement of visualinformation during these processes is still undetermined. Therefore, our aim was to clarify the contribution of locomotion and visualinformation to the generation of hippocampal theta during locomotion. Forty-one Wistar-Kyoto male rats (8-9 weeks old) were separated into active or passive movement groups that travelled through a pipe, which was either lit or unlit. Animals were implanted with a bipolar electrode in the hippocampus for local field potential recording. Head and leg movements were recorded by accelerometer and leg electromyogram, respectively, and stress levels were assessed by heart rate measurement. Theta power (4-12 Hz) was divided into medium theta (MT, 6-10 Hz) and low theta (LT, 4-6 Hz) power. There was a significant effect of locomotion (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA) on theta power, MT power, and theta mean power frequency. Visualinformation, however, had no significant effect, nor did the interaction between locomotion and visualinformation. The lack of visualinformation effect could not be explained by differences in movement patterns or stress levels, because these two measures did not differ between the lit and unlit conditions. Our results indicate that visualinformation is not essential for locomotion-induced hippocampal theta, implying that theta oscillation during spatial learning does not reflect sensory processing of visualinformation. PMID:20888366
Chen, C Y; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Y Y; Kuo, Terry B J
A significant proportion of biomedical resources carries information that cross references to anatomical structures across multiple scales. To improve the visualization of such resources in their anatomical context, we developed an automated methodology that produces anatomy schematics in a consistent manner,and provides for the overlay of anatomy-related resource information onto the same diagram. This methodology, called ApiNATOMY, draws upon the topology of ontology graphs to automatically lay out treemaps representing body parts as well as semantic metadata linking to such ontologies. More generally, ApiNATOMY treemaps provide an efficient and manageable way to visualize large biomedical ontologies in a meaningful and consistent manner. In the anatomy domain, such treemaps will allow epidemiologists, clinicians, and biomedical scientists to review, and interact with, anatomically aggregated heterogeneous data and model resources. Such an approach supports the visual identification of functional relations between anatomically colocalized resources that may not be immediately amenable to automation by ontology-based inferencing. We also describe the application of ApiNATOMY schematics to integrate, and add value to, human phenotype-related information—results are found at http://apinatomy.org. The long-term goal for the ApiNATOMY toolkit is to support clinical and scientific graphical user interfaces and dashboards for biomedical resource management and data analytics. PMID:22616108
de Bono, Bernard; Grenon, Pierre; Sammut, Stephen John
Most existing approaches to content-based retrieval rely on query by example, or user sketch based on low-level features. However, these are not suitable for semantic (object level) distinctions. In other approaches, information is classified according to a predefined set of classes and classification is either performed manually or by using class-specific algorithms. Most of these systems lack flexibility: the user does not have the ability to define or change the classes, and new classification schemes require implementation of new class-specific algorithms and/or the input of an expert. In this paper, we present a different approach to content-based retrieval and a novel framework for classification of visualinformation, in which (1) users define their own visual classes and classifiers are learned automatically, and (multiple fuzzy-classifiers and machine learning techniques are combined for automatic classification at multiple levels (region, perceptual, object-part, object and scene). We present The Visual Apprentice, an implementation of our framework for still images and video that uses a combination of lazy-learning, decision trees, and evolution programs for classification and grouping. Our system is flexible, in that models can be changed by users over time, different types of classifiers are combined, and user-model definitions can be applied to object and scene structure classification. Special emphasis is placed on the difference between semantic and visual classes, and between classification and detection. Examples and results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of our approach to perform visual classification and detection.
Many have argued for the inclusion of geographic information system (GIS) into the IS\\/IT cur- riculum because of its on-going wide spread use. We present GIS as a strategic tools for the intelligent use of information. At least from one perspective, GIS is a database system with a specialized graphical user interface, along with a tool set for information processing
Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p < 0.0001) and sequencing benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. PMID:22694298
Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G
Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.45, 31.10 for postgraduate education and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared to less than college degree) and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic whites compared to other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9 to 7.7, p<0.0001) and sequencing benefits knowledge subscale (7.0 to 7.5, p<0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge, and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making.
Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Facio, Flavia M.; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Brooks, Stephanie; Eidem, Haley; Linn, Amy; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was a theme for one of the four workgroups convened for the Measures of the Food and Built Environment meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland in November 2007. This summary of group discussions frames several critical conceptual, methodologic, and data challenges regarding the use of GIS to enhance research relevant to policy on diet, physical activity, and weight. Broad recommendations are offered in five areas: (1) theoretical and conceptual development in framing place effects on health; (2) contextualizing people and spatial behavior in built environments and improving empirical representations of place; (3) geospatial data availability, quality, and standards; (4) privacy and confidentiality; and, (5) building capacity in GIS personnel and infrastructure. These topics are inter-related. Although our discussion focuses on issues relevant to the role of the built environment in diet and physical activity outcomes, our recommendations also are salient to health and environment research generally. PMID:19285210
Matthews, Stephen A; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Daniel, Mark
Managing pediatric patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) involves regular laboratory, imaging, and physiologic testing. Using input from domain experts and current literature, we identified specific data points from these tests to develop the concept of an electronic disease vector for NGB. An information extraction engine was used to extract the desired data elements from free-text and semi-structured documents retrieved from the patient"s medical record. Finally, a Java-based presentation engine created graphical visualizations of the extracted data. After precision, recall, and timing evaluation, we conclude that these tools may enable clinically useful, automatically generated, and diagnosis-specific visualizations of patient data, potentially improving compliance and ultimately, outcomes.
Chen, Andrew A.; Meng, Frank; Morioka, Craig A.; Churchill, Bernard M.; Kangarloo, Hooshang
This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580
Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing children and 51 children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 18. Results indicated a sharp increase in visual exploration with age and a decrease in perseverative and detail-focused attention for both groups of children. However, increased age was associated with greater increases in visual exploration for typically developing children than for those children with ASD. The developmental differences were most pronounced for attention to certain nonsocial stimuli as children with ASD demonstrated a disproportionate attentional bias for these stimuli from very early in life. Disproportionate visual attention to certain nonsocial objects relative to social stimuli in ASD spanned from early to late childhood, and thus may represent both an early and a persistent characteristic of the disorder. PMID:22639682
Elison, Jed T; Sasson, Noah J; Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Dichter, Gabriel; Bodfish, James W
Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing children and 51 children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 18. Results indicated a sharp increase in visual exploration with age and a decrease in perseverative and detail-focused attention for both groups of children. However, increased age was associated with greater increases in visual exploration for typically developing children than for those children with ASD. The developmental differences were most pronounced for attention to certain nonsocial stimuli as children with ASD demonstrated a disproportionate attentional bias for these stimuli from very early in life. Disproportionate visual attention to certain nonsocial objects relative to social stimuli in ASD spanned from early to late childhood, and thus may represent both an early and a persistent characteristic of the disorder.
Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel; Bodfish, James W.
Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013
Gonzálvez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A
How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB) is a major part of the insect central complex (CX), a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into a common three-dimensional framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. Circuitry properties such as mirroring, convergence, divergence, tiling, reverberation, and parallel signal propagation were observed; their functional and evolutional significance is discussed. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry may provide guidelines for further investigations on transformation of sensory (e.g., visual) input into locomotor commands in fly brains. PMID:23707064
Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Hua, Tzu-En; Chen, Chun-Chao; Dickson, Barry J; Greenspan, Ralph J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn
|This speech presents an overview of clusters of career-choice theories, indicates decision making strategies that could be enlisted within each theory cluster, and relates information dispensing processes appropriate to decision making. It is illustrated that regardless of one's propensity towards a career choice theory, affiliation with certain…
|Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
The present study examined whether language\\/learning disabled children have greater difficulty than nondisabled children suppressing information that becomes irrelevant during a sentence processing and memory task. During study trials, children were asked to predict and remember the terminal nouns for a series of sentences that highly constrained a terminal noun. For half of the study trials (fillers) the child's prediction
Thomas C. Lorsbach; Sherry Wilson; Jason F. Reimer
This article presents the VIGITEXT system. This system identifies extracts from patent abstracts in order to facilitate reading of a corpus of such documents in a Competitive Intelligence approach. The extracts are identified due to linguistic knowledge expressing general concepts, such as \\/improvement\\/, \\/modification\\/, \\/application\\/. Our approach does not require specific terminology nor statistical procedures to extract information from patent
|Although prior research clearly shows that toddlers have difficulty learning from video, the basis for their difficulty is unknown. In the 2 current experiments, the effect of social feedback on 2-year-olds' use of information from video was assessed. Children who were told "face to face" where to find a hidden toy typically found it, but…
Troseth, Georgene L.; Saylor, Megan M.; Archer, Allison H.
The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on