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Discussion of information-retrieval test collections focuses on a study of TREC documents that used scaling and visualization of documents using a maximum-likelihood estimation method to examine the relevance of documents retrieved. Discusses clustering, similarity measures, isomorphism, and semantic relevance. (LRW)
Distractibility with auditory, visual, and bimodal stimulus changes was investigated using an audio-visual distraction paradigm. Participants were asked to discriminate between equiprobable short and long audio-visual stimuli. Infrequently, the auditory, the visual, or both parts of the stimuli changed. These rare deviations (deviants) were irrelevant for the actual task. The influence of the three types of deviant stimuli on the processing of task-relevantinformation was assessed with behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures assuming that bimodal deviants would lead to an increase in distraction. Behavioral and ERP results did not support this assumption, as reaction time (RT) prolongation and components amplitudes did not differ significantly for auditory and bimodal deviants. It is suggested that a maximal threshold of distraction accounts for these results. In addition, the processing of bimodal deviations was assessed. Audio-visual interactions were found following modality-specific deviance detection suggesting that integration only occurs with involuntary attention switching to task-irrelevant changes. PMID:19386054
In- formation visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There is a large number of informationvisualization techniques which have been developed over the last decade to support the exploration of large data sets. In
To improve the accuracy of visual speech recognition systems, forming a subset of relevantvisual features, from a large set of extracted visual cues, is of fundamental importance. In this paper, two feature selection techniques, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a relatively recent method, Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR), are separately applied on the extracted visual features. Prominent attributes are
Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.
Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.
This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called InformationVisualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.
Describes a study conducted at Rutgers University (New Jersey) that observed 24 graduate students' relevance judgments during information retrieval. Discusses implications for finding relevance dimensions, the measurement of relevance, thesaurus construction, evaluation of information retrieval, and variables affecting relevance judgments. (LRW)
We describe work on the visualization of bibliographic data and, to aid in this task, the application of numerical techniques for multidimensional scaling.Many areas of scientific research involve complex multivariate data. One example of this is Information Retrieval. Document comparisons may be done using a large number of variables. Such conditions do not favour the more well-known methods of visualization
This is a survey on graph visualization and navigation techniques, as used in informationvisualization. Graphs appear innumerous applications such as web browsing, state--transition diagrams, and data structures. The ability to visualize and tonavigate in these potentially large, abstract graphs is often a crucial part of an application. Informationvisualization has specificrequirements, which means that this survey approaches the results
According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visualinformation, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visualinformation is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice.
Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher
According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This "priming by variance" phenomenon occurred with prime-target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visualinformation, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visualinformation is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803
Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher
We describe a method for the visualization of information units on spherical domains which is employed in the banking industry for risk analysis, stock prediction and other tasks. The system is based on a quan- tification of the similarity of related objects that governs the parameters of a mass-spring system. Unlike existing approaches we initialize all information units onto the
Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…
Introduction. A number of studies indicate that patients with schizophrenia share a bias for paranoia-relevant material. The presence of an attentional bias for such stimuli would be of utter importance for our pathogenetic understanding of the disorder in view of ample evidence that patients with schizophrenia gather little information before arriving at strong conclusions: A both scarce and affectively biased
We introduce grounded evaluation as a process that attempts to ensure that the evaluation of an informationvisualization tool is situated within the context of its intended use. We discuss the pro- cess and scope of grounded evaluation in general, and then describe how qualitative inquiry may be a beneficial approach as part of this process. We advocate for increased
Petra Isenberg; Torre Zuk; Christopher Collins; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale
In the research reported here, we examined whether task demands can induce momentary tunnel vision during reading. More specifically, we examined whether the size of the functional visual field depends on task relevance. Forty participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye movements were recorded. A display-change paradigm with random-letter strings as preview masks was used to study the size of the functional visual field within sentences that contained task-relevant and task-irrelevant information. The results showed that orthographic parafoveal-on-foveal effects and preview benefits were observed for words within task-irrelevant but not task-relevant sentences. The results indicate that the size of the functional visual field is flexible and depends on the momentary processing demands of a reading task. The higher cognitive processing requirements experienced when reading task-relevant text rather than task-irrelevant text induce momentary tunnel vision, which narrows the functional visual field. PMID:24390825
Background The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevantinformation efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure is usually similar and simple. Likely, it involves a search engine and a visualization interface. Different words or combination reflects different research topics. The objective of this study is to automate this tedious procedure by recording those words/terms in a database and online sources, and use the information for an automated search and retrieval. The retrieved information will be available anytime and anywhere through a secure web server. Results We developed such a database that stored searching terms, journals and et al., and implement a piece of software for searching the medical subject heading-indexed sources such as the Medline and other online sources automatically. The returned information were stored locally, as is, on a server and visible through a Web-based interface. The search was performed daily or otherwise scheduled and the users logon to the website anytime without typing any words. The system has potentials to retrieve similarly from non-medical subject heading-indexed literature or a privileged information source such as a clinical information system. The issues such as security, presentation and visualization of the retrieved information were thus addressed. One of the presentation issues such as wireless access was also experimented. A user survey showed that the personalized online searches saved time and increased and relevancy. Handheld devices could also be used to access the stored information but less satisfactory. Conclusion The Web-searching software or similar system has potential to be an efficient tool for both bench scientists and clinicians for their daily information needs.
Informationvisualization and knowledge visualization use compara- ble techniques and methods. Based on mapping rules, resource objects are translated into visual objects as meaningful representations, offering easy and comprehensive access. Whereas informationvisualization displays data objects and relations, knowledge visualization maps knowledge elements and ontolo- gies. Bridging this gap must start at concept level. Our approach is to design a
Background Crossmodal interactions between relevantvisual and tactile inputs can enhance attentional modulation at early stages in somatosensory cortices to achieve goal-oriented behaviors. However, the specific contribution of each sensory system during attentional processing remains unclear. We used EEG to investigate the effects of visual priming and attentional relevance in modulating somatosensory cortical responses. Methods Healthy adults performed a sensory integration task that required scaled motor responses dependent on the amplitudes of tactile and visual stimuli. Participants completed an attentional paradigm comprised of 5 conditions that presented sequential or concurrent pairs of discrete stimuli with random amplitude variations: 1) tactile-tactile (TT), 2) visual-visual (VV), 3) visual-tactile simultaneous (SIM), 4) tactile-visual delay (TVd), and 5) visual-tactile delay (VTd), each with a 100 ms temporal delay between stimulus onsets. Attention was directed to crossmodal conditions and graded motor responses representing the summation of the 2 stimulus amplitudes were made. Results Results of somatosensory ERPs showed that the modality-specific components (P50, P100) were sensitive to i) the temporal dynamics of crossmodal interactions, and ii) the relevance of these sensory signals for behaviour. Conclusion Notably, the P50 amplitude was greatest in the VTd condition, suggesting that presentation of relevantvisualinformation for upcoming movement modulates somatosensory processing in modality-specific cortical regions, as early as the primary somatosensory cortex (SI).
Recent studies on perceptual organization in humans claim that the ability to represent a visual scene as a set of coherent surfaces is of central importance for visual cognition. We examined whether this surface representation hypothesis generalizes to a non-mammalian species, the barn owl ( Tyto alba). Discrimination transfer combined with random-dot stimuli provided the appropriate means for a series of two behavioural experiments with the specific aims of (1) obtaining psychophysical measurements of figure-ground segmentation in the owl, and (2) determining the nature of the information involved. In experiment 1, two owls were trained to indicate the presence or absence of a central planar surface (figure) among a larger region of random dots (ground) based on differences in texture. Without additional training, the owls could make the same discrimination when figure and ground had reversed luminance, or were camouflaged by the use of uniformly textured random-dot stereograms. In the latter case, the figure stands out in depth from the ground when positional differences of the figure in two retinal images are combined (binocular disparity). In experiment 2, two new owls were trained to distinguish three-dimensional objects from holes using random-dot kinematograms. These birds could make the same discrimination when information on surface segmentation was unexpectedly switched from relative motion to half-occlusion. In the latter case, stereograms were used that provide the impression of stratified surfaces to humans by giving unpairable image features to the eyes. The ability to use image features such as texture, binocular disparity, relative motion, and half-occlusion interchangeably to determine figure-ground relationships suggests that in owls, as in humans, the structuring of the visual scene critically depends on how indirect image information (depth order, occlusion contours) is allocated between different surfaces. PMID:12658534
van der Willigen, Robert F; Frost, Barrie J; Wagner, Hermann
In this paper, we describe the process and result of creating a visualization to capture the past 10 years of history in the field of InformationVisualization, as part of the annual InfoVis Conference Contest. We began with an XML file containing data provided by the contest organizers, scrubbed and augmented the data, and created a database to hold the
Tzu-Wei Hsu; Lee Inman; Dave McColgin; Kevin Stamper
The effects of adding information from relevant documents are examined in the TREC routing envi- ronment. A modified Rocchio relevance feedback approach is used, with a varying number of relevant documents retrieved by an initial SMART search, and a varying number of terms from those relevant documents used to expand the initial query. Recall-precision evaluation reveals that as the amount
Continuing work on the three-systems-theory of visual motion perception: (1) Isoluminant chromatic motion is perceived by and only by the third-order motion system. (2) New illusion. Cancelling salience modulation in the third-order motion system causes b...
To design informationvisualization tools that support users' needs, we need to understand how users engage with informa- tion visualizations in their analysis process. With the rapid growth in size and complexity of datasets, the practicality of an individual analyzing an entire dataset is becoming unrealistic. Instead, the expertise to make informed decisions about these information-rich datasets is often best
To design informationvisualization tools for collaborative use, we need to understand how teams engage with visual- izations during their information analysis process. We re- port on an exploratory study of individuals, pairs, and triples engaged in information analysis tasks using paper-based vi- sualizations. From our study results, we derive a framework that captures the analysis activities of co-located teams
Petra Isenberg; Anthony Tang; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale
Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.
This paper proposes icons and visual conventions for rapid comprehension and presentation of information security (INFOSEC) attack scenario information: Malicious Intruder, Buffer Overflow, Data Scavenging, QuickTime and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are ne...
This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also
The particular kind of presentation we consider are information maps, which spatially array graph- ical symbols representing items of information and their attributes. We propose a method for designing visually searchable maps based on experimental results about what kinds of visual search are easy. Ide- ally, their users should be able to do query by attention, answering questions about the
This paper examines how visualinformation strategies may be used to facilitate the development of mental models. Topics covered include: definition of mental models; mental models and visualinformation; mental modeling concepts; power of modeling, including examples related to physical science, mathematics, writing, and depth of processing;…
The most popular methods in object retrieval are almost based on bag-of-words(BOW) which is both effective and efficient. In this paper we present a method use the relations between words of the vocabulary to improve the retrieval performance based on the BOW framework. In basic BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for retrieval, which are spatial consistent in images. We introduce a method to useful select useful words and build a relevance between these words. We combine useful relevance with basic BOW framework and query expansion as well. The useful relevance is able to discover latent related words which is not exist in the query image, so that we can get a more accurate vector model for retrieval. Combined with query expansion method, the retrieval performance are better and fewer time cost.
\\u000a Recent studies on perceptual organization in humans claim that the ability to represent a visual scene as a set of coherent\\u000a surfaces is of central importance for visual cognition. We examined whether this surface representation hypothesis generalizes\\u000a to a non-mammalian species, the barn owl (Tyto alba). Discrimination transfer combined with random-dot stimuli provided the appropriate means for a series
Robert F. van der Willigen; Barrie J. Frost; Hermann Wagner
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates informationvisualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS. 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods.
Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.
Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.
The network management area deals with large amounts of data. Some of its protocols and techniques are not completely understood when it comes to usage patterns and most used features. The understanding of such characteristics is a challenging process, due to the massive data amount involved. This process can be supported by informationvisualization techniques. These consist in visual representations
Paulo Teles Barbosa; Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville
The fundamental problem of visual communication is that of producing the best possible picture at the lowest data rate. We address this problem by extending information theory to the assessment of the visual communication channel as a whole, from image gathering to display. The extension unites two disciplines, the electro-optical design of image gathering and display devices and the digital
This paper seeks to provide a brief overview of those developments which have taken the theory and practice of image and video retrieval into the digital age. Drawing on a voluminous literature, the context in which visualinformation retrieval takes place is followed by a consideration of the conceptual and practical challenges posed by the representation and recovery of visual
This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…
In this paper we develop a strategy for visualrelevancy evaluation using Rate Distortion analysis in the Circular Harmonic Functions (CHF) Domain. In the CHF domain, the different visual characteristics of the transformed frames - edges, lines, forks, crosses, etc - are emphasized. Resorting to this domain we analyze a new approach to evaluate the distortion due to an event
Stefania Colonnese; Stefano Rinauro; Lorenzo Rossi; Gaetano Scarano
The core of geographic informationvisualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic informationvisualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic informationvisualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic informationvisualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic informationvisualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic informationvisualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".
This paper describes the integration of information sources to support the exploration of source code and documentation of Java programs. There are many public domain tools that are available for extracting information and documentation from Java programs. We describe how data integration and presentation integration were used to enable the visualization of this information within a software exploration environment.
Jeff Michaud; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Hausi A. Müller
Term relevance weighting systems in interactive information retrieval are reviewed. An experiment in which information retrieval users ranked query terms in decreasing order of presumed importance prior to actual search and retrieval is described. (Author/KP)
The environmental protection agencies are the major providers of comprehensive environmental information to the policy-makers and politician. Information designed for policy-makers should be integrated, carefully selected and aggregated, accompanied with appropriate interpretation. During the process of aggregating the purpose of such aggregation should be kept in focus. Meteorological, climatological and hydrological information should be regarded as part of the integral environmental information. In order to enable high compatibility of environmental information with other kind of information GIS approach was introduced as an efficient and easy tool to present various combinations of data. GIS based Environmental atlas with above 100 layers available is an example of such application. EIONET and SEIS are powerful tools to implement reporting obligations and information providing to policy-makers, general and scientific community. Benefits and priorities for SEIS will be outlined. Some examples including implementation of the INSPIRE directive at the national level, environmental report, environmental indicators and country report to the EU, EEA, OECD, EUROSTAT, UNEP and UNFCCC will be presented.
Developing reliable methods for representing and managing information uncertainty remains a persistent and relevant challenge to GIScience. Information uncertainty is an intricate idea, and recent examinations of this concept have generated many perspectives on its representation and visualization, with perspectives emerging from a wide range of disciplines and application contexts. In this paper, we review and assess progress toward visual
Alan M. MacEachren; Anthony Robinson; Susan Hopper; Steven Gardner; Robert Murray; Mark Gahegan; Elisabeth Hetzler
An approach for visualinformation analysis and classification is presented. It is based on a knowledge synthesizing technique\\u000a to automatically create a relevance map from essential areas in natural images. It also derives a set of well-structured representations\\u000a from low-level description to drive the final classification. The backbone of this approach is a distribution mapping strategy\\u000a involving a knowledge synthesizing
Health sciences libraries have considerable potential as resources for both formal continuing professional education, as well as the informal continuing education that results from the professional's efforts to solve problems in daily practice. While there is a growing interest in making the resources of health sciences libraries more accessible to practitioners on a routine, day-to-day basis, there also needs to be more awareness of how, when, where, and why professionals look for information in the context of practical problems. This paper reviews recent research that identifies the context in which physicians seek information and advice from external sources, the information sources that physicians access, and the factors that influence which particular sources are sought. The results indicate that physicians vary in their information needs, preferences, motivations, and strategies for seeking information. This diversity suggests that health sciences libraries, in their efforts to be more accessible, should consider "market research" to determine the needs, preferences, and use patterns of the library's targeted users. Libraries may also benefit from exploring alternative methods of improving access to their resources.
This study investigates the perception of factors that are likely to influence the Internet informationrelevance of financial institutions. The media richness theory and stakeholder theory point out that the extent of information and stakeholder communication will influence the utilization of online information, while not many of these discussions are associated with financial institutions. This study integrates seven information categories
We examine the value-relevance to investors of financial (accounting) and nonfinancial information of independent cellular companies and find that, on a stand-alone basis, financial information (earnings, book values, and cash flows) are largely irrelevant for security valuation. Nonfinancial indicators, such as POPS (a growth proxy) and Market Penetration (an operating performance measure), are highly value-relevant. However, combined with nonfinancial information,
For human vision to be explained by a computational theory, the first question is plain: What are the problems that the brain solves when we see? It is argued that vision is the construction of efficient symbolic descriptions from images of the world. An important aspect of vision is therefore the choice of representations for the different kinds of information in a visual scene. An overall framework is suggested for extracting shape information from images, in which the analysis proceeds through three representations: (1) the primal sketch, which makes explicit the intensity changes and local two-dimensional geometry of an image; (2) 2 1/2-D sketch, which is a viewer-centred representation of the deplth, orientation and discontinuities of the visible surfaces; and (3) the 3-D model representation, which allows an object-centred description of the three-dimensional structure and organization of a viewed shape. The critical act in formulating computational theories for process capable of constructing these representations is the discovery of valid constraints on the way the world behaves, that provide sufficient additional information to allow recovery of the desired characteristic. Finally, once a computational theory for a process has been formulated, algorithms for implementing it may be designed, and their performance compared with that of the human visual processor. PMID:6106238
In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…
There is behavioral evidence that different visual categorization tasks on various types of stimuli (e.g., faces) are sensitive to distinct visual characteristics of the same image, for example, spatial frequencies. However, it has been more difficult to address the question of how early in the processing stream this sensitivity to the informationrelevant to the categorization task emerges. The current
Carrie A. Joyce; Philippe G. Schyns; Frédéric Gosselin; Garrison W. Cottrell; Bruno Rossion
The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.
This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.
Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
This research compared the processing and retrieval of attribution-relevantinformation when the attributional inference is easy or difficult to make. Subjects attributed behavioral events to the person or to the situation, based on several items of context information. Each context sentence implied either the person or the entity as causal agent. When the attributional inference was difficult to make (an
David L. Hamilton; Paul D. Grubb; Deborah A. Acorn; Tina K. Trolier; Sandra Carpenter
We present a model for building, visualizing, and interacting with multiscale representations of informationvisualization techniques using hierarchical aggregation. The motivation for this work is to make visual representations more visually scalable and less cluttered. The model allows for augmenting existing techniques with multiscale functionality, as well as for designing new visualization and interaction techniques that conform to this new
The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Enwrging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive aninlaiion offer potential solutions to this problenl, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized.We describe one of these Information Visualtzaiion techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The
George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card
This paper describes the design and deployment of Synthesis Vis, an intranet web site where various users may contribute data, create interactive visualizations, and share visualizations. The goal of the site is to support collaboration around informationvisualizations at a large scale by fostering a social style of design process. Moreover, the site serves as a collaborative informationvisualization tool
Unlike traditional infomation visualization, ambient informationvisualizations reside in the environment of the user rather than on the screen of a desktop computer. Currently, most dynamic infor- mation that is displayed in public places consists of text and num- bers. We argue that informationvisualization can be employed to make such' dynamic data more useful and appealing. However, visualizations intended
Close behavioural coupling of visual orientation may provide a range of adaptive benefits to social species. In order to investigate the natural properties of gaze-following between pedestrians, we displayed an attractive stimulus in a frequently trafficked corridor within which a hidden camera was placed to detect directed gaze from passers-by. The presence of visual cues towards the stimulus by nearby pedestrians increased the probability of passers-by looking as well. In contrast to cueing paradigms used for laboratory research, however, we found that individuals were more responsive to changes in the visual orientation of those walking in the same direction in front of them (i.e. viewing head direction from behind). In fact, visual attention towards the stimulus diminished when oncoming pedestrians had previously looked. Information was therefore transferred more effectively behind, rather than in front of, gaze cues. Further analyses show that neither crowding nor group interactions were driving these effects, suggesting that, within natural settings gaze-following is strongly mediated by social interaction and facilitates acquisition of environmentally relevantinformation. PMID:22456331
This paper analyzes the DNA code of several species in the perspective of information content. For that purpose several concepts and mathematical tools are selected towards establishing a quantitative method without a priori distorting the alphabet represented by the sequence of DNA bases. The synergies of associating Gray code, histogram characterization and multidimensional scaling visualization lead to a collection of plots with a categorical representation of species and chromosomes. PMID:22001546
Machado, J A Tenreiro; Costa, António C; Quelhas, Maria Dulce
Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of informationvisualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.
The relevance vector machine (RVM) is a sparse regression kernel model. It not only generates a much sparser model but provides better generalization performance than the standard support vector machine (SVM). Relevance vectors and support vectors are both selected from the input vector set. This may limit model flexibility. Recently, we propose Relevance Units Machine (RUM). RUM treats relevance units (RUs) as part of the parameters of the model. However, the number of RUs must be selected before using RUM. In this paper, we use Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to select the number of the RUs. The experiment results show that based on AIC RUM maintains all the advantages of RVM and offers superior sparsity.
BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevantinformation efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure
This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended…
This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.
Radial visualization, or the practice of displaying data in a circular or elliptical pattern, is an increasingly common technique in informationvisualization research. In spite of its prevalence, little work has been done to study this visualization paradigm as a methodology in its own right. We provide a historical review of radial visualization, tracing it to its roots in centuries-old
Geoffrey M. Draper; Yarden Livnat; Richard F. Riesenfeld
Information access at the point of care presents a different set of requirements than those for traditional search engines. Critical care in remote (e.g., battle field) and rural settings not only requires access to clinical guidelines and medical libraries with surgical precision but also with minimal user effort and time. Our development of a graphical, anatomy-driven navigator called Visual Navigator for Surgical Information Access (VINSIA) fulfills the goal for providing evidence-based clinical decision support, specifically in perioperative and critical care settings, to allow rapid and precise information access through a portable stand-alone system. It comes with a set of unique characteristics: (a) a high precision, interactive visual interface driven by human anatomy; (b) direct linkage of anatomical structures to associated content such as clinical guidelines, literature, and medical libraries; and (c) an administrative content management interface allowing only an accredited, expert-level curator to edit and update the clinical content to ensure accuracy and currency. We believe that the deployment of VINSIA will improve quality, safety, and evidence-based standardization of patient care. PMID:23820348
This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on VisualInformation Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.
Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Park, Stephen K. (editor)
We examined the influence of visualinformation on a decision task that was administered to an individual with monocular visual conversion disorder. Findings indicated that his performance was influenced by the visualinformation and by motivation instructions. The findings are discussed in terms of a model of hysterical blindness that recognizes the interplay of cognitive and motivational processes.
Daily collaboration of senior doctors, residents and nurses involves a major potential for sharing knowledge between professionals. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to informal learning to create strategies and appropriate conditions for enhancing and effectuating informal learning in the workplace. The aim of this study is to visualize and describe patterns of informal interprofessional learning relations among staff in complex care. Questionnaires with four network questions - recognized as indicators of informal learning in the clinical workplace - were handed out to intensive and medium care unit (ICU/MCU) staff members (N = 108), of which 77% were completed and returned. Data were analyzed using social network analysis and Mokken scale analysis. Densities, tie strength and reciprocity of the four networks created show MCU and ICU nurses as subgroups within the ward and reveal central but relatively one-sided relations of senior doctors with nurses and residents. Based on the analyses, we formulated a scale of intensity of informal learning relations that can be used to understand and stimulate informal interprofessional learning. PMID:22332642
Wagter, Judith Martine; van de Bunt, Gerhard; Honing, Marina; Eckenhausen, Marina; Scherpbier, Albert
Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment. PMID:24429836
Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R
Visualizations are coherent, graphical expressions of complex information that enhance people's ability to communicate and reason about that information. Yet despite the importance of visualizations in helping people to understand and solve a wide variety of problems, there is a dearth of formal tools and methods for discussing, describing and designing them. This thesis develops and evaluates the Relational Visualization
Informationvisualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual InformationVisualization (or Casual Infovis) as a
In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visualinformation via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.
Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.
Receptive fields in the retina indicate the first measurements taken over the (discrete) visual image. Why are they circular surrounded with an excitatory/inhibitory structured. We hypothesize that this provides a representation of the visualinformation ...
Frontoparietal cortex is thought to be essential for flexible behavior, but the mechanism for control remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate a potentially critical property of this cortex: its dynamic configuration for coding of task-critical information. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of human functional imaging data, we demonstrate an adaptive change in the patterns of activation coding task-relevant stimulus distinctions. When task demands made perceptual information more difficult to discriminate, frontoparietal regions showed increased coding of this information. Visual cortices showed the opposite result: a weaker representation of perceptual information in line with the physical change in the stimulus. On a longer timescale, a rebalancing of coding was also seen after practice, with a diminished representation of task rules as they became familiar. The results suggest a flexible neural system, exerting cognitive control in a wide range of tasks by adaptively representing the task features most challenging for successful goal-directed behavior. PMID:21994375
Woolgar, Alexandra; Hampshire, Adam; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John
This paper describes mechanisms for asynchronous collaboration in the context of informationvisualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design and implementation of sense.us, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization types. The site supports view sharing, discussion, graphical annotation, and social navigation and includes novel interaction elements. We
Jeffrey Heer; Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg
Finding sought visual targets requires our brains to flexibly combine working memory information about what we are looking for with visualinformation about what we are looking at. To investigate the neural computations involved in finding visual targets, we recorded neural responses in inferotemporal (IT) and perirhinal (PRH) cortex as macaque monkeys performed a task that required them to find targets within sequences of distractors. We found similar amounts of total task-specific information in both areas, however, information about whether a target was in view was more accessible using a linear read-out (i.e. was more “untangled”) in PRH. Consistent with the flow of information from IT to PRH, we also found that task-relevantinformation arrived earlier in IT. PRH responses were well-described by a functional model in which “untangling” computations in PRH reformat input from IT by combining neurons with asymmetric tuning correlations for target matches and distractors.
Pagan, Marino; Urban, Luke S.; Wohl, Margot P.; Rust, Nicole C.
This paper presents several important issues related with the preservation and analysis of important image information needed by a visually impaired individual for safe navigation in an indoor environment. The image information is provided to a visually impaired individual, via a 2D Vibration Array (VA), which is part of the Tyflos navigation system and is attached on the individual's abdomen.
(1) Human crystalline lens and vision In order to investigate the hue changes in eyes with UV-absorbing intraocular lenses (IOLs) and tinted IOLs, we simulated the changes in the chromaticity coordinates of the 16 colors of the Farnsworth dichotomous test-panel D-15 (panel D-15), considering the ratio of the spectral transmittance of the IOL and the human crystalline lens, and the results were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. The chromaticity coordinates of each color for UV-absorbing IOLs shifted to close to the origin of coordinates while retaining their hue circle. However, the chromaticity coordinates for the eyes with tinted IOLs did not change much compared to the coordinates for phakic eyes. As a result, it was suggested that cyanopsia after UV-absorbing IOL implantation could be explained by this simulation. As far as the color perception is concerned, it was also felt that tinted IOLs were superior to UV-absorbing intraocular lenses. Next, in order to evaluate the hue changes after IOL implantation, the achromatic point settings were measured once before surgery and several times at intervals after surgery after taking off the eyepatch. Four subjects participated in the experiments. There was a large shift into the "yellowish" region of color space immediately after taking off the eyepatch after cataract surgery. Then, the achromatic point returned to the chromaticity near the achromaticpoint measured prior to the surgery, with the time course of a long time, compared to color constancy in our daily life, which takes as long as several hundreds of seconds to reach an asymptote. Therefore, the mechanism of achromatic point shifts after cataract surgery may be different from the color-constancy mechanism in everyday life. (2) Molecular genetics and vision We demonstrated new clinical and genetic aspects of congenital red-green color vision defects, congenital achromatopsia, enhanced s-cone syndrome (ESCS), and Oguchi disease in Japanese patients. We clinically diagnosed 88 male dichromats(31 protanopes, 56 deuteranopes, and one unclassified subject). This subject had a new form of X-linked pigment gene with a unique arrangement of exon 5(Y277 from the long-wavelength-sensitive gene and A 285 from the middle-wavelength-sensitive gene). Mutational analysis of patients with achromatopsia disclosed CNGA3 mutations (p.R 436 W, p.L633 P) in one of 14 patients, suggesting low frequency (7%, 1/14) of CNGA3 mutations in the Japanese population. Three novel NR2E3 mutations (p.R 104 Q, p.R 334 G, p.Q 350 X) were identified in both mild and severe forms of ESCS. A novel homozygous GRK1 mutation (p.P 391 H) was found in the Oguchi disease patient with reduced cone responses. This is the first reported Japanese patient with GRK1 -associated Oguchi disease. 3. Information processing of the visual cortex and vision Regarding information processing in the visual cortex, we developed the stimulus to improve identifying retinotopy of the human visual cortex. We performed two types of fMRI experiments. One provided a quick method of mapping retinotopy using a composite stimulus with both ring- and wedge-shaped stimuli. The other provided a method which can show the horizontal meridian clearer. We explored the activation of the visual cortex associated with color perception. In our studies of the color center, we first researched the symptoms and lesions of cerebral achromatopsia, and we next performed the fMRI experiments with a pseudoisochromatic plate test and with a color arrangement test. After this we also performed the fMRI experiments with a complex color painting. We realized objective perimetry with functional brain images. We first developed the software to depict a visual field from the signals of MR imaging. Next we performed the experiment with hemifield stimulation and showed the possibility of its clinical application. Then we showed its reproducibility, performing the experiment with more complicated letter-shaped masked visual stimulation. Finally, we applied the technique to patients with cerebral dy
The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.
New user interface challenges are arising because people need to explore and perform many diverse tasks involving large quantities of abstract information. Visualizinginformation is one approach to these challenges. But visualization must involve much more than just enabling people to \\
Steven F. Roth; Mei C. Chuah; Stephan Kerpedjiev; John Kolojejchick; Peter Lucas
Two normal and two split-brain monkeys were trained to respond to increasing amounts of flashed visualinformation distributed equally in each half visual field. It was found that the brainbisected animals were able to perceive and respond correctly to more information in a given period of time than were the normal controls.
In this paper the visualinformation retrieval project VizIRis presented. The goal of the project is the implementation of an open visualinformation retrieval (VIR) prototype as basis for further research on major problems of VIR. The motivation behind VizIR is the implementation of an open platform for supporting and facilitating research, teaching, the exchange of research results and research
The growing use of informationvisualization tools and data mining algorithms stems from two separate lines of research. Informationvisualization researchers believe in the importance of giving users an overview and insight into the data distributions, while data mining researchers believe that statistical algorithms and machine learning can be relied on to find the interesting patterns. This paper discusses two
Informationvisualization is an effective way to easily comprehend large amounts of data. For such systems to be truly effective, the informationvisualization designer must be aware of the ways in which their system may be manipulated and protect their users from attack. In addition, users should be aware of potential attacks in order to minimize or negate their effect.
This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.
Development of intuitive visualizations requires a systematic approach that includes a focus on the user. Creating interactive\\u000a visualizations for complex systems often requires the integration of information from existing systems and sensor data to\\u000a provide the operator with real-time information. The objective of this research was to fuse information from sensor technology\\u000a with flightline maintenance information to support aircraft maintenance
Jennie J. Gallimore; Elizabeth Matthews; Ron Cagle; Paul Faas; Jason Seyba; Vaughan Whited
Data visualization is the process of representing data as pictures to support reasoning about the underlying data. For the interpretation to be as easy as possible, we need to be as close as possible to the original data. As most visualization tools have an internal meta- model, which is different from the one for the presented data, they usually need
“Study of a Numerically Modeled Severe Storm” is a well known animation within the scientific visualization community. The visualization is among the best of its genre, featuring full storyboarding, well chosen representations, high quality rendering, and professional narration. We recently revisited the thunderstorm to consider what we would do differently if we were to make that video again. We wanted
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities,
For human vision to be explained by a computational theory, the first question is plain: What are the problems that the brain solves when we see? It is argued that vision is the construction of efficient symbolic descriptions from images of the world. An important aspect of vision is therefore the choice of representations for the different kinds of information
A method and system for indexing, searching, and retrieving information from timed media files based upon relevance intervals. The method and system for indexing, searching, and retrieving this information is based upon relevance intervals so that a porti...
M. S. Morton T. V. Sibley N. C. Unger R. Rubinoff A. R. Davis K. A. Deforge
To foveate a visual target, subjects usually execute a primary hypometric saccade (S1) bringing the target in perifoveal vision, followed by a corrective saccade (S2) or by more than one S2. It is still debated to what extent these S2 are pre-programmed or dependent only on post-saccadic retinal error. To answer this question, we used a visually-triggered saccade task in which target position and target visibility were manipulated. In one-third of the trials, the target was slightly displaced at S1 onset (so-called double step paradigm) and was maintained until the end of S1, until the start of the first S2 or until the end of the trial. Experiments took place in two visual environments: in the dark and in a dimly lit room with a visible random square background. The results showed that S2 were less accurate for shortest target durations. The duration of post-saccadic visual integration thus appears as the main factor responsible for corrective saccade accuracy. We also found that the visual context modulates primary saccade accuracy, especially for the most hypometric subjects. These findings suggest that the saccadic system is sensitive to the visual properties of the environment and uses different strategies to maintain final gaze accuracy. PMID:21575995
Gerardin, Peggy; Gaveau, Valérie; Pélisson, Denis; Prablanc, Claude
Even within the early sensory areas, the majority of the input to any given cortical neuron comes from other cortical neurons. To extend our knowledge of the contextual information that is transmitted by such lateral and feedback connections, we investigated how visually nonstimulated regions in primary visual cortex (V1) and visual area V2 are influenced by the surrounding context. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pattern-classification methods to show that the cortical representation of a nonstimulated quarter-field carries information that can discriminate the surrounding visual context. We show further that the activity patterns in these regions are significantly related to those observed with feed-forward stimulation and that these effects are driven primarily by V1. These results thus demonstrate that visual context strongly influences early visual areas even in the absence of differential feed-forward thalamic stimulation.
Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an informationvisualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.
Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.
A recent proposal suggests that dyslexic individuals suffer from attentional deficiencies, which impair the ability to selectively process incoming visualinformation. To investigate this possibility, we employed a spatial cueing procedure in conjunction with a single fixation visual search task measuring thresholds for discriminating the…
Discusses the role of informationvisualization in modeling and representing intellectual structures associated with scientific disciplines and visualizes the domain of computer graphics based on bibliographic data from author cocitation patterns. Highlights include author cocitation maps, citation time lines, animation of a high-dimensional…
A number of recent studies have demonstrated that groups benefit considerably from access to shared visualinformation. This is due, in part, to the communicative efficiencies provided by the shared visual context. However, a large gap exists between our current theoretical understanding and our existing models. We address this gap by developing a computational model that integrates linguistic cues with
Darren Gergle; Carolyn Penstein Rosé; Robert E. Kraut
To enable us to study how humans combine simultaneously present visual and proprioceptive position information, we had subjects perform a matching task. Seated at a table, they placed their left hand under the table concealing it from their gaze. They then had to match the proprioceptively perceived position of the left hand using only proprioceptive, only visual or both proprioceptive
Robert J. van Beers; Anne C. Sittig; Jan J. Denier
This module, created by The Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction, discusses the visual aspects of Microsoft Word. The directions are concise and fairly straightforward. Almost any type of basic visual modification in the Word is included in the outline. Items such as font, formatting, graphics, layout, page setup and spacing are touched upon. The module employs both textual and graphical examples to walk students through the lesson. An instructor guide, presentation, practice activity, student project, grading rubric and quiz are all included. Other modules focusing on Microsoft Office are featured on the Maricopa website.
A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.
The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…
In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…
This article identifies online lesson plans that can be used to introduce visualizing, a comprehension skill important to both science and literacy learning. Each of the lessons meets NCTE/IRA English language arts standards. The article appears in the free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which is structured around the seven essential principles of climate science and literacy.
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Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visualinformation in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visualinformation was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visualinformation, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli.
Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.
Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in informationvisualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935
In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevantvisualinformation) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevantvisualinformation) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by an additional memory task. Singleton distractors interfered even more when
Christian N. L. Olivers; Frank Meijer; Jan Theeuwes
The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…
Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review
E. Fernández; F. Pelayo; S. Romero; M. Bongard; C. Marin; A. Alfaro; L. Merabet
Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.
Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)
Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.
Current methods of information extraction from HTML doc- uments are mostly based on the discovery of some patterns in the HTML code that are expected to identify a particular information in the doc- ument. However, this approach has several common problems that are caused mainly by the great variability of HTML and related technolo- gies and the fact that the
In many domains, increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of informationvisualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to
This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…
Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.
This paper highlights the importance of uncertainty visualization in information fusion, reviews general methods of representing uncertainty and presents perceptual and cognitive principles from Tufte, Chambers and Bertin as well as users experiments documented in the literature. Examples of uncertainty representations in information fusion are analyzed using these general theories. These principles can be used in future theoretical evaluations of
Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…
Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.
Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)
AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mationvisualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.
Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.
The authors a graph-based object model that may be used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information. After an introduction motivating the need for abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia systems, the authors intro...
Informationrelevance advisory services offer growth opportuni- ties for accountants in CPA firms, but we know little about the types of knowl- edge needed to provide high-quality advice. In a two-stage experiment, ac- countants with different management and public accounting experiences (that we suggest lead to different types of knowledge) receive task information in alternative formats, and develop relevantinformation
\\u000a One of the most challenging issues in managing the large and diverse data available on the World Wide Web is the design of\\u000a interactive systems to organize and represent information, according to standard usability guidelines. In this paper we define\\u000a a framework to collect and represent information from different web resources like search engines, real-time networks and\\u000a multimedia distributed databases.
Introduction Schizophrenia is currently diagnosed on the basis of patient reports and clinical observations. A diagnosis based on aetiology is inherently more reliable due to being closer to the disease process than the overt clinical manifestations. Accordingly, recent research in schizophrenia has focused on the development of biomarkers in a bit to improve the reliability and neurobiological relevance of the diagnosis. Visualinformation processing is one of these promising fields of recent biomarker research. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available literature regarding deficits in schizophrenia detectable through psychophysical (contrast and motion sensitivity, visual backward-masking), ERP (P1 and N1 visual evoked potentials) and oscillatory (signal power and phase-locking factor of evoked oscilations) measures and their validity as trait or state biomarkers of the disease. The methodology included a search on articles related to visualinformation processing in schizophrenia on the PubMed database. Expert opinion Biomarker research in schizophrenia is a rapidly expanding area. Evidence exists to suggest that both psychotic and manic symptoms are associated with visual processing abnormalities. A specific impairment confined to the magnocellular component of the visual system might be a trait biomarker of schizophrenia.
Koychev, Ivan; El-Deredy, Wael; Deakin, John Francis William
Informationvisualization is an effective method for displaying large data sets in a pictorial or graphical format. The visualization aids researchers and analysts in understanding data by evaluating the content and grouping documents together around themes and concepts. With the ever-growing amount of information available on the Internet, additional methods are needed to analyze and interpret data. WebTheme allows users to harvest thousands of web pages and automatically organize and visualize their contents. WebTheme is an interactive web-based product that provides a new way to investigate and understand large volumes of HTML text-based information. It has the ability to harvest data from the World Wide Web using search terms and selected search engines or by following URLs chosen by the user. WebTheme enables users to rapidly identify themes and concepts found among thousands of pages of text harvested and provides a suite of tools to further explore and analyze special areas of interest within a data set. WebTheme was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for NASA as a method for generating meaningful, thematic, and interactive visualizations. Through a collaboration with the Laboratory's Information Science and Engineering (IS&E) group, information specialists are providing demonstrations of WebTheme and assisting researchers in analyzing their results. This paper will provide a brief overview of the WebTheme product, and the ways in which the Hanford Technical Library's information specialists are assisting researchers in using this product.
Multilingual retrieval (querying of multiple document collections each in a different language) can be achieved by combining several individual techniques which enhance retrieval: machine translation to cross the language barrier, relevance feedback to add words to the initial query, decompounding for languages with complex term structure, and data fusion to combine monolingual retrieval results from different languages. Using the CLEF
The present paper examines effects of reporting conservatism on the value relevance of accounting earnings of a sample of Greek firms over the period from 1989 to 2003. The results of the paper indicate that conservatism is a salient feature of the Greek Accounting System. Moreover, the results depict that the level of conservatism has increased after the market crisis
Dimitrios V. Kousenidis; Anestis C. Ladas; Christos I. Negakis
Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites.
Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.
Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.
Tag ranking has emerged as an important research topic recently due to its potential application on web image search. Conventional tag ranking approaches mainly rank the tags according to their relevance levels with respect to a given image. Nonetheless, such algorithms heavily rely on the large-scale image dataset and the proper similarity measurement to retrieve semantic relevant images with multi-labels.
When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visualinformation that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visualinformation is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevantinformation. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469
When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visualinformation that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visualinformation is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevantinformation. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area.
Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles the experience of perceiving an object when this object is not physically present to the senses. It has been shown that, depending on the sensory nature of the object, mental imagery also involves correspondent sensory neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear which areas of the brain subserve supramodal imagery processes that are independent of the object modality, and which brain areas are involved in modality-specific imagery processes. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visualinformation. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for imagery of auditory and visualinformation, and a common deactivation network were identified. The supramodal network included brain areas related to attention, memory retrieval, motor preparation and semantic processing, as well as areas considered to be part of the default-mode network and multisensory integration areas. The modality-specific networks comprised brain areas involved in processing of respective modality-specific sensory information. Interestingly, we found that imagery of auditory information led to a relative deactivation within the modality-specific areas for visual imagery, and vice versa. In addition, mental imagery of both auditory and visualinformation widely suppressed the activity of primary sensory and motor areas, for example deactivation network. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that are involved in generation of mental imagery. PMID:23383863
Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Clemens, Benjamin; Chechko, Natalya; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sack, Alexander T; Mathiak, Klaus
We present experimental and computational evidence for the estimation of visual and proprioceptive directional information during forward, visually driven arm movements. We presented noisy directional proprioceptive and visual stimuli simultaneously and in isolation midway during a pointing movement. Directional proprioceptive stimuli were created by brief force pulses, which varied in direction and were applied to the fingertip shortly after movement onset. Subjects indicated the perceived direction of the stimulus after each trial. We measured unimodal performance in trials in which we presented only the visual or only the proprioceptive stimulus. When we presented simultaneous but conflicting bimodal information, subjects' perceived direction fell in between the visual and proprioceptive directions. We find that the judged mean orientation matched the MLE predictions but did not show the expected improvement in reliability as compared to unimodal performance. We present an alternative model (probabilistic cue switching, PCS), which is consistent with our data. According to this model, subjects base their bimodal judgments on only one of two directional cues in a given trial, with relative choice probabilities proportional to the average stimulus reliability. These results suggest that subjects based their decision on a probability mixture of both modalities without integrating information across modalities. PMID:19757906
Serwe, Sascha; Drewing, Knut; Trommershäuser, Julia
The paper describes an approach to IV that involves spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The application arena is large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, etc. The basic idea is that text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents.
James A. Wise; James J. Thomas; Kelly Pennock; David Lantrip; Marc Pottier; Anne Schur; V. Crow
...access to relevantinformation about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information...facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the...
Funded by the Arts Councils of England, Wales and Scotland, and seven regional arts boards, Axis is "the largest interactive database of contemporary British art on the Internet." Created to provide information about artists and makers living/working in Britain to a national and international audience, the database curently offers over 12,500 images from 3,300 artists and makers. Users can search the database by artist name; browse by artwork type, material, and/or region; or conduct a free-text quick search. Initial returns include a thumbnail image with the work title and date and artist's name. Clicking on the image launches a new window with more detailed information, including dimensions, materials, techniques, characteristics, artistic approach, and a brief description, often written by the artist. Additional resources at the site include a collection of categorized links to other art sites, and CyberAxis, "a 3-D Virtual Gallery Space for debate, presentation and interaction" (Blaxxun Contact plug-in [Win 95/98/NT/2000] and free registration required).
Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…
This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visualinformation as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visualinformation only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.
Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro
Large multi-touch displays are expanding the possibilities of multiple-coordinated views by allowing multiple people to interact with data in concert or independently. We present Lark, a system that facilitates the coordination of interactions with informationvisualizations on shared digital workspaces. We focus on supporting this coordination according to four main criteria: scoped interaction, temporal flexibility, spatial flexibility, and changing collaboration
Matthew Tobiasz; Petra Isenberg; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale
Proposes an information architecture for personal-history data and describes how the data model can be extended to a runtime model for a compact visualization using graphical timelines. The model groups personal-history events into aggregates that are contained in facets, crosslinks are made, and data attributes are mapped. (Author/LRW)
In a world of ever-increasing and newly discovered complexities, and rapidly expanding data sets describing man-made and natural phenomena, informationvisualization offers a means of structuring and enabling interpretation of these data in the context of that complexity. Advances in graphics hardware, art asset pipelines and parallelized computational platforms offer unprecedented potential. However, harnessing this potential to good effect is
J. Bown; K. Fee; A. Sampson; M. Shovman; R. Falconer; A. Goltsov; J. Issacs; P. Robertson; K. Scott-Brown; A. Szymkowiak
Several web-native informationvisualization methods (SVG, HTML5's Canvas, native HTML) are studied to contrast their per- formances at different data scales. Using Java implementations of parallel coordinates and squarified treemaps for comparison, we ex- plore the design space of these web-based technologies in order to determine what design trade-offs are required.
We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…
Typical tag recommendation systems for photos shared on social networks such as Flickr, use visual content analysis, collaborative filtering or personalization strategies to produce annotations. However, the dependence on manual intervention and the knowledge of sufficient personal preferences coupled with the folksonomic issues limit the scope of these strategies. In this paper, we present a fully automatic and folksonomically scalable
Neela Sawant; Ritendra Datta; Jia Li; James Ze Wang
Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if informationrelevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.
Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups. PMID:24028946
Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D
The authors describe the use of case studies in a program of extracurricular library instruction and explain the benefits of case teaching in developing information literacy. The paper presents details of example cases and analyzes surveys to evaluate the impact of case teaching on student satisfaction. (Contains 3 tables.)
Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…
Human resource information systems are application systems that collect data and produce information about the workforce of an organization to facilitate personnel control, planning, development, and forecasting. In this article we study the linkage between organizational culture and human resource information systems. We describe the implementation history of four human resource information systems, and show bow cultural considerations are relevant
Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visualinformation processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visualinformation processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visualinformation processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
A method is investigated for optimizing the end-to-end performance of image gathering and restoration for visual quality. To achieve this objective, one must inevitably confront the problems that the visual quality of restored images depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations and that these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The method adopted in this paper is to optimize image gathering informationally and to restore images interactively to obtain the visually preferred trade-off among fidelity resolution, sharpness, and clarity. The results demonstrate that this method leads to significant improvements in the visual quality obtained by the traditional digital processing methods. These traditional methods allow a significant loss of visual quality to occur because they treat the design of the image-gathering system and the formulation of the image-restoration algorithm as two separate tasks and fail to account for the transformations between the continuous and the discrete representations in image gathering and reconstruction.
Mccormick, Judith A.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.
Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby.
Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.
The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.
Top-down signals from frontal cortex (FC) are conjectured to play a critical role in cognitive control of sensory processing. To explore this interaction, we compared activity in ferret FC and primary auditory cortex (A1) during auditory and visual tasks requiring discrimination between classes of reference and target stimuli. FC responses were behaviorally-gated, selectively encoded the timing and invariant behavioral meaning of target stimuli, could be rapid in onset, and sometimes persisted for hours following behavior. This mirrors earlier findings in A1that attention triggered rapid, selective, persistent, task-related changes in spectrotemporal receptive fields. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) revealed behaviorally-gated changes in inter-areal coherence, selectively modulated between FC and focal regions of A1 responsive to target sounds. These results suggest that A1 and FC dynamically establish a functional connection during auditory behavior that shapes the flow of sensory information and maintains a persistent trace of recent task-relevant stimulus features.
Fritz, Jonathan B.; David, Stephen V.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Yin, Pingbo; Shamma, Shihab A.
Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001
Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellaker, Christoffer
Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138
Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer
Background With the abundance of information and analysis results being collected for genetic loci, user-friendly and flexible data visualization approaches can inform and improve the analysis and dissemination of these data. A chromosomal ideogram is an idealized graphic representation of chromosomes. Ideograms can be combined with overlaid points, lines, and/or shapes, to provide summary information from studies of various kinds, such as genome-wide association studies or phenome-wide association studies, coupled with genomic location information. To facilitate visualizing varied data in multiple ways using ideograms, we have developed a flexible software tool called PhenoGram which exists as a web-based tool and also a command-line program. Results With PhenoGram researchers can create chomosomal ideograms annotated with lines in color at specific base-pair locations, or colored base-pair to base-pair regions, with or without other annotation. PhenoGram allows for annotation of chromosomal locations and/or regions with shapes in different colors, gene identifiers, or other text. PhenoGram also allows for creation of plots showing expanded chromosomal locations, providing a way to show results for specific chromosomal regions in greater detail. We have now used PhenoGram to produce a variety of different plots, and provide these as examples herein. These plots include visualization of the genomic coverage of SNPs from a genotyping array, highlighting the chromosomal coverage of imputed SNPs, copy-number variation region coverage, as well as plots similar to the NHGRI GWA Catalog of genome-wide association results. Conclusions PhenoGram is a versatile, user-friendly software tool fostering the exploration and sharing of genomic information. Through visualization of data, researchers can both explore and share complex results, facilitating a greater understanding of these data.
As visualization is applied to larger data sets residing in more diverse hardware environments, visualization frameworks need to adapt. Rendering techniques are currently a major limiter since they tend to be built around central processing with all of the geometric data present. This is not a fundamental requirement of informationvisualization. This paper presents Abstract Rendering (AR), a technique for eliminating the centralization requirement while preserving some forms of interactivity. AR is based on the observation that pixels are fundamentally bins, and that rendering is essentially a binning process on a lattice of bins. By providing a more flexible binning process, the majority of rendering can be done with the geometric information stored out-of-core. Only the bin representations need to reside in memory. This approach enables: (1) rendering on large datasets without requiring large amounts of working memory, (2) novel and useful control over image composition, (3) a direct means of distributing the rendering task across processes, and (4) high-performance interaction techniques on large datasets. This paper introduces AR in a theoretical context, provides an overview of an implementation, and discusses how it has been applied to large-scale data visualization problems.
To analyze the information provided about individual visual stimuli in the responses of single neurons in the primate temporal lobe visual cortex, neuronal responses to a set of 65 visual stimuli were recorded in macaques performing a visual fixation task and analyzed using information theoretical measures. The population of neurons analyzed responded primarily to faces. The stimuli included 23 faces
Edmund T. Rolls; Alessandro Treves; Martin J. Tovee; Stefano Panzeri
Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty. Traditional uncertainty visualization techniques, such as those that change primitive attributes or employ animation, can create large amounts of clutter or actively distract when visualizing geospatially uncertain events within large datasets. To effectively identify geo-spatial trends within the Global Terrorism Database of the START Center, we have developed a novel usage of squarified treemaps that maintains the strengths of traditional map-viewing but incorporates some measure of data verity.
Jones, Josh; Chang, Remco; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ribarsky, William
A hybrid filter\\/wrapper feature subset selection algorithm for regres- sion is proposed. First, features are filtered by means of a relevance and redun- dancy filter using mutual information between regression and target variables. We introduce permutation tests to find statistically significant relevant and re- dundant features. Second, a wrapper searches for good candidate feature sub- sets by taking the regression
In recent years we have seen informationvisualization technology move from an advanced research topic to mainstream adoption\\u000a in both commercial and personal use. This move is in part due to many businesses recognizing the need for more effective tools\\u000a for extracting knowledge from the data warehouses they are gathering. Increased mainstream interest is also a result of more\\u000a exposure
Jeffrey Heer; Frank van Ham; Sheelagh Carpendale; Chris Weaver; Petra Isenberg
Drawing on ethnographic studies of (landscape) architects at work, and interdisciplinary cooperation with them, this paper presents a human-centered approach to informationvisualization. A 3D collaborative electronic workspace allows people to configure, save, and browse arrangements of heterogeneous work materials. A network of links between parts of documents and objects underpins this spatio-temporal order. Both spatial arrangements and links are
Monika Büscher; Dan Shapiro; Michael Christensen; Preben Mogensen; Peter Ørbæk
The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have developed a framework for this integration, including common conceptual data models for multiple data types and linked visualizations that provide an overview of the entire data set, a measure of how each data record is related to every other record, and an assessment of the associations within the data set.
Saffer, Jeffrey D. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Albright, Cory L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Calapristi, Augustin J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chen, Guang (OMNIVIZ, INC); Crow, Vernon L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Decker, Scott D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Groch, Kevin M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Havre, Susan L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Malard, Joel (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Martin, Tonya J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Miller, Nancy E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Monroe, Philip J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Nowell, Lucy T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Payne, Deborah A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Reyes Spindola, Jorge F. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Scarberry, Randall E. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Sofia, Heidi J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stillwell, Lisa C. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Thomas, Gregory S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thurston, Sarah J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Williams, Leigh K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zabriskie, Sean J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); MG Hicks
Classical image statistics, such as contrast, entropy, and the correlation between central and nearby pixel intensities, are thought to guide ocular fixation targeting. However, these statistics are not necessarily task relevant and therefore do not provide a complete picture of the relationship between informativeness and ocular targeting. Moreover, it is not known whether either informativeness or classical image statistics affect microsaccade production; thus, the role of microsaccades in information acquisition is also unknown. The objective quantification of the informativeness of a scene region is a major challenge, because it can vary with both image features and the task of the viewer. Thus, previous definitions of informativeness suffered from subjectivity and inconsistency across studies. Here we developed an objective measure of informativeness based on fixation consistency across human observers, which accounts for both bottom-up and top-down influences in ocular targeting. We then analyzed fixations in more versus less informative image regions in relation to classical statistics. Observers generated more microsaccades on more informative than less informative image regions, and such regions also exhibited low redundancy in their classical statistics. Increased microsaccade production was not explained by increased fixation duration, suggesting that the visual system specifically uses microsaccades to heighten information acquisition from informative regions. PMID:24553936
McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana
Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…
PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevantinformation background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.
Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander
During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco
The definition and pragmatic implementation of biologically relevant chemical space is critical in addressing navigation strategies in the overlapping regions where chemistry and therapeutically relevant targets reside and, therefore, also key to performing an efficient drug discovery project. Here, we describe the development and implementation of a simple and robust method for representing biologically relevant chemical space as a general reference according to current knowledge, independently of any reference space, and analyzing chemical structures accordingly. Underlying our method is the generation of a novel descriptor (LiRIf) that converts structural information into a one-dimensional string accounting for the plausible ligand-receptor interactions as well as for topological information. Capitalizing on ligand-receptor interactions as a descriptor enables the clustering, profiling, and comparison of libraries of compounds from a chemical biology and medicinal chemistry perspective. In addition, as a case study, R-groups analysis is performed to identify the most populated ligand-receptor interactions according to different target families (GPCR, kinases, etc.), as well as to evaluate the coverage of biologically relevant chemical space by structures annotated in different databases (ChEMBL, Glida, etc.). PMID:22486368
Tremendous amount of spatial data reside in operational or legacy data stores of public and private institutions. These databases contain topographic maps, aerial photos, satellite images, medical data, laser\\/lidar scanner data, video images among others. In addition to spatially referenced data, there are links from spatial objects to non-spatial data such as census, economic, security, and statistical information. It is
This paper advances the claim that ignoring relevantinformation is sometimes consistent with good decision making. Although that finding is not new, the argument presented here is. In contrast with bounded rationality models, the decision-making model in this paper presupposes no cognitive constraints or costs associated with processing available information. The paper identifies a class of decision-making environments characterised by
The AVIS framework for integrated audio and visualinformation processing is applied to the problem of person identification. An instantiation of the AVIS framework, called PIAVI, is based on a fuzzy neural network (FuNN) model of audio-visual person identification. In PIAVI's unimodal (visual) mode of operation, only dynamic visual features are used, whereas in the bimodal mode of operation, dynamic
This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.
Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.
Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological informationvisualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.
The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) includes both affective and cognitive dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify how regions regulating affective processing interact with those involved in attention, and how such interaction impacts perceptual processing within sensory cortices. Based on previous work showing that top-down influences from attention can determine the processing of external inputs within early sensory cortices, we tested with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether MDD alters attentional ("top-down") effects on the neural filtering of irrelevant, nonemotional visual stimuli. The present fMRI study was conducted in 14 nonmedicated patients with a first episode of unipolar MDD and 14 matched controls. During scanning, subjects performed two tasks imposing two different levels of attentional load at fixation (easy or difficult), while irrelevant colored stimuli were presented in the periphery. Analyses of fMRI data revealed that MDD patients show (1) an abnormal filtering of irrelevant information in visual cortex, (2) an altered functional connectivity between frontoparietal networks and visual cortices, and (3) a hyperactivity in subgenual cingulate/medial orbitofrontal cortex that was modulated by attentional load. These results demonstrate that biological abnormalities contribute to the cognitive deficits seen in major depression, and clarify how neural networks implicated in mood regulation influence executive control and perceptual processes. These findings not only improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunctions in MDD, but also shed new light on the interaction between cognition and mood regulation. PMID:19193886
Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the relationship between corporate governance and the value-relevance of accounting information in Australia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses board, audit committee and external audit related variables to proxy for corporate governance. Value-relevance is measured by the adjusted R2 derived from a regression of stock price on earnings and equity book values following Ohlosn's
The visual cortex has been traditionally considered as a stimulus-driven, unimodal system with a hierarchical organization. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that the visual cortex responds to non-visual stimuli, especially in individuals with visual deprivation congenitally, indicating the supramodal nature of the functional representation in the visual cortex. To understand the neural substrates of the cross-modal processing of the non-visual signals in the visual cortex, we firstly showed the supramodal nature of the visual cortex. We then reviewed how the nonvisual signals reach the visual cortex. Moreover, we discussed if these non-visual pathways are reshaped by early visual deprivation. Finally, the open question about the nature (stimulus-driven or top-down) of non-visual signals is also discussed.
Intracortical neural recordings are typically high-dimensional due to many electrodes, channels, or units and high sampling rates, making it very difficult to visually inspect differences among responses to various conditions. By representing the neural response in a low-dimensional space, a researcher can visually evaluate the amount of information the response carries about the conditions. We consider a linear projection to 2-D space that also parametrizes a metric between neural responses. The projection, and corresponding metric, should preserve class-relevantinformation pertaining to different behavior or stimuli. We find the projection as a solution to the information-theoretic optimization problem of maximizing the information between the projected data and the class labels. The method is applied to two datasets using different types of neural responses: motor cortex neuronal firing rates of a macaque during a center-out reaching task, and local field potentials in the somatosensory cortex of a rat during tactile stimulation of the forepaw. In both cases, projected data points preserve the natural topology of targets or peripheral touch sites. Using the learned metric on the neural responses increases the nearest-neighbor classification rate versus the original data; thus, the metric is tuned to distinguish among the conditions. PMID:24111003
Brockmeier, Austin J; Sanchez Giraldo, Luis G; Emigh, Matthew S; Bae, Jihye; Choi, John S; Francis, Joseph T; Principe, Jose C
The purpose of this study was to determine if five-year-old children displaying high or low ability to process visualinformation exhibited the same high-low ability in proficiency of motor tasks which were dependent upon visualinformation for successful completion. The subjects were 40 five-year-old children who were required to pass a visual…
Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)
To analyze the information provided about individual visual stimuliin the responses of single neurons in the primate temporal lobevisual cortex, neuronal responses to a set of 65 visual stimuli wererecorded in macaques performing a visual fixation task and analyzedusing information theoretical measures. The population of neuronsanalyzed responded primarily to faces. The stimuli included 23 facesand 42 nonface images of real-world
Edmund T. Rolls; Alessandro Treves; Martin J. Tovee; Stefano Panzeri
In the near future, the number of major missions flying simultaneously will increase. This increase in data will place a heavier burden on the operations staff to verify the health and status of a spacecraft or intrument platform. The problem of verification becomes particularly acute when multiple flight projects are being supported by the same personnel. Operations must be made more efficient and automated to remain successful. A prototype concept for achieving that goal is described. The prototype shows how the concepts of informationvisualization and information retrieval can be applied in developing a user oriented interface for a multimission operations environment. The proposed user interface integrates existing prototypes and includes two dimensional and three dimensional color graphics, animation, and simulation. Techniques of data realization are included.
Baroth, Edmund C.; Chin, Gregory E.; Curran, Patrick S.
Visual feedback and non-visualinformation play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visualinformation in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visualinformation is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visualinformation adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking.
Abstract:?Prior research shows that accounting information is relevant for stock valuation, failure prediction, performance evaluation, optimal contracting, and other decision-making contexts in relatively stable market settings. By contrast, accounting's role during stock market bubbles such as those involving a revolutionary emerging technology is the subject of considerable debate, and prominent market observers have alleged that outdated and flawed accounting practices
Nilabhra Bhattacharya; Elizabeth Demers; Philip Joos
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevantinformation: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…
We present in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the mutual information based feature selection algorithms. We point out the limitations of some recent work in this area then propose an improvement to overcome the weak points. The experiment results confirm that we achieve a better feature sets compared with the two recent developed algorithms, which are Maximum Relevance and
Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial informationvisualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.
A fundamental tenet of visual science is that the detailed properties of visual systems are not capricious accidents, but are closely matched by evolution and neonatal experience to the environments and lifestyles in which those visual systems must work [1–5]. This has been shown most convincingly for fish  and insects . For mammalian vision, however, this tenet is based
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:
Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War M
The tendency for 3– to 5–year-old children to use trait-relevantinformation about other people when evaluating aggressive responses to ambiguous behavior was examined across two studies (N = 81). Children were more likely to endorse the use of aggression against a “mean” versus a “nice” story character. Additionally, they were more likely to endorse the use of aggression against a story character who feels happy rather than sad when bad things happen to other kids. These findings suggest that, as early as preschool, trait-relevantinformation about other people can serve as a tool with which children evaluate the appropriateness of aggression in response to ambiguous behavior. Moreover, these findings provide evidence that even before the onset of formal schooling, trait and mental state information can influence social judgments.
. Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.
Inadequacies involved in the methodologies for studying rate of information processing in visual perception were discussed in terms of current models and knowledge of visual perception. A different methodology was introduced based on a l0-channel tachistoscope which permitted the presentation of letter stimuli at varying rates. The task was visual search with Ss reguired to detect whether an A (target)
An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visualinformation, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…
Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.
Visual field loss after brain lesions is commonly determined using perimetric tests of light detection (perimetry). Many patients with visual field defects complain about perceptual difficulties in areas that are perimetrically normal. To look at a potential cause for such difficulties, we topographically determined temporal characteristics of visualinformation processing in those patients and compared them to those of healthy
Dorothe A. Poggel; Bernhard Treutwein; Hans Strasburger
In an experiment, we examined the effect of intermittency (from 25.6 Hz to 0.2 Hz) of visualinformation on continuous isometric\\u000a force production as a function of force level (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]). The amount of\\u000a force variability decreased and the irregularity of force output increased as a function of increased visual intermittency\\u000a rate.
We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG. PMID:24475080
We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each -mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the -mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.
The experiment examined if age-related increases in force variability were due to decreases in visual acuity and\\/or visual-motor\\u000a information processing deficits. Visualinformation scale was manipulated over a 250-fold range as young (20–29 years old)\\u000a and old (60–79 years old) participants produced isometric force output to a visually presented target. Older adults were found\\u000a to have a very small decrement in visual
An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using hidden Markov models; their outcomes are fused using a post-decision scheme. The Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and the vertical mouth opening are the chosen audio and visual
Attention has been implicated in postural control and other tasks requiring sensory integration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of attention in sensory-motor processing of vestibular and combined visual–vestibular information during seated rotations using a dual-task interference approach. We hypothesized that auditory information processing would be influenced by concurrent visual-ocular, vestibulo-ocular, or combined visual-vestibulo-ocular processing. We
Joseph M. Furman; Martijn L. T. M. Müller; Mark S. Redfern; J. Richard Jennings
It gains more and more attentions on how to enable users to dynamically construct and reconstruct Web applications of information convergence in run time to resolving urgent and unplanned business requirements. Visual programming environment, information resources virtualization and management, and visual representation of user-defined applications are important and challenging issues in dynamically constructing these applications. To address these needs, a
Communication between patients and health care providers may require sharing of data and knowledge that is complex and of high-volume. To support communication of these types of information, visualization techniques and tools can reduce cognitive burden in informed patient-centered health decisions and empower patients in their own care. Designing and implementing effective visualization depend on iterative consideration of cognitive needs
This paper describes a novel method for the visualization of hierarchically structured information. The Tree-Map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information.
Recent research has found visual object memory can be stored as part of a larger scene representation rather than independently of scene context. The present study examined how spatial and nonspatial contextual information modulate visual object memory. Two experiments tested participants’ visual memory by using a change detection task in which a target object’s orientation was either the same as it appeared during initial viewing or changed. In addition, we examined the effect of spatial and nonspatial contextual manipulations on change detection performance. The results revealed that visual object representations can be maintained reliably after viewing arrays of objects. Moreover, change detection performance was significantly higher when either spatial or nonspatial contextual information remained the same in the test image. We concluded that while processing complex visual stimuli such as object arrays, visual object memory can be stored as part of a comprehensive scene representation, and both spatial and nonspatial contextual changes modulate visual memory retrieval and comparison.
Predictions of task performance based on the information required by the task, visualinformation acquired from the source, information transmission channel characteristics, and human information processing limitations are compared to actual performance on tasks viewed directly or remotely either monoscopically or stereoscopically, under different motion conditions. The tasks require varying amounts of information and channel capacity for proficient task completion
Curtis S. Ikehara; Robert E. Cole; John O. Merritt
Backward masking can potentially provide evidence of the time needed for visual processing, a fundamental constraint that must be incorporated into computational models of vision. Although backward masking has been extensively used psychophysically, there is little direct evidence for the effects of visual masking on neuronal responses. To investigate the effects of a backward masking paradigm on the responses of
The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.
The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.
Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.
Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.
Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.
Saccadic eye movements are the result of neural decisions about where to move the eyes. These decisions are based on visualinformation accumulated before the saccade; however, during an ?100-ms interval immediately before the initiation of an eye movement, new visualinformation cannot influence the decision. Does the brain simply ignore information presented during this brief interval or is the information used for the subsequent saccade? Our study examines how and when the brain integrates visualinformation through time to drive saccades during visual search. We introduce a new technique, saccade-contingent reverse correlation, that measures the time course of visualinformation accrual driving the first and second saccades. Observers searched for a contrast-defined target among distractors. Independent contrast noise was added to the target and distractors every 25 ms. Only noise presented in the time interval in which the brain accumulates information will influence the saccadic decisions. Therefore, we can retrieve the time course of saccadic information accrual by averaging the time course of the noise, aligned to saccade initiation, across all trials with saccades to distractors. Results show that before the first saccade, visualinformation is being accumulated simultaneously for the first and second saccades. Furthermore, information presented immediately before the first saccade is not used in making the first saccadic decision but instead is stored and used by the neural processes driving the second saccade.
Caspi, Avi; Beutter, Brent R.; Eckstein, Miguel P.
Summary Objectives We evaluated the design of three novel visualization techniques for integrated health information with health care providers in older adult care. Through focus groups, we identified generalizable themes related to the visualization and interpretation of health information. Using these themes we address challenges with visualizing integrated health information and provide recommendations for designers. Methods We recruited ten health care providers to participate in three focus groups. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to code and extract themes related to the visualization of graphical displays. Results We identified a set of four common themes across focus groups related to: 1) Trust in data for decision-making; 2) Perceived level of detail for visualization (subthemes: holistic, individual components); 3) Cognitive issues (subthemes: training and experience; cognitive overload; contrast); and 4) Application of visual displays. Furthermore, recommendations are provided as part of the iterative design process for the visualizations. Conclusions Data visualization of health information is an important component of care, impacting both the accuracy and speed of decision making. There are both functional and cognitive elements to consider during the development of appropriate visualizations that integrate different components of health.
An experiment was performed to show that infants perceive auditory and visual stimuli within a common space and that they perceive the sound as an attribute of the visual object. Subjects were 22 infants aged 3 to 5 months. Each infant was presented with a toy that moved in a small arc from side to side of a small window at the rate of one arc per…
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevantinformation on sexual health\\/behavior. Findings indicate that information
Katrina Kubicek; William J. Beyer; George Weiss; Ellen Iverson; Michele D. Kipke
Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.
Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visualinformation on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…
Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline
The purpose of this series of four experiments was to examine the possible role of spontaneous imagery in memory confusions about the way in which visualinformation had been experienced. After viewing pictures of familiar objects, complete or incomplete in visual form, participants were asked to remember the way in which the objects had been presented. Although, as predicted, memory
Mary Ann Foley; Hugh J. Foley; Rachel Scheye; Angelica M. Bonacci
Visual cognitive tools (VCTs) are external mental aids that maintain and display visual representations (VRs) of information (i.e., structures, objects, concepts, ideas, and problems). VCTs allow learners to operate upon the VRs to perform epistemic (i.e., reasoning and knowledge-based) activities. In VCTs, the mechanism by which learners operate…
Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visualinformation processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…
In a simulated aircraft navigation task, a fusion technique known as triangulation was used to improve the accuracy and onscreen availability of location information from two separate radars. Three experiments investigated whether the reduced cognitive processing required to extract information from the fused environment led to impoverished retention of visual-spatial information. Experienced pilots and students completed various simulated flight missions and were required to make a number of location estimates. Following a retention interval, memory for locations was assessed. Experiment 1 demonstrated, in an applied setting, that the retention of fused information was problematic and Experiment 2 replicated this finding under laboratory conditions. Experiment 3 successfully improved the retention of fused information by limiting its availability within the interface, which it is argued, shifted participants' strategies from over-reliance on the display as an external memory source to more memory-dependent interaction. These results are discussed within the context of intelligent interface design and effective human-machine interaction. PMID:18484395
Waldron, Samuel M; Patrick, John; Duggan, Geoffrey B; Banbury, Simon; Howes, Andrew
Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.
Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.
As more archival metadata and archival records become available online, providing effective interfaces to those materials is increasingly important to give users access. This article describes five approaches from the hypertext and visualization research communities which can be used to improve such access: (1) navigating hierarchical structures,…
A novel effect is reported in which serial recall of visual digits was disrupted to a greater degree by the presence of the same set of digits presented as an irrelevant auditory sequence than by the presence of irrelevant auditory consonants, but only when the order of the irrelevant digits was incongruent with that of the to-be-remembered digits…
What frame of reference do we use to remember observed movements? One possibility is that visual working memory (VWM) retains movement information using a retinotopic frame of reference: A coordinate system with respect to the retina that retains view-dependent information. Alternatively, VWM might retain movement information using an allocentric frame of reference: A coordinate system with respect to the scene
We investigated the effects of visual speech information (articulatory gestures) on the perception of second language (L2)\\u000a sounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that listeners often fail to hear the difference between certain non-native phonemic\\u000a contrasts, such as in the case of Spanish native speakers regarding the Catalan sounds \\/?\\/ and \\/e\\/. Here, we tested whether\\u000a adding visualinformation about the
It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal\\u000a of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial\\u000a memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task—a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial
Sébastien Tremblay; Jean Saint-Aubin; Annie Jalbert
A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the VisualInformation-Seeking Mantra: Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of informationvisualizations that have been proposed in recent years. This paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data
Content-based visualinformation (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visualinformation produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visualinformation retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently, visual retrieval alone does not achieve the performance necessary for real-world clinical applications. Most of the common visual retrieval techniques have a MAP (Mean Average Precision) of around 2-3%, which is much lower than that achieved using textual retrieval (MAP=29%). Advanced machine learning techniques, together with good training data, have been shown to improve the performance of visual retrieval systems in the past. Multimodal retrieval (basing retrieval on both visual and textual information) can achieve better results than purely visual, but only when carefully applied. In many cases, multimodal retrieval systems performed even worse than purely textual retrieval systems. On the other hand, some multimodal retrieval systems demonstrated significantly increased early precision, which has been shown to be a desirable behavior in real-world systems.
Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William
Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers.
Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L
Interaction cost is an important but poorly understood factor in visualization design. We propose a framework of interaction costs inspired by Norman's Seven Stages of Action to facilitate study. From 484 papers, we collected 61 interaction-related usability problems reported in 32 user studies and placed them into our framework of seven costs: (1) Decision costs to form goals; (2) System-power costs to form system operations; (3) Multiple input mode costs to form physical sequences; (4) Physical-motion costs to execute sequences; (5) Visual-cluttering costs to perceive state; (6) View-change costs to interpret perception; (7) State-change costs to evaluate interpretation. We also suggested ways to narrow the gulfs of execution (2-4) and evaluation (5-7) based on collected reports. Our framework suggests a need to consider decision costs (1) as the gulf of goal formation. PMID:18988958
An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner's sensory system.
Chen Yu; Linda B. Smith; Hongwei Shen; Alfredo F. Pereira; Thomas Smith
1. Electrophysiological evidence is presented of interactions between two stimuli (sinusoidal gratings of equal spatial frequency but different contrast, phase-reversed sinusoidally at different temporal frequencies) located on opposite side of, and within a few degrees from, the vertical meridian. 2. These interactions are revealed by a depression of the cortical visual evoked potential (VEP) evoked by the grating of lower contrast in the presence of the grating of higher contrast. They are similar to, albeit weaker than, those obtained with superimposed asynchronously modulated gratings. 3. The VEP reduction occurs also if the stimuli are presented dichoptically. 4. It does not occur if the gratings are located one above the other either on the same or on opposite sides of the vertical meridian. 5. The strength of the VEP reduction depends on the relative contrast of the two gratings and vanishes for spatial frequencies beyond 4 cycles/deg and temporal frequencies of the high-contrast grating beyond 10 Hz. 6. The results are in agreement with data on visual callosal connections in animals and confirm previous psychophysical findings (Berardi & Fiorentini, 1987) indicating the particular properties of the interhemispheric cross-talk between symmetric regions of the visual field astride the vertical meridian in man. Images Fig. 1
Berardi, N; Bodis-Wollner, I; Fiorentini, A; Giuffre, G; Morelli, M
Large amounts of geo-referenced text information such as messages from microblog websites are continuously becoming more popular. In this paper, we introduce a new visualization method based on tag clouds for geo-referenced text information. We process large amounts of geo-referenced text, using several visual metaphors including tag clouds, for the exploration of information on maps, instead of using just conventional cartographic approaches. The results show that this method can be useful for presentation and exploration of such geo-referenced text information.
Li, X.; Hua, Y.-X.; Zhao, J.-X.; Wang, L.-N.; Wang, P.
In this comment we argue that a proof of phase reset is difficult for a variety of reasons. We suggest that a theoretical analysis of the assumptions and empirical evaluation of predictions of the phase reset model offers a promising way to shed new light on mechanisms generating ERPs. The crucial assumption is that the purpose of phase reset is the event-related reorganization of the phase of task relevant oscillations in a way to enhance stimulus processing. We assume that the findings reported by (Risner, M., Aura, Ch., Black, J., and Gawne, T., 2009--this issue. The visual evoked potential is independent of surface alpha rhythm phase. Neuroimage.), may be due to the lack of task relevance of alpha in an experiment where subjects were passively viewing light flashes. PMID:19345739
We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visual- ization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most
Experiences which belong to a kind of tacit knowledge were gradually summarized by the experts during their long working procedures. To analyze and inherit those experiences are worthwhile to the social construction and improvement. We build a platform composed of some visualization methods and analysis methods to present and analyze the data (from database, paper, web and etc.). So that students can intuitively understand the academic thinking of masters better than before. The platform has been applied in investigating the masters’ experiences of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the positive results were also introduced.
Abstract—Interaction cost is an important but poorly understood,factor in visualization design. We propose,a framework,of interaction costs inspired by Norman’s Seven Stages of Action to facilitate study. From 484 papers, we collected 61 interaction-related usability problems,reported,in 32 user studies and placed,them,into our framework,of seven,costs: (1) Decision costs to form goals; (2) System-power,costs to form system,operations; (3) Multiple input mode,costs to form
Many documents available on the current web have quite a complex structure that allows to present various kinds of information.\\u000a Apart from the main content, the documents usually contain headers and footers, navigation sections and other types of additional\\u000a information. For many applications such as document indexing or browsing on special devices, it is desirable that the main\\u000a document information
Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.
As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451
We investigated whether humans use a target’s remembered location to plan reaching movements to targets according to the relative reliabilities of visual and remembered information. Using their index finger, subjects moved a virtual object from one side of a table to the other, and then went back to a target. In some trials, the target shifted unnoticed while the finger made the first movement. We regressed subjects’ movement trajectories against the initial and shifted target locations to infer the weights that subjects gave to remembered and visual location. We measured the reliability of vision and memory by adding conditions in which the target only appeared after subjects made the first movement (vision-only) and in which the target was initially present, but disappeared during the first movement (memory-only). When both visual and remembered information were available, movement trajectories were biased to the remembered target location. The different weights that subjects gave to memory and visualinformation on average matched the weights predicted by the variance associated with the use of vision and memory alone. This suggests that humans integrate remembered information about object locations with peripheral visualinformation by taking into account the relative reliability of the two sources of information.
Professionals involved in the creation of text-based communication face a number of challenges. These include overburdened and often uninterested users juxtaposed with the writer's desire to communicate relevant topical information. Uninvolved users are likely to ignore the message. This may be exacerbated by increases in text length designed to increase the amount and\\/or detail of information to be communicated. An
BRUCE A. HUHMANN; DAVID L. MOTHERSBAUGH; GEORGE R. FRANKE
1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…
We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.
Used Visual Expectation Paradigm to describe information processing changes and individual differences during first year of life. Found regular age changes in mean reaction time and variability but not in minimum reaction time, suggesting that growth rate of sensory-detection information is constant during first year but age changes occur in level…
Canfield, Richard L.; Smith, Elliott G.; Brezsnyak, Michael P.; Snow, Kyle L.
In the era of high-frequency occurrence of natural disasters, users are more urgently concerned with the sharing of the satellite sensor resources information and coordinating the complement of sensor observation. However, the capacity of discovering, retrieving and visualizing the sensor resource information accurately based on heterogeneous sensors over sensor network is very limited. This paper proposes the system architecture for
Perception of speech is improved when presentation of the audio signal is accompanied by concordant visual speech gesture information. This enhancement is most prevalent when the audio signal is degraded. One potential means by which the brain affords perceptual enhancement is thought to be through the integration of concordant information from multiple sensory channels in a common site of convergence,
Daniel E. Callan; Jeffrey A. Jones; Kevin Munhall; Christian Kroos; Akiko M. Callan; Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson
This paper deals with the extraction of part of the visualinformation presented in streets, roads, and motorways. This information, provided by either traffic or road signs and route-guidance signs, is extremely important for safe and suc- cessful driving. An automatic system that is capable of extracting and identifying these signs automatically would help human drivers enormously; navigation would be
Arturo De La Escalera; Jose M. Armingol; José Manuel Pastor; Francisco José Rodríguez
To assess changes in human understanding and decision making, the paper examines (1) the influence of visualinformation on perceptions about groundwater management in Phoenix, Arizona and (2) the correlates and dimensions underlying people's views about water scarcity and mitigation strategies. While perceptions entrenched in ideologies are difficult to change, different types of information (three-dimensional versus two-dimensional) have distinct impacts
The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…
A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visualinformation is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…
This paper presents INSYDER, a content- based visual-information-seeking system for the Web. The Web can be seen as one huge digital library offering a variety of very useful information for business analysts. INSYDER addresses these possibilities and offers power- ful retrieval and visualisation functionalities. The main focus during the development was on the usability of the system. Therefore, a variety
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.
McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.
The integration of auditory and visual stimuli is crucial for recognizing objects, communicating effectively, and navigating through our complex world. Although the frontal lobes are involved in memory, communication, and language, there has been no evidence that the integration of communication information occurs at the single-cell level in the frontal lobes. Here, we show that neurons in the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) integrate audiovisual communication stimuli. The multisensory interactions included both enhancement and suppression of a predominantly auditory or a predominantly visual response, although multisensory suppression was the more common mode of response. The multisensory neurons were distributed across the VLPFC and within previously identified unimodal auditory and visual regions (O’Scalaidhe et al., 1997; Romanski and Goldman-Rakic, 2002). Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that single prefrontal neurons integrate communication information from the auditory and visual domains, suggesting that these neurons are an important node in the cortical network responsible for communication.
Sugihara, Tadashi; Diltz, Mark D.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Romanski, Lizabeth M.
The authors describe work on the GRiP (Graphical Representations in Programming) Project1, which aims to build a support environment for novices learning to program using a visual programming language (VPL). The\\u000a design of the environment is based on a series of experiments which investigate issues of visual programming language paradigm,\\u000a and the ways in which novices extract information from a
The focus of this study was the release from informational masking that could be obtained in a speech task by viewing a video of the target talker. A closed-set speech recognition paradigm was used to measure informational masking in 23 children (ages 6–16 years) and 10 adults. An audio-only condition required attention to a monaural target speech message that was presented to the same ear with a time-synchronized distracter message. In an audiovisual condition, a synchronized video of the target talker was also presented to assess the release from informational masking that could be achieved by speechreading. Children required higher target/distracter ratios than adults to reach comparable performance levels in the audio-only condition, reflecting a greater extent of informational masking in these listeners. There was a monotonic age effect, such that even the children in the oldest age group (12–16.9 years) demonstrated performance somewhat poorer than adults. Older children and adults improved significantly in the audiovisual condition, producing a release from informational masking of 15 dB or more in some adult listeners. Audiovisual presentation produced no informational masking release for the youngest children. Across all ages, the benefit of a synchronized video was strongly associated with speechreading ability.
Wightman, Frederic; Kistler, Doris; Brungart, Douglas
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is an electrophysiological brain activity recording technique that has been widely revisited in recent years, not only for clinical monitoring, but also for prosthetic applications. However, the extent and limitations of the technique are poorly understood. Higher areas of human and macaque ventral visual cortices are known to have functional domain structures that are selective to certain categories, and population vectors that have been derived from visually evoked single-unit activity (SUA) recording in this region have been shown to form category clusters. How can visually evoked potentials recorded with ECoG from the same region be exploited to extract category information? To answer this question, the development of a simultaneous ECoG and SUA recording device by the modification of a previously reported flexible mesh ECoG probe with a microelectromechanical system has been promising (Toda et al., 2011). Indeed, Toda et al. conducted simultaneous recordings and reported that mesh ECoG signals exhibited comparable or better signal variabilities compared to conventional methods in the rat visual cortex. With this approach, we conducted intensive simultaneous ECoG and SUA recordings from the macaque anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. We compared how basic visual category and fine information is decoded from different recording modalities. Our preliminary results indicated that ECoG signals from the IT cortex may be a useful source for reading out certain levels of category information from visual input. PMID:23735526
Sociological work that has engaged with the issue of patient involvement in health care suggests it needs to be recognised that decision-making is not simply an individual cognitive act contained in a single consultation, but a process that is distributed across multiple encounters in relation to a range of agents and non-human actors. Drawing on such conceptualisations of decision-making, and based on semi-structured interviews with 24 General Practitioners (GPs) in the United Kingdom about the prescription of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, this paper explores the preemptive work that GPs perform when attempting to achieve patient involvement in healthcare decisions. The paper identifies a set of repertoires through which they evaluate and coordinate often contradictory forms of knowledge, transforming them into information that they think is relevant to patients, and which will potentially facilitate meaningful involvement in healthcare decisions. The study concludes by suggesting that such fluid and context sensitive practices are a necessary strategy for navigating complex health environments, which can be justified and underpinned by a relational model of autonomy. However, work needs to be done to explore how such judgments can be calibrated to mesh with the decision-making preferences of patients and what new approaches and standards for practice this would require. PMID:24034957
Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevantvisualinformation from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…
Today's world wide distributed information systems, like , e.g., the World Wide Web, enable the homogeneous, simple access to all kinds of globally distribu- ted scientific data (images, graphics, simulation results, etc.) and services. At the same time, wireless data communication enables location independent data access from mobile computing systems. An interesting challenge is the generalization and integration of both
Thomas Kirste; Andreas Heuer; Heidrun Schumann; Bernd Kehrer
A straightforward method of combining information from separate sources for pattern recognition is reported. Conditional class probabilities are computed for each channel independently, using a special network architecture. These probabilities are then combined according to Bayes' rule under the assumption of conditional independence. This method does not require any parameters other than those used to model each modality individually, is
BACKGROUND: Information transmission and processing in the nervous system has stochastic nature. Multiple factors contribute to neuronal trial-to-trial variability. Noise and variations are introduced by the processes at the molecular and cellular level (thermal noise, channel current noise, membrane potential variations, biochemical and diffusion noise at synapses etc). The stochastic processes are affected by different physical (temperature, electromagnetic field) and
Hiie Hinrikus; Deniss Karai; Jaanus Lass; Anastassia Rodina
The display is a key element in the softcopy image chain. If the display is not optimized, information is lost. Studies seeking to assess the effects of bandwidth compression and image enhancement will reach false conclusions unless the display system is optimized. Although standards exist for the display of text and symbology, no such standards exist for continuous tone imagery.
Any negotiation involves consideration of several variables which act independently and collectively to determine the configuration of alternative outcomes. The numerical analysis of alternative options can be a tedious and lengthy exercise, thus inhibiting the negotiator from making informed decisions and indeed achieving the optimum benefit. Construction project financial management is an example where all related variables are up for
Computer graphics systems that provide interactive display and manipulation of three-dimensional data are powerful tools for the analysis and communication of technical information required for characterization and design of a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Greater understanding of site performance and repository design information is possible when performance-assessment modeling results can be visually analyzed in relation to site geologic and hydrologic information and engineering data for surface and subsurface facilities. In turn, this enhanced visualization capability provides better communication between technical staff and program management with respect to analysis of available information and prioritization of program planning. A commercially-available computer system was used to demonstrate some of the current technology for three-dimensional visualization within the architecture of systems for nuclear waste management. This computer system was used to interactively visualize and analyze the information for two examples: (1) site-characterization and engineering data for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and (2) three-dimensional simulations of a hypothetical release and transport of contaminants from a source of radionuclides to the vadose zone. Users may assess the three-dimensional distribution of data and modeling results by interactive zooming, rotating, slicing, and peeling operations. For those parts of the database where information is sparse or not available, the software incorporates models for the interpolation and extrapolation of data over the three-dimensional space of interest. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Alexander, D.H.; Cerny, B.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (USA); Hill, E.R.; Krupka, K.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (USA); Smoot, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Smith, D.R.; Waldo, K. [Dynamic Graphics, Inc., Bethesda, MD (USA)
The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources and tools has resulted in a large increase in the level of interaction between S`COOL participants and the NASA team. With the posting of the new Excel tools, we anticipate a large increase in active data analysis by our K-12 teachers and students. www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/usedata.html
Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.
Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early. PMID:24098919
Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding. Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be. The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes. The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early.
We propose a display technique that ensures security of visualinformation by use of visual cryptography. A displayed image appears as a completely random pattern unless viewed through a decoding mask. The display has a limited viewing zone with the decoding mask. We have developed a multi-color encryption code set. Eight colors are represented in combinations of a displayed image composed of red, green, blue, and black subpixels and a decoding mask composed of transparent and opaque subpixels. Furthermore, we have demonstrated secure information display by use of an LCD panel. PMID:19474946
Abstract In this paper a content-based image retrieval method that can search large image databases e5ciently by color, texture, and shape content is proposed. Quantized RGB histograms and the dominant triple (hue, saturation, and value), which are extracted from quantized HSV joint histogram in the local image region, are used for representing global=local color information in the image. Entropy and
Hun-woo Yoo; Dong-sik Jang; Seh-hwan Jung; Jin-hyung Park; Kwang-seop Song
\\u000a As 3D graphics environment becomes the standards for most computer systems, it is natural to seek a 3D input device for manipulating\\u000a an object in a 3D virtual world. Unlike 2D interface, however, 3D interface creates perceptual mismatches including depth\\u000a perception problem. The objective of our research is to enhance the depth perception and 3D interaction by providing additional\\u000a information
In three experiments, we examined connections between item-recognition memory and memory for itemposition information. With\\u000a sequences of compound gratings as study and probe items, subjects made either itemposition judgments (Experiments 1 and 2),\\u000a by identifying the serial position of the study item that matched the probe, or recognition judgments (Experiment 3), by judging\\u000a whether the probe had or had not
Yuko Yotsumoto; Michael J. Kahana; Chris McLaughlin; Robert Sekuler
Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation between the point of contact and "sweet spot") was compared for no feedback (N), visual alone, auditory alone, and tactile alone. Swings were more accurate for all single-modality combinations as compared to no feedback, and visual produced the greatest accuracy. In Experiment 2, the congruency between visual, tactile, and auditory was varied so that in some trials, the different modalities indicated that the simulated ball contacted the bat at different points. Results indicated that batters combined information but gave more weight to visual. Batting training manuals, which typically only discuss visual cues, should emphasize the importance of auditory and tactile feedback in baseball batting. PMID:19791635
Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes.
van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.
Proposes an effective term suggestion approach to interactive Web searches. Explains a log-based approach to relevant term extraction and term suggestion where relevant terms suggested for a user query are those that co-occur in similar query sessions from search engine logs rather than in the retrieved documents. (Author/LRW)
Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.
The force-directed layout is commonly used in computer-generated visualizations of protein-protein interaction networks. While it is good for providing a visual outline of the protein complexes and their interactions, it has two limitations when used as a visual analysis method. The first is poor reproducibility. Repeated running of the algorithm does not necessarily generate the same layout, therefore, demanding cognitive readaptation on the investigator's part. The second limitation is that it does not explicitly display complementary biological information, e.g. Gene Ontology, other than the protein names or gene symbols. Here, we present an alternative layout called the clustered circular layout. Using the human DNA replication protein-protein interaction network as a case study, we compared the two network layouts for their merits and limitations in supporting visual analysis. PMID:20480505
Fung, David C Y; Wilkins, Marc R; Hart, David; Hong, Seok-Hee
This study investigates the use of criteria to assess rel- evant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 docu- ment representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant, partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed
It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task--a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial recall task--with delayed recall, performance and eyetracking data were recorded in order to establish whether visual-spatial rehearsal could be evidenced by eye movement. The use of eye movement as a form of rehearsal is detectable (Experiment 1), and it seems to contribute to serial memory performance over and above rehearsal based on shifts of spatial attention (Experiments 1 and 2). PMID:17048730
Previous studies have shown that processing information in one sensory modality can either be enhanced or attenuated by concurrent stimulation of another modality. Here, we reconcile these apparently contradictory results by showing that the sign of cross-modal interactions depends on whether the content of two modalities is associated or not. When concurrently presented auditory and visual stimuli are paired by chance, cue-induced preparatory neural activity is strongly enhanced in the task-relevant sensory system and suppressed in the irrelevant system. Conversely, when information in the two modalities is reliably associated, activity is enhanced in both systems regardless of which modality is task relevant. Our findings illustrate an ecologically optimal flexibility of the neural mechanisms that govern multisensory processing: facilitation occurs when integration is expected, and suppression occurs when distraction is expected. Because thalamic structures were more active when the senses needed to operate separately, we propose them to serve gatekeeper functions in early cross-modal interactions. PMID:17122051
Baier, Bernhard; Kleinschmidt, Andreas; Müller, Notger G
Examined the distinction between (a) classical views of attitudes as stable dispositions based on beliefs and prior experiences accessed from memory and (b) the self-perception analysis of attitudes as relatively transitory responses dependent on current contextual cues. The access of 159 undergraduates to relevantinformation in memory was assessed by the number of issue-related beliefs and prior experiences they could
This paper addresses some key issues relating to the development of new technology for clinical information systems (CIS) in relation to imaging and visualizing data. With the increasing importance of molecular and cellular biology, a new type of medicine, molecular based medicine, is now developing. This will significantly alter the way in which medicine is practiced. The view is presented
Chueh-loo Poh; Richard I. Kitney; Rasu B. K. Shrestha
We address the problem of detecting non-transient anomalies in visualinformation. By non-transient anomalies we mean changes in the way environments look that are persistent across time. Such changes may include leaving unattended bags at airport corridors, putting graffiti in building walls or damaging public property. Detecting non- transient anomalies is critical to security and surveillance in indoor and outdoor
Michael E. Kounavis; Joel Morrissette; Sadagopan Srinivasan; Raj Yavatkar
Because subjective evaluation is not adequate for assessing work in an automatic system, using an objective image fusion performance metric is a common approach to evaluate the quality of different fusion schemes. In this paper, a multi-resolution image fusion metric using visualinformation fidelity (VIF) is presented to assess fusion performance objectively. This method has four stages: (1) Source and
Learning management systems (LMSs) store different kinds of e-learning related data, whose analysis is important for monitoring students' learning processes and for helping detection of potential problems on these processes. Different researches apply informationvisualization concepts and techniques for graphically and interactively presenting LMS data for analysis. Nonetheless, these researches show data obtained by predefined database queries, which fit only
Celmar Guimarães Da Silva; Heloisa Vieira Da Rocha
Older adults look at the ground more while they are walking than younger adults do. In the present study, the effect of blocking that exproprioceptive visualinformation on the walking pattern of older adults was investigated. The first 0.75 m of the floor in front of healthy young adults (n = 10, mean age = 26.0 years) and 2 groups
Patricia G. Anderson; Bart Nienhuis; Theo Mulder; Wouter Hulstijn
A series of four experiments was conducted to investigate whether the nature of a visual display affects short-term memory for numeric information extracted from it. Three different kinds of displays were chosen for study: a digital counter, a moving scal...
Graphs and charts are frequently used in school, work and everyday living. However, traditional techniques of providing this information to individuals who are visually impaired are cumbersome and slow. Refreshable tactile displays have been developed and used to display line graphs, bar graphs and pie charts. In this paper, we investigate the use of a haptic matrix-like display that can
Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…
Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing…
Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.
Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…
Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun
The organizations listed in this reference circular provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and referral, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.
This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and consultation, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations offer guidance to families…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.
This paper describes a wildfire forecasting application based on a 3D virtual environment and a fire simulation engine. A novel open-source framework is presented for the development of 3D graphics applications over large geographic areas, offering high performance 3D visualization and powerful interaction tools for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) community. The application includes a remote module that allows simultaneous connections of several users for monitoring a real wildfire event. The system is able to make a realistic composition of what is really happening in the area of the wildfire with dynamic 3D objects and location of human and material resources in real time, providing a new perspective to analyze the wildfire information. The user is enabled to simulate and visualize the propagation of a fire on the terrain integrating at the same time spatial information on topography and vegetation types with weather and wind data. The application communicates with a remote web service that is in charge of the simulation task. The user may specify several parameters through a friendly interface before the application sends the information to the remote server responsible of carrying out the wildfire forecasting using the FARSITE simulation model. During the process, the server connects to different external resources to obtain up-to-date meteorological data. The client application implements a realistic 3D visualization of the fire evolution on the landscape. A Level Of Detail (LOD) strategy contributes to improve the performance of the visualization system.
Castrillón, M.; Jorge, P. A.; López, I. J.; Macías, A.; Martín, D.; Nebot, R. J.; Sabbagh, I.; Quintana, F. M.; Sánchez, J.; Sánchez, A. J.; Suárez, J. P.; Trujillo, A.
1. The possibility of temporal encoding in the spike trains of single neurons recorded in the temporal lobe visual cortical areas of rhesus macaques was analyzed with the use of principal compo- nent and information theory analyses of smoothed spike trains. The neurons analyzed had responses selective for faces. 2. Provided that a correction was applied to earlier methods of
Cook et al. suggest that motor-visual neurons originate from associative learning. This suggestion has interesting implications for the processing of socially relevantvisualinformation in social interactions. Here, we discuss two aspects of the associative learning account that seem to have particular relevance for visual recognition of social information in social interactions - namely, context-specific and contingency based learning. PMID:24775153
The display is a key element in the softcopy image chain. If the display is not optimized, information is lost. Studies seeking to assess the effects of bandwidth compression and image enhancement will reach false conclusions unless the display system is optimized. Although standards exist for the display of text and symbology, no such standards exist for continuous tone imagery. To help remedy this situation, a series of studies were conducted to help define guidelines for the effective display of continuous tone imagery, with emphasis on surveillance and reconnaissance imagery. Imagery of various types (visible, IR, multispectral, SAR) was displayed on cathode ray tube (CRT) and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) that varied in luminance and spatial resolution performance. Over a series of eight studies, trained imagery analysts provided National Imagery Interpretability Ratings (NIIRS) and Briggs target ratings (a measure of minimum discriminable target size as a function of contrast) to assess the impact of display variations. From these studies, recommendations were derived for display pixel density, contrast modulation, and luminance measures including dynamic rang, ambient light level, color temperature, and perceptual linearization. This paper defines the display performance measures used, performance measurement procedures, and presents guidelines for display optimization. Results of studies supporting the guidelines are summarized. Use of the guidelines is recommended in any study involving softcopy display of continuous tone imagery.
The present study investigated differences in information processing rate of high and low level soccer players under three time-pressure conditions: High (0.5 sec.), Medium (1 sec.), and Low (2 sec.). No significant difference was found under Low time pressure, but under Medium time pressure the higher skilled group processed more visualinformation than the lower skilled group (p<.05). PMID:12831287
The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only informationrelevant to his flight route that includes only informationrelevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.
Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.
Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar
Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity.
Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity. PMID:22473894
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.
Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this proposal. However, given the infinite capacity of long-term memory, it is unclear whether throwing a representation out of visual working memory really removes its effects on memory entirely. In this paper, we advocate for an approach that examines our ability to erase memory representations from working memory, as well as possible traces that those erased representations leave in long-term memory. PMID:24782798
Whereas sensory memory in humans has been found to store auditory information for a longer time than visualinformation, it is unclear whether this is the case also in other species. We recorded hippocampal event-related potentials (ERPs) in awake rabbits exposed to occasional changes in a repeated 50-ms acoustic (1000 versus 2000 Hz) and visual (vertical versus horizontal orientation) stimulus. Three
In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…
Vision identifies objects rapidly and efficiently. In contrast, object recognition by touch is much slower. Furthermore, haptics usually serially accumulates information from different parts of objects, whereas vision typically processes object information in parallel. Is haptic object identification slower simply due to sequential information acquisition and the resulting memory load or due to more fundamental processing differences between the senses? To compare the time course of visual and haptic object recognition, we slowed visual processing using a novel, restricted viewing technique. In an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment, participants discriminated familiar, nameable from unfamiliar, unnamable objects both visually and haptically. Analyses focused on the evoked and total fronto-central theta-band (5–7?Hz; a marker of working memory) and the occipital upper alpha-band (10–12?Hz; a marker of perceptual processing) locked to the onset of classification. Decreases in total upper alpha-band activity for haptic identification of objects indicate a likely processing role of multisensory extrastriate areas. Long-latency modulations of alpha-band activity differentiated between familiar and unfamiliar objects in haptics but not in vision. In contrast, theta-band activity showed a general increase over time for the slowed-down visual recognition task only. We conclude that haptic object recognition relies on common representations with vision but also that there are fundamental differences between the senses that do not merely arise from differences in their speed of processing.
Martinovic, Jasna; Lawson, Rebecca; Craddock, Matt
The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863
A new and emerging paradigm in molecular biology is revealing that RNA is implicated in nearly every aspect of the metabolism in the cell. To enhance our understanding of the function of these RNA molecules in the cell, it is essential that we have a complete understanding of their higher-order structures. While many computational tools have been developed to predict and analyse these higher-order RNA structures, few are able to visualize them for analytical purposes. In this paper, we present an interactive visualization tool of the secondary structure of RNA, named RNA2DMap. This program enables multiple-dimensions of information about RNA structure to be selected, customized and displayed to visually identify patterns and relationships. RNA2DMap facilitates the comparative analysis and understanding of RNAs that cannot be readily obtained with other graphical or text output from computer programs. Three use cases are presented to illustrate how RNA2DMap aids structural analysis. PMID:22983261
Xu, Weijia; Wongsa, Ame; Lee, Jung; Shang, Lei; Cannone, Jamie J; Gutell, Robin R
A new and emerging paradigm in molecular biology is revealing that RNA is implicated in nearly every aspect of the metabolism in the cell. To enhance our understanding of the function of these RNA molecules in the cell, it is essential that we have a complete understanding of their higher-order structures. While many computational tools have been developed to predict and analyse these higher-order RNA structures, few are able to visualize them for analytical purposes. In this paper, we present an interactive visualization tool of the secondary structure of RNA, named RNA2DMap. This program enables multiple-dimensions of information about RNA structure to be selected, customized and displayed to visually identify patterns and relationships. RNA2DMap facilitates the comparative analysis and understanding of RNAs that cannot be readily obtained with other graphical or text output from computer programs. Three use cases are presented to illustrate how RNA2DMap aids structural analysis.
Xu, Weijia; Wongsa, Ame; Lee, Jung; Shang, Lei; Cannone, Jamie J; Gutell, Robin R.
This paper examines the level and changes of conservatism in Greece for the period 1989- 2003. At the same time it gauges the Value Relevance of earnings as it is presented by the power of the relation between earnings and returns. The reason is to assess the extent to which Conservatism affects the relation between earnings and returns. The findings
Dimitrios V. Kousenidis; Anestis C. Ladas; Christos I. Negakis
Visual receptive field (RF) attributes in visual cortex of primates have been explained mainly from cortical connections: visual RFs progress from simple to complex through cortico-cortical pathways from lower to higher levels in the visual hierarchy. This feedforward flow of information is paired with top-down processes through the feedback pathway. Although the hierarchical organization explains the spatial properties of RFs, is unclear how a non-linear transmission of activity through the visual hierarchy can yield smooth contrast response functions in all level of the hierarchy. Depending on the gain, non-linear transfer functions create either a bimodal response to contrast, or no contrast dependence of the response in the highest level of the hierarchy. One possible mechanism to regulate this transmission of visual contrast information from low to high level involves an external component that shortcuts the flow of information through the hierarchy. A candidate for this shortcut is the Pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus. To investigate representation of stimulus contrast a hierarchical model network of ten cortical areas is examined. In each level of the network, the activity from the previous layer is integrated and then non-linearly transmitted to the next level. The arrangement of interactions creates a gradient from simple to complex RFs of increasing size as one moves from lower to higher cortical levels. The visual input is modeled as a Gaussian random input, whose width codes for the contrast. This input is applied to the first area. The output activity ratio among different contrast values is analyzed for the last level to observe sensitivity to a contrast and contrast invariant tuning. For a purely cortical system, the output of the last area can be approximately contrast invariant, but the sensitivity to contrast is poor. To account for an alternative visual processing pathway, non-reciprocal connections from and to a parallel pulvinar like structure of nine areas is coupled to the system. Compared to the pure feedforward model, cortico-pulvino-cortical output presents much more sensitivity to contrast and has a similar level of contrast invariance of the tuning.
...comments received without change in the electronic docket, including any personal information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chia Chang, NIOSH, telephone (202) 245-0625, NORAmiddecade@cdc.gov. Dated: July 13, 2011. John Howard,...
Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention.
Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna
Neural populations across cortical layers perform different computational tasks. However, it is not known whether information in different layers is encoded using a common neural code or whether it depends on the specific layer. Here we studied the laminar distribution of information in a large-scale computational model of cat primary visual cortex. We analyzed the amount of information about the input stimulus conveyed by the different representations of the cortical responses. In particular, we compared the information encoded in four possible neural codes: (1) the information carried by the firing rate of individual neurons; (2) the information carried by spike patterns within a time window; (3) the rate-and-phase information carried by the firing rate labelled by the phase of the Local Field Potentials (LFP); (4) the pattern-and-phase information carried by the spike patterns tagged with the LFP phase. We found that there is substantially more information in the rate-and-phase code compared with the firing rate alone for low LFP frequency bands (less than 30 Hz). When comparing how information is encoded across layers, we found that the extra information contained in a rate-and-phase code may reach 90 % in Layer 4, while in other layers it reaches only 60 %, compared to the information carried by the firing rate alone. These results suggest that information processing in primary sensory cortices could rely on different coding strategies across different layers. PMID:22907135
Basalyga, Gleb; Montemurro, Marcelo A; Wennekers, Thomas
Ego-identity has been defined as a theory of self (e.g., Moshman, 1999) in which identity exploration is the instrument used for the construction of the theory (Grotevant, 1987). It is thought that those who are engaged in identity exploration actively seek out information and test hypotheses about their theory of self and that they process information, especially information related to
This paper presents a novel exploratory informationvisualization technique that allows users to analyze time-varying characteristics of large datasets within immersive virtual reality environments. This metaphor represents data objects as particles, coined infoticles, which are placed inside a three-dimensional scene. Forces correspond to specific data value conditions and influence matching infoticles according to the rules of Newtonian mechanics. In addition, infoticles are driven by a set of local behavior rules that react upon successive data updates, hereby generating distinct emergent motion typologies which are visually interpretable by users. These data patterns can be detected dynamically by observing the spatial transformations of infoticle streams, or statically, by interpreting the shapes of individual pathlines. This visualization method exploits the qualities of immersive virtual reality technology as it combines the characteristics of behavior generation and motion perception with the concepts of spatial awareness and stereoscopic vision. Infoticles are useful in visualizing time-varying characteristics of large, dynamic datasets because of their cognitively distinguishable and interpretative animation properties. The generation and evolution of infoticle patterns are based upon empirically defined grammatical rules. These visualization principles are demonstrated using the access logs of an internal knowledge document management website of a global consultancy company.
Vande Moere, Andrew; Mieusset, Kuk Hwan; Gross, Markus
\\u000a In this chapter we describe the many GUI libraries on GNU\\/Linux systems. These include, GTK, Qt, as well as wxWidget and Fox\\u000a Toolkit. We present OpenGL through many examples, which also present GLUT, GLUI and show example of using OpenGL from within\\u000a Python. Graphics rendering engines (OGRE) and OpenGL helper libraries are also discussed. In addition to 3d graphics, graphics
The human ability to derive control-oriented visual field information from tele-operated helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) in nap-of-the-earth flight is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a forward looking infrared radiation camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot''s line-of-sight to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proven effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo- vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the control-oriented visual field information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the HMD, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.
Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature
Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Conclusion Many critical information needs of PH practitioners are not being met efficiently or at all. We propose a dual strategy of: 1) promoting incremental improvements in existing information delivery systems based on the expressed preferences of the PH users of the systems and 2) the concurrent development and rigorous evaluation of new models of information organization and delivery that draw on successful resources already operating to deliver information to clinical medical practitioners.
LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R
This paper describes a joint research project in data visualization between MetLife and the CSTAR group at Andersen Consulting. The goal of the project was to produce a tool for retrieval, display, and analyzing competitive information that would run on conventional PC platforms. As part of the visualization scheme, icon clusters provide a graphical representation of each case's salient features, while 1, 2, or 3 dimensional maps of clusters reveal relationships among the cases. A graphical query facility allows users to specify cluster maps dynamically. In addition, the tool supports an ever-present 'bird's-eye-view' of the information space being analyzed. The tool is particularly valuable for exploring patterns among stories grouped and viewed in the 2 and 3 dimensional views which would be difficult to discern from a hardcopy version.
Myers, Barbara E.; Flast, Robert; Gershman, Anatole; Gottsman, Edward J.
A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevantinformation on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection.
During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase.
Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084
This study examined the influence of visualinformation on the multi-joint coordination patterns in maintaining one-leg stance. 12 participants stood still on their left leg for two 1 min trials with and without visualinformation. The multi-joint coordination patterns in the frontal plane were examined using a frequency domain principal component analysis (PCAf) on 14 joint angular motion time series. The factor loading spectra of PC1 showed two distinct multi-joint postural coordination strategies that relate to the mechanical constraints on balance identified by Hof (2007) . The more prevalent strategy was the coordination of the left ankle-left knee or the left ankle only motion that is related to the "moving the center of pressure" strategy. A 2nd multi-joint coordination strategy showed larger factor loading of the trunk and upper limbs (i.e., shoulders and elbows) in addition to the left ankle implying the role of the upper limbs to generate "counter-rotational torque against the sway of the center of mass (COM)". With eyes open, the participants predominantly utilized the 1st strategy to maintain balance but switched to the 2nd strategy when visualinformation was not available during the stance. The role of visualinformation in determining the prevalence of two dominant multi-joint coordination kinematic patterns in one-leg stance reflects the redundant and emergent properties of the postural control system that channel the biomechanical constraints on balance arising from the interaction of the task, environment and the individual. PMID:24388780
Wang, Zheng; Molenaar, Peter C M; Challis, John H; Jordan, Kimberlee; Newell, Karl M
EWING, F. M. E., I. J. DEARY, R. J. McCRIMMON, M. W. J. STRACHAN AND B. M. FRIER. Effect of acute hypoglycemia on visualinformation processing in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PHYSIOL BEHAV 64(5) 653–660, 1998.—Acute hypoglycemia in people with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus causes general impairment in cognitive performance. The effects on more specific cognitive processes
Fiona M. E Ewing; Ian J Deary; Rory J McCrimmon; Mark W. J Strachan; Brian M Frier
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulation of the characteristics of visual stimulus on postural control in dyslexic children. A total of 18 dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room, as still as possible, and looked at a target at different conditions of distance between the participant and a moving room frontal wall (25-150cm) and vision (full and central). The first trial was performed without vision (baseline). Then four trials were performed in which the room remained stationary and eight trials with the room moving, lasting 60s each. Mean sway amplitude, coherence, relative phase, and angular deviation were calculated. The results revealed that dyslexic children swayed with larger magnitude in both stationary and moving conditions. When the room remained stationary, all children showed larger body sway magnitude at 150cm distance. Dyslexic children showed larger body sway magnitude in central compared to full vision condition. In the moving condition, body sway magnitude was similar between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children but the coupling between visualinformation and body sway was weaker in dyslexic children. Moreover, in the absence of peripheral visual cues, induced body sway in dyslexic children was temporally delayed regarding visual stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that poor postural control performance in dyslexic children is related to how sensory information is acquired from the environment and used to produce postural responses. In conditions in which sensory cues are less informative, dyslexic children take longer to process sensory stimuli in order to obtain precise information, which leads to performance deterioration. PMID:24864051
Coroners' records are an accessible source of information on suicides. To assess their usefulness in relation to the investigation of specific methods of suicide, we examined coroners records for 492 suicides across 24 jurisdictions in England. Generally data on demographic variables were well recorded. Information on contact with general…
Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. In order to investigate the contribution of tone at the orthographic/phonological level during the early stages of word processing in Thai, we conducted a masked priming experiment-using both lexical decision and word naming tasks. For a given target word (e.g., ????/h?:?2/, room), five priming conditions were created: (a) identity (e.g., ????/h?:?2/), (b) same initial consonant, but with a different tone marker (e.g., ????/h?:?1/), (c) different initial consonant, but with the same tone marker (e.g., ????/s?:?2/), (d) orthographic control (different initial consonant, different tone marker; e.g., ????/s?:?1/), and (e) same tone homophony, but with a different initial consonant and different tone marker (e.g., ????/t(h)?:?2/). Results of the critical comparisons revealed that segmental information (i.e., consonantal information) appears to be more important than tone information (i.e., tone marker) in the early stages of visual-word processing in alphabetic, tonal languages like Thai. Thus, these findings may help constrain models of visual-word recognition and reading in tonal languages. PMID:24456408
Investigators are interested in determining whether lifetime behavioral traits and specific mood states experienced close to death affect brain gene and protein expression as assessed in post-mortem human brains. Major obstacles to conducting this type of research are the uncertain reliability of the post-mortem psychiatric diagnoses and clinical information because of the retrospective nature of the information. In this study, we addressed the concordance of clinical information obtained through an informant compared with information obtained through a clinician interview of the subject. To test this, we measured both lifetime and within the week psychiatric symptoms of subjects (n=20) and an informant, their next-of-kin (n=20) who were asked identical questions. We found Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV axis 1 diagnoses by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview proportion of positive agreement for major depression was 0.97, bipolar disorder was 0.81, whereas proportion of negative agreement was 0.97 for schizophrenia. Symptom scale intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval were: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms=0.59 (0.23, 0.81), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale=0.58 (0.19, 0.81), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Young Mania Rating Scale=0.61 (0.30, 0.82), Barratt Impulsiveness Score=0.36 (?0.11, 0.70) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire=0.48 (?0.15, 0.83). We show that DSM-IV diagnoses; lifetime impulsivity severity, childhood trauma score and symptom scores were significantly consistent between the subjects and their informants. These data suggest, with some limitations, that both retrospective and informant obtained information can provide useful clinical information in post-mortem research.
Thompson, P M; Bernardo, C G; Cruz, D A; Ketchum, N S; Michalek, J E
Investigators are interested in determining whether lifetime behavioral traits and specific mood states experienced close to death affect brain gene and protein expression as assessed in post-mortem human brains. Major obstacles to conducting this type of research are the uncertain reliability of the post-mortem psychiatric diagnoses and clinical information because of the retrospective nature of the information. In this study, we addressed the concordance of clinical information obtained through an informant compared with information obtained through a clinician interview of the subject. To test this, we measured both lifetime and within the week psychiatric symptoms of subjects (n=20) and an informant, their next-of-kin (n=20) who were asked identical questions. We found Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV axis 1 diagnoses by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview proportion of positive agreement for major depression was 0.97, bipolar disorder was 0.81, whereas proportion of negative agreement was 0.97 for schizophrenia. Symptom scale intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval were: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms=0.59 (0.23, 0.81), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale=0.58 (0.19, 0.81), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Young Mania Rating Scale=0.61 (0.30, 0.82), Barratt Impulsiveness Score=0.36 (-0.11, 0.70) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire=0.48 (-0.15, 0.83). We show that DSM-IV diagnoses; lifetime impulsivity severity, childhood trauma score and symptom scores were significantly consistent between the subjects and their informants. These data suggest, with some limitations, that both retrospective and informant obtained information can provide useful clinical information in post-mortem research. PMID:23321811
Thompson, P M; Bernardo, C G; Cruz, D A; Ketchum, N S; Michalek, J E
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory informationvisualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that \\
The neural basis of face recognition has been investigated extensively. Using fMRI, several regions have been identified in the human ventral visual stream that seem to be involved in processing and identifying faces, but the nature of the face representations in these regions is not well known. In particular, multivoxel pattern analyses have revealed distributed maps within these regions, but did not reveal the organizing principles of these maps. Here we isolated different types of perceptual and conceptual face properties to determine which properties are mapped in which regions. A set of faces was created with systematic manipulations of featural and configural visual characteristics. In a second part of the study, personal and spatial context information was added to all faces except one. The perceptual properties of faces were represented in face regions and in other regions of interest such as early visual and object-selective cortex. Only representations in early visual cortex were correlated with pixel-based similarities between the stimuli. The representation of nonperceptual properties was less distributed. In particular, the spatial location associated with a face was only represented in the parahippocampal place area. These findings demonstrate a relatively distributed representation of perceptual and conceptual face properties that involves both face-selective/sensitive and non-face-selective cortical regions. PMID:23658192
Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues.
Gonzalvez, Francisco G.; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.
This study examined visualinformation processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students' learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced…
Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie
In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visualinformation in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our
This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580
The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate InformationVisualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.
Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana
Objective: To identify key features contributing to trainees’ development of expertise in microscopic pathology diagnosis, a complex visual task, and to provide new insights to help create computer-based training systems in pathology. Design: Standard methods of information-processing and cognitive science were used to study diagnostic processes (search, perception, reasoning) of 28 novices, intermediates, and experts. Participants examined cases in breast pathology; each case had a previously established gold standard diagnosis. Videotapes correlated the actual visual data examined by participants with their verbal “think-aloud” protocols. Measurements: Investigators measured accuracy, difficulty, certainty, protocol process frequencies, error frequencies, and times to key diagnostic events for each case and subject. Analyses of variance, chi-square tests and post-hoc comparisons were performed with subject as the unit of analysis. Results: Level of expertise corresponded with differences in search, perception, and reasoning components of the tasks. Several discrete steps occur on the path to competence, including development of adequate search strategies, rapid and accurate recognition of anatomic location, acquisition of visual data interpretation skills, and transitory reliance on explicit feature identification. Conclusion: Results provide the basis for an empirical cognitive model of competence for the complex tasks of microscopic pathology diagnosis. Results will inform the development of computer-based pedagogy tools in this domain
Crowley, Rebecca S.; Naus, Gregory J.; Stewart, Jimmie; Friedman, Charles P.
Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC).
Discussion of information-retrieval effectiveness focuses on the use of multiple query or document representations, or multiple retrieval techniques, and combining the retrieval results (also known as data fusion). Experimental results with the SMART System (developed at Harvard and Cornell Universities for over 38 years) indicate combining…
This speech presents an overview of clusters of career-choice theories, indicates decision making strategies that could be enlisted within each theory cluster, and relates information dispensing processes appropriate to decision making. It is illustrated that regardless of one's propensity towards a career choice theory, affiliation with certain…
With the increasing use of semi-autonomous systems such as UGVs and UAVs, command and control concepts are proliferating further to the edge. Future network-centric environments such as the Global Information Grid (GIG) hold the potential to bring necessa...
Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visualinformation. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visualinformation into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.
Predictions of task performance based on the information required by the task, visualinformation acquired from the source, information transmission channel characteristics, and human information processing limitations are compared to actual performance on tasks viewed directly or remotely either monoscopically or stereoscopically, under different motion conditions. The tasks require varying amounts of information and channel capacity for proficient task completion and are based on the rapid sequential positioning task. The rapid sequential positioning task measures the time a subject takes to locate and tap an illuminated point source light target with a probe. Performance was measured using the task in a 3D and 3D plus motion configurations. The 3D plus motion configurations were given to subjects at four different movement speeds under different viewing conditions to test the effects of changing viewing bandwidth requirements. Subjects performed all tasks in a single session with data collected by computer. Data analysis involved the comparison of actual results with predictions derived from the Model Human Processor model and information theory. Results indicate that the requirements, availability, transmission, and human processing limitations of information are key components to task performance.
Ikehara, Curtis S.; Cole, Robert E.; Merritt, John O.
This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visualinformation and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visualinformation: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visualinformation elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visualinformation into 3D footage.
We investigated how visual and linguistic information interact in the perception of emotion. We borrowed a phenomenon from film theory which states that presentation of an as such neutral visual scene intensifies the percept of fear or suspense induced by a different channel of information, such as language. Our main aim was to investigate how neutral visual scenes can enhance responses to fearful language content in parts of the brain involved in the perception of emotion. Healthy participants’ brain activity was measured (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) while they read fearful and less fearful sentences presented with or without a neutral visual scene. The main idea is that the visual scenes intensify the fearful content of the language by subtly implying and concretizing what is described in the sentence. Activation levels in the right anterior temporal pole were selectively increased when a neutral visual scene was paired with a fearful sentence, compared to reading the sentence alone, as well as to reading of non-fearful sentences presented with the same neutral scene. We conclude that the right anterior temporal pole serves a binding function of emotional information across domains such as visual and linguistic information.
The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials) in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque) were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1–1 s) and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.
One of the major functions of vision is to allow for an efficient and active interaction with the environment. In this study, we investigate the capacity of human observers to extract visualinformation from observation of their own actions, and those of others, from different viewpoints. Subjects discriminated the size of objects by observing a point-light movie of a hand reaching for an invisible object. We recorded real reach-and-grasp actions in three-dimensional space towards objects of different shape and size, to produce two-dimensional ‘point-light display’ movies, which were used to measure size discrimination for reach-and-grasp motion sequences, release-and-withdraw sequences and still frames, all in egocentric and allocentric perspectives. Visual size discrimination from action was significantly better in egocentric than in allocentric view, but only for reach-and-grasp motion sequences: release-and-withdraw sequences or still frames derived no advantage from egocentric viewing. The results suggest that the system may have access to an internal model of action that contributes to calibrate visual sense of size for an accurate grasp.
Campanella, Francesco; Sandini, Giulio; Morrone, Maria Concetta
Super-resolution (SR) refers to reconstructing a single high resolution (HR) image from a set of subsampled, blurred and noisy low resolution (LR) images. The reconstructed image suffers from degradations such as blur, aliasing, photo-detector noise and registration and fusion error. Wiener filter can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we introduce a new fast stochasticWiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. Our derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. We incorporate a new parameter that accounts for LR images registration and fusion errors. Also, we speeded up the performance of the filter by constraining it to work on small patches of the images. Beside this, we introduce two figures of merits: information rate and maximum realizable fidelity, which can be used to assess the visual quality of the resultant images. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the derived Wiener filter that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain can reduce aliasing, blurring, and noise and result in a sharper reconstructed image. Also, Quantitative assessment using the proposed figures coincides with the visual qualitative assessment. Finally, we evaluate our filter against other SR techniques and its results were very competitive.
Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being “tuned” for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while the information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning.
The current tools to adequately inform the process of improving health-care delivery consist primarily of retrospective studies, prospective trials, and clinical practice guidelines. We propose a novel and systematic approach that bridges the gap of our current tools to affect change, provides an infrastructure to improve health-care delivery, and identifies unnecessary resource utilization. The objective of this special article is to introduce the rationale and methods for this endeavor entitled “Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans” (SCAMPs). SCAMPs take a relatively heterogeneous patient population and through a process of iterative analysis and modification of standardized assessment and management algorithms, SCAMPs allow the intrinsic biologic variability in a patient population to emerge and be understood. SCAMPs can be used to complement our currently available tools in order to result in incremental and sustained improvement in health-care delivery.
Rathod, Rahul H.; Farias, Michael; Friedman, Kevin G.; Graham, Dionne; Fulton, David R.; Newburger, Jane W.; Colan, Steven; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James E.
Research has revealed that haptic perception of parallelity deviates from physical reality. Large and systematic deviations have been found in haptic parallelity matching most likely due to the influence of the hand-centered egocentric reference frame. Providing information that increases the influence of allocentric processing has been shown to improve performance on haptic matching. In this study allocentric processing was stimulated by providing informative vision in haptic matching tasks that were performed using hand- and arm-centered reference frames. Twenty blindfolded participants (ten men, ten women) explored the orientation of a reference bar with the non-dominant hand and subsequently matched (task HP) or mirrored (task HM) its orientation on a test bar with the dominant hand. Visualinformation was provided by means of informative vision with participants having full view of the test bar, while the reference bar was blocked from their view (task VHP). To decrease the egocentric bias of the hands, participants also performed a visual haptic parallelity drawing task (task VHPD) using an arm-centered reference frame, by drawing the orientation of the reference bar. In all tasks, the distance between and orientation of the bars were manipulated. A significant effect of task was found; performance improved from task HP, to VHP to VHPD, and HM. Significant effects of distance were found in the first three tasks, whereas orientation and gender effects were only significant in tasks HP and VHP. The results showed that stimulating allocentric processing by means of informative vision and reducing the egocentric bias by using an arm-centered reference frame led to most accurate performance on parallelity matching. PMID:23938339
We used the responses of neurons in extrastriate visual area MT to determine how well neural noise can be reduced by averaging the responses of neurons across time. For individual MT neurons, we calculated the time course of Shannon information about motion direction from sustained motion at constant velocities. Stimuli were random dot patterns moving at the preferred speed of the cell for 256 msec, in a direction chosen randomly with 15° increments. Information about motion direction calculated from cumulative spike count rose rapidly from the onset of the neural response and then saturated, reaching 80% of maximum information in the first 100 msec. Most of the early saturation of information could be attributed to correlated fluctuations in the spike counts of individual neurons on time scales in excess of 100 msec. Thus, temporal correlations limit the benefits of averaging across time, much as correlations among the responses of different neurons limit the benefits of averaging across large populations. Although information about direction was available quickly from MT neurons, the direction discrimination by individual MT neurons was poor, with mean thresholds above 30° in most neurons. We conclude that almost all available directional information could be extracted from the first few spikes of the response of the neuron, on a time scale comparable with the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements. However, neural responses still must be pooled across the population in MT to account for the direction discrimination of the pursuit behavior.
Osborne, Leslie C.; Bialek, William; Lisberger, Stephen G.
This paper studies the development of GIS from a new point of view, which both from the accu- mulation of GIS scientific articles and the evolu- tion process of GIS using co-citation analysis. After 10 years' slow development from 1977, the number of GIS scientific literature began to increase rapidly since the early 1990s. By using the newly developed information
Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but only little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins’ ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visualinformation related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visualinformation to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visualinformation. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task’s contingencies.
Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J
Sensory systems are dynamic. They must process a wide range of natural signals that facilitate adaptive behaviors in a manner that depends on an organism's constantly changing goals. A full understanding of the sensory physiology that underlies adaptive natural behaviors must therefore account for the activity of sensory systems in light of these behavioral goals. Here we present a novel technique that combines in vivo electrophysiological recording from awake, freely moving songbirds with operant conditioning techniques that allow control over birds' recognition of conspecific song, a widespread natural behavior in songbirds. We show that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium (CM), an avian analog of mammalian auditory cortex, in European starlings. Compared with awake, passive listening, active engagement of subjects in an auditory recognition task results in neurons responding to fewer song stimuli and a decrease in the trial-to-trial variability in their driven firing rates. Mean firing rates also change during active recognition, but not uniformly. Relative to nonengaged listening, active recognition causes increases in the driven firing rates in some neurons, decreases in other neurons, and stimulus-specific changes in other neurons. These changes lead to both an increase in stimulus selectivity and an increase in the information conveyed by the neurons about the animals' behavioral task. This study demonstrates the behavioral dependence of neural responses in the avian auditory forebrain and introduces the starling as a model for real-time monitoring of task-related neural processing of complex auditory objects.
Background Patients with schizophrenia consistently demonstrate information processing abnormalities assessed with visual masking (VM) tasks, and these deficits have been linked to clinical and functional severity. It has been suggested that VM impairments may be a vulnerability marker in individuals at risk for developing psychosis. Method Forward and backward VM performance was assessed in 72 first-episode (FE) psychosis patients, 98 subjects at risk (AR) for psychosis and 98 healthy controls (HC) using two identification tasks (with either a high- or low-energy mask) and a location task. VM was examined for stability in a subgroup (FE, n=15; AR, n=35; HC, n=21) and assessed relative to clinical and functional measures. Results In the identification tasks, backward VM deficits were observed in both FE and AR relative to HC whereas forward VM deficits were only present in FE patients compared to HC. In the location task, AR subjects demonstrated superior performance in forward VM relative to HC. VM performance was stable over time, and VM deficits were associated with baseline functional measures and predicted future negative symptom severity in AR subjects. Conclusions Visualinformation processing deficits, as indexed by backward VM, are present before and after the onset of frank psychosis, and probably represent a stable vulnerability marker that is associated with negative symptoms and functional decline. Additionally, the paradoxically better performance of AR subjects in select forward tasks suggests that early compensatory changes may characterize an emerging psychotic state.
Users’ visual search on a Web page is impacted by information forms, information layout, Internet advertisements (ads for\\u000a short), etc. Text and picture are two important forms of expressing the information on Web pages, and it is generally through\\u000a the two forms of title that users can search their desired information. This study investigates the effect of the two basic
The legal construct of competence to stand trial, or "adjudicative competence," is based on the premise that some mentally disordered defendants have impaired abilities when compared with most defendants and that adjudication should be barred if these competence-related abilities are significantly impaired. Where the line is drawn between sufficient and insufficient abilities has important consequences: as a result of being adjudicated incompetent, defendants may be detained and treated involuntarily and their trials will be delayed. However, no studies have systematically compared the capacities of relevant groups of defendants. In this study, 84 criminal defendants--42 of whom were hospitalized as incompetent and 42 of whom were regarded as unquestionably competent--were administered three instruments measuring capacity to understand legally relevantinformation. Incompetent defendants performed more poorly on all measures of understanding. Twenty-eight incompetent defendants were administered the measures a second time, after restoration to competence. Restored defendants improved their performance on all measures of understanding and their performance was similar to that of normal, competent defendants. PMID:8807159
Hoge, S K; Poythress, N; Bonnie, R; Eisenberg, M; Monahan, J; Feucht-Haviar, T; Oberlander, L
In this paper, a new model seeking to emulate the way the visual cortex processes information and interacts with subcortical areas to produce higher level brain functions is described. We developed a macroscopic approach that incorporates salient attributes of the cortex based on combining tools of nonlinear dynamics, information theory, and the known organizational and anatomical features of cortex. Justifications
Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature selection algorithm by combining mRMR and other more sophisticated feature selectors (e.g., wrappers). This allows us to select a compact set of superior features at very low cost. We perform extensive experimental comparison of our algorithm and other methods using three different classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machine, and linear discriminate analysis) and four different data sets (handwritten digits, arrhythmia, NCI cancer cell lines, and lymphoma tissues). The results confirm that mRMR leads to promising improvement on feature selection and classification accuracy. PMID:16119262
NCI Visuals Online contains images from the collections of the Office of Communications and Education, National Cancer Institute. For more information about Visuals Online, including reuse and contact information, see About Visuals Online.
Objects are not represented individually in visual working memory (VWM), but in relation to the contextual information provided by other memorized objects. We studied whether the contextual information provided by the spatial configuration of all memorized objects is viewpoint-dependent. We ran two experiments asking participants to detect changes in locations between memory and probe for one object highlighted in the probe image. We manipulated the changes in viewpoint between memory and probe (Exp. 1: 0°, 30°, 60°; Exp. 2: 0°, 60°), as well as the spatial configuration visible in the probe image (Exp. 1: full configuration, partial configuration; Exp. 2: full configuration, no configuration). Location change detection was higher with the full spatial configuration than with the partial configuration or with no spatial configuration at viewpoint changes of 0°, thus replicating previous findings on the nonindependent representations of individual objects in VWM. Most importantly, the effect of spatial configurations decreased with increasing viewpoint changes, suggesting a viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in VWM. We discuss these findings within the context of this special issue, in particular whether research performed within the slots-versus-resources debate and research on the effects of contextual information might focus on two different storage systems within VWM. PMID:24470259
A pressing concern within the literature on anticipatory perceptual-motor behaviour is the lack of clarity on the applicability of data, observed under video-simulation task constraints, to actual performance in which actions are coupled to perception, as captured during in-situ experimental conditions. We developed an in-situ experimental paradigm which manipulated the duration of anticipatory visualinformation from a penalty taker's actions to examine experienced goalkeepers' vulnerability to deception for the penalty kick in association football. Irrespective of the penalty taker's kick strategy, goalkeepers initiated movement responses earlier across consecutively earlier presentation points. Overall goalkeeping performance was better in non-deception trials than in deception conditions. In deception trials, the kinematic information presented up until the penalty taker initiated his/her kicking action had a negative effect on goalkeepers' performance. It is concluded that goalkeepers are likely to benefit from not anticipating a penalty taker's performance outcome based on information from the run-up, in preference to later information that emerges just before the initiation of the penalty taker's kicking action. PMID:20942362
A large volume of visual content is inaccessible until effective and efficient indexing and retrieval of such data is achieved. In this paper, we introduce the dream system, which is a knowledge-assisted semantic-driven context-aware visualinformation retrieval system applied in the film post production domain. We mainly focus on the automatic labelling and topic map related aspects of the framework.
Atta Badii; Meng Zhu; Chattun Lallah; Michael Crouch
An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visualinformation supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects adheres to, or violates, the psychophysical properties of Weber's law. Specifically, participants grasped differently sized 2D and 3D objects (20, 30, 40, and 50mm of width) and we computed the just-noticeable-difference scores associated with aperture profiles at decile increments of normalized grasping time. The aperture profiles for 2D objects showed an early through late (i.e., 10% through 90%) adherence to Weber's law, whereas the late stages of grasping 3D objects (i.e., >50% of grasping time) produced a fundamental violation of the law's principles. As such, results suggest that grasping a 2D object is a top-down and cognitive task mediated via relative visualinformation. In contrast, the enriched shape information provided by a 3D object (i.e., stereoscopic vergence and disparity cues) allows for later aperture specification via absolute (Euclidean) visualinformation. Most notably, our results establish that the dimensional properties of an object influence the visualinformation mediating motor output, and further indicate that 2D and 3D objects are not representative proxies for one another in understanding the visual control of grasping. PMID:23501700
While viewing works of art in galleries, we evaluate them by integrating at least two types of information: their visual properties (e.g., colors, symmetry, and proportion) and contextual information accompanying them (e.g., titles and names of artists). How rapidly the brain integrates visual and contextual information of artworks remains to be investigated. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated neural activity when subjects with no professional experience in art viewed images of sculptures (masterpieces from the Classical and Renaissance periods, characterized by a canonical proportion of the golden ratio) and performed a five-scale rating of how appealing they were. At the beginning of each trial, we manipulated the expectations of the subjects for an upcoming sculpture by presenting information about its authenticity (either "genuine" or "fake"), although all images were actually taken from genuine artworks. The image of the sculpture was then presented, either in its original proportion or after being deformed by a photo-editing software. This 2 × 2 factorial design enabled us to identify whether each component of the EEG response was sensitive to contextual information (genuine or fake), visualinformation (original or deformed), or both. Results revealed that amplitudes of a positive EEG component emerging at 200-300ms after the presentation of the artworks (mainly distributed over the parietal cortex) were significantly modulated by both visual and contextual factors, indicating a rapid integration of these two types of information in the brain. PMID:23499850
As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visualinformation. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.
Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua
Background Human core body temperature is kept quasi-constant regardless of varying thermal environments. It is well known that physiological thermoregulatory systems are under the control of central and peripheral sensory organs that are sensitive to thermal energy. If these systems wrongly respond to non-thermal stimuli, it may disturb human homeostasis. Methods Fifteen participants viewed video images evoking hot or cold impressions in a thermally constant environment. Cardiovascular indices were recorded during the experiments. Correlations between the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores and cardiovascular indices were calculated. Results The changes of heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were significantly correlated with the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores, and the tendencies were similar to those in actual thermal environments corresponding to the impressions. Conclusions The present results suggest that visualinformation without any thermal energy can affect physiological thermoregulatory systems at least superficially. To avoid such ‘virtual’ environments disturbing human homeostasis, further study and more attention are needed.
Empirical research has demonstrated the existence of attentional biases towards threat in anxiety disorders. Paradigms commonly used to assess attentional biases have failed to demonstrate consistent findings as well as reveal the specific features of attentional biases. The current study investigated the utility of the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm in assessing attentional biases among 40 undergraduate students with high spider phobia (SP) symptoms and 40 undergraduate students with low SP symptoms. Results revealed that across participants, threatening information was processed in a facilitated and automatic manner and resulted in an immediate (i.e., within 120 ms) attentional capture. Following immediate attentional capture, however, only high SP participants exhibited an attentional alertness towards subsequent stimuli following threat presentation. These results extend traditional attentional bias literature, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:17275254
We apply an information-theoretic measure for phase synchrony to local field potentials recorded with a multi-electrode array implanted in area V4 of the monkey visual cortex during a reinforcement pairing experiment. We show for the first time that (1) the phase synchrony is significantly higher for the rewarded stimulus than the unrewarded one, after training the monkey; (2) just after the stimuli reversal, the difference in phase synchronization is due to the stimuli, not the reward; (3) the difference between reward and no reward is most clear in two disconnected time intervals between stimuli onset and the expected delivery of the reward; and (4) synchronous activity appears in waves running over the array, and their timing correlates well with the time intervals where the difference between reward and no reward is most prominent.
Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.
Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)
Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the retention of information in short-term visual perceptual memory can be disrupted by the presentation of masking stimuli during interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in delayed discrimination tasks (S. Magnussen & W. W. Greenlee, 1999). We have exploited this effect in order to determine to what extent short-term perceptual memory is selective for stimulus color. We employed a delayed hue discrimination paradigm to measure the fidelity with which color information was retained in short-term memory. The task required 5 color normal observers to discriminate between spatially non-overlapping colored reference and test stimuli that were temporally separated by an ISI of 5 s. The points of subjective equality (PSEs) on the resultant psychometric matching functions provided an index of performance. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of mask stimuli presented during the ISI, which varied in hue around the equiluminant plane in DKL color space. For all reference stimuli, we found a consistent mask-induced, hue-dependent shift in PSE compared to the "no mask" conditions. These shifts were found to be tuned in color space, only occurring for a range of mask hues that fell within bandwidths of 29-37 deg. Outside this range, masking stimuli had little or no effect on measured PSEs. The results demonstrate that memory masking for color exhibits selectivity similar to that which has already been demonstrated for other visual attributes. The relatively narrow tuning of these interference effects suggests that short-term perceptual memory for color is based on higher order, non-linear color coding. PMID:22286297
Nemes, Vanda A; Parry, Neil R A; Whitaker, David; McKeefry, Declan J
Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.
Interpretive Collaborative Review (ICR) is a process designed to assemble electronically accessible research papers and other forms of information into collaboratively interpreted guides to information artefacts relevant to particular problems. The purpose of ICR is to enable collective understanding of a selected problem area that can be developed and represented by evaluating (reviewing) selected artefacts through a collaborative deliberation process.
Objective assessment of visual comfort for stereoscopic video is of great importance for stereoscopic image safety issue. We propose a novel visual comfort assessment metric framework that systematically exploits human visual attention models. In a stereoscopic video shot, perceptually significant regions where human subjects pay more attention are likely to play an essential role in determining the overall level of visual comfort. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a visual comfort metric that quantifies the level of visual discomfort caused by fast salient object motion. The performance of the proposed visual comfort metric has been evaluated using natural stereoscopic videos. The experimental results show that the proposed visual comfort metric significantly improves the correlations with subjective judgment.
Ju Jung, Yong; Lee, Seong-il; Sohn, Hosik; Wook Park, Hyun; Man Ro, Yong
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visualinformation. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visualinformation. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130
Mikels, Joseph A; Larkin, Gregory R; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Cartensen, Laura L
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visualinformation. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visualinformation. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern.
Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Abstract According to Pylysyn, the early visual system is able to categorize perceptual inputs into shape classes based on visual similarity criteria, and it is suggested that written words may be categorized within early vision. This speculation is contradicted by the fact that visually unrelated exemplars of a given letter (e.g., a\\/A) or word (e.g., read\\/READ) map onto common,visual categories.
We present Artifacts of the Presence Era, a digital installation that uses a geological metaphor to visualize the events in a physical space over time. The piece captures video and audio from a museum and constructs an impressionistic visualization of the evolving history in the space. Instead of creating a visualization tool for data analysis, we chose to produce a
Fernanda B. Viégas; Ethan Perry; Ethan Howe; Judith S. Donath
Summary The human motor system is remarkably proficient in the online control of visually guided movements, adjusting to changes in the visual scene within 100 ms [1–3]. This is achieved through a set of highly automatic processes  translating visualinformation into representations suitable for motor control [5, 6]. For this to be accomplished, visualinformation pertaining to target and hand need to be identified and linked to the appropriate internal representations during the movement. Meanwhile, other visualinformation must be filtered out, which is especially demanding in visually cluttered natural environments. If selection of relevant sensory information for online control was achieved by visual attention, its limited capacity  would substantially constrain the efficiency of visuomotor feedback control. Here we demonstrate that both exogenously and endogenously cued attention facilitate the processing of visual target information , but not of visual hand information. Moreover, distracting visualinformation is more efficiently filtered out during the extraction of hand compared to target information. Our results therefore suggest the existence of a dedicated visuomotor binding mechanism that links the hand representation in visual and motor systems.
Reichenbach, Alexandra; Franklin, David W.; Zatka-Haas, Peter; Diedrichsen, Jorn
Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation, texture, etc. Direct volume rendering techniques do conventionally not make use of these semantics. The transfer function actively prevents the use of these semantic parameters for the description of visualization mappings. In our work on semantic layers we propose an alternative method to achieve meaningful visualization mappings from volumetric attributes to visual appearance. Semantic parameters are used to describe meaningful intervals of data and the rendering techniques. Visualization rules are used to specify a visualization mapping from expert semantics to illustration semantics. Our method enables a multi-dimensional mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple visual abstractions. Semantic values for volumetric attributes and for visual abstractions are represented as membership functions of fuzzy sets. Visualization rules are specified by the user to establish the semantic visualization mapping from various volume attributes to given visual abstractions. The visualization rules are interactively evaluated on modern graphics processing units using fuzzy logic arithmetics. With this approach it is possible to establish a visualization mapping between semantics from expert domains and scientific illustration techniques.
An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visualinformation supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects…
This research investigated the nature of encoding and its contribution to serial recall for visual-spatial information. In order to do so, we examined the relationship between fixation duration and recall performance. Using the dot task – a series of seven dots spatially distributed on a monitor screen is presented sequentially for immediate recall – performance and eye-tracking data were recorded
Jean Saint-Aubin; Sébastien Tremblay; Annie Jalbert
Cognitive fit theory, along with the proximity compatibility principle, is investigated as a basis to evaluate the effectiveness of informationvisualizations to support a decision-making task. The task used in this study manipulates varying levels of task complexity for quality control decisions in a high-volume discrete manufacturing environment. The volume of process monitoring and quality control data produced in this
Jay M. Teets; David P. Tegarden; Roberta S. Russell
This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…
E-books promise to become a widespread delivery mechanism for educational resources. However, current e-books do not take full advantage of the power of computing tools. In particular, interaction with the content is often reduced to navigation through the information. This article investigates how adding interactive visuals to an e-book…
We used fMRI to study the distribution of object category information in the ventral visual pathway. Extending the findings of Haxby et al. (2001), we find that categories of stimuli can be distinguished by the pattern of activation they elicit across this entire pathway, even when the stimuli within a category differ in viewpoint, exemplar, or image format. However, regions
This study used a backward?masking paradigm to examine individual differences in rate of visualinformation processing among university basketball, ice hockey and Canadian football players. Displays containing four letters were presented for stimulus durations ranging from 25 to 300 ms. Following stimulus offset, a masking stimulus was presented for 200 ms. The subjects were instructed to write down as many
Background Descending kerbs during locomotion involves the regulation of appropriate foot placement before the kerb-edge and foot clearance over it. It also involves the modulation of gait output to ensure the body-mass is safely and smoothly lowered to the new level. Previous research has shown that vision is used in such adaptive gait tasks for feedforward planning, with vision from the lower visual field (lvf) used for online updating. The present study determined when lvf information is used to control/update locomotion when stepping from a kerb. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 young adults stepped down a kerb during ongoing gait. Force sensitive resistors (attached to participants' feet) interfaced with an high-speed PDLC ‘smart glass’ sheet, allowed the lvf to be unpredictably occluded at either heel-contact of the penultimate or final step before the kerb-edge up to contact with the lower level. Analysis focussed on determining changes in foot placement distance before the kerb-edge, clearance over it, and in kinematic measures of the step down. Lvf occlusion from the instant of final step contact had no significant effect on any dependant variable (p>0.09). Occlusion of the lvf from the instant of penultimate step contact had a significant effect on foot clearance and on several kinematic measures, with findings consistent with participants becoming uncertain regarding relative horizontal location of the kerb-edge. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest concurrent feedback of the lower limb, kerb-edge, and/or floor area immediately in front/below the kerb is not used when stepping from a kerb during ongoing gait. Instead heel-clearance and pre-landing-kinematic parameters are determined/planned using lvf information acquired in the penultimate step during the approach to the kerb-edge, with information related to foot placement before the kerb-edge being the most salient.
Buckley, John G.; Timmis, Matthew A.; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B.
Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visualinformation. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures.
Memory for semantic information is relatively preserved through the normal aging process. Visuospatial memory remains less\\u000a intact. In the present article a theory is proposed that links this processing difference to normal age-related generalized\\u000a cognitive slowing, and to the appearance of specific age-related differences in memory performance. Evidence for these suggestions\\u000a is presented from work in four areas: mental rotation,
Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.
Visual scenes comprise enormous amounts of information from which nervous systems extract behaviorally relevant cues. In most model systems, little is known about the transformation of visualinformation as it occurs along visual pathways. We examined how visualinformation is transformed physiologically as it is communicated from the eye to higher order brain centers using bumblebees, which are known for their visual capabilities. We recorded intracellularly in vivo from thirty neurons in the central bumblebee brain (the lateral protocerebrum) and compared these neurons to 132 neurons from more distal areas along the visual pathway, namely the medulla and the lobula. In these three brain regions (medulla, lobula and central brain), we examined correlations between the neurons’ branching patterns and their responses primarily to color, but also to motion stimuli. Visual neurons projecting to the anterior central brain were generally color sensitive, while neurons projecting to the posterior central brain were predominantly motion sensitive. The temporal response properties differed significantly between these areas, with an increase in spike time precision across trials and a decrease in average reliable spiking as visualinformation processing progressed from the periphery to the central brain. These data suggest that neurons along the visual pathway to the central brain are not only segregated with regard to the physical features of the stimuli (e.g. color and motion), but also differ in the way they encode stimuli, possibly to allow for efficient parallel processing to occur.
Paulk, Angelique C.; Dacks, Andrew M.; Phillips-Portillo, James; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Gronenberg, Wulfila
Based on the arena of social networks, the tool developed in this study aims to identify trends mood among undergraduate students. Combining the methodology Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), which originated in the field of Psychology, the system filters the content provided on the Web and isolates certain words, establishing a range of values as perceived positive, negative or neutral. A Big Data summarizing the results, assisting in the construction and visualization of behavioral profiles generic, so we have a guideline for the development of informationvisualization tools for social networks.
Several graph representations have been introduced for different data in theoretical biology. For instance, complex networks based on Graph theory are used to represent the structure and/or dynamics of different large biological systems such as protein-protein interaction networks. In addition, Randic, Liao, Nandy, Basak, and many others developed some special types of graph-based representations. This special type of graph includes geometrical constrains to node positioning in space and adopts final geometrical shapes that resemble lattice-like patterns. Lattice networks have been used to visually depict DNA and protein sequences but they are very flexible. However, despite the proved efficacy of new lattice-like graph/networks to represent diverse systems, most works focus on only one specific type of biological data. This work proposes a generalized type of lattice and illustrates how to use it in order to represent and compare biological data from different sources. We exemplify the following cases: protein sequence; mass spectra (MS) of protein peptide mass fingerprints (PMF); molecular dynamic trajectory (MDTs) from structural studies; mRNA microarray data; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 1D or 2D-Electrophoresis study of protein polymorphisms and protein-research patent and/or copyright information. We used data available from public sources for some examples but for other, we used experimental results reported herein for the first time. This work may break new ground for the application of Graph theory in theoretical biology and other areas of biomedical sciences. PMID:19646452
González-Díaz, H; Pérez-Montoto, L G; Duardo-Sanchez, A; Paniagua, E; Vázquez-Prieto, S; Vilas, R; Dea-Ayuela, M A; Bolas-Fernández, F; Munteanu, C R; Dorado, J; Costas, J; Ubeira, F M
Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898
Two instructional variables, visual illustrations and visual mental imagery, were compared for their influences on learning and cognitive strategies. It was hypothesized, based on dual-code theory, that attempts to combine the two would facilitate learning. In a completely randomized factorial design, treatments consisted of 4 versions of a…
Visual and auditory map alignment in the superior colliculus (SC) of the barn owl is important for its accurate localization of prey. The visual map, and hence the alignment, may be purposefully disturbed in a juvenile barn owl by fitting it with ocular prisms, and it is found that it can adapt its auditory map to this mismatch after several
Visual communication and visual knowledge are areas that can take important benefits from mature CG technologies. This paper demonstrates a methodology to give new insights into cultural heritage which is based on virtual reality techniques, Web navigation tools, advanced image analysis and photorealistic image synthesis methods. A VRML model of the ancient Roman Theatre of Aosta is the basis to
Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams’s proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those elements to specific decorative, indicative, or
This study investigated early neonatal visual preferences in 267 poly drug exposed neonates (131 cocaine-exposed and 136 non-cocaine exposed) whose drug exposure was documented through interviews and urine and meconium drug screens. Infants were given four visual recognition memory tasks comparing looking time to familiarized stimuli of lattices and rectangular shapes to novel stimuli of a schematic face and curved
Lynn T. Singer; Robert Arendt; Joseph Fagan; Sonia Minnes; Ann Salvator; Tina Bolek; Michael Becker
This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances.
In this paper, evidences that visuo-spatial perception in the peri-personal space is not an abstract, disembodied phenomenon but is rather shaped by action constraints are reviewed. Locating a visual target with the intention of reaching it requires that the relevant spatial information is considered in relation with the body-part that will be…
In this paper we proposed an application on smart phones for interactive mobile learning. Image recognition technology is used to link physical objects seen through the camera to relevantinformation. Through the built-in camera on the smart phone, visual interactive learning can be realized. With the GPS sensor, location activated learning is also possible. Combining both the camera and the
Yiqun Li; Aiyuan Guo; Jimmy Addison Lee; Yan Gao; Yii Leong Ling
In this paper, a new visual feedback control for a swirling-flow melting furnace is proposed. This method control the furnace combustion by manipulating the burner fuel based on image data, which shows the melting situation inside the furnace. The feature of this control system is that, a visual-tracking property is realized by using an adaptive control algorithm which changes the control gain based on image evaluation as if the melting point varies. Through actual experiments, it is clear that its combustion can be controlled very precisely by this visual feedback control system.
Comprehension of a sentence under a wide range of delay conditions between auditory and visual stimuli was measured in the environment with low auditory clarity of the level of -10dB and -15dB pink noise. Results showed that the image was helpful for comprehension of the noise-obscured voice stimulus when the delay between the auditory and visual stimuli was 4 frames (=132msec) or less, the image was not helpful for comprehension when the delay between the auditory and visual stimulus was 8 frames (=264msec) or more, and in some cases of the largest delay (32 frames), the video image interfered with comprehension.
A readily accessible archive of information that is valid, current, and technically defensible is needed to make informed highway-planning, design, and management decisions. The National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS) is a cataloging and assessment of the documentation of informationrelevant to highway-runoff water quality available in published reports. The report review process is based on the NDAMS review sheet, which was designed by the USGS with input from the FHWA, State transportation agencies, and the regulatory community. The report-review process is designed to determine the technical merit of the existing literature in terms of current requirements for data documentation, data quality, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and technical issues that may affect the use of historical data. To facilitate the review process, the NDAMS review sheet is divided into 12 sections: (1) administrative review information, (2) investigation and report information, (3) temporal information, (4) location information (5) water-quality-monitoring information, (6) sample-handling methods, (7) constituent information, (8) sampling focus and matrix, (9) flow monitoring methods, (10) field QA/QC, (11) laboratory, and (12) uncertainty/error analysis. This report describes the NDAMS report reviews and metadata documentation methods and provides an overview of the approach and of the quality-assurance and quality-control program used to implement the review process. Detailed information, including a glossary of relevant terms, a copy of the report-review sheets, and reportreview instructions are completely documented in a series of three appendixes included with this report. Therefore the reviews are repeatable and the methods can be used by transportation research organizations to catalog new reports as they are published.
Dionne, Shannon G.; Granato, Gregory E.; Tana, Cameron K.
Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…
During visual perception, automatic bottom-up and controlled top-down processes occur simultaneously and interact in a complex way, making them difficult to isolate and characterize. In rare neurological conditions, such a dissociation can be achieved more easily. In the present work, we studied a patient (AC) with a posterior lesion of the corpus callosum (CC), using a combination of behavioural, structural MRI and high-density scalp EEG measures. Given the complete disruption of the posterior half of the CC, we speculated that inter-hemispheric transfer of visualinformation was only possible through top-down mobilization across the preserved anterior segment of the CC. We designed a matching-to-sample visual task during which this patient was randomly presented with two successive numerical targets (T1 and T2) flashed with either a short or a long stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), each presented within one visual hemifield (HF). Intra-hemispheric processing of visual stimuli was essentially preserved. In sharp contrast, patient's performance was massively impaired during inter-HFs trials with a short-SOA, confirming the lack of fast inter-hemispheric transfer. Crucially, patient AC spontaneously improved his performance in inter-HFs trials with a long-SOA. This behavioral improvement was correlated with a mid-frontal ERP effect occurring during the T1-T2 interval, concomitant with an increase of functional connectivity of this region with distant areas including occipital regions. These results put to light a slow, non-automatic, and frontally mediated route of inter-hemispheric transfer dependent on top-down control. PMID:24269299
Analysts are increasingly encountering datasets that are larger and more complex than ever before. Effectively exploring such datasets requires collaboration between multiple analysts, who more often than not are distributed in time or in space. Mixed-presence groupware provide a shared workspace medium that supports this combination of co-located and distributed collaboration. However, collaborative visualization systems for such distributed settings have
Subjects from kindergarten-age to adult participated in four experiments. In order to view the stimuli, subjects in three experiments activated lights in viewing boxes; in the fourth experiment, stimulus fixations were measured using a corneal reflection technique. Results supported the view that visual observing is controlled by cognitive…
We have investigated the responses of neurones in the guinea-pig superior colliculus to combinations of visual and auditory stimuli. When these stimuli were presented separately, some of these neurones responded only to one modality, others to both and a few neurones reliably to neither. To bimodal stimulation, many of these neurones exhibited some form of cross-modality interaction, the degree and
An aircraft accident which occurred on August 12th 1985 in Japan was visualized using computer graphics. The animation was made as realistic as possible. The shaking of the aircraft at the outset of the accident and the dutch roll and fugoid oscillation c...
A necessary condition for visually guided action is that an organism perceive what actions are afforded by a given environmental situation. Warren (1984) proposed that an affordance such as the climbability of a stairway is determined by the fit between properties of the environment and the organism and can be characterized by optimal points, where action is most comfortable or
Children referred for evaluation of learning impairment (n=100) and 243 typical children were evaluated on a visual filtering task. With each additional processing demand, response times increased disproportionately for children with learning impairments. Overall response time predicted academic skills and cognitive ability, but was more strongly…
Weiler, Michael D.; Harris, Naomi S.; Marcus, David J.; Bellinger, David; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Waber, Deborah P.
Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with beker, ‘beaker’, for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, bever), shape (a bobbin, klos), and semantic (a fork, vork) competitors. When the display appeared at sentence onset,
...facsimile: 919-541-1818, or e-mail: Murphy.email@example.com or contact Dr. Ellen Kirrane, NCEA, telephone: 919-541-1340, or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Information about the Workshop...
Social behavior can influence physiological systems dramatically yet the sensory cues responsible are not well understood. Behavior of male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in their natural habitat suggests that visual cues from conspecifics contribute significantly to regulation of social behavior. Using a novel paradigm, we asked whether visual cues alone from a larger conspecific male could influence behavior, reproductive physiology and the physiological stress response of a smaller male. Here we show that just seeing a larger, threatening male through a clear barrier can suppress dominant behavior of a smaller male for up to 7 days. Smaller dominant males being “attacked” visually by larger dominant males through a clear barrier also showed physiological changes for up to 3 days, including up-regulation of reproductive- and stress-related gene expression levels and lowered plasma 11-ketotestesterone concentrations as compared to control animals. The smaller males modified their appearance to match that of non-dominant males when exposed to a larger male but they maintained a physiological phenotype similar to that of a dominant male. After 7 days, reproductive- and stress- related gene expression, circulating hormone levels, and gonad size in the smaller males showed no difference from the control group suggesting that the smaller male habituated to the visual intruder. However, the smaller male continued to display subordinate behaviors and assumed the appearance of a subordinate male for a full week despite his dominant male physiology. These data suggest that seeing a larger male alone can regulate the behavior of a smaller male but that ongoing reproductive inhibition depends on additional sensory cues. Perhaps, while experiencing visual social stressors, the smaller male uses an opportunistic strategy, acting like a subordinate male while maintaining the physiology of a dominant male.
This research investigated the nature of encoding and its contribution to serial recall for visual-spatial information. In order to do so, we examined the relationship between fixation duration and recall performance. Using the dot task--a series of seven dots spatially distributed on a monitor screen is presented sequentially for immediate recall--performance and eye-tracking data were recorded during the presentation of the to-be-remembered items. When participants were free to move their eyes at their will, both fixation durations and probability of correct recall decreased as a function of serial position. Furthermore, imposing constant durations of fixation across all serial positions had a beneficial impact (though relatively small) on item but not order recall. Great care was taken to isolate the effect of fixation duration from that of presentation duration. Although eye movement at encoding contributes to immediate memory, it is not decisive in shaping serial recall performance. Our results also provide further evidence that the distinction between item and order information, well-established in the verbal domain, extends to visual-spatial information. PMID:17953146
Researchers are concerned with the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. The applications range from high-resolution television to vision-based robotics, wherever the resolution, efficiency and robustness of visualinformation acquisition and processing are critical. For the presentation at this workshop, it is convenient to divide research activities into the following two overlapping areas: The first is the development of focal-plane processing techniques and technology to effectively combine image gathering with coding, with an emphasis on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. The approach includes the familiar Laplacian pyramid, the new intensity-dependent spatial summation, and parallel sensing/processing networks. Three-dimensional image gathering is attained by combining laser ranging with sensor-array imaging. The second is the rigorous extension of information theory and optimal filtering to visualinformation acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing.
Background Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is known to be associated with reduced academic performance. Recently, we demonstrated that fatigue was correlated with decreased cognitive function in these students. However, no studies have identified cognitive predictors of fatigue. Therefore, we attempted to determine independent cognitive predictors of fatigue in these students. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study. One hundred and forty-two elementary and junior high school students without fatigue participated. They completed a variety of paper-and-pencil tests, including list learning and list recall tests, kana pick-out test, semantic fluency test, figure copying test, digit span forward test, and symbol digit modalities test. The participants also completed computerized cognitive tests (tasks A to E on the modified advanced trail making test). These cognitive tests were used to evaluate motor- and information-processing speed, immediate and delayed memory function, auditory and visual attention, divided and switching attention, retrieval of learned material, and spatial construction. One year after the tests, a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) was administered to all the participants. Results After the follow-up period, we confirmed 40 cases of fatigue among 118 students. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grades and gender, poorer performance on visualinformation-processing speed and attention tasks was associated with increased risk of fatigue. Conclusions Reduced visualinformation-processing speed and poor attention are independent predictors of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students.
Advances in the separation of microbial subpopulations and in proteomics technologies have paved the way for the global molecular characterization of microbial cells that share common functional characteristics. Quantitative characterization of the dynamics of microbial proteomes enables an unprecedented view of the adaptive responses of microbes to environmental stimuli or during interaction with other species or host cells. However, the intrinsic complexity of such data requires sophisticated visualization methods for the display, mining, interpretation and efficient exploitation of these data resources. In this review, we discuss how new approaches in data visualization such as streamgraphs, network graphs or Voronoi treemaps are being used in the field to provide new insights into the functional complexity of microbial cells, populations and multispecies consortia. PMID:23141770
Bernhardt, Jörg; Michalik, Stephan; Wollscheid, Bernd; Völker, Uwe; Schmidt, Frank
This paper is a qualitative case study analysis of the issues involved in designing and implementing data sculptures, the\\u000a physical “embodiment” of data in a tangible presence, shape or form, within the context of an undergraduate design studio.\\u000a It demonstrates how approaches and theories from the field of data visualization can form a rich contextual resource and motivational\\u000a tool for
According to their restricted receptive fields and input-filter characteristics, disparity-sensitive neurons at early processing levels of the visual system perform rather ambiguous compu- tations; they respond vigorously to disparity in false-matched images and show multiple response peaks in their disparity- tuning profiles. On the other hand, the perception of depth from binocular disparity is reliable, thus raising the question as
Cognitive fit theory, along with the proximity compatibility principle, is investigated as a basis to evaluate the effectiveness of informationvisualizations to support a decision-making task. The task used in this study manipulates varying levels of task complexity for quality control decisions in a high-volume discrete manufacturing environment. The volume of process monitoring and quality control data produced in this type of environment can be daunting. Today's managers need effective decision support tools to sort through the morass of data in a timely fashion to make critical decisions on product and process quality. PMID:20616398
Teets, Jay M; Tegarden, David P; Russell, Roberta S
Many actions involve limb movements toward a target. Visual and proprioceptive estimates are available online, and by optimally combining (Ernst and Banks, 2002) both modalities during the movement, the system can increase the precision of the hand estimate. The notion that both sensory modalities are integrated is also motivated by the intuition that we do not consciously perceive any discrepancy between the felt and seen hand's positions. This coherence as a result of integration does not necessarily imply realignment between the two modalities (Smeets et al., 2006). For example, the two estimates (visual and proprioceptive) might be different without either of them (e.g., proprioception) ever being adjusted after recovering the other (e.g., vision). The implication that the felt and seen positions might be different has a temporal analog. Because the actual feedback from the hand at a given instantaneous position reaches brain areas at different times for proprioception and vision (shorter for proprioception), the corresponding instantaneous unisensory position estimates will be different, with the proprioceptive one being ahead of the visual one. Based on the assumption that the system integrates optimally and online the available evidence from both senses, we introduce a temporal mechanism that explains the reported overestimation of hand positions when vision is occluded for active and passive movements (Gritsenko et al., 2007) without the need to resort to initial feedforward estimates (Wolpert et al., 1995). We set up hypotheses to test the validity of the model, and we contrast simulation-based predictions with empirical data.
Cameron, Brendan D.; de la Malla, Cristina; Lopez-Moliner, Joan
Recent and forthcoming increases in the amount and complexity of astronomy data are creating data sets that are not amenable to the methods of analysis with which astronomers are familiar. Traditional methods are often inadequate not merely because the data sets are too large and too complex to fully be analyzed "manually", but because many conventional algorithms and techniques cannot be scaled up enough to work effectively on the new data sets. It is essential to develop new methods for organization, scientific visualization (as opposed to illustrative visualization) and analysis of heterogeneous, multiresolution data across application domains. Scientific utilization of highly complex and massive data sets poses significant challenges, and calls for some mathematical approaches more advanced than are now generally available. In this paper, we both give an overview of several innovative developments that address these challenges, and describe a few specific examples of algorithms we have developed, as well as the ones we are developing in the course of this ongoing work. These approaches will enhance scientific visualization and data analysis capabilities, thus facilitating astronomical research and enabling discoveries. This work was carried out with partial funding from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency University Research Initiative (NURI), grant HM1582-08-1-0019.
In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speed sensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimal multivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noises corrupting the relevantinformation coming from the sensors' outputs are so dangerous that their negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of the car. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our full attention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noises on the car's electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. The experimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the relevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensor design techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today's cars need.