Science.gov

Sample records for relevant visual information

  1. MULTI-PHASE LIVER LESIONS CLASSIFICATION USING RELEVANT VISUAL WORDS BASED ON MUTUAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Goldberger, Jacob

    MULTI-PHASE LIVER LESIONS CLASSIFICATION USING RELEVANT VISUAL WORDS BASED ON MUTUAL INFORMATION We present a novel method for automated diagnosis of liver lesions in multi-phase CT images. Our by 3%. The shift from single-phase liver data to a multi-phase representation is shown to substantially

  2. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information

  3. Relevance and Information Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Discusses relevance and its role in evaluating the effectiveness of information retrieval. Highlights include an information retrieval interaction model; a review of research; evaluation and measurement, including recall and precision and utility and user satisfaction; judges and judgment conditions; user criteria; decision making; and cognitive…

  4. Computing and Visualization Relevant to Airport Capacity

    E-print Network

    /sec.) ? Visualization ­ Stereographics: Virtual reality & Augmented reality ­ Wearable monitors ­ Retinal scanning #12, ... ) ­ Operations research for route planning ­ Air traffic control ­ Information processing & intelligent systems

  5. A Visual Exploration of the Orderliness of TREC Relevance Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of information-retrieval test collections focuses on a study of TREC documents that used scaling and visualization of documents using a maximum-likelihood estimation method to examine the relevance of documents retrieved. Discusses clustering, similarity measures, isomorphism, and semantic relevance. (LRW)

  6. Text Visualization using Light and Shadow based on Topic Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yoko; Sato, Keita; Sunayama, Wataru

    There are so many opportunities to transmit text information on the Web. Since texts on the Web are not always written by professional writers, those may not be coherent or may be hard to be comprehended. Therefore, we should take too much time and energy to grasp topic relevance of a text. This paper describes HINATA system that visualizes texts using light and shadow based on topic relevance. Topic is defined as a set of words such as nouns contained in a title of a text. The light expresses sentences related to a topic, and the shadow expresses sentences unrelated to a topic. This visualization method efficiently supports users for finding the parts related to a topic, and for grasping relations between sentences of a text and a topic. Experimental results showed that the proposed system could support users for understanding how a text was related to a topic.

  7. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  8. Visualizing conceptual information 

    E-print Network

    Brunner, Matthew Conrad

    1993-01-01

    This thesis investigates computer based visualization as a tool and method for envisioning information. It involves the collaborative creation and evaluation of a visualization project which is based upon the conceptual paradigm outlined in Anya...

  9. Finding Relevant Items: Attentional Guidance Improves Visual Selection Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Sonja; Hild, Isabella; Wiesbeck, Mathey; Zaeh, Michael F.; Schubö, Anna

    In daily life and at work people are confronted with complex information. Especially elderly or disabled users might be overburdened by the amount of information and distracted by irrelevant items. Due to this, they possibly fail to find and select relevant items in visual search. This could be demotivating for the use of media like the internet or could result in an inability to achieve certain job requirements. A method for supporting performance in visual search tasks is the guidance of attention. The present study compares different methods for attentional guidance. Results show a benefit for peripheral exogenous cues realized as luminance changes in comparison to endogenous central cues. Possible applications for the proposed attentional guidance method are discussed.

  10. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  11. Neural correlates for task-relevant facilitation of visual inputs during visually-guided hand movements.

    PubMed

    Lebar, Nicolas; Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence; Blouin, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Vision is a powerful source of information for controlling movements, especially fine actions produced by the hand that require a great deal of accuracy. However, the neural processes that enable vision to enhance movement accuracy are not well understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the cortical sensitivity to visual inputs increases during a spatially-constrained hand movement compared to a situation where visual information is irrelevant to the task. Specifically, we compared the cortical visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) in response to flashes (right visual hemifield) recorded while participants followed the outline of an irregular polygon with a pen (i.e., tracing), with VEPs recorded when participants simply kept the pen still. This tracing task was chosen specifically because it requires many different visual processes (e.g., detection of line orientation, motion perception, visuomotor transformation) to be completed successfully. The tracing and resting tasks were performed with normal vision and also with mirror-reversed vision, thereby increasing task difficulty when tracing. We predicted that the sensitivity to visual inputs would be enhanced (i.e. greater VEPs) during tracing and that this increase in response sensitivity would be greater when tracing was performed with mirror-reversed vision. In addition, in order to investigate the existence of a link between the sensitivity to visual inputs and the accuracy with which participants traced the shape, we assigned participants to high performer (HP) or low performer (LP) groups according to their tracing performance in the condition with mirror-reversed visual feedback. Source analyses revealed that, for both groups, the sensitivity to visual inputs of the left occipital and MT/MST regions increased when participants traced the shape as compared to when they were resting. Also, for both groups of participants, the mirror-reversed vision did not affect the amplitude of the cortical response to visual inputs but increased the latencies of the responses in the occipital, temporal, and parietal regions. However, the HP group showed cortical responses that largely differed from those displayed by the LP group. Specifically, the HP group demonstrated movement-related increases of visual sensitivity in regions of the visual cortex that were not observed in the LP group. These increased responses to visual inputs were evidenced in the posterior inferior parietal, temporal-occipital, and inferior-temporal regions. Overall, our results are in line with the assertion that increasing the sensitivity to visual inputs serves to promote relevant visual information for the different processes involved during visually-guided hand movements. Our results also suggest that maintaining accurate hand tracing movements in the presence of discrepant visual and somatosensory feedback requires additional perceptual and spatial information processing that is tightly linked to visual inputs. PMID:26191651

  12. Science information systems: Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

  13. Information efficiency in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  14. Information visualization as creative nonfiction

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Information visualizations are an important means through which we communicate knowledge. By considering visualizations as data-driven narratives, this thesis uses narrative thinking as an orienting concept to support the ...

  15. Information visualization for the people

    E-print Network

    Danziger, Michael (Michael J.)

    2008-01-01

    The design of information visualization, defined as the interactive, graphical presentation of data, is on the verge of a significant paradigm shift brought on by the continued maturation of the Information Age. Its ...

  16. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  17. The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory

    E-print Network

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    : visual working memory, visual short-term memory, scene perception, attention, eye movements SupplementalThe Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory Ashleigh M. Maxcey of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory

  18. Can Visualizing Document Space Improve Users' Information Foraging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Min

    1998-01-01

    This study shows how users access relevant information in a visualized document space and determine whether BiblioMapper, a visualization tool, strengthens an information retrieval (IR) system and makes it more usable. BiblioMapper, developed for a CISI collection, was evaluated by accuracy, time, and user satisfaction. Users' navigation…

  19. Foundations of Advanced Information Visualization for Visual Information (Retrieval) Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark; Hemmje, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a conference workshop that addressed Visual Information Retrieval Interfaces (VIRIs). Topics include evaluation methods; task dimension for evaluating VIRIs; efforts to fund European development of VIRIs; metrics, including cosine vector; navigation among documents; and interactions with users. (LRW)

  20. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information = sitemap #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia://www.ci.glenwood-springs.co.us/code/index.html #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information

  1. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Erez, Yaara; Duncan, John

    2015-09-01

    Allocating attentional resources to currently relevant information in a dynamically changing environment is critical to goal-directed behavior. Previous studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) have demonstrated modulation of neural representations of stimuli, in particular visual categorizations, by behavioral significance in the lateral prefrontal cortex. In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions, the "multiple demand" (MD) system, is involved in cognitive and attentional control. To test for the effect of behavioral significance on categorical discrimination in the MD system in humans, we adapted a previously used task in the NHP and used multivoxel pattern analysis for fMRI data. In a cued-detection categorization task, participants detected whether an image from one of two target visual categories was present in a display. Our results revealed that categorical discrimination is modulated by behavioral relevance, as measured by the distributed pattern of response across the MD network. Distinctions between categories with different behavioral status (e.g., a target and a nontarget) were significantly discriminated. Category distinctions that were not behaviorally relevant (e.g., between two targets) were not discriminated. Other aspects of the task that were orthogonal to the behavioral decision did not modulate categorical discrimination. In a high visual region, the lateral occipital complex, modulation by behavioral relevance was evident in its posterior subregion but not in the anterior subregion. The results are consistent with the view of the MD system as involved in top-down attentional and cognitive control by selective coding of task-relevant discriminations. Significance statement: Control of cognitive demands fundamentally involves flexible allocation of attentional resources depending on a current behavioral context. Essential to such a mechanism is the ability to select currently relevant information and at the same time filter out information that is irrelevant. In an fMRI study, we measured distributed patterns of activity for objects from different visual categories while manipulating the behavioral relevance of the categorical distinctions. In a network of frontal and parietal cortical regions, the multiple-demand (MD) network, patterns reflected category distinctions that were relevant to behavior. Patterns could not be used to make task-irrelevant category distinctions. These findings demonstrate the ability of the MD network to implement complex goal-directed behavior by focused attention. PMID:26354907

  2. Embedding Information Visualization Within Visual Representation

    E-print Network

    Ras, Zbigniew W.

    , visualization is defined as any translation of data to image, but intuitively its purpose seems substantially draws from existing visualization models as well as broader theories of aesthetics and visual gra

  3. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  4. Browsing Access to Visual Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecsei, Jan; Martin, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Discusses browsing in the particular context of visual and multimedia (e.g., videodisc) information databases and describes a working prototype system based on a fisheye view of documents in their context. Topics discussed include selecting and presenting information, exploratory access to information, artificial intelligence, user needs, and…

  5. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  6. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance

  7. Information Visualization for Peer Patent Examination Marti Hearst, UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    older forum readers are often unattractive and difficult to navigate and assimilate. #12;2 "Dashboard to be done in the time remaining before the patent review process ends. "Dashboard"-type visualizations may be useful for this purpose. Dashboards are visualizations whose intent is to show all relevant information

  8. Inter-modal attention shifts trigger the selective activation of task-relevant tactile or visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Katus, Tobias; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The sensory recruitment account of working memory (WM) assumes that the short-term retention of visual or tactile stimuli is implemented by cortical areas that are also responsible for the perceptual processing of these stimuli. Focal attention supports the short-term retention of sensory information, but it is unknown whether attention can also be flexibly shifted between visual and tactile WM representations. This study explored such inter-modal attention shifts in a task that required memory for simultaneously presented tactile and visual stimuli. A set of bilateral tactile and visual sample stimuli was followed after a retention period by a set of test stimuli. In different blocks, participants were instructed to memorize all stimuli on either the left or the right side. An auditory retro-cue, presented 500 ms after the sample sets, signalled whether the tactile or visual stimuli were relevant for the upcoming memory test. To study how these cues affect tactile and visual short-term storage, we measured the visual contralateral delay activity (CDA component) of the event-related potential (ERP) and its tactile counterpart (tCDA) that are elicited over modality-specific visual and somatosensory cortex. Scalp current density transforms were used to minimize volume-conduction, and to simultaneously measure these components over somatosensory and visual regions of interest (ROIs). A significant ROI x cued modality interaction demonstrated that visual and tactile WM was affected by the cued task-relevance of these sensory modalities. The tCDA component over somatosensory scalp regions was present only when touch was cued. The CDA over visual cortex was present in both cueing conditions, but was larger when vision was cued. Our results suggest that tactile and visual stimuli are stored separately in modality-specific memory systems. We conclude that retro-cues elicit inter-modal attention shifts that selectively activate information in the currently task-relevant modality. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326549

  9. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia Information Systems 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia sitemap #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia://www.ci.glenwood-springs.co.us/code/index.html #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Visual Portals to Multimedia

  10. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  11. BINOCULAR INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND VISUAL MEMORY

    E-print Network

    Busey, Thomas A.

    BINOCULAR INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND VISUAL MEMORY Thomas A. Busey Indiana University and Geoffrey mechanisms underlying binocular combination of visual information within the context of a visual information mechanisms of binocular combination and conclude that one must take the location of the sensory threshold

  12. Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

  13. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  14. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  15. Aggressive children's memory for attachment relevant information 

    E-print Network

    Collie, Claire Futamase

    2004-09-30

    This study examined a measure of children's memory for information from a story about a hypothetical mother and child, the Story Task, as a potential tool to delineate subtypes of aggressive children based on the pattern of information processing...

  16. The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations Dean F. Jerding and John Abstract Information visualizations must allow users to browse information spaces and focus quickly on items of interest. Being able to see some representation of the entire information space provides

  17. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  18. Finding the Critical Facts: Children's Visual Scan Patterns When Solving Story Problems That Contain Irrelevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Joan Littlefield; Rieser, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to understand the processes through which 5th graders discriminate relevant from irrelevant information when solving mathematical story problems. Visual scanning was recorded and coded as directed toward relevant information, irrelevant information, the question, workspace, and elsewhere. Experiment 1 focused on the…

  19. Visual Information Strategies in Mental Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    This paper examines how visual information strategies may be used to facilitate the development of mental models. Topics covered include: definition of mental models; mental models and visual information; mental modeling concepts; power of modeling, including examples related to physical science, mathematics, writing, and depth of processing;…

  20. A Subjectivist Interpretation of Relevant Information

    E-print Network

    Floridi, Luciano

    , the map of the London underground, a police report about a road accident, the description of Peter/dependence (how some information can help to produce some outcome), especially in logic, proba- bility theory

  1. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  2. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS. 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods.

  3. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  4. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  5. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  6. An Extensible Framework for Information Visualization and Collection

    E-print Network

    McCrickard, Scott

    oriented creatures [1], creating information visualization techniques is a very important area of research within the human-computer interaction community. Information visualization has extremely broad

  7. Bioinformatics Visualization: Introduction to this Special Issue of Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    to information visualization researchers: · Very large quantities of data: High-throughput profiling technologies-wide dissemination of vast data. · Heterogeneous data: Modern biological discovery often requires the integration. Bioinformatics involves the application of data-rich computationaland informatics methods to support

  8. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    PubMed

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend. PMID:26152963

  9. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  10. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  11. Relevance similarity: an alternative means to monitor information retrieval systems

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Loh, Marie; Mondry, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background Relevance assessment is a major problem in the evaluation of information retrieval systems. The work presented here introduces a new parameter, "Relevance Similarity", for the measurement of the variation of relevance assessment. In a situation where individual assessment can be compared with a gold standard, this parameter is used to study the effect of such variation on the performance of a medical information retrieval system. In such a setting, Relevance Similarity is the ratio of assessors who rank a given document same as the gold standard over the total number of assessors in the group. Methods The study was carried out on a collection of Critically Appraised Topics (CATs). Twelve volunteers were divided into two groups of people according to their domain knowledge. They assessed the relevance of retrieved topics obtained by querying a meta-search engine with ten keywords related to medical science. Their assessments were compared to the gold standard assessment, and Relevance Similarities were calculated as the ratio of positive concordance with the gold standard for each topic. Results The similarity comparison among groups showed that a higher degree of agreements exists among evaluators with more subject knowledge. The performance of the retrieval system was not significantly different as a result of the variations in relevance assessment in this particular query set. Conclusion In assessment situations where evaluators can be compared to a gold standard, Relevance Similarity provides an alternative evaluation technique to the commonly used kappa scores, which may give paradoxically low scores in highly biased situations such as document repositories containing large quantities of relevant data. PMID:16029513

  12. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety of relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.

  13. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety ofmore »relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.« less

  14. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line with the 'auditory-visual view' of auditory speech perception, which assumes that auditory speech recognition is optimized by using predictions from previously encoded speaker-specific audio-visual internal models. PMID:25650106

  15. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  16. Covert attention accelerates the rate of visual information processing

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    ''), or in- voluntarily allocated, in a reflexive manner, to a cue that appears suddenly in the visual fieldCovert attention accelerates the rate of visual information processing Marisa Carrasco* and Brian of visual information. Covert attention allows us to select visual information at a cued location, without

  17. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AND ACTIONS TO ADDRESS RESTRICTIVE FOREIGN MARITIME PRACTICES ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of...

  18. Monitoring and visualizing information resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCrickard, D.S.; Rowan, T.H.

    1996-07-01

    The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.

  19. Seeing without knowing: task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and recognition.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Shoval, Roy; Yeshurun, Yaffa

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and knowledge activation to create a state of seeing without knowing-visual awareness of familiar stimuli without recognizing them. We rely on the fact that in order to experience a Kanizsa illusion, participants must be aware of its inducers. While people can indicate the orientation of the illusory rectangle with great ease (signifying that they have consciously experienced the illusion's inducers), almost 30% of them could not report the inducers' color. Thus, people can see, in the sense of phenomenally experiencing, but not know, in the sense of recognizing what the object is or activating appropriate knowledge about it. Experiment 2 tests whether relevance-based selection operates within objects and shows that, contrary to the pattern of results found with features of different objects in our previous studies and replicated in Experiment 1, selection does not occur when both relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. We discuss these findings in relation to the existing theories of consciousness and to attention and inattentional blindness, and the role of cognitive load, object-based attention, and the use of self-reports as measures of awareness. PMID:25716140

  20. Visual Correspondence Using Energy Minimization and Mutual Information

    E-print Network

    Field, David

    Visual Correspondence Using Energy Minimization and Mutual Information Junhwan Kim Vladimir- eras. We use maximization of mutual information, a powerful technique for registering images, it has proven difficult to use mutual information to compute dense visual correspondence. Comparing fixed

  1. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  2. Interactive Information Visualization for Exploratory Analysis of Spatiotemporal Trend Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Yasufumi; Yamada, Takashi

    This paper proposes an interactive information visualization system that supports exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information. A trend generally means a general direction in which a situation is changing / developing. Recent growth of computer and network systems has enabled us to obtain trend information at less cost, and it becomes important how to utilize such information. Exploratory data analysis is one of necessary activities of users to utilize trend information, in which users examine data space from various viewpoints using various views, notice interesting trend, and find interpretation useful for decision making or problem solving. As exploratory data analysis essentially involves trial and error, an interactive information visualization system that supports users' exploratory analysis of trend information should encourage users' trial and error. In order to design such systems, adequate interaction model that covers various actions to data space is necessary. In this paper, the visualization cube is proposed as abstract data model of spatiotemporal trend information, based on which interaction model for exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information is defined. The visualization cube consists of 4 axes; spatial and temporal axes, statistical data axis, and type-of-views axis. Interactions for generating views are defined as the operations on the visualization cube, which include drill down / up, comparison, spin, and transition. The interactive information visualization system for spatiotemporal trend information is developed based on the concept of visualization cube. Experiment is performed to compare the operating time between users with / without experience of using the system. The result shows the operations of the system based on the proposed interaction model are easy to understand without training. The system was also used in actual classes of an elementary school, of which the result shows the system has enough usability for 5th-grade elementary school children to perform exploratory data analysis.

  3. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. PMID:25595505

  4. Information-theoretic metrics for visualizing gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Pritam; Zhang, Aidong; Brazeau, Daniel; Sucheston, Lara; Freudenheim, Jo L; Ambrosone, Christine; Ramanathan, Murali

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of our work was to develop heuristics for visualizing and interpreting gene-environment interactions (GEIs) and to assess the dependence of candidate visualization metrics on biological and study-design factors. Two information-theoretic metrics, the k-way interaction information (KWII) and the total correlation information (TCI), were investigated. The effectiveness of the KWII and TCI to detect GEIs in a diverse range of simulated data sets and a Crohn disease data set was assessed. The sensitivity of the KWII and TCI spectra to biological and study-design variables was determined. Head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) methods were obtained. The KWII and TCI spectra, which are graphical summaries of the KWII and TCI for each subset of environmental and genotype variables, were found to detect each known GEI in the simulated data sets. The patterns in the KWII and TCI spectra were informative for factors such as case-control misassignment, locus heterogeneity, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium. The KWII and TCI spectra were found to have excellent sensitivity for identifying the key disease-associated genetic variations in the Crohn disease data set. In head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and PDT methods, the results from visual interpretation of the KWII and TCI spectra performed satisfactorily. The KWII and TCI are promising metrics for visualizing GEIs. They are capable of detecting interactions among numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental variables for a diverse range of GEI models. PMID:17924337

  5. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) to rare, task-relevant (counted) numerical stimuli was compared with VEPs to rare, task-irrelevant stimuli, both being randomly interspersed within a sequence of tachistoscopically-flashed background numbers. These task-irrelevant stimuli were of two classes: (1) easily recognizable (e.g., simple geometric shapes) and (2) completely novel (i.e., complex, colorful abstract-type drawings which were unrecognizable). It was found that such novel stimuli did, in fact, evoke large P3 waves, but they had different scalp distributions from those which followed the task-relevant stimuli. This indicates that at least two types of late positive P3 waves exist, differing both in brain source and psychological correlates.

  6. Guidance of Visual Search by Preattentive Information

    E-print Network

    , an observer will use color information to guide covert attention as well as overt movements of eye and hand red car in the parking lot, we select red cars to examine, not blue cars. If we accept this set and dimensions are on the list on the basis of rather few data. Much evidence comes from visual search tasks

  7. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment. PMID:24429836

  8. Crossmodal information for visual and haptic discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Flip; Egan, Eric J. L.

    2009-02-01

    Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction we have performed a variety of experiments characterizing the detection, discrimination, and production of 3D shape. A stimulus set of 25 complex, natural appearing, noisy 3D target objects were statistically specified in the Fourier domain and manufactured using a 3D printer. A series of paired-comparison experiments examined subjects' unimodal (visual-visual and haptic-haptic) and crossmodal (visual-haptic) perceptual abilities. Additionally, subjects sculpted objects using uni- or crossmodal source information. In all experiments, the performance in the unimodal conditions were similar to one another and unimodal presentation fared better than crossmodal. Also, the spatial frequency of object features affected performance differentially across the range used in this experiment. The sculpted objects were scanned in 3D and the resulting geometry was compared metrically and statistically to the original stimuli. Objects with higher spatial frequency were harder to sculpt when limited to haptic input compared to only visual input. The opposite was found for objects with low spatial frequency. The psychophysical discrimination and comparison experiments yielded similar findings. There is a marked performance difference between the visual and haptic systems and these differences were systematically distributed along the range of feature details. The existence of non-universal (i.e. modality-specific) representations explain the poor crossmodal performance. Our current findings suggest that haptic and visual information is either integrated into a multi-modal form, or each is independent and somewhat efficient translation is possible. Vision shows a distinct advantage when dealing with higher frequency objects but both modalities are effective when comparing objects that differ by a large amount.

  9. Feature saliency and feedback information interactively impact visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Sloutsky, Vladimir; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Visual category learning (VCL) involves detecting which features are most relevant for categorization. VCL relies on attentional learning, which enables effectively redirecting attention to object’s features most relevant for categorization, while ‘filtering out’ irrelevant features. When features relevant for categorization are not salient, VCL relies also on perceptual learning, which enables becoming more sensitive to subtle yet important differences between objects. Little is known about how attentional learning and perceptual learning interact when VCL relies on both processes at the same time. Here we tested this interaction. Participants performed VCL tasks in which they learned to categorize novel stimuli by detecting the feature dimension relevant for categorization. Tasks varied both in feature saliency (low-saliency tasks that required perceptual learning vs. high-saliency tasks), and in feedback information (tasks with mid-information, moderately ambiguous feedback that increased attentional load, vs. tasks with high-information non-ambiguous feedback). We found that mid-information and high-information feedback were similarly effective for VCL in high-saliency tasks. This suggests that an increased attentional load, associated with the processing of moderately ambiguous feedback, has little effect on VCL when features are salient. In low-saliency tasks, VCL relied on slower perceptual learning; but when the feedback was highly informative participants were able to ultimately attain the same performance as during the high-saliency VCL tasks. However, VCL was significantly compromised in the low-saliency mid-information feedback task. We suggest that such low-saliency mid-information learning scenarios are characterized by a ‘cognitive loop paradox’ where two interdependent learning processes have to take place simultaneously. PMID:25745404

  10. The directional flow of visual information transfer between pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Chong, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D

    2012-08-23

    Close behavioural coupling of visual orientation may provide a range of adaptive benefits to social species. In order to investigate the natural properties of gaze-following between pedestrians, we displayed an attractive stimulus in a frequently trafficked corridor within which a hidden camera was placed to detect directed gaze from passers-by. The presence of visual cues towards the stimulus by nearby pedestrians increased the probability of passers-by looking as well. In contrast to cueing paradigms used for laboratory research, however, we found that individuals were more responsive to changes in the visual orientation of those walking in the same direction in front of them (i.e. viewing head direction from behind). In fact, visual attention towards the stimulus diminished when oncoming pedestrians had previously looked. Information was therefore transferred more effectively behind, rather than in front of, gaze cues. Further analyses show that neither crowding nor group interactions were driving these effects, suggesting that, within natural settings gaze-following is strongly mediated by social interaction and facilitates acquisition of environmentally relevant information. PMID:22456331

  11. Visual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance.

    PubMed

    Enns, James T; Oriet, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. PMID:20517510

  12. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  13. Visual control of navigation in insects and its relevance for robotics.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-08-01

    Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles. PMID:21689925

  14. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  15. Fear conditioned visual information is prioritized for visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Surya; Paffen, Chris; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The present study addresses the question whether visual information that signals threat is prioritized for access to awareness. We combined a fear conditioning procedure with a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) task. In this task, participants were presented with high contrast dynamic masks to one eye, and a target grating presented to the other eye (suppression condition) or to the same eye (monocular condition). Participants were asked to report the orientation of the target as soon as it became visible. Throughout the entire experiment, target gratings were surrounded by a blue or red annulus. During the acquisition phase (phase 1), participants passively viewed both monocular and suppression trials, in which one annulus color was repeatedly paired with an electrical shock (from now on the CS+) while the other color was not (CS-). Subsequently, participants completed four blocks of b-CFS trials (phase 2), in which monocular and suppression conditions were intermixed, with CS+ and CS- annuli surrounding the targets. The results revealed that target orientation was reported faster on trials with CS+ annuli than with CS- annuli in the suppression condition. This difference in reaction times reflected shorter suppression durations for CS+ annuli rather than a response bias, as no difference in reaction times emerged between targets surrounded by CS+ or CS- annuli in the monocular condition. This pattern of findings is particularly striking, as (1) participants knew that no shocks would be administered during the b-CFS task, (2) the CS+ and CS- annuli were irrelevant for participants' behavioral task and (3) participants reported to be unaware of phenomenal differences between monocular and suppression conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that visual information that was previously paired with aversive stimulation, and thus signaled threat, is prioritized by the perceptual system such that it more readily breaches the threshold of awareness. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326072

  16. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

  17. GYMNASTS UTILIZE VISUAL AND AUDITORY INFORMATION FOR BEHAVIOURAL SYNCHRONIZATION IN TRAMPOLINING

    PubMed Central

    Koschnick, J.; Schmidt-Maaß, D.; Vinken, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In synchronized trampolining, two gymnasts perform the same routine at the same time. While trained gymnasts are thought to coordinate their own movements with the movements of another gymnast by detecting relevant movement information, the question arises how visual and auditory information contribute to the emergence of synchronicity between both gymnasts. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the role of visual and auditory information in the emergence of coordinated behaviour in synchronized trampolining. Twenty female gymnasts were asked to synchronize their leaps with the leaps of a model gymnast, while visual and auditory information was manipulated. The results revealed that gymnasts needed more leaps to reach synchronicity when only either auditory (12.9 leaps) or visual information (10.8 leaps) was available, as compared to when both auditory and visual information was available (8.1 leaps). It is concluded that visual and auditory information play significant roles in synchronized trampolining, whilst visual information seems to be the dominant source for emerging behavioural synchronization, and auditory information supports this emergence. PMID:25177101

  18. Bats regulate biosonar based on the availability of visual information.

    PubMed

    Danilovich, Sasha; Krishnan, Anand; Lee, Wu-Jung; Borrisov, Ivailo; Eitan, Ofri; Kosa, Gabor; Moss, Cynthia F; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-01

    The study of inter-sensory integration has focused largely on how different sensory modalities are weighted and combined in perception [1-3]. However, the extent to which information acquired through one sensory modality is modulated by another is yet unknown. We studied this problem in the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus), an animal equipped with two modalities supporting high resolution distal sensing: biosonar and vision [4,5]. Egyptian fruit bats emit ultra-short, broad-band lingual echolocation clicks that enable accurate spatial orientation and landing [5]. They also rely heavily on vision, exhibiting high absolute sensitivity [4]. Here, we examine how visual information, regulated by altering ambient light level, influences biosonar sampling by Egyptian fruit bats. We tracked bats in the field and demonstrated that they routinely echolocate outdoors under a wide range of light levels. In the laboratory, under biologically relevant light levels, bats increased both echolocation click rate and intensity at lower light levels, where visual information was limited. These findings demonstrate how sensory information from one modality (vision) may influence sensory sampling of another (biosonar). Additionally, the bats adjusted biosonar sampling in a task-dependent manner, increasing click rate prior to landing. They did not cease echolocating under light conditions, which leads us to hypothesize that Egyptian fruit bats use echolocation to complement vision for accurate estimation of distance. PMID:26654368

  19. Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

    Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

  20. A Workplace Study of the Adoption of Information Visualization Systems

    E-print Network

    Kobsa, Alfred

    A Workplace Study of the Adoption of Information Visualization Systems Victor González School reports an ongoing longitudinal study of the adoption of information visualization systems visualization system used. We conclude that data analysts can take much better advantage of the benefits

  1. Benefits of Information Visualization Systems for Administrative Data Analysts

    E-print Network

    Kobsa, Alfred

    Benefits of Information Visualization Systems for Administrative Data Analysts Victor González,kobsa}@ics.uci.edu Abstract1 This paper reports results from a study on the adoption of an information visualization system benefits that visualization systems provide to their work. These benefits for the most part occurred when

  2. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  3. Effects of Large, High-Resolution Displays for Geospatial Information Visualization Robert Glenn Ball

    E-print Network

    Effects of Large, High-Resolution Displays for Geospatial Information Visualization Robert Glenn for Geospatial Information Visualization Robert Glenn Ball (ABSTRACT) Geospatial visualizations are becoming visualizations to help the military, geospatial visualizations are becoming a larger part of people's lives

  4. Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  5. VINSIA: visual navigator for surgical information access.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lingyun; Rowbottom, James; Craker, John; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Information access at the point of care presents a different set of requirements than those for traditional search engines. Critical care in remote (e.g., battle field) and rural settings not only requires access to clinical guidelines and medical libraries with surgical precision but also with minimal user effort and time. Our development of a graphical, anatomy-driven navigator called Visual Navigator for Surgical Information Access (VINSIA) fulfills the goal for providing evidence-based clinical decision support, specifically in perioperative and critical care settings, to allow rapid and precise information access through a portable stand-alone system. It comes with a set of unique characteristics: (a) a high precision, interactive visual interface driven by human anatomy; (b) direct linkage of anatomical structures to associated content such as clinical guidelines, literature, and medical libraries; and (c) an administrative content management interface allowing only an accredited, expert-level curator to edit and update the clinical content to ensure accuracy and currency. We believe that the deployment of VINSIA will improve quality, safety, and evidence-based standardization of patient care. PMID:23820348

  6. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Park, Stephen K. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  7. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  8. Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

  9. Exploring the Benefits of Immersion in Abstract Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Exploring the Benefits of Immersion in Abstract Information Visualization Dheva Raja, Doug A, bowman, jolucas, chnorth1}@vt.edu ABSTRACT The benefits of immersion with regard to information to explore a variety of information visualization tasks in immersive and non-immersive 3D scatterplots

  10. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  11. Using Language Models to Identify Relevant New Information in Inpatient Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Lee, Janet T.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information. PMID:25954438

  12. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual

  13. iVisDesigner: Expressive Interactive Design of Information Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Ren, Donghao; Höllerer, Tobias; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2014-12-01

    We present the design, implementation and evaluation of iVisDesigner, a web-based system that enables users to design information visualizations for complex datasets interactively, without the need for textual programming. Our system achieves high interactive expressiveness through conceptual modularity, covering a broad information visualization design space. iVisDesigner supports the interactive design of interactive visualizations, such as provisioning for responsive graph layouts and different types of brushing and linking interactions. We present the system design and implementation, exemplify it through a variety of illustrative visualization designs and discuss its limitations. A performance analysis and an informal user study are presented to evaluate the system. PMID:26356923

  14. From Metaphor to Method: Cartographic Perspectives on Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Skupin, André

    in information visualization research is the result of the realization that those cognitive skills also have, such as graphic complexity or feature labeling. There are a number of areas in which a cartographic outlook could the design of visualizations for textual information spaces. Map projections, generalization, feature

  15. Information Processing During Transient Responses in the Crayfish Visual System

    E-print Network

    Rozell, Christopher J.

    Information Processing During Transient Responses in the Crayfish Visual System Christopher J sustaining fiber responses in the crayfish visual system to light pulses using information processing on stimulus changes. The present analysis also corroborates the observed light reflex behavior. Key words

  16. On the assessment of visual communication by information theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.

  17. Information Services Audio-Visual Strategy 2015 2018

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Information Services Audio-Visual Strategy 2015 ­ 2018 (Learning and Teaching) Context requirements and through the monitoring of technology advances help shape longer term requirements to support supports the following Information Services strategic aims2 : Environment - We offer modern, technology

  18. Tactical Decisions for Changeable Cuttlefish Camouflage: Visual Cues for Choosing Masquerade Are Relevant from a Greater Distance than Visual Cues Used for Background Matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. PMID:26504156

  19. Visual search in depth: The neural correlates of segmenting a display into relevant and irrelevant three-dimensional regions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Katherine L; Allen, Harriet A; Dent, Kevin; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-11-15

    Visual perception is facilitated by the ability to selectively attend to relevant parts of the world and to ignore irrelevant regions or features. In visual search tasks, viewers are able to segment displays into relevant and irrelevant items based on a number of factors including the colour, motion, and temporal onset of the target and distractors. Understanding the process by which viewers prioritise relevant parts of a display can provide insights into the effect of top-down control on visual perception. Here, we investigate the behavioural and neural correlates of segmenting a display according to the expected three-dimensional (3D) location of a target. We ask whether this segmentation is based on low-level visual features (e.g. common depth or common surface) or on higher-order representations of 3D regions. Similar response-time benefits and neural activity were obtained when items fell on common surfaces or within depth-defined volumes, and when displays were vertical (such that items shared a common depth/disparity) or were tilted in depth. These similarities indicate that segmenting items according to their 3D location is based on attending to a 3D region, rather than a specific depth or surface. Segmenting the items in depth was mainly associated with increased activation in depth-sensitive parietal regions rather than in depth-sensitive visual regions. We conclude that segmenting items in depth is primarily achieved via higher-order, cue invariant representations rather than through filtering in lower-level perceptual regions. PMID:26220748

  20. Visual search in depth: The neural correlates of segmenting a display into relevant and irrelevant three-dimensional regions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Allen, Harriet A.; Dent, Kevin; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is facilitated by the ability to selectively attend to relevant parts of the world and to ignore irrelevant regions or features. In visual search tasks, viewers are able to segment displays into relevant and irrelevant items based on a number of factors including the colour, motion, and temporal onset of the target and distractors. Understanding the process by which viewers prioritise relevant parts of a display can provide insights into the effect of top-down control on visual perception. Here, we investigate the behavioural and neural correlates of segmenting a display according to the expected three-dimensional (3D) location of a target. We ask whether this segmentation is based on low-level visual features (e.g. common depth or common surface) or on higher-order representations of 3D regions. Similar response-time benefits and neural activity were obtained when items fell on common surfaces or within depth-defined volumes, and when displays were vertical (such that items shared a common depth/disparity) or were tilted in depth. These similarities indicate that segmenting items according to their 3D location is based on attending to a 3D region, rather than a specific depth or surface. Segmenting the items in depth was mainly associated with increased activation in depth-sensitive parietal regions rather than in depth-sensitive visual regions. We conclude that segmenting items in depth is primarily achieved via higher-order, cue invariant representations rather than through filtering in lower-level perceptual regions. PMID:26220748

  1. Snap2Diverse: coordinating information visualizations and virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polys, Nicholas F.; North, Chris; Bowman, Doug A.; Ray, Andrew; Moldenhauer, Maxim; Dandekar, Chetan

    2004-06-01

    The field of Information Visualization is concerned with improving how users perceive, understand, and interact with visual representations of abstract information. Immersive Virtual Environments (VEs) excel at a greater comprehension of spatial information. This project addresses the intersection of these two fields known as Information-Rich Virtual Environments (IRVEs) where perceptually realistic information, such as models and scenes, are enhanced with abstract information, such as text, numeric data, hyperlinks, or multimedia resources. IRVEs present a number of important design challenges including the management, coordination, and display of interrelated perceptual and abstract information. We describe a set of design issues for this type of integrated visualization and demonstrate a coordinated, multiple-views approach to support 2D and 3D visualization interactions such as overview, navigation, details-on-demand, and brushing-and-linking. In the CAVE, spatial information in a VE is interactively linked to embedded visualizations of related abstract information. Software architecture issues are discussed with details of our implementation applied to the domain of chemical information visualization. Lastly, we subject our system to an informal usability evaluation and identify usability issues with interaction and navigation that guides future work in these environments.

  2. Using Visual Analytics and Information Visualization to Investigate In-Car Communication Processes

    E-print Network

    is a major challenge for developers. In our work, we have designed a number of analysis tools for in-car comUsing Visual Analytics and Information Visualization to Investigate In-Car Communication Processes Michael Sedlmair BMW Group Research and Technology Andreas Butz University of Munich ABSTRACT Modern cars

  3. Beyond Visual Acuity: The Perceptual Scalability of Information Visualizations for Large Displays

    E-print Network

    to visualize a dataset) is less of a limitation. When graphical scalability is no longer an issue, then what The scalability of information visualizations has typically been limited by the number of available display pixels. As displays become larger, the scalability limit may shift away from the number of pixels and toward human

  4. TUTORIAL: Development of a cortical visual neuroprosthesis for the blind: the relevance of neuroplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.

    2005-12-01

    Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.

  5. Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

  6. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science…

  7. Tools for Visual Information Management in Geographical and Biomedical Applications

    E-print Network

    management, and geographic information systems (GIS). They are also examples of the type of small and nimbleTools for Visual Information Management in Geographical and Biomedical Applications IRIS Phase III, and medical information systems. The proposed research in image database query, geometric information

  8. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

    2001-08-20

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

  9. Learning Building Layouts with Non-geometric Visual Information: The Effects of Visual Impairment and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visual information (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visual information (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visual information for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (< 50 years) normally sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visual information. PMID:19189732

  10. Effectively Finding Relevant Web Pages from Linkage Information

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    is based on user's query terms and Web search engines, such as AltaVista [1] and Google [17]. The user the search efficiency. That is why many search engines, such as Google and AltaVista, are concerned more the relevant pages for a given page. The hyperlink analysis has proven success in many Web- related areas

  11. Task Demands Control Acquisition and Storage of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.

    2005-01-01

    Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…

  12. Interactive Tree Comparison for Co-located Collaborative Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of information visualizations does and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around visualization systems. We then present a new system that facilitates hierarchical data comparison tasks

  13. Toward an Information Visualization Workspace: Combining Multiple Means of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Steven F.; Chuah, Mei C.; Kerpedjiev, Stephan; Kolojejchick, John A.; Lucas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Presents an information visualization workspace in which users are able to explore data presented in diverse but coordinated formats using related systems called Visage, SAGE, and selective dynamic manipulation (SDM). Discusses four dimensions for analyzing user interfaces that reveal the combination of design approaches needed for visualizations

  14. The Evolution Radar: Visualizing Integrated Logical Coupling Information

    E-print Network

    Lanza, Michele

    The Evolution Radar: Visualizing Integrated Logical Coupling Information Marco D'Ambros, Michele to each other for cognitive reasons: A developer who modifies a file in a system could forget to modify for the logical couplings). Our tech- nique is based on a specific visualization that we named Evolution Radar

  15. Why high performance visual data analytics is both relevant and difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Prabhat; Byna, Suren; Rübel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities-R&D and application-are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real-world problems.

  16. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

  17. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information...facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the...

  18. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

  19. An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a Knowledge-oriented Information Visualization (KIV) approach to facilitating the implementation of building rating systems such as the Asian Intelligent Building Index (AIIB) for the post-assessment of Intelligent Buildings (IBs...

  20. Does visual information influence infants' movement to music?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M; Thompson, Laura A

    2013-03-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants' movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  1. Does visual information influence infants’ movement to music?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  2. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  3. Visualization of graphical information fusion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Levchuk, Georgiy; Staskevich, Gennady; Burke, Dustin; Aved, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Graphical fusion methods are popular to describe distributed sensor applications such as target tracking and pattern recognition. Additional graphical methods include network analysis for social, communications, and sensor management. With the growing availability of various data modalities, graphical fusion methods are widely used to combine data from multiple sensors and modalities. To better understand the usefulness of graph fusion approaches, we address visualization to increase user comprehension of multi-modal data. The paper demonstrates a use case that combines graphs from text reports and target tracks to associate events and activities of interest visualization for testing Measures of Performance (MOP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE). The analysis includes the presentation of the separate graphs and then graph-fusion visualization for linking network graphs for tracking and classification.

  4. A survey on the use of relevance feedback for information access systems

    E-print Network

    Lalmas, Mounia

    1 A survey on the use of relevance feedback for information access systems Ian Ruthven Department Information retrieval (IR) systems allow users to access large amounts of electronically stored information, segments of video or speech samples. A number of features distinguish IR systems from other information

  5. http://ivi.sagepub.com/ Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Mitasova, Helena

    and track their migration; we derive temporal summary maps and heat graphs that quantify the pattern of ele- vation change and sediment redistribution and use the space­time cube concept to create visualizations of terrain evolution. The space­time cube approach allows us to represent shoreline evolution as an isosur

  6. Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

  7. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  8. 75 FR 20843 - Notice of Workshop To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated...to Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated...leadworkshop.icfi.com. Please direct questions regarding workshop...considers the most meaningful new science to inform our...

  9. Major Information Visualization Authors, Papers and Topics in the ACM School of Library and Information

    E-print Network

    Börner, Katy

    Major Information Visualization Authors, Papers and Topics in the ACM Library Weimao Ke* School-author, paper-citation, and burst analysis were used to analyze the dataset. The results are visually presented-author analysis, visualization 1 THE INFOVIS CONTEST DATASET The InfoVis Contest dataset contains 614 papers

  10. Within- and Cross-Modal Distance Information Disambiguate Visual Size-Change Perception

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Peter W.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.; Schrater, Paul R.; Machulla, Tonja; Kersten, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional “auxiliary” (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property) sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond “bistable” stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy—though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning. PMID:20221263

  11. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  12. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  13. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

  14. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  15. Sesame: Informing User Security Decisions with System Visualization

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Keith

    Sesame: Informing User Security Decisions with System Visualization Jennifer Stoll, Craig S Tashman face a dilemma when making security decisions. Their security often cannot be fully automated for them, yet they generally lack both the motivation and technical knowledge to make informed security

  16. Information Search: The Intersection of Visual and Semantic Space

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Mike

    and Michael D. Byrne Rice University Department of Psychology 6100 S. Main Street, MS-25, Houston, TX 77005 USA +1 713 348 4856 {tambo, byrne}@rice.edu Abstract In the context of an information search task with high information scent even if they are not visually salient? Pirolli and Card [9] have put forth

  17. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

  18. Neural processing of visual information under interocular suppression: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stein, Timo; Ludwig, Karin; Rothkirch, Marcus; Hesselmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visual information that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visual information is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevant information. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469

  19. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

    2001-08-20

    AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

  20. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138

  1. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  2. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  3. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  4. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  5. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  6. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  7. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  8. Real time visualization and characterization of platelet deposition under flow onto clinically relevant opaque surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Woolley, Joshua R; Kameneva, Marina V; Antaki, James F; Wagner, William R

    2015-04-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across six opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 s(-1). Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2 O3 , YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (p < 0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  9. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Orbán, Levente L.; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, “flower-naïve” bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees’ unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators’ cognitive constraints. PMID:26200767

  10. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  11. How do People Make Sense of Unfamiliar Visualizations?: A Grounded Model of Novice's Information Visualization Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Sung-Hee; Hung, Ya-Hsin; Lam, Heidi; Kang, Youn-Ah; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to investigate how people make sense of unfamiliar information visualizations. In order to achieve the research goal, we conducted a qualitative study by observing 13 participants when they endeavored to make sense of three unfamiliar visualizations (i.e., a parallel-coordinates plot, a chord diagram, and a treemap) that they encountered for the first time. We collected data including audio/video record of think-aloud sessions and semi-structured interview; and analyzed the data using the grounded theory method. The primary result of this study is a grounded model of NOvice's information Vlsualization Sensemaking (NOVIS model), which consists of the five major cognitive activities: encountering visualization, constructing a frame, exploring visualization, questioning the frame, and floundering on visualization. We introduce the NOVIS model by explaining the five activities with representative quotes from our participants. We also explore the dynamics in the model. Lastly, we compare with other existing models and share further research directions that arose from our observations. PMID:26529524

  12. Local versus Global Information Relevance in Website Use: A Case Study with the Information Literacy Portal AlfinEEES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Francisco Javier Garcia; Pinto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…

  13. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization. PMID:25280165

  14. The Relevance of Meta Modeling and Data Warehouses for Executive Information Systems

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    The Relevance of Meta Modeling and Data Warehouses for Executive Information Systems R. Kirkgoezel on Data Warehouses especially decision support systems such as Executive Information Systems (EIS) are rapidly becoming a key to gain competitive advantage for businesses. Data Warehouse allows businesses

  15. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  16. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  17. Generative Modeling for Maximizing Precision and Recall in Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    579 Generative Modeling for Maximizing Precision and Recall in Information Visualization Jaakko) precision and recall. We turn the visualiza- tion into a generative modeling task where a simple user model maximizes pure recall, adding a mixture component that "explains away" misses allows our generative model

  18. Jessika Reissland Crossmodal Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Jessika Reissland Crossmodal Integration of Audio-Visual Information PICS Publications of the Institute of Cognitive Science Volume 13-2010 #12;ISSN: 1610-5389 Series title: PICS Publications photo- graphs of animals, were presented to one side of a screen, while the participants fixated a cross

  19. Snap2Diverse: Coordinating Information Visualizations and Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    implementation applied to the domain of chemical information visualization. Lastly, we subject our system. For example, take cases in the domain of chemistry, chemical engineering, and cheminformatics. Chemical data as their physical characteristics) are all associated to molecules and their constituent atoms and bonds

  20. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

  1. Attacking Information Visualization System Usability Overloading and Deceiving the Human

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    Attacking Information Visualization System Usability Overloading and Deceiving the Human Gregory as well as the perceptual, cognitive and motor capabilities of human end users. To identify and help used for decision making must be designed with security in mind. Such systems are vulnerable to attack

  2. Integration of Visual and Verbal Information in Children's Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Edward M.; And Others

    Two experiments, designed to examine the developmental changes in the modification of visual memory by verbal information, are described in this paper. In both experiments, first, third, and fifth grade children and college students were shown slides of short episodes followed by oral questions. Questions either described or did not describe…

  3. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  4. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  5. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information

    E-print Network

    Queenborough, Simon A.

    be the worst graphic ever to find its way into print." Substance? NO! ONLY 5 NUMBERS!! Colours.. YES 3D effects;BAD graphical displays: #12;3D = no extra information Latest results from only 6 months #12: ink ratio = data-ink total ink used to print graphic = proportion of graphic's ink devoted to the non

  6. Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  7. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  8. Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Cooper, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

  9. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. PMID:25843936

  10. Representing Information Collections for Visual Cognition 

    E-print Network

    Koh, Eunyee

    2009-05-15

    in the ResultDistributor: (1) Process Search: add results into the appropriate ResultSlice; (2) Process Result: download and extract media from results in the Result- Slice. Move to the next ResultSlice after it finishes all results in the current slice; (3... or social information service, includ- ing Google, Yahoo, Flickr, or Delicious. combinFormation processes each search by sending the query to the selected engine, obtaining the result set, downloading the result pages, and extracting image and text...

  11. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Toshihiko; Katsuki, Satomi; Kishimoto, Junji; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ogata, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Takao; Ueno, Takefumi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256

  12. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  13. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  14. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  15. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  16. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  17. Context-based visual feedback recognition

    E-print Network

    Morency, Louis-Philippe, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g., head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and to synchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visual feedback, people often ...

  18. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  19. PERCEPTUAL INTERFACES FOR INFORMATION INTERACTION: JOINT PROCESSING OF AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION FOR

    E-print Network

    Senior, Andrew

    , emotion, etc). In our lab, we have begun investigat- ing methods to combine audio and visual information. Since the video signal is in color, skin-tone segmentation is first used to narrow this search

  20. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  1. Abstract rendering: out-of-core rendering for information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottam, Joseph A.; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Wang, Peter

    2013-12-01

    As visualization is applied to larger data sets residing in more diverse hardware environments, visualization frameworks need to adapt. Rendering techniques are currently a major limiter since they tend to be built around central processing with all of the geometric data present. This is not a fundamental requirement of information visualization. This paper presents Abstract Rendering (AR), a technique for eliminating the centralization requirement while preserving some forms of interactivity. AR is based on the observation that pixels are fundamentally bins, and that rendering is essentially a binning process on a lattice of bins. By providing a more flexible binning process, the majority of rendering can be done with the geometric information stored out-of-core. Only the bin representations need to reside in memory. This approach enables: (1) rendering on large datasets without requiring large amounts of working memory, (2) novel and useful control over image composition, (3) a direct means of distributing the rendering task across processes, and (4) high-performance interaction techniques on large datasets. This paper introduces AR in a theoretical context, provides an overview of an implementation, and discusses how it has been applied to large-scale data visualization problems.

  2. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. 813.1 Section 813.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

  3. Drama advertisements: moderating effects of self-relevance on the relations among empathy, information processing, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; Vercollier, Sarah Drissi; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2003-06-01

    The effects of drama versus lecture format in public service advertisements are studied in a 2 (format) x 2 (malaria vs AIDS) factorial design. Two structural equation models are built (one for each level of self-relevance), showing two distinct patterns. In both low and high self-relevant situations, empathy plays a key role. Under low self-relevance conditions, drama enhances information processing through empathy. Under high self-relevant conditions, the advertisement format has neither significant cognitive or empathetic effects. The information processing generated by the highly relevant topic affects viewers' empathy, which in turn affects the attitude the advertisement and the behavioral intent. As predicted by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the advertisement format enhances the attitudes and information processing mostly under low self-relevant conditions. Under low self-relevant conditions, empathy enhances information processing while under high self-relevance, the converse relation holds. PMID:12841477

  4. More Than Words: Inference of Socially Relevant Information From Nonverbal Vocal

    E-print Network

    and social aspects of the interactions we are involved in [14]. Nonverbal communication has been studiedMore Than Words: Inference of Socially Relevant Information From Nonverbal Vocal Cues in Speech A nonverbal commu- nication can be automatically detected and interpreted in terms of social phenomena

  5. Relevance Thresholds: A Multi-stage Predictive Method of How Users Evaluate Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greisdorf, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Examines end-user judgment and evaluation behavior during information retrieval (IR) system interactions and extends previous research surrounding relevance as a key construct for representing the value end-users ascribe to items retrieved from IR systems. The self-reporting worksheet is appended. (Author/AEF)

  6. Combining magnetic resonance measurements with numerical simulations Extracting blood flow physiology information relevant to the investigation

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    physiology information relevant to the investigation of intracranial aneurysms in the circle of Willis aneurysms Phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA) Oscillatory shear index (OSI) Wall shear stress gradient (WSSG) a b s t r a c t Cerebral aneurysms in the region of the circle of Willis have

  7. A Relevance-based Quantitative Measure for Internet Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a metric for comparing the performance of common classes of Internet information retrieval tools, including human indexed catalogs of Web resources and automatically indexed databases of Web pages. The benefit of the proposed metric is that it is relevance-based, and it facilitates the comparison of the performance of different classes of…

  8. Active recognition enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Timothy

    auditory forebrain neurons Daniel P. Knudsen1 and Timothy Q. Gentner1,2,3 1 Neurosciences Graduate Program enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons. J that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium

  9. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

  10. Short-term retention of visual information: Evidence in support of feature-based attention as an underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sneve, Markus H; Sreenivasan, Kartik K; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2015-01-01

    Retention of features in visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves maintenance of sensory traces in early visual cortex. However, the mechanism through which this is accomplished is not known. Here, we formulate specific hypotheses derived from studies on feature-based attention to test the prediction that visual cortex is recruited by attentional mechanisms during VSTM of low-level features. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human visual areas revealed that neural populations coding for task-irrelevant feature information are suppressed during maintenance of detailed spatial frequency memory representations. The narrow spectral extent of this suppression agrees well with known effects of feature-based attention. Additionally, analyses of effective connectivity during maintenance between retinotopic areas in visual cortex show that the observed highlighting of task-relevant parts of the feature spectrum originates in V4, a visual area strongly connected with higher-level control regions and known to convey top-down influence to earlier visual areas during attentional tasks. In line with this property of V4 during attentional operations, we demonstrate that modulations of earlier visual areas during memory maintenance have behavioral consequences, and that these modulations are a result of influences from V4. PMID:25445778

  11. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010021

  12. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  13. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using?login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)"?to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  14. Visual information for the control of walking over complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Fajen, Brett; Barton, Sean; Matthis, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Which regions of the ground surface do humans need to see to control walking over complex terrain? Previously, we offered an answer to this question rooted in the biomechanics of walking: To efficiently exploit their inverted-pendulum-like structure, walkers should use information about potential target footholds for an upcoming step during the last part of the preceding step. That is, the last part of each step is the critical phase for the visual control of the upcoming step. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature of the visual information used during this critical control phase. To efficiently exploit their biomechanical structure, walkers must initialize each step with a pushoff force from the trailing foot that is properly tailored to the position of the next target relative to the previous target. This leads to the hypothesis that walkers rely on information about the relative position of pairs of consecutive targets. To test this hypothesis, we instructed subjects to walk along a path of irregularly spaced target footholds (small circular patches of light projected onto the floor) while their movements were tracked by a motion capture system. On some trials, the visibility of a subset of targets was manipulated such that they were only visible for a brief period. The duration of the period of visibility varied such that consecutive targets were simultaneously visible in some conditions (leaving relative position information intact) but not others. We found no significant differences in stepping accuracy between conditions in which relative position information was available and a control condition in which all targets were always visible. However, stepping accuracy degraded in conditions in which relative position information was unavailable. We conclude that walkers rely on relative position information and that such information facilitates energetically efficient walking over complex terrain. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327009

  15. Indexing of Internet resources in order to improve the provision of problem-relevant medical information.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf Kurt; Boettcher, Hanno; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Due to the information overload and the unstructured access to (medical) information of the internet, it isn't hardly possible to find problem-relevant medical information in an appropriate time (e.g. during a consultation). The web offers a mixture of web pages, forums, newsgroups and databases. The search for problem-relevant information for a certain knowledge area encounters on two basic problems. On the one hand, you have to find in the jungle of the information, relevant resources for your individual clinical case (treatment, diagnosis, therapeutic option etc..). The second problem consists of being able to judge the quality of individual contents of inteernet pages. On the basis of the different informational needs of health care professionals and patients a catalog with inteernet resources was created to tumor diseases such as lung cancer (small cell and non-small cell carcinoma), colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer. Explicit and implicit metainformation, if available, such as the title of the document, language, date or keywords are stored in the database. The database entries are editorially revised, so that further specific metainformation is available for the information retrieval. Our pragmatic approach of searching, editing, and archiving of internet content is still necessary since most of the web documents are based on HTML, which doesn't allow for structuring (medical) information and assigning metainformation sufficiently. The use of specific metainformation is crucial in order to improve the recall and precision of internet searches. In the future, XML and related technologies (RDF) will meet these requirements. PMID:15460683

  16. How visual information links to multijoint coordination during quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Scholz, J P; Park, E; Jeka, J J; Schöner, G; Kiemel, T

    2012-10-01

    The link between visual information and postural control was investigated based on a multi-degree-of-freedom model using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. The hypothesis was that because visual information specifies the position of the body in space, it would couple preferentially into those combinations of degrees of freedom (DOFs) that move the body in space and not into combinations of DOFs that do not move the body in space. Subjects stood quietly in a virtual reality cave for 4-min trials with or without a 0.2, 2.0 Hz, or combined 0.2 and 2.0 Hz visual field perturbation that was below perceptual threshold. Motion analysis was used to compute six sagittal plane joint angles. Variance across time of the angular motion was partitioned into (1) variance associated with motion of the body and (2) variance reflecting the use of flexible joint combinations that keep the anterior-posterior positions of the head (HD(POS)) and center of mass (CM(POS)) invariant. UCM analysis was performed in the frequency domain in order to link the sensory perturbation to each variance component at different frequencies. As predicted, variance related to motion of the body was selectively increased at the 0.2-Hz drive frequency but not at other frequencies of sway for both CM(POS) and HD(POS). The dominant effect with the 2.0-Hz visual drive also was limited largely to variance related to motion of the body. PMID:22918606

  17. Seeking Information with an Information Visualization System: A Study of Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain information visualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…

  18. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  19. The Relationship Between Visual Information Processing and Motor Proficiency in Five-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovran, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if five-year-old children displaying high or low ability to process visual information exhibited the same high-low ability in proficiency of motor tasks which were dependent upon visual information for successful completion. The subjects were 40 five-year-old children who were required to pass a visual

  20. 3D/4D MODELLING, VISUALIZATION AND INFORMATION FRAMEWORKS: CURRENT U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    33 3D/4D MODELLING, VISUALIZATION AND INFORMATION FRAMEWORKS: CURRENT U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY to visualize and model geologic data and information in 3 spatial dimensions (3D) and sometimes adding time in visualizing and coupling geologic, hydrologic, atmospheric, and biologic processes together into 3D/4D

  1. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  2. Task Demands Control Acquisition and Storage of Visual Information Jason A. Droll and Mary M. Hayhoe

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    movements, task demand, visual working memory, visual attention A central challenge in research on perception is to understand the principles that guide the selection of information from visual scenes. Scenes to process and store this information. What guides the selection process? Although there is evidence

  3. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  4. Automatic adjustments to grasping movements from unconscious visual information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongting; Saunders, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether control of hand movements can be driven by visual information that is not consciously perceived. Previous studies have shown that subjects can make corrective responses to perturbations during hand movements even when they do not notice the perturbations. We tested whether movements can be affected by visual information that is not perceived at all, using backward masking to prevent conscious perception. Subjects performed reach-to-grasp movements toward 2D virtual objects that were projected onto a rigid surface. They were instructed to touch the projection surface at the locations that they would use to pick up the object. On perturbed trials, the target object was briefly shown (33 ms) at an orientation that was ±20° from the original orientation, followed by a 200 ms mask. Perturbations were triggered when the index finger was 20 cm away from the target. After the mask, the original target reappeared and remained visible until completion of movement. Thus, the task did not require any response to the perturbations. Unperturbed trials were identical except that the orientation of the target remained constant. None of the subjects reported noticing the masked perturbations, and a follow-up test found that half of the subjects could not reliably discriminate the perturbations even when trying. Despite the lack of awareness, the brief views of the rotated targets caused detectable changes in the grip axis during movement. Approximately 200 ms after perturbation onset, the grip axes in perturbed trials began to rotate in the direction of the target rotation, reaching a maximum deviation of 1.2° after another 200 ms. These biases were corrected during the final movement, so that the final grasp axes were not significantly different across perturbation conditions. The results demonstrate that visual information can affect control of hand movement even when it is not consciously perceived. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325874

  5. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  6. A web-based 3D geological information visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renbo; Jiang, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological information visualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.

  7. Information Visualization Using Internet for Activation of Shopping Streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Ippei; Okada, Yousuke; Onogi, Manabu; Niwa, Takahito; Ishii, Naohiro

    This paper attempts to activate a large scale shopping streets (shotengai) using Internet technique. Shotengai is a style of Japanese commercial district street. Recently, decline in shotengai is a serious problem. So, we take up “Osu” which is famous shotengai in Nagoya, Japan. We architect Web visualization system, which has useful usability and findability for Osu shotengai information. We also develop methods for competing for a store owner with another one by their prominency and for attractive design to increase motivation of store owners. The number of users of Osu map is increased rapidly. We hope to apply our instance to the activation of shotengai in Japan.

  8. Energy-Efficient Information Transfer by Visual Pathway Synapses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julia J; Jolivet, Renaud; Engl, Elisabeth; Attwell, David

    2015-12-21

    The architecture of computational devices is shaped by their energy consumption. Energetic constraints are used to design silicon-based computers but are poorly understood for neural computation. In the brain, most energy is used to reverse ion influxes generating excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials. Thus, EPSCs should be small to minimize energy use, but not so small as to impair information transmission. We quantified information flow through the retinothalamic synapse in the visual pathway in brain slices, with cortical and inhibitory input to the postsynaptic cell blocked. Altering EPSC size with dynamic clamp, we found that a larger-than-normal EPSC increased information flow through the synapse. Thus, the evolutionarily selected EPSC size does not maximize retinal information flow to the cortex. By assessing the energy used on postsynaptic ion pumping and action potentials, we show that, instead, the EPSC size optimizes the ratio of retinal information transmitted to energy consumed. These data suggest maximization of information transmission per energy used as a synaptic design principle. PMID:26671670

  9. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  10. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ?300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  11. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  12. Fuzzy-rough sets for information measures and selection of relevant genes from microarray data.

    PubMed

    Maji, Pradipta; Pal, Sankar K

    2010-06-01

    Several information measures such as entropy, mutual information, and f-information have been shown to be successful for selecting a set of relevant and nonredundant genes from a high-dimensional microarray data set. However, for continuous gene expression values, it is very difficult to find the true density functions and to perform the integrations required to compute different information measures. In this regard, the concept of the fuzzy equivalence partition matrix is presented to approximate the true marginal and joint distributions of continuous gene expression values. The fuzzy equivalence partition matrix is based on the theory of fuzzy-rough sets, where each row of the matrix represents a fuzzy equivalence partition that can automatically be derived from the given expression values. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of existing approaches using the class separability index and the predictive accuracy of the support vector machine. An important finding, however, is that the proposed approach is shown to be effective for selecting relevant and nonredundant continuous-valued genes from microarray data. PMID:19887323

  13. Voyagers and Voyeurs: Supporting Asynchronous Collaborative Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Agrawala, Maneesh

    Berkeley Institute of Design and Computer Science Division University of California, Berkeley Berkeley CA visualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design the design of collaborative visualization tools as a grand challenge for visualization research

  14. Humans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    , 1997). To the extent that the brain stores information about objects in short- term visual memory, the reliability of this information is limited in part by the capacity limitations on short-term memory (Henderson (memory only). When both visual and remembered information were available, movement trajectories were

  15. Selecting Task-Relevant Sources for Just-in-Time Retrieval Just-in-time" information systems monitor their

    E-print Network

    systems monitor their users' tasks, anticipate task-based information needs, and proactively provide, the burden of nding the right information increases as well. Just- in-time" information systems shield, identi es relevant con- tent areas, and provides area information to the sys- tem. The system

  16. Testing Visual Information Retrieval Methodologies Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Textual, Icon, Graphical, and "Spring" Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile; Lewis, Michael; Olsen, Kai A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of visual information retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more…

  17. Efficient Coding in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence for an Information-Limited Capacity

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Aude

    Efficient Coding in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence for an Information-Limited Capacity Timothy important for visual short-term memory, which is known to have a severely limited capacity. Previous work & Treisman, 2002). This suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) cannot hold an unlimited amount

  18. UNITY IN DIVERSITY: DISCOVERING TOPICS FROM WORDS Information Theoretic Co-clustering for Visual Categorization

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    UNITY IN DIVERSITY: DISCOVERING TOPICS FROM WORDS Information Theoretic Co-clustering for Visual of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom {a.gupta, r.bowden}@surrey.ac.uk Keywords: Co-clustering, Bag-of-Words datasets. The codebook of visual-topics (semantically equivalent descriptors) is made by grouping visual-words

  19. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

  20. Visual Gaze Estimation by Joint Head and Eye Information Roberto Valenti1

    E-print Network

    Sebe, Nicu

    Visual Gaze Estimation by Joint Head and Eye Information Roberto Valenti1 , Adel Lablack2 , Nicu In this paper, we present an unconstrained visual gaze estimation system. The proposed method extracts location of interest (visual gaze). The novelty of the system is the joint use of head pose and eye

  1. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Virtual 3D Cities 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    and human artifacts · Modeling of terrains · Modeling of urban furniture #12;Visual Information Systems Pr, constructions, · Bridges, tunnels, walls · Excavations, streets, transports, railways, · Water bodies

  2. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cervinka, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Results Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (p<0.001), and more sun protection (p<0.001). Regarding gender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. Conclusions The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits. PMID:23573372

  3. Is genetic information relevantly different from other kinds of non-genetic information in the life insurance context?

    PubMed

    Malpas, P J

    2008-07-01

    Within the medical, legal and bioethical literature, there has been an increasing concern that the information derived from genetic tests may be used to unfairly discriminate against individuals seeking various kinds of insurance; particularly health and life insurance. Consumer groups, the general public and those with genetic conditions have also expressed these concerns, specifically in the context of life insurance. While it is true that all insurance companies may have an interest in the information obtained from genetic tests, life insurers potentially have a very strong incentive to (want to) use genetic information to rate applicants, as individuals generally purchase their own cover and may want to take out very large policies. This paper critically focuses on genetic information in the context of life insurance. We consider whether genetic information differs in any relevant way from other kinds of non-genetic information required by and disclosed to life insurance companies by potential clients. We will argue that genetic information should not be treated any differently from other types of health information already collected from those wishing to purchase life insurance cover. PMID:18591292

  4. Helping Learners Think More Hopefully about Life after School: The Usefulness of Participatory Visual Strategies to Make Career Education More Contextually Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Suegnet; Wood, Lesley; Neethling, Marinda

    2015-01-01

    Learners living in challenging socio-economic circumstances face limited opportunities for further education and employment. In this context, formal career guidance which merely provides information about specific jobs and how to access them may be of little use. This article explores the usefulness of participatory visual strategies as a…

  5. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of shrinkage of the visual field through ageing on parking performance: a parametric manipulation of salience and relevance of contextual components.

    PubMed

    Douissembekov, Evgueni; Michael, George A; Rogé, Joceline; Bonhoure, Patrick; Gabaude, Catherine; Navarro, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The Master Activation model of attention (Michael, Vairet, and Fernandez, Capture attentionnelle en vision: La saillance, la pertinence, et la balance cortico-sous-corticale. In: G. A. Michael (ed), Neuroscience cognitive de l'attention visuelle [Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Attention], Solal, Marseille, pp. 165-201, 2007; Michael, Lété, and Ducrot, Trajectories of Attentional Development: An Exploration with the Master Activation Map Model, Developmental Psychology, 49:615-631, 2013) was used to study visual attention and driving behaviours of younger and older drivers while parking a car. The salience and the relevance of elements present in the parking environment were manipulated during parking manoeuvres. Different effects on manoeuvring were observed depending on driver characteristics such as age and the extent of the field of view (FV). It was found that the presence of a relevant element, such as a pedestrian, impaired parking performance only among older drivers with a narrower FV. The distinct effects of salience and relevance suggest that they had different statuses in attentional processing of manoeuvring drivers. PMID:25443310

  7. Visual cues and gait improvement in Parkinson's disease: which piece of information is really important?

    PubMed

    Vitório, R; Lirani-Silva, E; Pieruccini-Faria, F; Moraes, R; Gobbi, L T B; Almeida, Q J

    2014-09-26

    Visual exproprioception refers to information of the body relative to the environment and may be the critical piece of sensory information that explains why gait improvements can be achieved with visual step cues in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The primary aim of current study was to investigate the role of visual exproprioception in the positive effect of visual cues on gait in patients with PD. Nineteen individuals with PD and 15 healthy subjects participated in this study. Four conditions of self-paced gait were tested: normal walking, without exproprioception (exproprioceptive information of lower limbs removed), visual step length cues, and visual step length cues but without exproprioception. Gaze behavior, gait parameters and the accuracy and precision of foot placement on the visual cues were recorded. Individuals with PD improved step length in both cued conditions. Both groups fixated close to 46% on visual cues necessary to accomplish the next step (ongoing step), while 54% of fixations were focused on visual cues one or more steps ahead. Also, both groups increased absolute error and error variability of the foot placement around the visual cues without vision of their feet. These results suggest that exproprioceptive information is not critical to achieve step length and overall gait benefits with visual cues in PD, but is critical for the accuracy and precision of foot placement on targets. People with PD and healthy individuals use visual information from visual cues in both on-line and feedforward fashions. In conclusion, patients with PD likely focus attention on the discrete goal of each foot hitting a visual cue placed on the floor and then use the exteroceptive information (i.e. position of next foot placement location) to plan each step individually at a cortical level. PMID:25065625

  8. Visual words assignment via information-theoretic manifold embedding.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue; Li, Yipeng; Qian, Yanjun; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-10-01

    Codebook-based learning provides a flexible way to extract the contents of an image in a data-driven manner for visual recognition. One central task in such frameworks is codeword assignment, which allocates local image descriptors to the most similar codewords in the dictionary to generate histogram for categorization. Nevertheless, existing assignment approaches, e.g., nearest neighbors strategy (hard assignment) and Gaussian similarity (soft assignment), suffer from two problems: 1) too strong Euclidean assumption and 2) neglecting the label information of the local descriptors. To address the aforementioned two challenges, we propose a graph assignment method with maximal mutual information (GAMI) regularization. GAMI takes the power of manifold structure to better reveal the relationship of massive number of local features by nonlinear graph metric. Meanwhile, the mutual information of descriptor-label pairs is ultimately optimized in the embedding space for the sake of enhancing the discriminant property of the selected codewords. According to such objective, two optimization models, i.e., inexact-GAMI and exact-GAMI, are respectively proposed in this paper. The inexact model can be efficiently solved with a closed-from solution. The stricter exact-GAMI nonparametrically estimates the entropy of descriptor-label pairs in the embedding space and thus leads to a relatively complicated but still trackable optimization. The effectiveness of GAMI models are verified on both the public and our own datasets. PMID:25222732

  9. Virtual-real spatial information visualization registration using affine representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueling; Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial information visualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.

  10. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  11. The Impact of Order Incongruence between a Task-Irrelevant Auditory Sequence and a Task-Relevant Visual Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel effect is reported in which serial recall of visual digits was disrupted to a greater degree by the presence of the same set of digits presented as an irrelevant auditory sequence than by the presence of irrelevant auditory consonants, but only when the order of the irrelevant digits was incongruent with that of the to-be-remembered digits…

  12. Paths of Consistent and Inconsistent Status Information and the Induction of Relevance 

    E-print Network

    Berger, Joseph; Wagner, David G

    2015-08-15

    The concern is to determine the process by which directly relevant, and inversely relevant characteristics function to affect expectation states. Results of a four-condition experiment showed that dissimilarity alone of the relevance bond among...

  13. The Visual Information System1 Merlyn J. Paulson

    E-print Network

    in combination with contemporary site analysis and design techniques for visual evaluation, design and management. The process provides logical direction and connecting bridges through problem identification, infor- mation collection and verification, visual evaluation, design development, management prescription development

  14. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War M

  15. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.

  16. An Empirical Comparison of Visualization Tools To Assist Information Retrieval on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Misook; Hirtle, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems with navigation in hypertext systems, including cognitive overload, and describes a study that tested information visualization techniques to see which best represented the underlying structure of Web space. Considers the effects of visualization techniques on user performance on information searching tasks and the effects of…

  17. A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

    The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

  18. Humans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements

    E-print Network

    Knill, David C.

    that the brain stores information about objects in short- term visual memory, the reliability of this information is limited in part by the capacity limitations on short-term memory (Henderson & Hollingworth, 1999; Luck that subjects gave to remembered and visual locations. We measured the reliability of vision and memory

  19. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  20. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  1. Multi-Spectral Face Recognition -Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information

    E-print Network

    Multi-Spectral Face Recognition - Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information Pradeep for face recognition using visual imagery as well as the physiological information extracted from thermal face recognition methods. For each subject in the database, we store facial images collected

  2. Tetrahedral Gray Code for Visualization of Genome Information

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each -mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the -mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG. PMID:24475080

  3. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG. PMID:24475080

  4. Modeling information integration in sequential visual decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fiser, Jozsef; Koblinger, Adam; Lengyel, Mate

    2015-09-01

    Current models of human visual decision making based on sequentially provided samples posit that people make their next decision by unconsciously compensating the statistical discrepancy between measures collected in the long past and those collected very recently. While this proposal is compelling, it does not qualify as a rigorous model of human decision making. In addition, recent empirical evidence suggests that human visual decision making not only balances long- and short-term summary statistics of sequences, but in parallel, it also encodes salient features, such as repetitions, and in addition, it relies on a generic assumption of non-discriminative flat prior of events in the environment. In this study, we developed a normative model that captures these characteristics. Specifically, we built a constrained Bayesian ideal observer with a generative model having features as follows. First, data is generated randomly but not necessarily independently depending on its parameter selection. Second, the system has a memory capacity denoted by a small window size = t, and a world representation denoted by a large window size = T, the latter reflecting the observer's belief of the volatility of the world, i.e. the extent to which changes should be represented. Third, events can be described with pi appearance probability, which is not constant in time but changes according to a Markovian update, and it has an initial strong peak at 50%. Fourth, observations are noisy so that the observer can collect only limited amount of information (i) from each sample image. We implemented the above model and training on human data, we determined the optimal parameters for T, t, and inferred the evolving pi for each subject. Our model could capture the behavior of human observers, for example their deviation from binomial distribution based on T,and t, and the negative correlation between recent and past decisions. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325778

  5. Age and Self-Relevance Effects on Information Search During Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how information search strategies used to support decision making were influenced by self-related implications of the task to the individual. Consistent with the notion of selective engagement, we hypothesized that increased self-relevance would result in more adaptive search behaviors and that this effect would be stronger in older adults than in younger adults. Method. We examined search behaviors in 79 younger and 81 older adults using a process-tracing procedure with 2 different decision tasks. The impact of motivation (i.e., self-related task implications) was examined by manipulating social accountability and the age-related relevance of the task. Results. Although age differences in search strategies were not great, older adults were more likely than younger adults to use simpler strategies in contexts with minimal self-implications. Contrary to expectations, young and old alike were more likely to use noncompensatory than compensatory strategies, even when engaged in systematic search, with education being the most important determinant of search behavior. Discussion. The results support the notion that older adults are adaptive decision makers and that factors other than age may be more important determinants of performance in situations where knowledge can be used to support performance. PMID:23197342

  6. Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Categorically Unrelated Concurrent Visual Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lufityanto, Galang; Pearson, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Can categorically different sources of unconscious information be utilised to aid in concurrent perceptual decisions? Here, we employ a novel empirical paradigm that utilises a noisy visual decision task and the concurrent presentation of suppressed emotional images. Using continuous flash suppression we rendered both positive and fearful images nonconscious. Participants had to decide the direction of random dot motion stimuli presented simultaneously with the suppressed emotional images. The binary emotional valence of the images (positive or negative) was concordant with the direction of the motion in the decision stimulus (right or left) across 6 levels of dots motion coherence. We found that that suppressed emotional images boosted decision accuracy, sped up reaction times, and increase reports of confidence for brief presentation of stimuli (i.e. 400 ms) relative to a spatial phase-scrambled version of the same images. However, accuracy was no higher when the decisional stimulus was paired with different categories of non-emotional images. To test the contingency between emotional and sensory information, we reversed the association between emotional valence (positive and negative emotion) and dot motion direction on the third block of trials. When the association was reversed the difference in accuracy between the intact emotional images and their phase-scrambled version disappeared. A consistent contingency between emotional valence and dot direction is seemingly required for individuals to utilize unconscious emotional information in the otherwise unrelated decision task. Next, we measured skin conductance while participants performed the emotionally boosted decision task. We found a differential skin conductance response to suppressed normal images compared to the phase-scrambled control images. More importantly, the electrodermal activity declined with increasing dots motion coherence suggesting an interaction with decisional difficultly. Together these data suggest a possible new experimental paradigm to investigate the dynamics of processes and experiences often described as intuition. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325734

  7. Enhancing Policymakers’ Understanding of Disparities: Relevant Data from an Information-Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Visual Variables for Geographic Information Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlandini, Simone; Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    We propose an empirical, perception-based evaluation approach for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of longstanding cartographic design principles applied to 2D map displays. The approach includes bottom-up visual saliency models that are compared with eye-movement data collected in human-subject experiments on map stimuli embedded in the so-called flicker paradigm. The proposed methods are applied to the assessment of four commonly used visual variables for designing 2D maps: size, color value, color hue, and orientation. The empirical results suggest that the visual variable size is the most efficient (fastest) and most effective (accurate) visual variable to detect change under flicker conditions. The visual variable orientation proved to be the least efficient and effective of the tested visual variables. These empirical results shed new light on the implied ranking of the visual variables that have been proposed over 40 years ago. With the presented approach we hope to provide cartographers, GIScientists and visualization designers a systematic assessment method to develop effective and efficient geovisualization displays.

  9. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P.; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and “intelligible constructs” not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving relevant documents when compared with three existing search systems. PMID:25814917

  10. The Determination of Relevant Goals and Criteria Used to Select an Automated Patient Care Information System

    PubMed Central

    Chocholik, Joan K.; Bouchard, Susan E.; Tan, Joseph K. H.; Ostrow, David N.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relevant weighted goals and criteria for use in the selection of an automated patient care information system (PCIS) using a modified Delphi technique to achieve consensus. Design: A three-phase, six-round modified Delphi process was implemented by a ten-member PCIS selection task force. The first phase consisted of an exploratory round. It was followed by the second phase, of two rounds, to determine the selection goals and finally the third phase, of three rounds, to finalize the selection criteria. Results: Consensus on the goals and criteria for selecting a PCIS was measured during the Delphi process by reviewing the mean and standard deviation of the previous round's responses. After the study was completed, the results were analyzed using a limits-of-agreement indicator that showed strong agreement of each individual's responses between each of the goal determination rounds. Further analysis for variability in the group's response showed a significant movement to consensus after the first goal-determination iteration, with consensus reached on all goals by the end of the second iteration. Conclusion: The results indicated that the relevant weighted goals and criteria used to make the final decision for an automated PCIS were developed as a result of strong agreement among members of the PCIS selection task force. It is therefore recognized that the use of the Delphi process was beneficial in achieving consensus among clinical and nonclinical members in a relatively short time while avoiding a decision based on political biases and the “groupthink” of traditional committee meetings. The results suggest that improvements could be made in lessening the number of rounds by having information available through side conversations, by having other statistical indicators besides the mean and standard deviation available between rounds, and by having a content expert address questions between rounds. PMID:10332655

  11. Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

  12. In CHI 2005: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    in other operationally stressful environments. Author Keywords Information visualization, flight-deck with Information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study Cecilia R. Aragon University of California, Berkeley fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We

  13. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions. PMID:25202298

  14. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4?), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  15. Web-Based Interactive Visualization in an Information Retrieval Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Interactive visualization is a powerful educational tool. It has been used to enhance the teaching of various subjects from computer science to chemistry to engineering. In computer science education, this powerful tool is used almost exclusively in programming and data structure courses. This paper suggests that visualization could be very…

  16. Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

  17. The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information

  18. Effector-specific visual information influences kinesthesis and reaction time performance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Byblow, Winston D; Lewis, Gwyn N; Stinear, James W

    2003-06-01

    Twelve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 11 age-matched control participants performed a continuous bimanual wrist flexion-extension tracking task while vision of their hands was manipulated. Participants were required to match the frequency and amplitude of movements of 1 limb that was driven at 0.6 Hz by a torque motor by actively moving the contralateral limb. In half the trials, the more affected limb (subdominant for controls) was driven, and in the other half, the less affected limb (dominant for controls) was driven. Vision of both hands, vision of the driven hand only, vision of the active hand only, or no vision of the hands was allowed. Simple and probe reaction times were assessed. Parkinson's disease patients performed the tracking task to a reasonable level of temporal and spatial accuracy as compared with control participants in terms of hand phasing and root mean square error. Patients demonstrated a marked posture deviation (toward flexion), which was exaggerated when the less affected limb was active. Amplitude deviations were smaller in both groups when the less affected (dominant) limb was active and when participants had vision of the driven hand. Overall, patients delivered slower responses in both simple and probe conditions. Reaction times of Parkinson's disease patients who were allowed vision of only the active hand were longer than were those of patients in all other visual conditions, whereas visual conditions did not affect the reaction times of control participants. The authors conclude that central demands increase when movement regulation must be based solely on kinesthetic information and when vision directs attention away from the most relevant source of kinesthetic information. PMID:12711581

  19. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  20. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information. PMID:26113828

  1. Using neural networks to understand the information that guides behavior: a case study in visual navigation.

    PubMed

    Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; Baddeley, Bart; Husbands, Philip

    2015-01-01

    To behave in a robust and adaptive way, animals must extract task-relevant sensory information efficiently. One way to understand how they achieve this is to explore regularities within the information animals perceive during natural behavior. In this chapter, we describe how we have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore efficiencies in vision and memory that might underpin visually guided route navigation in complex worlds. Specifically, we use three types of neural network to learn the regularities within a series of views encountered during a single route traversal (the training route), in such a way that the networks output the familiarity of novel views presented to them. The problem of navigation is then reframed in terms of a search for familiar views, that is, views similar to those associated with the route. This approach has two major benefits. First, the ANN provides a compact holistic representation of the data and is thus an efficient way to encode a large set of views. Second, as we do not store the training views, we are not limited in the number of training views we use and the agent does not need to decide which views to learn. PMID:25502385

  2. The Blind Leading the Blind: Toward Collaborative Online Route Information Management by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    E-print Network

    Kulyukin, Vladimir

    information by travelers with visual impairments. The specific research hypothesis is two-fold: 1) people areas, and 2) members of such networks will be able to successfully travel through a variety whose objectives are to collect sam- ples of route descriptions from travelers with visual impair- ments

  3. Learner-Information Interaction: A Macro-Level Framework Characterizing Visual Cognitive Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Visual cognitive tools (VCTs) are external mental aids that maintain and display visual representations (VRs) of information (i.e., structures, objects, concepts, ideas, and problems). VCTs allow learners to operate upon the VRs to perform epistemic (i.e., reasoning and knowledge-based) activities. In VCTs, the mechanism by which learners operate…

  4. Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through a Longitudinal Field Study

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    1 Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through of Technology ABSTRACT While intelligence analysis has been a primary target domain for visual analytics system community's understanding of the work processes and practices of intelligence analysts is not deep enough

  5. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  6. Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information.

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information. An EEG Study PICS Publications of the Institute of Cognitive Science Volume 16-2010 #12;ISSN: 1610-5389 Series title: PICS Publications are involved? Animal pictures were presented rapidly alternating to the left or right visual hemi

  7. ADAPTIVE WINDOWING FOR OPTIMAL VISUALIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES BASED ON NORMALIZED INFORMATION DISTANCE

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhou

    ADAPTIVE WINDOWING FOR OPTIMAL VISUALIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES BASED ON NORMALIZED INFORMATION of windowing operators for optimal visualization of high dynamic range (HDR) medical images, where predefined- lated methods in the field of medical image processing. Medical images are typically captured

  8. ForPeerReview Impaired filtering of behaviourally-irrelevant visual information in

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    /a Complete List of Authors: Roach, Neil; The University of Nottingham, School of Psychology Hogben, John-irrelevant visual information in dyslexia Neil W. Roach John H. Hogben School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia. Running title: Impaired visual filtering in dyslexia Correspondence to: N.W. Roach

  9. Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

  10. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  11. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter I: Introduction to Graphic Semiology 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    .) - with relative positions - with non-spatial attributes Is What is a map? Map Pollution http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/geo/gpi/ag-appel/projekte/envmag/pollution/B27.jpg Noise Visualization #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Ch

  12. The Significance of Visual Information Processing in Reading: Insights from Hemianopic Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Zihl, Josef

    2008-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive review of research into hemianopic dyslexia since Mauthner's original description of 1881. We offer an explanation of the reading impairment in patients with unilateral homonymous visual field disorders and clarify its functional and anatomical bases. The major focus of our review is on visual information

  13. Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon Barker and Xu Shao Abstract The paper presents a robust audio-visual speech recognition technique called on a small vocabulary simultaneous speech recognition task in conditions that promote two contrasting types

  14. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VI: Image Databases 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    looking for photos dealing with the culture of cauliflowers in Australia" Reformulation · R : culture and cauliflower and Australia · Transformation of the query based on thesaurus · R': (culture except civilization)and cauliflower or vegetable)and(Australia or Oceania) Text-only Query Visualization MM BD Search engine Relevance

  15. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Francoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  16. Health information needs of visually impaired people: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Beverley, C A; Bath, P A; Booth, A

    2004-01-01

    Access to, and provision of, information is key to reducing health inequalities in health and social care. However, information is not always accessible and does not always meet the needs of specific groups. One such group is people who are visually impaired. The aim of the present study was to identify the health information needs of visually impaired people, and highlight major gaps in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken following, where possible, the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination framework. Modifications included the sources searched, the critical appraisal checklist used (Critical Skills Training in Appraisal for Librarians) and the method of data synthesis. Out of the 1114 references identified, only 16 met the inclusion criteria. Quality of reporting of the literature was poor, and this must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings of this review. The majority of studies were concerned with information for healthy living (e.g. health promotion). The focus of the remaining studies was on information about visual impairment or coping with visual impairment, and about accessing health services (e.g. medication labels and appointment letters). The majority of studies conducted to date have concentrated on the format of information. There are surprisingly few empirical studies which have examined the health information needs of this group. A number of gaps in the literature have been identified. These relate to the types of health information, non-format aspects of information (e.g. content and timing), sources of health and social care information, treating visually impaired people as a heterogeneous group, and recognising the value of actively involving visually impaired people in the research process. Although this review has identified a number of implications for practice, the paucity of evidence places a heavier onus on future research. Visually impaired people are likely to have unique health and social care information needs which are worthy of exploration in their own right. PMID:14675361

  17. Differential progression of proprioceptive and visual information processing deficits in Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    Differential progression of proprioceptive and visual information processing deficits in Parkinson Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Keywords: disease severity, Parkinson's disease that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits not only in motor performance, but also

  18. Introduction to Information Visualization (InfoVis) Techniques for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindiy, Oleg; Litomisky, Krystof; Davidoff, Scott; Dekens, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents insights that conform to numerous system modeling languages/representation standards. The insights are drawn from best practices of Information Visualization as applied to aerospace-based applications.

  19. LINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY

    E-print Network

    Ware, Colin

    LINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY BY BRIANA .............................................................. 10 1.6 Virtual Museum Environments................................................................................................. 12 1.6.2 Augmented Reality

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS, VOL. 12, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2006 Software Design Patterns for Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Heer, Jeffrey

    Software Design Patterns for Information Visualization Jeffrey Heer and Maneesh Agrawala Abstract approach for addressing such difficulties is to capture successful solutions in design patterns, abstract software, we present a series of design patterns for the domain of information visualization. We discuss

  1. Context-based Visual Feedback Recognition

    E-print Network

    Morency, Louis-Philippe

    2006-11-15

    During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g.,head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and tosynchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visualfeedback, people often rely ...

  2. Visual Information Retrieval for the WWW Harald Reiterer, Thomas M. Mann, Gabriela Muler

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    and the evaluation of a visual information retrieval system for the Web. Our work has been motivated by the lack. Surveys have shown that users have problems with the current paradigm of information retrieval systems. Systems combining the functionality of retrieval systems with the possibilities of information

  3. Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William

    2009-02-01

    Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visual information produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visual information retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently, visual retrieval alone does not achieve the performance necessary for real-world clinical applications. Most of the common visual retrieval techniques have a MAP (Mean Average Precision) of around 2-3%, which is much lower than that achieved using textual retrieval (MAP=29%). Advanced machine learning techniques, together with good training data, have been shown to improve the performance of visual retrieval systems in the past. Multimodal retrieval (basing retrieval on both visual and textual information) can achieve better results than purely visual, but only when carefully applied. In many cases, multimodal retrieval systems performed even worse than purely textual retrieval systems. On the other hand, some multimodal retrieval systems demonstrated significantly increased early precision, which has been shown to be a desirable behavior in real-world systems.

  4. Relevant Responding in Pragmatic Language Impairment: The Role of Language Variation in the Information-Soliciting Utterance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Vannesa T.; Eyer, Julia A.; Hardee, W Paul

    2005-01-01

    Responding relevantly to an information-soliciting utterance (ISU) is required of a school-age child many times daily. For the child with pragmatic language difficulties, this may be especially problematic, yet clinicians have had few data to design intervention for improving these skills. This small-scale study looks at the ability of a child…

  5. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet-average...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet-average standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY...

  6. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long-term experience shapes this adaptive process wherein the top-down connections provide selective gating of inputs to both cortical and subcortical structures to enhance neural responses to specific behaviorally-relevant attributes of the stimulus. A theoretical framework for a neural network is proposed involving coordination between local, feedforward, and feedback components that can account for experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representations at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. The ability to record brainstem and cortical pitch relevant responses concurrently may provide a new window to evaluate the online interplay between feedback, feedforward, and local intrinsic components in the hierarchical processing of pitch relevant information. PMID:25838636

  7. The automatic processing of visual information at different visual acuity levels: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Huanhuan; Ji, Mengmeng; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Mingyang; Gao, Yuan; Ma, Lu; Shen, Xi; Luo, Chengliang; Yang, Xun; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the subjective visual acuity by recording ERPs elicited by task-irrelevant visual changes. Optotypes stimuli were presented in the center of the visual field at three threshold levels (supra-threshold, threshold and sub-threshold) while participants were listening to stories. The results showed that neither vMMN nor P3a component was elicited by optotypes stimuli on the sub-threshold condition, whereas, vMMN was elicited under supra-threshold and threshold conditions, with no significant differences between those vMMN amplitudes of two conditions. The P3a amplitude was larger for supra-threshold condition than that for threshold condition. These data demonstrated that the emergence of vMMN could only reflect the automatic detection of orientation-changes in the supra-threshold and threshold conditions compared to the sub-threshold condition, whereas the P3a amplitude could reflect the difference in processing of supra-threshold and threshold stimuli. PMID:26197089

  8. Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.

    2005-10-01

    A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.

  9. Methods study for the relocation of visual information in central scotoma cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Gautier, Vincent

    2005-03-01

    In this study we test the benefit on the reading performance of different ways to relocating the visual information present under the scotoma. The relocation (or unmasking) allows to compensate the loss of information and avoid the patient developing driving strategies not adapted for the reading. Eight healthy subjects were tested on a reading task, on each a central scotoma of various sizes was simulated. We then evaluate the reading speed (words/min) during three visual information relocation methods: all masked information is relocated - on both side of scotoma, - on the right of scotoma, - and only essentials letters for the word recognition too on the right of scotoma. We compare these reading speeds versus the pathological condition, ie without relocating visual information. Our results show that unmasking strategy improve the reading speed when all the visual information is unmask to the right of scotoma, this only for large scotoma. Taking account the word morphology, the perception of only certain letters outside the scotoma can be sufficient to improve the reading speed. A deepening of reading processes in the presence of a scotoma will then allows a new perspective for visual information unmasking. Multidisciplinary competences brought by engineers, ophtalmologists, linguists, clinicians would allow to optimize the reading benefit brought by the unmasking.

  10. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  11. POSE ESTIMATION OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES USING VISUAL INFORMATION: A

    E-print Network

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    with usual problems in vision systems such as noise as well as latency and intermittency of observations. Keywords: Visual servo control; Observers for nonlinear systems; Estimation; Robotics 1. INTRODUCTION to noise) but not in the inertial coordinate system. This is quite reasonable in mobile robotics where

  12. Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh

    2014-12-01

    This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China. PMID:25209925

  13. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  14. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed several challenges, including: allocating the emission reduction and economic impacts of local- to state-scale mitigation strategies that are in reality integrated on regional and/or national scales; incorporating changes to the details of the strategies over time; identifying and quantifying key variables; choosing appropriate levels of detail for over 100 strategies within the limited analysis timeframe; integrating individual strategies into a coherent whole; and structuring data presentation to maximize transparency of analysis without confusing or overwhelming decision makers.

  15. Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

  16. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information... ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from awarding contracts to contractors...

  17. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  18. Integration of Auditory and Visual Communication Information in the Primate Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Diltz, Mark D.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual stimuli is crucial for recognizing objects, communicating effectively, and navigating through our complex world. Although the frontal lobes are involved in memory, communication, and language, there has been no evidence that the integration of communication information occurs at the single-cell level in the frontal lobes. Here, we show that neurons in the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) integrate audiovisual communication stimuli. The multisensory interactions included both enhancement and suppression of a predominantly auditory or a predominantly visual response, although multisensory suppression was the more common mode of response. The multisensory neurons were distributed across the VLPFC and within previously identified unimodal auditory and visual regions (O’Scalaidhe et al., 1997; Romanski and Goldman-Rakic, 2002). Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that single prefrontal neurons integrate communication information from the auditory and visual domains, suggesting that these neurons are an important node in the cortical network responsible for communication. PMID:17065454

  19. Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex®?

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students’ learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visual information. Results from three experiments consistently indicated no differences in learning between three-dimensional and two-dimensional presentations among hearing or deaf students. Analyses of students’ allocation of visual attention and the influence of various demographic and experimental variables suggested considerable flexibility in deaf students’ receptive communication skills. Nevertheless, the findings also revealed a robust advantage in learning in favor of hearing students. PMID:16628250

  20. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

  1. The Time Course of Visual Information Utilization during Fixations in Reading. Technical Report No. 278.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Harry E.; And Others

    A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visual information is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…

  2. Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display

    E-print Network

    Ware, Colin

    1 Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display Abstract-- 3D interactive virtual reality museum exhibits should be easy to use, entertaining and informative and implemented in a museum exhibit. Index Terms-- multimedia, virtual reality, educational software, kiosk I

  3. The Natural Landscape Metaphor in Information Visualization:The Role of Commonsense Geomorphology

    E-print Network

    Montello, Daniel R.

    The Natural Landscape Metaphor in Information Visualization:The Role of Commonsense Geomorphology with the current scientific understanding of geomorphologic processes. Our empir- ical results suggest that neither of geomorphology will probably not be required to successfully use an information landscape, we do sug- gest

  4. Visualization of health information with predications extracted using natural language processing and filtered using the UMLS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Trudi; Leroy, Gondy

    2008-01-01

    Increased availability of and reliance on written health information can tax the abilities of unskilled readers. We are developing a system that uses natural language processing to extract phrases, identify medical terms using the UMLS, and visualize the propositions. This system substantially reduces the amount of information a consumer must read, while providing an alternative to traditional prose based text. PMID:18999136

  5. Visualizing information during early design Filippo A. Salustri, PhD, PEng

    E-print Network

    Salustri, Filippo A.

    is just as difficult to understand and just as useless as a poorly written text description. "Early design, early design, diagrams Introduction Not all information is well represented by text. While writtenVisualizing information during early design Filippo A. Salustri, PhD, PEng Ryerson University

  6. WPI-CS-TR-05-14 July 2005 Delivering Relevant and Useful Information with IMPACT

    E-print Network

    Wills, Craig E.

    Information with IMPACT Paul J. Timmins and Craig E. Wills Computer Science Department Worcester Polytechnic. This problem is one of "information overload," having too much information available to us, thus rendering us information actually is important to them. The root of the problem is that the user must sift through

  7. Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

  8. Information integration in sequential visual decision-making.

    PubMed

    Arató, József; Fiser, József

    2015-09-01

    Although it is widely accepted that both summary statistics and salient patterns affect human decision making based on temporally varying visual input, the relative contributions and the exact nature of how these aspects determine human judgment are unclear and controversial, often discussed under the labels of priming, adaptation, or serial effects. To tease apart the role of the various factors influencing such decision making tasks, we conducted a series of 7 adult behavioral experiments. We asked subjects to perform a 2-AFC task of judging which of two possible visual shapes appeared on the screen in a randomly ordered sequence while we varied the long- and short-term probability of appearance, the level of Gaussian pixel noise added to the stimulus, and the ratio of repetitions vs. alternations. We found that the quality of the stimulus reliably and systematically influenced the strength of influence by each factor. However, instead of a simple interpolation between long-term probabilities and veridical choice, different pairings of short- and long-term appearance probabilities produced various characteristic under- and over-shootings in choice performances ruling out earlier models proposed for explaining human behavior. Independent control of base probabilities and repetition/alternation revealed that despite the two characteristics being correlated in general, repetition/alternation is a factor independently influencing human judgment. In addition, we found that human performance measured by correct answers and by reaction times (RT) yield opposing results under some conditions indicating that RT measures tap into motor rather than cognitive components of sequence coding. Our results can be captured by a model of human visual decision making that not only balances long- and short-term summary statistics of sequences, but in parallel also encodes salient features, such as repetitions, and in addition, relies on a generic assumption of non-discriminative flat prior of events in the environment. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326073

  9. Application of Information Visualization Technologies in Masters' Experience Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuqi, Song; Jifa, Gu

    Experiences which belong to a kind of tacit knowledge were gradually summarized by the experts during their long working procedures. To analyze and inherit those experiences are worthwhile to the social construction and improvement. We build a platform composed of some visualization methods and analysis methods to present and analyze the data (from database, paper, web and etc.). So that students can intuitively understand the academic thinking of masters better than before. The platform has been applied in investigating the masters’ experiences of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the positive results were also introduced.

  10. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Inga M; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension. PMID:24904069

  11. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    PubMed

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

  12. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  13. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference. PMID:25475568

  14. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  15. Selection of visual information for lightness judgements by eye movements.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-10-19

    When judging the lightness of objects, the visual system has to take into account many factors such as shading, scene geometry, occlusions or transparency. The problem then is to estimate global lightness based on a number of local samples that differ in luminance. Here, we show that eye fixations play a prominent role in this selection process. We explored a special case of transparency for which the visual system separates surface reflectance from interfering conditions to generate a layered image representation. Eye movements were recorded while the observers matched the lightness of the layered stimulus. We found that observers did focus their fixations on the target layer, and this sampling strategy affected their lightness perception. The effect of image segmentation on perceived lightness was highly correlated with the fixation strategy and was strongly affected when we manipulated it using a gaze-contingent display. Finally, we disrupted the segmentation process showing that it causally drives the selection strategy. Selection through eye fixations can so serve as a simple heuristic to estimate the target reflectance. PMID:24018718

  16. Visualization of Intellectual Structure in Information Retrieval: Author Cocitation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying

    1998-01-01

    An author cocitation analysis of information retrieval research (1987 to 1997) from Social Scisearch via DIALOG analyzed the top 40 authors to reveal the intellectual structure of information retrieval. Concludes that cocitation analysis contributes to the understanding of intellectual structures in the sciences and possibly in other areas when…

  17. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  18. Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display

    PubMed Central

    van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

  19. Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

  20. In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

  1. CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources

    PubMed Central

    Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

  2. Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

  3. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

  4. 32 CFR 811.2 - Release of visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information materials. (a) Only the Secretary of the Air Force for Public Affairs (SAF/PA) clears and releases...) arranges the release of VI material through SAF/PA when a member of Congress asks for them for official...

  5. 32 CFR 811.2 - Release of visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information materials. (a) Only the Secretary of the Air Force for Public Affairs (SAF/PA) clears and releases...) arranges the release of VI material through SAF/PA when a member of Congress asks for them for official...

  6. How Relevant Are Library and Information Science Curricula outside Their Geographic Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Lawrence Wai-hong; Harvey, Ross; Mills, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate outside…

  7. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  8. How visual information influences coordination dynamics when following the leader.

    PubMed

    Meerhoff, L A; De Poel, Harjo J; Button, Chris

    2014-10-17

    Coordinating one's movements with others is an important aspect of human interactions. Regulating the distance to other moving agents is often necessary to achieve specific task goals such as in invasion sports. This study aimed to examine how distance regulation is mediated by different sources of information that are typically available when humans coordinate their actions to others. Participants followed a virtual leader that moved backwards and forwards, and were instructed to maintain the initial distance. In one condition, participants were presented with a life-size fully animated human avatar as the leader, displaying both segmental (limb motion) and global (optical expansion) motion information. In the other condition, participants had to follow an expanding and receding sphere in which segmental motion information was absent. Optical expansion rates revealed that participants regulated distance equally effective in both conditions. Given the phase relation and response times to direction changes however, the timing to the leader appeared to be more accurate in the avatar condition. These results provide support that forward-backward following can indeed be successfully mediated through global information, but that detection of segmental information allows for earlier tuning to another person's movement intentions. PMID:25153514

  9. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  10. Locating relevant patient information in electronic health record data using representations of clinical concepts and database structures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data. PMID:25954405

  11. Locating Relevant Patient Information in Electronic Health Record Data Using Representations of Clinical Concepts and Database Structures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data. PMID:25954405

  12. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...biological sciences and public health domains. This RFI is for information and...line, the following information: Name of the institution or site. ...biological sciences and public health domains; [cir] Expertise and input on...

  13. The Nature of Syntactic Priming - Relevance and Interplay of Semantic and Syntactic Information 

    E-print Network

    Köhne, Judith

    2007-11-28

    It is an ongoing matter of debate, what the nature of syntactic priming effects, and hence, the nature of grammatical information in language processing is. Two specific issues are the fo-cus of the current examination: firstly, the possible...

  14. Integration of Visual and Auditory Information by Superior Temporal Sulcus Neurons Responsive

    E-print Network

    Oram, Mike

    Integration of Visual and Auditory Information by Superior Temporal Sulcus Neurons Responsive, and body movements is known to occur in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) of humans and nonhuman primates involved in the generation of that action. The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been implicated

  15. Spatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates

    E-print Network

    extrastriate regions exhibited bilateral activation enhancement related to body-centred coding when drivenSpatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates Gaspare Galati representations. Multimodal neurons using non-retinal body-centred reference frames are found in the posterior

  16. Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots

    E-print Network

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter-Chair Professor Ruzena Bajcsy Professor Paul Wright Fall 2004 #12;Abstract Improving Aviation Safety advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft- based sensors that can gather

  17. Acoustic-Tactile Rendering of Visual Information Pubudu Madhawa Silva1

    E-print Network

    Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    . The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D of visual information via hearing and touch. In Ref. 7, we proposed the use of a touch screen with acoustic. Tactile patterns could also be added, e.g., embossed on Braille paper overlaid on the touch screen (as

  18. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  19. Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Marc Ernst, Max-Planck fr biol. Kybernetik

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Organizer Marc Ernst, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Panelists Martin Banks, University of California, Berkeley Felix Wichmann, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Laurence Maloney, New York University Heinrich Bülthoff, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Abstract

  20. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  1. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  2. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  3. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  4. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  5. The Effects of Musical Accompaniment on Visual Information Processing within and across Selected Personality Type Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda

    The effects of musical accompaniment on two different visual information processing activities were examined in individuals of differing selected personality types. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form G was administered to classes of University students. From the results, four subgroups, the sensing-thinking, sensing-feeling, intuitive-feeling,…

  6. Infographics And Public Policy: Using Data Visualization To Convey Complex Information.

    PubMed

    Otten, Jennifer J; Cheng, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Data visualization combines principles from psychology, usability, graphic design, and statistics to highlight important data in accessible and appealing formats. Doing so helps bridge knowledge producers with knowledge users, who are often inundated with information and increasingly pressed for time. PMID:26526248

  7. How Do Expert Soccer Players Encode Visual Information to Make Decisions in Simulated Game Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

  8. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter V: Virtual 3D Cities 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    . Robert Laurini Chapter V: Virtual 3D Cities 4 Reconstitution of Pompei Maya Architecture Roof models 5Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter V: Virtual 3D Cities 1 Chapter V Virtual 3D Cities Virtual 3D Cities · 5.1 ­ Introduction · 5.2 ­ CityGML · 5.3 ­ Google Earth · 5.4 ­ Virtual Earth

  9. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter X: ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter X: ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial 1 Chapter X ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial Acknowledgement: Albert Godfrind, Oracle X ­ ORACLE Locator queries and analyses · 10.5 ­ Geo Raster · 10.6 ­ Network modeling · 10.7 ­ MapViewer · 10.8 ­ Oracle

  10. New Interface Metaphors for Complex Information Space Visualization: an ECG Monitor Object Prototype

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    . For this study, electrocardiographic (ECG) data were chosen for several reasons. ECGs are ubiquitous in allNew Interface Metaphors for Complex Information Space Visualization: an ECG Monitor Object a source of discomfort and at worst a source of significant error. ECG rhythms require varying levels

  11. Development of a culturally relevant consumer health information website for Harlem, New York.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2014-09-01

    The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. PMID:24740963

  12. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  13. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  14. UNH Computing & Information Services Resource Listing AudioVisual Services

    E-print Network

    rates, FAQs · Help with phone lines · Wireless connectivity information UNH Computer Store ­ including wireless · Use Blackboard · Use Word, Excel, & PowerPoint · Repair damaged files · Drop off service Help Desk 8624242 cis.unh.edu/helpdesk · Phone and online support for UNH EMail, My

  15. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual

  16. AC 2007-1538: VISIT -VISUALIZATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY -A MULTI-TIER SYSTEM FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY EXPERIENCES IN DATA

    E-print Network

    Challinger, Judy

    AC 2007-1538: VISIT - VISUALIZATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY - A MULTI-TIER SYSTEM, 2007 #12;VisIT - Visualization and Information Technology - A Multi-tier System for Interdisciplinary and environmental science faculty at the California State University, Chico to address these needs. A multi-tier

  17. Copyright 2008 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 346 The short-term storage of visual information is a criti-

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, George A.

    and compared with current percepts and with other information already in short-term storage or in long-termCopyright 2008 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 346 The short-term storage of visual information to estimate the visual short-term memory storage capacity for either the orientation or the size of objects

  18. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer. PMID:26298044

  19. Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1989-01-01

    Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

  20. The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L; Fajen, Brett R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

  1. The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L.; Fajen, Brett R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

  2. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  3. Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-01-01

    Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC). PMID:16095527

  4. Young Children's Use of Video as a Source of Socially Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Saylor, Megan M.; Archer, Allison H.

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research clearly shows that toddlers have difficulty learning from video, the basis for their difficulty is unknown. In the 2 current experiments, the effect of social feedback on 2-year-olds' use of information from video was assessed. Children who were told "face to face" where to find a hidden toy typically found it, but children…

  5. Communicating (birth defects) prevention information to a hmong population in Wisconsin: a study of cultural relevance.

    PubMed

    Viste, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Compelling research from the early 1990s indicated a strong correlation between the consumption of the B-vitamin folic acid and the prevention of a serious birth defect (neural tube defect) in infants. This article examines numerous challenges the author faced when attempting to produce a culturally relevant folic acid brochure for Hmong women of childbearing age in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, part of a broad folic acid education program. An immediate challenge arose from the traditional Hmong belief that birth defects can be either a curse or a gift, "preassigned" in a former life and therefore not preventable. Other challenges that were addressed included language, acculturation and nutrition, literacy, attitudes toward Western health care practices, and attitudes toward taking medications, including a daily multivitamin. In order for public health communicators to reach increasingly diverse ethnic and cultural identities with important health messages, it is essential that project planning start from the target group's cultural context. It is hoped that the lessons learned through this project can be applied to other communications efforts with other cultural groups. PMID:17558962

  6. Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jen-Chang; Shieh, Hsiang-An

    2011-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes, such as the QR code and PDF417, do not carry visual information. This work proposes a visually meaningful 2-D barcode (or 2-D image code) that carries not only hidden information, but also visual information. Watermarking is employed to hide information in a meaningful cover image to produce the 2-D image code. The 2-D image code can be printed or displayed and then captured using a camera-equipped mobile device. The hidden information is extracted for innovative applications. To resist distortions in the print-and-photo process, a perceptual shaping algorithm, based on Watson's DCT-based perceptual model, is proposed for use in the data hiding procedure. The detection performance that can be achieved using two classes of position-detection patterns is evaluated, and the best pattern is then used as a part of the 2-D image code. A web service is provided for generating the 2-D image codes and a Java-based decoder is developed for mobile phones. The results of practical experiments reveal the applicability, robustness, and high capacity of the proposed 2-D image code.

  7. Information Filtering with Submaps for Inertial Aided Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, M.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    This work is concerned with the fusion of inertial measurements (accelerations and angular velocities) with imagery data (feature points extracted in a video stream) in a recursive bundle adjustment framework for indoor position and attitude estimation. Recursive processing is achieved by a combination of local submaps and the Schur complement. The Schur complement is used to reduce the problem size at regular intervals while retaining the information provided by past measurements. Local submaps provide a way to propagate the gauge constraints and thereby to alleviate the detrimental effects of linearization errors in the prior. Though the presented technique is not real-time capable in its current implementation, it can be employed to process arbitrarily long trajectories. The presented system is evaluated by comparing the estimated trajectory of the system with a reference trajectory of a prism attached to the system, which was recorded by a total station.

  8. Addressing the future of clinical information systems--Web-based multilayer visualization.

    PubMed

    Poh, Chueh-Loo; Kitney, Richard I; Shrestha, Rasu B K

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses some key issues relating to the development of new technology for clinical information systems (CIS) in relation to imaging and visualizing data. With the increasing importance of molecular and cellular biology, a new type of medicine, molecular based medicine, is now developing. This will significantly alter the way in which medicine is practiced. The view is presented that CIS will need to operate seamlessly across the Biological Continuum, i.e., the hierarchy of the human organism comprising systems, viscera, tissue, cells, proteins, and genes. We propose a multilayered visualization interface, which operates across the Biological Continuum, based on Web-based technology. A visualization interface package for two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data at the visceral and cellular levels is described. Two application examples are presented: 1) MR knee images, at the visceral level and 2) endothelial nuclei images, acquired from confocal laser microscopy, at the cellular level. PMID:17390983

  9. A concept-based interactive biomedical image retrieval approach using visualness and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md M.; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term concept refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist user in interactively select a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and search for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a post-processing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval, is validated through experiments on a data set of 450 lung CT images extracted from journal articles from four different collections.

  10. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  11. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    PubMed

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed. PMID:26233531

  12. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given. PMID:25894235

  13. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    PubMed

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  14. A Unified Computational Architecture for Preprocessing Visual Information in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef

    1986-06-01

    The success of autonomous mobile robots depends on the ability to understand continuously changing scenery. Present techniques for analysis of images are not always suitable because in sequential paradigm, computation of visual functions based on absolute values of stimuli is inefficient. Important aspects of visual information are encoded in discontinuities of intensity, hence a representation in terms of relative values seems advantageous. We present the computing architecture of a massively parallel vision module which optimizes the detection of relative intensity changes in space and time. Visual information must remain constant despite variation in ambient light level or velocity of target and robot. Constancy can be achieved by normalizing motion and lightness scales. In both cases, basic computation involves a comparison of the center pixels with the context of surrounding values. Therefore, a similar computing architecture, composed of three functionally-different and hierarchically-arranged layers of overlapping operators, can be used for two integrated parts of the module. The first part maintains high sensitivity to spatial changes by reducing noise and normalizing the lightness scale. The result is used by the second part to maintain high sensitivity to temporal discontinuities and to compute relative motion information. Simulation results show that response of the module is proportional to contrast of the stimulus and remains constant over the whole domain of intensity. It is also proportional to velocity of motion limited to any small portion of the visual field. Uniform motion throughout the visual field results in constant response, independent of velocity. Spatial and temporal intensity changes are enhanced because computationally, the module resembles the behavior of a DOG function.

  15. GIN AUSTRIA. Assuring quality and relevance on Internet-health-informations for patients.

    PubMed

    Göbel, G; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-01-01

    GIN AUSTRIA (Gesundheitsinformationsnetz AUSTRIA) offers patients and consumers reliable medical knowledge about diseases, wellness and disease management in an understandable way and enables them to quick and incessant access to informations about the Austrian health system and Austrian health organizations. To improve the quality of the database and to achieve full customer (patients, citizens) satisfaction a systematic approach for implementing total quality management is also applied. Focusing the attention on understanding and responding to customer needs, systematic and continuous improving of the IS and total involvement of all participants are the three core TQM principles at this project. The second focus of the project is the development and the implementation (prototype) of a medical dictionary or rather medical thesaurus as interface for patients, who are not used to scientific terms and expressions. This interface is based on the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH-Thesaurus (german version). PMID:10724952

  16. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice. PMID:23215863

  17. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  18. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  19. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  20. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  1. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and ?1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation. PMID:25515745

  2. Shewregdb: Database and visualization environment for experimental and predicted regulatory information in Shewanella oneidensis mr-1

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Leuze, Mike; Kora, Guruprasad; Romine, Margaret F.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2009-10-15

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is an important model organism for environmental research as it has an exceptional metabolic and respiratory versatility regulated by a complex regulatory network. We have developed a database to collect experimental and computational data relating to regulation of gene and protein expression and a visualization environment that enables integration of these data types. The regulatory information in the database was collected from the published literature and different Internet resources. It includes predictions of DNA regulator binding sites, sigma factor binding sites, transcription units, operons, promoters, and RNA regulators including non-coding RNAs, riboswitches, and different types of terminators. A visualization environment based on GBrowser was developed for accessing the collected information and for its overlaying with experimental data (experimental results from studies employing microarrays, proteomics, and/or gene mutagenesis) and other genome annotations.

  3. The neural processing of 3-D visual information: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Miles, F A

    1998-03-01

    Primates have several reflexes that generate eye movements to compensate for bodily movements that would otherwise disturb their gaze and undermine their ability to process visual information. Two vestibulo-ocular reflexes compensate selectively for rotational and translational disturbances of the head, and each has visual backups that operate as negative feedback tracking mechanisms to deal with any residual disturbances of gaze. Of particular interest here are three recently discovered visual tracking mechanisms that specifically address translational disturbances and operate in machine-like fashion with ultra-short latencies (< 60 ms in monkeys, < 85 ms in humans). These visual reflexes deal with motions in all three dimensions and operate as automatic servos, using preattentive parallel processing to provide signals that initiate eye movements before the observer is even aware that there has been a disturbance. This processing is accomplished by visual filters each tuned to a different feature of the binocular images located in the immediate vicinity of the plane of fixation. Two of the reflexes use binocular stereo cues and the third is tuned to particular patterns of optic flow associated with the observer's forward motion. Some stereoanomalous subjects show tracking deficits that can be attributed to a lack of just one subtype of cortical cell encoding motion in one particular direction in a narrow depth plane centred on fixation. Despite their rapid, reflex nature, all three mechanisms rely on cortical processing and evidence from monkeys supports the hypothesis that all are mediated by the medial superior temporal (MST) area of cortex. Remarkably, MST seems to represent the first stage in cortical motion processing at which the visual error signals driving each of the three reflexes are fully elaborated at the level of individual cells. PMID:9753150

  4. Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

  5. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model. PMID:26356891

  6. Space Depends On Time: Informational Asymmetries in Visual and Auditory Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Abigail; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Somers, David

    2015-09-01

    Sensory modalities vary in adeptness for spatial and temporal information domains (Welch & Warren, 1980). Recent work suggests that attention and short-term memory (STM) recruit this variability (Michalka et al., submitted). Here, we investigate the relationships among visual and auditory modalities, and spatial and temporal STM. We developed stimuli comprising short sequences of visual events (instantaneous image changes) or auditory events (50ms complex tones). Each event within a sequence had a unique spatial location and a unique inter-event interval. These stimuli were used in a STM change-detection task. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; a change could occur among the locations, the intervals, both, or neither. Subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations), or time (the sequence of inter-event intervals), and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal (sequence 1 visual and sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) trials for both tasks. We found a strong modality appropriateness effect, with best temporal performance on unimodal auditory trials, and best spatial performance on unimodal visual trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials mattered for space (benefit for visual sequence 1) but not for time, supporting a domain recruitment account of spatial STM. We also investigated cross-domain interactions by measuring whether instability of spatial location affected change detection for intervals, or vice versa. Changes in timing from sequence 1 to sequence 2 substantially impaired change detection for locations, while changes in locations did not impair change detection for intervals. These results suggest that spatial and temporal STM are asymmetrically related, such that timing information facilitates monitoring a series of locations, but spatial knowledge is unnecessary when monitoring a series of intervals. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326742

  7. Latency of modality-specific reactivation of auditory and visual information during episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Masumoto, Kouhei; Sutani, Kouichi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2015-04-15

    This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the latency of modality-specific reactivation in the visual and auditory cortices during a recognition task to determine the effects of reactivation on episodic memory retrieval. Nine right-handed healthy young adults participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted of a word-encoding phase and two recognition phases. Three encoding conditions were included: encoding words alone (word-only) and encoding words presented with either related pictures (visual) or related sounds (auditory). The recognition task was conducted in the MEG scanner 15?min after the completion of the encoding phase. After the recognition test, a source-recognition task was given, in which participants were required to choose whether each recognition word was not presented or was presented with which information during the encoding phase. Word recognition in the auditory condition was higher than that in the word-only condition. Confidence-of-recognition scores (d') and the source-recognition test showed superior performance in both the visual and the auditory conditions compared with the word-only condition. An equivalent current dipoles analysis of MEG data indicated that higher equivalent current dipole amplitudes in the right fusiform gyrus occurred during the visual condition and in the superior temporal auditory cortices during the auditory condition, both 450-550?ms after onset of the recognition stimuli. Results suggest that reactivation of visual and auditory brain regions during recognition binds language with modality-specific information and that reactivation enhances confidence in one's recognition performance. PMID:25756907

  8. Relational information decays faster than object features in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeongyong; Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2015-09-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) actively maintains visual information for a short period. While some researchers suggested that VWM representation consisted of slots storing bound objects (e.g., Luck et al., 2001), other researchers found that degradation of relational information decreased VWM capacity (e.g., Wilken et al., 2004). Recently, Brady et al. (2013) found that different features of objects decayed at different rates in long-term visual memory. However, the same hypothesis has not been tested in VWM. We investigated whether relational information among items decayed faster than object features in VWM. To test this hypothesis, we used a change detection task. We varied the retention intervals (short: 150 ms, long: 750 ms) and used different locations between test and memory arrays. The memory array was presented in the parafovea and the test array was presented around the fixation to prevent participants from utilizing sensory memory. There were three types of changes in the test array. In the color change condition, the color of one item was changed. Because colors of individual objects and relationship between colors were preserved, participants could use both object features and relational information. In the location change condition, relative location of one item was changed. Note that absolute locations of all items in test array were changed from those of the memory array because of the different locations between the test and memory arrays. Thus, only relational information was available in the location change condition. Finally, in the both change condition, both relative location and color of one item were changed. Change detection performance was similar at the short retention interval across the conditions. However, at the long retention interval, change detection performance of the location change condition decreased significantly more than the other conditions. These results suggest that relational information decays faster than object features in VWM. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326223

  9. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    PubMed

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed. PMID:11140248

  10. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  11. Visual Search in Typically Developing Toddlers and Toddlers with Fragile X or Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerif, Gaia; Cornish, Kim; Wilding, John; Driver, Jon; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Visual selective attention is the ability to attend to relevant visual information and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Little is known about its typical and atypical development in early childhood. Experiment 1 investigates typically developing toddlers' visual search for multiple targets on a touch-screen. Time to hit a target, distance between…

  12. Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

  13. Journal of Vision (2005) 5, 244-256 http://journalofvision.org/5/3/8/ 244 Relational information in visual short-term memory

    E-print Network

    Wohrer, Adrien

    2005-01-01

    in visual short-term memory: The structural gist Juan R. Vidal Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et of visual items in visual short-term memory has been extensively studied by many research groups on the organization of information in visual short-term memory. In a series of experiments we investigated how

  14. RGB-D SLAM Combining Visual Odometry and Extended Information Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong; Xiong, Naixue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel RGB-D SLAM system based on visual odometry and an extended information filter, which does not require any other sensors or odometry. In contrast to the graph optimization approaches, this is more suitable for online applications. A visual dead reckoning algorithm based on visual residuals is devised, which is used to estimate motion control input. In addition, we use a novel descriptor called binary robust appearance and normals descriptor (BRAND) to extract features from the RGB-D frame and use them as landmarks. Furthermore, considering both the 3D positions and the BRAND descriptors of the landmarks, our observation model avoids explicit data association between the observations and the map by marginalizing the observation likelihood over all possible associations. Experimental validation is provided, which compares the proposed RGB-D SLAM algorithm with just RGB-D visual odometry and a graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm using the publicly-available RGB-D dataset. The results of the experiments demonstrate that our system is quicker than the graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm. PMID:26263990

  15. Effects of visualizing statistical information – an empirical study on tree diagrams and 2 × 2 tables

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Bruckmaier, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In their research articles, scholars often use 2 × 2 tables or tree diagrams including natural frequencies in order to illustrate Bayesian reasoning situations to their peers. Interestingly, the effect of these visualizations on participants’ performance has not been tested empirically so far (apart from explicit training studies). In the present article, we report on an empirical study (3 × 2 × 2 design) in which we systematically vary visualization (no visualization vs. 2 × 2 table vs. tree diagram) and information format (probabilities vs. natural frequencies) for two contexts (medical vs. economical context; not a factor of interest). Each of N = 259 participants (students of age 16–18) had to solve two typical Bayesian reasoning tasks (“mammography problem” and “economics problem”). The hypothesis is that 2 × 2 tables and tree diagrams – especially when natural frequencies are included – can foster insight into the notoriously difficult structure of Bayesian reasoning situations. In contrast to many other visualizations (e.g., icon arrays, Euler diagrams), 2 × 2 tables and tree diagrams have the advantage that they can be constructed easily. The implications of our findings for teaching Bayesian reasoning will be discussed. PMID:26379569

  16. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and evaluation. PMID:25860626

  17. Internal reference frames for representation and storage of visual information: the role of gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Joseph; Lipshits, Mark; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Gurfinkel, Victor

    2001-08-01

    Experimental studies of visual mechanisms suggest that the CNS represents image information with respect to preferred horizontal and vertical axes, as shown by a phenomenon known as the "oblique effect". In the current study we used this effect to evaluate the influence of gravity on the representation and storage of visual orientation information. Subjects performed a psychophysical task in which a visually-presented stimulus line was aligned with the remembered orientation of a reference stimulus line presented moments before. The experiments were made on 5 cosmonauts during orbital space flight and additionally on 13 subjects in conditions of normal gravity with a tilting chair. Data were analyzed with respect to response variability and timing. On earth, these measurements for this task show a distinct preference for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli when the body and gravitational axes were aligned. This preference was markedly decreased or disappeared when the body axis was tilted with respect to gravity; this effect was not connected with ocular counter-rolling nor could we find a preference of any other intermediate axis between the gravity and body aligned axes. On the other hand, the preference for vertical and horizontal axes was maintained for tests performed in microgravity over the course of a 6 month flight, starting from flight day 6. We concluded that subjects normally process visual orientation information in a multi-modal reference frame that combines both proprioceptive and gravitational cues when both are available, but that a proprioceptive reference frame is sufficient for this task in the absence of gravity after a short period of adaptation. Some of the results from this study have been previously published in a preliminary report [7].

  18. Mismatch and Lexical Retrieval Gestures are Associated with Visual Information Processing, Verbal Production, and Symptomatology in Youth at High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Zachary B.; Goss, James; Schiffman, Jason; Mejias, Johana; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gesture is integrally linked with language and cognitive systems, and recent years have seen a growing attention to these movements in patients with schizophrenia. To date, however, there have been no investigations of gesture in youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Examining gesture in UHR individuals may help to elucidate other widely recognized communicative and cognitive deficits in this population and yield new clues for treatment development. Method In this study, mismatch (indicating semantic incongruency between the content of speech and a given gesture) and retrieval (used during pauses in speech while a person appears to be searching for a word or idea) gestures were evaluated in 42 UHR individuals and 36 matched healthy controls. Cognitive functions relevant to gesture production (i.e., speed of visual information processing and verbal production) as well as positive and negative symptomatology were assessed. Results Although the overall frequency of cases exhibiting these behaviors was low, UHR individuals produced substantially more mismatch and retrieval gestures than controls. The UHR group also exhibited significantly poorer verbal production performance when compared with controls. In the patient group, mismatch gestures were associated with poorer visual processing speed and elevated negative symptoms, while retrieval gestures were associated with higher speed of visual information-processing and verbal production, but not symptoms. Conclusions Taken together these findings indicate that gesture abnormalities are present in individuals at high risk for psychosis. While mismatch gestures may be closely related to disease processes, retrieval gestures may be employed as a compensatory mechanism. PMID:25000911

  19. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Information Improves Predictive Modeling of Disease Relevance of Non-Coding Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Towfique; McGeachie, Michael J.; Qiu, Weiliang; Ziniti, John P.; Stubbs, Benjamin J.; Liang, Liming; Martinez, Fernando D.; Strunk, Robert C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Carey, Vincent J.; Raby, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Disease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100kb of target gene transcripts) by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586). At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10?04), particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state), we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2–2.0, P < 10?11) and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5–2.3, P < 10?11). This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3–10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP) than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization. PMID:26474488

  20. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  1. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  2. Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

    The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

  3. D Web Visualization of Environmental Information - Integration of Heterogeneous Data Sources when Providing Navigation and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, L.; ?ezník, T.

    2015-08-01

    3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.

  4. Fault Detection In Manufacturing Cells Based On Three-Dimensional Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, David A.; Milligan, Robert; Wright, Paul K.

    1982-11-01

    A three dimensional representation of a part is reconstructed from multiple camera views. Measurements are then collected from this three dimensional data and can be used to detect faults in the manufacturing process. The manufacturing faults are detected as visual abnormalities in the final parts. These abnormalities correspond to error conditions in earlier phases of manufacturing and could represent equipment failure, equipment wear or the use of a faulty control algorithm. A gage station which collects visual information is discussed. The algorithm which converts the visual information into a three dimensional representation of the part is presented and compared to other similar reconstruction strategies. Once the data have been collected and reconstructed, measurements are taken and correlated with possible error conditions. New correlations between the part measurements and manufacturing errors can be added to the control system as problems occur. For example, hammer wear in an open-die forge can be discovered by measuring the length of a work piece after it was struck. Along with each casual relationship there is a suggested course of action which is intended to be an immediate remedy for the error condition. In the forge example, a simple corrective action would be to move the hammers closer together to account for their wear. This makes it possible for the overall system to approach immunity to catastrophic errors while minimizing the number of defective parts.

  5. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature. PMID:25609478

  6. Visual Landmark Information Gains Control of the Head Direction Signal at the Lateral Mammillary Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Ryan M.; Peck, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS ? LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

  7. Informative features of local field potential signals in primary visual cortex during natural image stimulation.

    PubMed

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Shushruth, S; Davis, Tyler; Ichida, Jennifer M; House, Paul A; Greger, Bradley; Angelucci, Alessandra; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is of growing importance in neurophysiology as a metric of network activity and as a readout signal for use in brain-machine interfaces. However, there are uncertainties regarding the kind and visual field extent of information carried by LFP signals, as well as the specific features of the LFP signal conveying such information, especially under naturalistic conditions. To address these questions, we recorded LFP responses to natural images in V1 of awake and anesthetized macaques using Utah multielectrode arrays. First, we have shown that it is possible to identify presented natural images from the LFP responses they evoke using trained Gabor wavelet (GW) models. Because GW models were devised to explain the spiking responses of V1 cells, this finding suggests that local spiking activity and LFPs (thought to reflect primarily local synaptic activity) carry similar visual information. Second, models trained on scalar metrics, such as the evoked LFP response range, provide robust image identification, supporting the informative nature of even simple LFP features. Third, image identification is robust only for the first 300 ms following image presentation, and image information is not restricted to any of the spectral bands. This suggests that the short-latency broadband LFP response carries most information during natural scene viewing. Finally, best image identification was achieved by GW models incorporating information at the scale of ? 0.5° in size and trained using four different orientations. This suggests that during natural image viewing, LFPs carry stimulus-specific information at spatial scales corresponding to few orientation columns in macaque V1. PMID:25505104

  8. Iowa Flood Information System: Towards Integrated Data Management, Analysis and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview and live demonstration of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.

  9. Selecting category specific visual information: Top-down and bottom-up control of object based attention.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The ability to select, within the complexity of sensory input, the information most relevant for our purposes is influenced by both internal settings (i.e., top-down control) and salient features of external stimuli (i.e., bottom-up control). We here investigated using fMRI the neural underpinning of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, as well as their effects on extrastriate areas processing visual stimuli in a category-selective fashion. We presented photos of bodies or buildings embedded into frequency-matched visual noise to the subjects. Stimulus saliency changed gradually due to an altered degree to which photos stood-out in relation to the surrounding noise (hence generating stronger bottom-up control signals). Top-down settings were manipulated via instruction: participants were asked to attend one stimulus category (i.e., "is there a body?" or "is there a building?"). Highly salient stimuli that were inconsistent with participants' attentional top-down template activated the inferior frontal junction and dorsal parietal regions bilaterally. Stimuli consistent with participants' current attentional set additionally activated insular cortex and the parietal operculum. Furthermore, the extrastriate body area (EBA) exhibited increased neural activity when attention was directed to bodies. However, the latter effect was found only when stimuli were presented at intermediate saliency levels, thus suggesting a top-down modulation of this region only in the presence of weak bottom-up signals. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal regions in integrating bottom-up and top-down attentional control signals. PMID:25735196

  10. Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

  11. Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

  12. The Effects of Information Concerning the Attributes of Concept Instances and Recall of Relevant Subconcepts on the Level of Mastery of Certain Geometric Concepts. Working Paper 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Barbara Jones

    This paper is a master's thesis reporting research on the effects of two instructional variables, recall of relevant subconcepts and information regarding the attributes of the concept instances on immediate concept learning, transfer and retention. Three sets of instructions were written varying in the amount and type of information given. These…

  13. Add a picture for suspense: neural correlates of the interaction between language and visual information in the perception of fear.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roel M; Clevis, Krien; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-09-01

    We investigated how visual and linguistic information interact in the perception of emotion. We borrowed a phenomenon from film theory which states that presentation of an as such neutral visual scene intensifies the percept of fear or suspense induced by a different channel of information, such as language. Our main aim was to investigate how neutral visual scenes can enhance responses to fearful language content in parts of the brain involved in the perception of emotion. Healthy participants' brain activity was measured (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) while they read fearful and less fearful sentences presented with or without a neutral visual scene. The main idea is that the visual scenes intensify the fearful content of the language by subtly implying and concretizing what is described in the sentence. Activation levels in the right anterior temporal pole were selectively increased when a neutral visual scene was paired with a fearful sentence, compared to reading the sentence alone, as well as to reading of non-fearful sentences presented with the same neutral scene. We conclude that the right anterior temporal pole serves a binding function of emotional information across domains such as visual and linguistic information. PMID:20530540

  14. [Perception, processing of visual information and resistance to emotional stresses in athletes of different ages].

    PubMed

    Korobe?nikova, L H; Makarchuk, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous studies devoted to the study of perception and information processing, no data available on the effects of age on these processes. In this paper we studied the influence of psycho-emotional stress and different levels of stress on the mental processes of perception and information processing in highly skilled athletes divided into two groups. The first group included the athletes aged 19-24 years (12 athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling), the second group included the athletes aged 27-31 years (7 highly skilled athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling). We revealed that the athletes of the first group had higher productivity and better visual perception and visual information processing efficiency, compared with athletes from the second group. This observation suggests a dependency of cognitive component of perception and information processing on the age of the athletes. Sportsmen from the second group had higher stress resistance compared to the older age group. PMID:23957169

  15. Global and fine information coded by single neurons in the temporal visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugase, Yasuko; Yamane, Shigeru; Ueno, Shoogo; Kawano, Kenji

    1999-08-01

    When we see a person's face, we can easily recognize their species, individual identity and emotional state. How does the brain represent such complex information? A substantial number of neurons in the macaque temporal cortex respond to faces. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the processing ofcomplex information are not yet clear. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons in the temporal cortex of macaque monkeys while presenting visual stimuli consisting of geometric shapes, and monkey and human faces with various expressions. Information theory was used to investigate how well the neuronal responses could categorize the stimuli. We found that single neurons conveyed two different scales of facial information intheir firing patterns, starting at different latencies. Global information, categorizing stimuli as monkey faces, human faces or shapes, was conveyed in the earliest part of the responses. Fineinformation about identity or expression was conveyed later,beginning on average 51ms after global information. We speculate that global information could be used as a `header' to prepare destination areas for receiving more detailed information.

  16. Perceptions of document relevance.

    PubMed

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  17. Perceptions of document relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  18. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices. PMID:25339872

  19. Can visual information encoded in cortical columns be decoded from magnetoencephalography data in humans?

    PubMed

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Ramirez, Fernando Mario; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    It is a principal open question whether noninvasive imaging methods in humans can decode information encoded at a spatial scale as fine as the basic functional unit of cortex: cortical columns. We addressed this question in five magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments by investigating a columnar-level encoded visual feature: contrast edge orientation. We found that MEG signals contained orientation-specific information as early as approximately 50ms after stimulus onset even when controlling for confounds, such as overrepresentation of particular orientations, stimulus edge interactions, and global form-related signals. Theoretical modeling confirmed the plausibility of this empirical result. An essential consequence of our results is that information encoded in the human brain at the level of cortical columns should in general be accessible by multivariate analysis of electrophysiological signals. PMID:26162550

  20. New methods for quantifying and visualizing information from images of cells: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Gustavo Kunde

    2013-01-01

    New microscopy imaging techniques have enabled the acquisition of cellular and sub-cellular information with unprecedented accuracy and specificity. Fluorescence techniques have enabled labeling of numerous, previously inaccessible, molecules and organelles, while Raman spectrographic techniques, for example, have enabled label free acquisition. Together with the development of high throughput techniques, these technologies now allow for the acquisition of a significant amount of information about cellular processes and have enabled high throughput and high content screening. Beyond image formation and acquisition, computational techniques comprise an important part of the process of obtaining biological understanding from such experiments. Here we review the pros and cons of the main approaches that have been used to extract information from digital images of cells. In addition, we also offer an overview of modern computational techniques that beyond allowing for discrimination between two hypothesis, also allow for modeling, visualization, and understanding of biological phenomena. PMID:24109639

  1. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  2. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual, but not acoustic information to find hidden food items

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but only little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins’ ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task’s contingencies. PMID:19236142

  3. Intrinsic Activity in the Fly Brain Gates Visual Information during Behavioral Choices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials) in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque) were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1–1 s) and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals. PMID:21209935

  4. Description of Subsidiary subject in Visual Art and Design (part 1) The framework provisions of the academic regulations

    E-print Network

    Bataillon, Thomas

    and define an academic problem, select relevant methodologies for solving it, collect relevant informationDescription of Subsidiary subject in Visual Art and Design (part 1) The framework provisions of the academic regulations The academic regulations for the Subsidiary Subject in Visual Art and Design (2007

  5. An evaluation tool for psychomotor performance during visual motor task: an application of information theory.

    PubMed

    Thullier, Francine; Lepelley, Marie-Charlotte; Lestienne, Francis G

    2008-06-30

    On the basis of an approach inspired by Shannon's information theory, a Visual Motor Efficiency (VME) index is proposed. This index is an absolute measure of performance because it expresses a percentage of a perfect performance. By means of a Psycho Motor Performance Device (PMPD), this index is used to evaluate psychomotor performance during visual pointing task. Localising was carried out with the help of a unidirectional handle that only allows supination or pronation movements of the wrist to reach targets that appear on a computer screen in the form of a small square along the horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) arms of a cross. The PMPD was designed so that the progress of the visual motor task would be immediately examined. In a pilot study dedicated to track the evolution of performance in six subjects for six consecutive days, we show that the degree of directional coherence between movement and effect produced is an important factor. Indeed the performance level is significantly lower when it is a question of pointing at targets located along the vertical arm compared to pointing at those along the horizontal. These results indicate that PMPD is a valid and sensitive measurement of human psychomotor performance in charting the progress of a subject during training. PMID:18433877

  6. Object-Based Visual Attention in 8-Month-Old Infants: Evidence from an Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulf, Hermann; Valenza, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention is one of the infant's primary tools for gathering relevant information from the environment for further processing and learning. The space-based component of visual attention in infants has been widely investigated; however, the object-based component of visual attention has received scarce interest. This scarcity is…

  7. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.

  8. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball. PMID:24197721

  9. Predicting age-related differences in visual information processing using a two-stage queuing model.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R D; Goldberg, J H; Detweiler, M C

    1996-05-01

    Recent work on age-related differences in some types of visual information processing has qualitatively stated that younger adults are able to develop parallel processing capability, while older adults remain serial processors. A mathematical model based on queuing theory was used to quantitatively predict and parameterize age-related differences in the perceptual encoding and central decision-making aspects of a multiple-frame search task. Statistical results indicated main effects for frame duration, display load, age group, and session of practice. Comparison of the full model and a restricted model indicated an efficient contribution of the encoding speed parameter. The best-fitting parameter set indicated that (1) younger participants processed task information with a two-channel parallel system, while older participants were serial processors; and (2) perceptual encoding had a large impact on age-related differences in task performance. Results are discussed with implications for human factors design principles. PMID:8620355

  10. OVERVIEW: USING MODE OF ACTION AND LIFE STAGE INFORMATION TO EVALUATE THE HUMAN RELEVANCE OF ANIMAL TOXICITY DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis - as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone - depends on robust info...

  11. Integrated information visualization to support decision making for use of antibiotics in intensive care: design and usability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Johanna; Anani, Nadim; Eghdam, Aboozar; Falkenhav, Magnus; Koch, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    Overuse of antibiotics is a critical problem in intensive care today. The situation is further complicated by the extremely data-intensive environment with clinical data presented in distributed, often stand-alone information systems. To access and interpret all data is a complex and time-consuming technical and cognitive challenge. We propose a holistic integrated visualization in the form of a patient overview to support physicians in decision making for use of antibiotics at intensive care units. Special emphasis is put on analysis of work processes to identify information needs, the development of a visualization tool based on an integrated data model, and usability testing of the tool in combination with an eye-tracking technology. The visualization tool was highly rated in terms of user performance and preferences, and the analysis of users' visual patterns showed that different types of data visualization may benefit specialist and resident intensive care physicians depending on the task to be performed. A highly interactive tool for integrated information visualization could potentially increase the understanding of a patient's infection status and ultimately enhance decision making for the use of antibiotics. PMID:23957739

  12. Temporal dynamics of neural activity in an integration of visual and contextual information in an esthetic preference task.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Yasuki; Murota, Miharu

    2013-05-01

    While viewing works of art in galleries, we evaluate them by integrating at least two types of information: their visual properties (e.g., colors, symmetry, and proportion) and contextual information accompanying them (e.g., titles and names of artists). How rapidly the brain integrates visual and contextual information of artworks remains to be investigated. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated neural activity when subjects with no professional experience in art viewed images of sculptures (masterpieces from the Classical and Renaissance periods, characterized by a canonical proportion of the golden ratio) and performed a five-scale rating of how appealing they were. At the beginning of each trial, we manipulated the expectations of the subjects for an upcoming sculpture by presenting information about its authenticity (either "genuine" or "fake"), although all images were actually taken from genuine artworks. The image of the sculpture was then presented, either in its original proportion or after being deformed by a photo-editing software. This 2 × 2 factorial design enabled us to identify whether each component of the EEG response was sensitive to contextual information (genuine or fake), visual information (original or deformed), or both. Results revealed that amplitudes of a positive EEG component emerging at 200-300ms after the presentation of the artworks (mainly distributed over the parietal cortex) were significantly modulated by both visual and contextual factors, indicating a rapid integration of these two types of information in the brain. PMID:23499850

  13. On the Theoretical Possibility of Quantum Visual Information Transfer to the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    V. Salari; M. Rahnama; J. A. Tuszynski

    2010-12-13

    The feasibility of wave function collapse in the human brain has been the subject of vigorous scientific debates since the advent of quantum theory. Scientists like Von Neumann, London, Bauer and Wigner (initially) believed that wave function collapse occurs in the brain or is caused by the mind of the observer. It is a legitimate question to ask how human brain can receive subtle external visual quantum information intact when it must pass through very noisy and complex pathways from the eye to the brain? There are several approaches to investigate information processing in the brain, each of which presents a different set of conclusions. Penrose and Hameroff have hypothesized that there is quantum information processing inside the human brain whose material substrate involves microtubules and consciousness is the result of a collective wavefunction collapse occurring in these structures. Conversely, Tegmark stated that owing to thermal decoherence there cannot be any quantum processing in neurons of the brain and processing in the brain must be classical for cognitive processes. However, Rosa and Faber presented an argument for a middle way which shows that none of the previous authors are completely right and despite the presence of decoherence, it is still possible to consider the brain to be a quantum system. Additionally, Thaheld, has concluded that quantum states of photons do collapse in the human eye and there is no possibility for collapse of visual quantum states in the brain and thus there is no possibility for the quantum state reduction in the brain. In this paper we conclude that if we accept the main essence of the above approaches taken together, each of them can provide a different part of a teleportation mechanism.

  14. Shifts of Gamma Phase across Primary Visual Cortical Sites Reflect Dynamic Stimulus-Modulated Information Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Besserve, Michel; Lowe, Scott C.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Distributed neural processing likely entails the capability of networks to reconfigure dynamically the directionality and strength of their functional connections. Yet, the neural mechanisms that may allow such dynamic routing of the information flow are not yet fully understood. We investigated the role of gamma band (50–80 Hz) oscillations in transient modulations of communication among neural populations by using measures of direction-specific causal information transfer. We found that the local phase of gamma-band rhythmic activity exerted a stimulus-modulated and spatially-asymmetric directed effect on the firing rate of spatially separated populations within the primary visual cortex. The relationships between gamma phases at different sites (phase shifts) could be described as a stimulus-modulated gamma-band wave propagating along the spatial directions with the largest information transfer. We observed transient stimulus-related changes in the spatial configuration of phases (compatible with changes in direction of gamma wave propagation) accompanied by a relative increase of the amount of information flowing along the instantaneous direction of the gamma wave. These effects were specific to the gamma-band and suggest that the time-varying relationships between gamma phases at different locations mark, and possibly causally mediate, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connections. PMID:26394205

  15. Once and for all--how people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

  16. A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

    2005-07-01

    As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

  17. Spatial Context and Visual Perception for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coello, Yann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, evidences that visuo-spatial perception in the peri-personal space is not an abstract, disembodied phenomenon but is rather shaped by action constraints are reviewed. Locating a visual target with the intention of reaching it requires that the relevant spatial information is considered in relation with the body-part that will be…

  18. Visual information processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.

  19. Pigeons use low rather than high spatial frequency information to make visual category discriminations.

    PubMed

    Lea, Stephen E G; De Filippo, Guido; Dakin, Ruth; Meier, Christina

    2013-10-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate photographs of cat faces from dog faces. They were then presented with test stimuli involving high- and low-pass spatial frequency filtering. Discrimination was maintained with both types of filtered stimuli, though it was increasingly impaired the more information was filtered out, and high-pass filtering impaired discrimination more than low-pass filtering. The pigeons were then exposed to hybrid stimuli in which high-pass filtered dog faces were combined with low-pass filtered cat faces, and vice versa. Response to hybrid stimuli was determined more by the low spatial frequency content than by the high-frequency content, whereas humans viewing the same stimuli at corresponding viewing distance respond more strongly to the high-frequency content. These results are unexpected given that, compared with humans, pigeons' behavior tends to be controlled by the local details of visual stimuli rather than their global appearance. PMID:23834710

  20. 70 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 Visual Cryptography for Biometric Privacy

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arun Abraham

    70 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 Visual BIOMETRICS is the science of establishing the identity of an individual based on physical or behavioral. This work was supported by U.S. NSF CAREER Award IIS 0642554. A preliminary version of this work

  1. E-Books Plus: Role of Interactive Visuals in Exploration of Mathematical Information and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowhani, Sonja; Sedig, Kamran

    2005-01-01

    E-books promise to become a widespread delivery mechanism for educational resources. However, current e-books do not take full advantage of the power of computing tools. In particular, interaction with the content is often reduced to navigation through the information. This article investigates how adding interactive visuals to an e-book…

  2. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  3. What Visual Information Do Children and Adults Consider while Switching between Tasks? Eye-Tracking Investigation of Cognitive Flexibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnes; Dufau, Stephane; Lucenet, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the visual information that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to…

  4. Changes in the Management of Information in Audio-Visual Archives following Digitization: Current and Future Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…

  5. Goal-Directed Grasping: The Dimensional Properties of an Object Influence the Nature of the Visual Information Mediating Aperture Shaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Scott A.; Heath, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visual information supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects…

  6. Developmental Change in Young Children's Use of Haptic Information in a Visual Task: The Role of Hand Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2 1/2-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar…

  7. Visualizing Music 

    E-print Network

    Haggerty, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    A process of experientially deriving visual information from music is described. The author describes her methodology behind the translation of a music composition to a computer animation. The methodology described could be adapted and applied...

  8. Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

  9. Visualization of Time-Series Sensor Data to Inform the Design of Just-In-Time Adaptive Stress Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Epstien, David; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Beck, J. Gayle; Vhaduri, Sudip; Preston, Kenzie; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between- and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs. PMID:26539566

  10. Method for Examination and Documentation of Basic Information and Metadata from Published Reports Relevant to the Study of Stormwater Runoff Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dionne, Shannon G.; Granato, Gregory E.; Tana, Cameron K.

    1999-01-01

    A readily accessible archive of information that is valid, current, and technically defensible is needed to make informed highway-planning, design, and management decisions. The National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS) is a cataloging and assessment of the documentation of information relevant to highway-runoff water quality available in published reports. The report review process is based on the NDAMS review sheet, which was designed by the USGS with input from the FHWA, State transportation agencies, and the regulatory community. The report-review process is designed to determine the technical merit of the existing literature in terms of current requirements for data documentation, data quality, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and technical issues that may affect the use of historical data. To facilitate the review process, the NDAMS review sheet is divided into 12 sections: (1) administrative review information, (2) investigation and report information, (3) temporal information, (4) location information (5) water-quality-monitoring information, (6) sample-handling methods, (7) constituent information, (8) sampling focus and matrix, (9) flow monitoring methods, (10) field QA/QC, (11) laboratory, and (12) uncertainty/error analysis. This report describes the NDAMS report reviews and metadata documentation methods and provides an overview of the approach and of the quality-assurance and quality-control program used to implement the review process. Detailed information, including a glossary of relevant terms, a copy of the report-review sheets, and reportreview instructions are completely documented in a series of three appendixes included with this report. Therefore the reviews are repeatable and the methods can be used by transportation research organizations to catalog new reports as they are published.

  11. Assessing the potential information content of multicomponent visual signals: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P

    2015-03-01

    Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision 'eigenface' technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis. Discriminant function analyses established whether these perceptual dimensions could be used to reliably classify species identity, individual identity, age and sex, and, if so, identify the dimensions that carry this information. Across the 12 species studied, we found that both overall face pattern and focal trait differences could be used to categorize species and individuals reliably, whereas correct classification of age category and sex was not possible. This pattern makes sense, as guenons often form mixed-species groups in which familiar conspecifics develop complex differentiated social relationships but where the presence of heterospecifics creates hybridization risk. Our approach should be broadly applicable to the investigation of visual signal function across the animal kingdom. PMID:25652832

  12. Communicating textual health information to the mobile phones of visually-impaired users.

    PubMed

    Kummervold, Per Egil; Holthe, Halgeir

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how short messages communicating health information would best be distributed to people with vision difficulties using mobile phones. Twelve visually-impaired persons who were unable to read short message service (SMS) messages directly compared three methods of presenting text messages as speech: (1) ordinary SMS messages were sent to the users and converted into speech by the mobile phone; (2) multimedia messages were sent to the users with prerecorded speech-synthesized information; and (3) mobile phone calls were placed to the users and prerecorded speech-synthesized messages were streamed to them. The latter two approaches used server-generated sound files. Over a three-month trial period, we sent a total of 88 SMS messages to the subjects, 111 multimedia messaging service (MMS) messages and 104 telephone calls. All of the SMS messages, 88% of the MMS messages and 69% of the telephone calls were received. In subsequent interviews, we asked the users which presentation method they preferred. SMS scored significantly better than both MMS (P = 0.033) and telephones (P = 0.006). All three methods had serious drawbacks. However, the study suggests that it might be possible to develop suitable technology for communicating with people with vision difficulties by mobile phone. PMID:18534952

  13. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines. PMID:25537955

  14. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  15. Visual Mementos: Reflecting Memories with Personal Data.

    PubMed

    Thudt, Alice; Baur, Dominikus; Huron, Samuel; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the creation of visual mementos as a new application area for visualization. We define visual mementos as visualizations of personally relevant data for the purpose of reminiscing, and sharing of life experiences. Today more people collect digital information about their life than ever before. The shift from physical to digital archives poses new challenges and opportunities for self-reflection and self-representation. Drawing on research on autobiographical memory and on the role of artifacts in reminiscing, we identified design challenges for visual mementos: mapping data to evoke familiarity, expressing subjectivity, and obscuring sensitive details for sharing. Visual mementos can make use of the known strengths of visualization in revealing patterns to show the familiar instead of the unexpected, and extend representational mappings beyond the objective to include the more subjective. To understand whether people's subjective views on their past can be reflected in a visual representation, we developed, deployed and studied a technology probe that exemplifies our concept of visual mementos. Our results show how reminiscing has been supported and reveal promising new directions for self-reflection and sharing through visual mementos of personal experiences. PMID:26529711

  16. SocialMood: an information visualization tool to measure the mood of the people in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Guilherme; Franco, Roberto; Moraes, Rodolfo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Miranda, João.; Dobrões, José; Afonso, Ricardo; Meiguins, Bianchi

    2013-12-01

    Based on the arena of social networks, the tool developed in this study aims to identify trends mood among undergraduate students. Combining the methodology Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), which originated in the field of Psychology, the system filters the content provided on the Web and isolates certain words, establishing a range of values as perceived positive, negative or neutral. A Big Data summarizing the results, assisting in the construction and visualization of behavioral profiles generic, so we have a guideline for the development of information visualization tools for social networks.

  17. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2000 (InfoVis 2000). 167-172. Salt Lake City, Utah: IEEE Creativity, Complexity, and Precision: Information

    E-print Network

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    -centered approach to information visualization. A 3D collaborative electronic workspace allows people to configure 5626 {toby, pmogensen, poe}@daimi.au.dk ABSTRACT Drawing on ethnographic studies of (landscape of documents and objects underpins this spatio-temporal order. Both spatial arrangements and links are created

  18. Chaomei Chen (2004) Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. Springer. pp. vii-ix It is with enthusiasm and excitement that I join the community of information

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chaomei

    2004-01-01

    , time series, and parallel coordinates, with exotic verbs such as zoom, pan, filter, and brush. However how the rapidly maturing information visualization tools are becoming as potent as the telescope and microscope. A telescope enabled Galileo to see the moons of Jupiter, and a microscope made it possible

  19. Visual dynamic e-module as a tool to fulfill informational needs and care continuum for diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Mohan; Joshi, Ankur; Arutagi, Vishwanath; Singh, Daneshwar; Khare, Vidhu Shekhar; Pandey, Pulkit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes can be envisaged as a lifelong phenomenon having the ominous odds for multisystemic involvement in the duration of disease. The probabilities of the occurrence of these events are influenced by the adopted lifestyle. Hence, information about the disease and lifestyle modification are vital from the perspective of prognostics. This study attempts to explore the potential of a “visual dynamic tool” for imparting knowledge and consequently received acumen by diabetic patients. Objectives: To appraise the effectiveness of a constructed visual dynamic module (encompassing the various dimensions related to and affected by diabetes) by capturing the opinions, perceptions, and experiences of the diabetic patients who underwent intervention through the module. Materials and Methods: A visual e-module with dynamically imposed and animated images in the vernacular (Hindi) was prepared. This module was instituted among the diabetic patients in a logical sequence for consecutive 3 days. All the diabetic patients who underwent this intervention were interviewed in depth in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the module. These interviews were analyzed by thematic and framework analyses. Result: The visual module was perceived by the diabetic patients as an optically engaging tool for receiving, connecting, and synthesizing information about diabetes. They sensed and expressed the ease to connect with the images and labeled the received information as inclusive. Conclusion: Initial evidences suggest that visual e-module is an effective and efficient tool for knowledge management in diabetes. This issue may be further explored at diverse academic and clinical settings for gathering more information for efficacy. PMID:26288764

  20. Modeling Drivers' Visual Attention Allocation while Interacting with In-Vehicle Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrey, William J.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Consalus, Kyle P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined how characteristics of a simulated traffic environment and in-vehicle tasks impact driver performance and visual scanning and the extent to which a computational model of visual attention (SEEV model) could predict scanning behavior. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated task-relevant information bandwidth…

  1. Visual Representations of DNA Replication: Middle Grades Students' Perceptions and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Michelle D.; Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.

    2005-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in the communication of science concepts for scientists and students alike. However, recent research suggests that novice students experience difficulty extracting relevant information from representations. This study examined students' interpretations of visual representations of DNA replication. Each…

  2. Resources for Designing, Selecting and Teaching with Visualizations in the Geoscience Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, K. B.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; McDaris, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience is a highly visual field, and effective use of visualizations can enhance student learning, appeal to students’ emotions and help them acquire skills for interpreting visual information. The On the Cutting Edge website, “Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations” presents information of interest to faculty who are teaching with visualizations, as well as those who are designing visualizations. The website contains best practices for effective visualizations, drawn from the educational literature and from experts in the field. For example, a case is made for careful selection of visualizations so that faculty can align the correct visualization with their teaching goals and audience level. Appropriate visualizations will contain the desired geoscience content without adding extraneous information that may distract or confuse students. Features such as labels, arrows and contextual information can help guide students through imagery and help to explain the relevant concepts. Because students learn by constructing their own mental image of processes, it is helpful to select visualizations that reflect the same type of mental picture that students should create. A host of recommended readings and presentations from the On the Cutting Edge visualization workshops can provide further grounding for the educational uses of visualizations. Several different collections of visualizations, datasets with visualizations and visualization tools are available on the website. Examples include animations of tsunamis, El Nino conditions, braided stream formation and mountain uplift. These collections are grouped by topic and range from simple animations to interactive models. A series of example activities that incorporate visualizations into classroom and laboratory activities illustrate various tactics for using these materials in different types of settings. Activities cover topics such as ocean circulation, land use changes, earthquake simulations and the use of Google Earth to explore geologic processes. These materials can be found at http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualization. Faculty and developers of visualization tools are encouraged to submit teaching activities, references or visualizations to the collections.

  3. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new ideas. This presentation will provide an update of the recent enhancements of the NEIS architecture and visualization capabilities, challenges faced, as well as ongoing research activities related to this project.

  4. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

  5. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information

    PubMed Central

    Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

  6. Obtaining health care in another European Union Member State: how easy is it to find relevant information?

    PubMed

    Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. PMID:25096256

  7. Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speed sensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimal multivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noises corrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors' outputs are so dangerous that their negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of the car. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our full attention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noises on the car's electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. The experimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the relevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensor design techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today's cars need.

  8. Using Visualization of Seismic Waves in Teaching Earth Science Informed by Cognitive Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, C. A.; Waite, G. P.; Huntoon, J. E.; Hungwe, K.

    2011-12-01

    Seismologists have found visualization of scientific data to be useful in analysis and therefore expect that using visualizations as a pedagogical tool will increase student understanding of seismic waves. This project examines how seismic wave visualization activities should be designed to best take advantage of how students think and learn science as determined by research in cognitive science. Student activities using visualization and auditization of seismic waves as they propagate through the earth and activities using real-time seismometry, the Quake Catcher Network sensors, have been designed or modified for use in 7-12 Earth System Science classrooms, taking into account how students learn science. The activities will incorporate three visualizations introduced at the 2011 On the Cutting Edge workshop, Visualizing Seismic Waves for Teaching and Research: the USArray Visualizations developed by Dr. Charles Ammon, Penn State University; the Quake Catcher Network sensors in conjunction with IRIS's Exploring Seismic Data with Accelerometers; and The Sound of Seismic, John N. Louie's auditization of seismic waves. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program, a NSF funded Math Science Partnership between Michigan Tech University and Michigan public schools, these activities are being implemented and tested to determine in what ways and to what extent these visualizations impact student learning and understanding of seismic waves.

  9. SportVis: Discovering Meaning in Sports Statistics Through Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    want to take a traditional tabular presentation of a baseball team's schedule (for example, the 2004. 2 VISUALIZING BASEBALL A single baseball game generates a large amount of data. One game of two in this version of the baseball SportVis. We provide two visualizations, which we call the baseline bar display

  10. Report from Dagstuhl Seminar 13352 Interaction with Information for Visual Reasoning

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    and phrases Interaction, visualization, visual analytics, cognitive science, psychology Digital Object Creative Commons BY 3.0 Unported license © David S. Ebert, Brian D. Fisher, and Petra Isenberg Scientific developed by the cognitive and social sciences to address the complexities of human thought processes. Those

  11. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  12. Visual Form, Ethics, and a Typology of Purpose: Teaching Effective Information Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams's proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those…

  13. Comparison of Distortion of Probability information in Decision under Risk and an equivalent Visual Task

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Craig; Maloney, Laurence T.; Trommershäuser, Julia; Mamassian, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers typically overweight small probabilities and underweight large. However, there are recent reports that, when probability is presented in relative frequency form, this typical pattern reverses. We tested this hypothesis, comparing decision making in two decision tasks, in which probability was either stated numerically or conveyed through a visual representation. In the visual task, participants chose between firing a ‘stochastic bullet’ at a large target for a small reward or at a small target for a large reward. Participants’ knowledge of probability in the visual task was the results of extensive practice firing bullets at targets. In the classical numerical task, they chose between pairs of lotteries with probabilities and rewards matched to those in the visual task. We found that participants had significantly different probability weight functions in the two tasks but the pattern for the visual task was the typical, not the reversed, pattern. PMID:22395127

  14. The Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM): A Self-tuning Bayesian Model for Informative Image-based Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatially clustered sets of voxels that are particularly suited for clinical interpretation. RVoxM automatically tunes all its free parameters during the training phase, and offers the additional advantage of producing probabilistic prediction outcomes. We demonstrate RVoxM as a regression model by predicting age from volumetric gray matter segmentations, and as a classification model by distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease from healthy controls using surface-based cortical thickness data. Our results indicate that RVoxM yields biologically meaningful models, while providing state-of-the-art predictive accuracy. PMID:23008245

  15. HIV pre-test information, discussion or counselling? A review of guidance relevant to the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John

    2016-02-01

    In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There is consensus that verbal informed consent must be gained prior to testing, individually, in private, confidentially, in the presence of a health care provider. All guidelines recommend pre-test information/discussion delivered verbally or via other methods (information sheet). There is agreement about a minimum standard of information to be provided before a test, but guidelines differ regarding discussion about issues encouraging patients to think about implications of the result. There is heavy reliance on expert consultation in guideline development. Referenced scientific evidence is often more than ten years old and based on US/UK research. Eight new papers are reviewed. Current HIV testing and counselling guidelines have inconsistencies regarding the extent and type of information that is recommended during pre-test discussions. The lack of new research underscores a need for new evidence from a range of European settings to support the process of expert consultation in guideline development. PMID:25941051

  16. Astronomy, Visual Literacy, and Liberal Arts Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    With the exponentially growing amount of visual content that twenty-first century students will face throughout their lives, teaching them to respond to it with visual and information literacy skills should be a clear priority for liberal arts education. While visual literacy is more commonly covered within humanities curricula, I will argue that because astronomy is inherently a visual science, it is a fertile academic discipline for the teaching and learning of visual literacy. Astronomers, like many scientists, rely on three basic types of visuals to convey information: images, qualitative diagrams, and quantitative plots. In this talk, I will highlight classroom methods that can be used to teach students to "read" and "write" these three separate visuals. Examples of "reading" exercises include questioning the authorship and veracity of images, confronting the distorted scales of many diagrams published in astronomy textbooks, and extracting quantitative information from published plots. Examples of "writing" exercises include capturing astronomical images with smartphones, re-sketching textbook diagrams on whiteboards, and plotting data with Google Motion Charts or iPython notebooks. Students can be further pushed to synthesize these skills with end-of-semester slide presentations that incorporate relevant images, diagrams, and plots rather than relying solely on bulleted lists.

  17. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  18. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  19. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1-6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  20. Measuring Visual Field Progression in the Central 10 Degrees Using Additional Information from Central 24 Degrees Visual Fields and ‘Lasso Regression’

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure progression of the visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) index in longitudinal 10-2 VFs more accurately, by adding information from 24-2 VFs using Lasso regression. Methods A training dataset consisted of 138 eyes from 97 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension and a testing dataset consisted of 40 eyes from 34 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The Lasso method was used to predict total deviation (TD) values in training patients’ 10-2 VFs based on information from their 24-2 VFs (52 TD values, foveal sensitivity and mean deviation MD). Then, the MD of each patient’s 10-2 VF was estimated as the average of these Lasso-predicted TD values (10-2 VF ‘Lasso MD’; LMD). Finally, linear regression was applied to each testing patient’s series of longitudinal 10-2 VF MDs with and without additional Lasso-derived LMDs in order to predict future MDs not included in the regression analysis. Absolute prediction errors were compared when only actual 10-2 MDs were regressed against when a combination of actual 10-2 MDs and LMDs were regressed. Results The average absolute prediction error was significantly smaller for the novel method incorporating LMDs (range: 1.6 to 1.8 dB) compared with the standard approach (range: 1.7 to 3.4 dB) (p<0.05, ANOVA test). Conclusions Deriving 10-2 VF MD values from 24-2 VFs improves the prediction accuracy of progression. This approach will help clinicians to predict patients’ visual function in the parafoveal area. PMID:23951295

  1. Approved Module Information for OP1VVP, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Vision & Visual Perception Module Code: OP1VVP

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for OP1VVP, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Vision & Visual Perception Module of the fundamentals of spatial, temporal & colour vision ? Knowledge of the variety of spatial acuity tasks and the factors that limit temporal resolution ? An overview of the active, purposeful nature of visual perception

  2. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Visual Information Processing of Non-Social Stimuli in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maekawa, Toshihiko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Inada, Naoko; Oribe, Naoya; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…

  3. Optimal estimation of the relevant information coming from a variable reluctance proximity sensor placed in a car undergoing performance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-10-01

    Today's automotive industry has a soaring interest in efficient, reliable and robust sensors able to make intelligent driving decisions that can save millions of lives every year. To that end, the sensors used in today's cars are being provided with microprocessors and application-specific integrated circuit technologies that incorporate a certain amount of intelligence into the sensors themselves. In this paper, an inverse square-root adaptive filtering algorithm for recursive least-squares estimation (QR-RLS) is used to improve the response of a wheel speed sensor placed in a car undergoing performance tests. Such an algorithm is used to carry out an optimal estimation of the relevant signal coming from the sensor, which is buried in a broad-band noise background where we have little knowledge of the noise characteristics. The results of the experiment are satisfactory, a significant improvement of 32.5 dB in the signal-to-noise ratio at the QR-RLS adaptive filter output was achieved. Also, in order to compare classical filtering techniques with optimal adaptive filtering techniques, the signal coming from the wheel speed sensor was also filtered by using a second-order lowpass digital Butterworth filter. The results of comparing the aforementioned filters show that the optimal adaptive filter is superior to the classical filter.

  4. Effects of angular acceleration on man - Choice reaction time using visual and rotary motion information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment was concerned with the effects of rotary acceleration on choice reaction time (RTc) to the motion of a luminous line on a cathode-ray tube. Specifically, it compared the (RTc) to rotary acceleration alone, visual acceleration alone, and simultaneous, double stimulation by both rotary and visual acceleration. Thirteen airline pilots were rotated about an earth-vertical axis in a precision rotation device while they observed a vertical line. The stimuli were 7 rotary and visual accelerations which were matched for rise time. The pilot responded as quickly as possible by displacing a vertical controller to the right or left. The results showed a decreasing (RTc) with increasing acceleration for all conditions, while the (RTc) to rotary motion alone was substantially longer than for all other conditions. The (RTc) to the double stimulation was significantly longer than that for visual acceleration alone.

  5. 3-Dimensional Pliable Surfaces: For the Effective Presentation of Visual Information

    E-print Network

    Carpendale, Sheelagh

    intensified as technology has advanced, with the ability to produce visual data in greater volumes continuing situations that are known to be cognitively strenuous. Keeps the resulting images comprehensible. Encodes

  6. Automated medical image modality recognition by fusion of visual and text information.

    PubMed

    Codella, Noel; Connell, Jonathan; Pankanti, Sharath; Merler, Michele; Smith, John R

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a framework for medical image modality recognition based on a fusion of both visual and text classification methods. Experiments are performed on the public ImageCLEF 2013 medical image modality dataset, which provides figure images and associated fulltext articles from PubMed as components of the benchmark. The presented visual-based system creates ensemble models across a broad set of visual features using a multi-stage learning approach that best optimizes per-class feature selection while simultaneously utilizing all available data for training. The text subsystem uses a pseudoprobabilistic scoring method based on detection of suggestive patterns, analyzing both the figure captions and mentions of the figures in the main text. Our proposed system yields state-of-the-art performance in all 3 categories of visual-only (82.2%), text-only (69.6%), and fusion tasks (83.5%). PMID:25485415

  7. Magnifying visual target information and the role of eye movements in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Panzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment investigated the influence of eye movements on learning a simple motor sequence task when the visual display was magnified. The task was to reproduce a 1300ms spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. The spatial-temporal pattern was displayed in front of the participants. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups differing on eye movements (free to use their eyes/instructed to fixate) and the visual display (small/magnified). All participants had to perform a pre-test, an acquisition phase, a delayed retention test, and a transfer test. The results indicated that participants in each practice condition increased their performance during acquisition. The participants who were permitted to use their eyes in the magnified visual display outperformed those who were instructed to fixate on the magnified visual display. When a small visual display was used, the instruction to fixate induced no performance decrements compared to participants who were permitted to use their eyes during acquisition. The findings demonstrated that a spatial-temporal pattern can be learned without eye movements, but being permitting to use eye movements facilitates the response production when the visual angle is increased. PMID:26613386

  8. Visual Cryptography Matthias Baumgart

    E-print Network

    Riko Jacob

    Visual Cryptography Matthias Baumgart matthias.baumgart@informatik.tu-chemnitz.de Chemnitz, January Matthias Baumgart ­ Visual Cryptography 1/11 #12;2 Introduction - Visual Cryptography solves the problem Cryptography 2/11 #12;3 The Model Given n users and a secret information Task: Encrypt the secret information

  9. Determination of the Consistency of Relevance Judgments and the Reliability of Search Strategies Among Information Specialists for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The ability of various Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) information specialists to prepare search strategies for document retrieval was studied by providing ten typical search request statements to seven information specialists. Each specialist prepared search strategies independently. Significant variations occurred among the…

  10. The relationship between visually guided motor behavior and visual perception

    E-print Network

    The relationship between visually guided motor behavior and visual perception Inaugural distinct streams in the primate brain. The perception versus action hypothesis states that the dorsal visual information for ob- ject recognition and conscious perception (Goodale & Milner, 1992; Milner

  11. Libraries for the Blind in the Information Age: Guidelines for Development. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 86

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Rosemary, Ed.; Skold, Beatrice Christensen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Visually impaired people have the same information needs as sighted people. Just as sighted people might read a newspaper, listen to a CD or download electronic information from the Internet, visually impaired people also want access to relevant information in their chosen accessible format. Developing an efficient library service for…

  12. Visualizing Knowledge Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Katy; Chen, Chaomei; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews visualization techniques for scientific disciplines and information retrieval and classification. Highlights include historical background of scientometrics, bibliometrics, and citation analysis; map generation; process flow of visualizing knowledge domains; measures and similarity calculations; vector space model; factor analysis;…

  13. Design and Development of a Linked Open Data-Based Health Information Representation and Visualization System: Potentials and Preliminary Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tomi; Keßler, Carsten; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse difficult. Linked Open Data (LOD)—a new Semantic Web set of best practice of standards to publish and link heterogeneous data—can be applied to the representation and management of public level health data to alleviate such challenges. However, the technologies behind building LOD systems and their effectiveness for health data are yet to be assessed. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Linked Data technologies are potential options for health information representation, visualization, and retrieval systems development and to identify the available tools and methodologies to build Linked Data-based health information systems. Methods We used the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for data representation, Fuseki triple store for data storage, and Sgvizler for information visualization. Additionally, we integrated SPARQL query interface for interacting with the data. We primarily use the WHO health observatory dataset to test the system. All the data were represented using RDF and interlinked with other related datasets on the Web of Data using Silk—a link discovery framework for Web of Data. A preliminary usability assessment was conducted following the System Usability Scale (SUS) method. Results We developed an LOD-based health information representation, querying, and visualization system by using Linked Data tools. We imported more than 20,000 HIV-related data elements on mortality, prevalence, incidence, and related variables, which are freely available from the WHO global health observatory database. Additionally, we automatically linked 5312 data elements from DBpedia, Bio2RDF, and LinkedCT using the Silk framework. The system users can retrieve and visualize health information according to their interests. For users who are not familiar with SPARQL queries, we integrated a Linked Data search engine interface to search and browse the data. We used the system to represent and store the data, facilitating flexible queries and different kinds of visualizations. The preliminary user evaluation score by public health data managers and users was 82 on the SUS usability measurement scale. The need to write queries in the interface was the main reported difficulty of LOD-based systems to the end user. Conclusions The system introduced in this article shows that current LOD technologies are a promising alternative to represent heterogeneous health data in a flexible and reusable manner so that they can serve intelligent queries, and ultimately support decision-making. However, the development of advanced text-based search engines is necessary to increase its usability especially for nontechnical users. Further research with large datasets is recommended in the future to unfold the potential of Linked Data and Semantic Web for future health information systems development. PMID:25601195

  14. The Role of Visual Perception in Data Visualization Mehdi Dastani

    E-print Network

    Dastani, Mehdi

    The Role of Visual Perception in Data Visualization Mehdi Dastani Institute of Information@cs.uu.nl Abstract This paper presents a perceptually motivated formal framework for e#ective visual­ ization of visualizations are formally and uniformly defined in terms of relations that are induced on data and visual

  15. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

  16. Optic flow instructs retinotopic map formation through a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Hollis T.

    2014-01-01

    Retinotopic maps are plastic in response to changes in sensory input; however, the experience-dependent instructive cues that organize retinotopy are unclear. In animals with forward-directed locomotion, the predominant anterior to posterior optic flow activates retinal ganglion cells in a stereotyped temporal to nasal sequence. Here we imaged retinotectal axon arbor location and structural plasticity to assess map refinement in vivo while exposing Xenopus tadpoles to visual stimuli. We show that the temporal sequence of retinal activity driven by natural optic flow organizes retinotopy by regulating axon arbor branch dynamics, whereas the opposite sequence of retinal activity prevents map refinement. Our study demonstrates that a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visual information controls experience-dependent topographic map plasticity. This organizational principle is likely to apply to other sensory modalities and projections in the brain. PMID:25385606

  17. Application of 3D WebGIS and real-time technique in earthquake information publishing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boren; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Mao; Huang, Jing

    2015-06-01

    In hazard management, earthquake researchers have utilized GIS to ease the process of managing disasters. Researchers use WebGIS to assess hazards and seismic risk. Although they can provide a visual analysis platform based on GIS technology, they lack a general description in the extensibility of WebGIS for processing dynamic data, especially real-time data. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for real-time 3D visual earthquake information publishing model based on WebGIS and digital globe to improve the ability of processing real-time data in systems based on WebGIS. On the basis of the model, we implement a real-time 3D earthquake information publishing system—EqMap3D. The system can not only publish real-time earthquake information but also display these data and their background geoscience information in a 3D scene. It provides a powerful tool for display, analysis, and decision-making for researchers and administrators. It also facilitates better communication between researchers engaged in geosciences and the interested public.

  18. Visualizing Oceans of Data: Using learning research to inform the design of student interfaces to climate data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Foster, J.; Baker, I.

    2011-12-01

    To be climate literate, students must be data-literate. To connect with the evidence behind scientists' assertions about climate change, students (and other novices) must be able to distinguish long-term trends from short-term variability in graphs, recognize the distribution of sea surface temperature or precipitation changes on maps, and discern important patterns in animations that display changes in data over time. Although the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near digital, sharable, real-time and archived earth systems data has the potential to transform how climate science is taught by connecting students directly with evidence to support their understanding, online interfaces to scientific data are typically industrial-strength - built by scientists for scientists - and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. To inform efforts at bridging scientific data portals to the classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by student learners and their instructors. The >70 cross-cutting and specific guidelines in our project report are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schema theory and Universal Design for Learning. The components of the human visual system and associated cognitive processes are highly specialized and have evolved in response to survival demands of the three-dimensional world humans have lived in for thousands of years. Because the use of two-dimensional representations, such as maps and graphs, and the use and navigation of Web interfaces has developed quite recently in human history, our visual perception system is not specifically adapted to these tasks. Therefore, it's critical to understand how to design two-dimensional media to take advantage of the strengths of our highly evolved and complex visual system and to compensate for its weaknesses. Looking at the design of data interfaces through this lens helps us understand, for example, why red stands out (finding ripe berries in a bush), why movement grabs our attention (hunting and avoiding predators), and why variations in light luminance and shading work better than variations in color hue for perceiving shape and form. This presentation will, through specific examples, explain how to avoid the pitfalls and make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user interface and visualizations so that it doesn't exceed the amount of information the learner can actively process; 2) drawing attention to important features and patterns; and 3) enabling customization of visualizations and tools to meet the needs of diverse learners

  19. Visualizing Oceans of Data: Using learning research to inform the design of student interfaces to climate data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Foster, J.; Baker, I.

    2013-12-01

    To be climate literate, students must be data-literate. To connect with the evidence behind scientists' assertions about climate change, students (and other novices) must be able to distinguish long-term trends from short-term variability in graphs, recognize the distribution of sea surface temperature or precipitation changes on maps, and discern important patterns in animations that display changes in data over time. Although the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near digital, sharable, real-time and archived earth systems data has the potential to transform how climate science is taught by connecting students directly with evidence to support their understanding, online interfaces to scientific data are typically industrial-strength - built by scientists for scientists - and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. To inform efforts at bridging scientific data portals to the classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by student learners and their instructors. The >70 cross-cutting and specific guidelines in our project report are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schema theory and Universal Design for Learning. The components of the human visual system and associated cognitive processes are highly specialized and have evolved in response to survival demands of the three-dimensional world humans have lived in for thousands of years. Because the use of two-dimensional representations, such as maps and graphs, and the use and navigation of Web interfaces has developed quite recently in human history, our visual perception system is not specifically adapted to these tasks. Therefore, it's critical to understand how to design two-dimensional media to take advantage of the strengths of our highly evolved and complex visual system and to compensate for its weaknesses. Looking at the design of data interfaces through this lens helps us understand, for example, why red stands out (finding ripe berries in a bush), why movement grabs our attention (hunting and avoiding predators), and why variations in light luminance and shading work better than variations in color hue for perceiving shape and form. This presentation will, through specific examples, explain how to avoid the pitfalls and make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user interface and visualizations so that it doesn't exceed the amount of information the learner can actively process; 2) drawing attention to important features and patterns; and 3) enabling customization of visualizations and tools to meet the needs of diverse learners

  20. Combining Textual and Visual Information for Image Retrieval in the Medical Domain

    PubMed Central

    Gkoufas, Yiannis; Morou, Anna; Kalamboukis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    In this article we have assembled the experience obtained from our participation in the imageCLEF evaluation task over the past two years. Exploitation on the use of linear combinations for image retrieval has been attempted by combining visual and textual sources of images. From our experiments we conclude that a mixed retrieval technique that applies both textual and visual retrieval in an interchangeably repeated manner improves the performance while overcoming the scalability limitations of visual retrieval. In particular, the mean average precision (MAP) has increased from 0.01 to 0.15 and 0.087 for 2009 and 2010 data, respectively, when content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is performed on the top 1000 results from textual retrieval based on natural language processing (NLP). PMID:22163261