This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevantinformation and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevantinformation in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevantinformation extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevantinformation to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804
Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.
.) ? National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ? NASA has had inadequate funding for Aeronautics the tools for fixed wing aircraft, due to the complexity of rotorcraft -- need more research #12;6 LComputing and VisualizationRelevant to Airport Capacity: Opportunities and Needs Presented
.cs.uncc.edu/~jyang13 Schedule Grading policy #12;2 3 VisualizationVisualization - the use of computer- supported. "Change Blindness in InformationVisualization: A Case Study". Infovis 2001 #12;18 35 Landscapes How
communications, schedules, news, finances, and computer directories. Students can access countless digital. While other major references focus on the `what' and `why' of informationvisualization [Card et alInformationVisualization Chris North Center for Human-Computer Interaction, Department of Computer
The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…
The nervous system possesses an intrinsic multiscale organization of processing systems. Evoked potentials (EPs) and other neurometric signals contain corresponding multiscale information about the normal and disordered functioning of the nervous system. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) explicitly distinguishes among multiple scales of waveform structure, and can be used to decompose EPs in a manner that respects this intrinsic organization. In this paper we provide evidence for the multiscale structure of EPs. We demonstrate that EPs contain scale-specific information of biomedical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological relevance. Finally, we show that the DWT provides information about small-scale phenomena that is inaccessible by standard neurometric waveform analysis techniques.
Samar, Vincent J.; Kulkarni, Gauri; Swartz, Kenneth P.; Parasnis, Ila; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Udpikar, Vishwas
Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.
Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.
of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge Presented by Dragana Veljkovic: Discovery and visualization of medically relevant patterns in long-term data using limited prior knowledge according to clusters Map to symbol by extracting information from the segment #12;Common representations
Bioinformatics Visualization: Introduction to this Special Issue of InformationVisualization Welcome to this special issue on Bioinformatics Visualization of the journal of InformationVisualization. Bioinformatics involves the application of data-rich computationaland informatics methods to support
Informationvisualizations are an important means through which we communicate knowledge. By considering visualizations as data-driven narratives, this thesis uses narrative thinking as an orienting concept to support the ...
Zhang, Jia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The design of informationvisualization, defined as the interactive, graphical presentation of data, is on the verge of a significant paradigm shift brought on by the continued maturation of the Information Age. Its ...
This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called InformationVisualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.
Foos-Grabers book, DEATHING: An Alternative for the Final Moments of Life. The visualization is both aesthetic in its expression and clearly communicative of the original ideas. Included is a discussion which centers on techniques and aesthetic...
This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the InformationVisualizer, and its
Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay
We describe work on the visualization of bibliographic data and, to aid in this task, the application of numerical techniques for multidimensional scaling.Many areas of scientific research involve complex multivariate data. One example of this is Information Retrieval. Document comparisons may be done using a large number of variables. Such conditions do not favour the more well-known methods of visualization
This paper reports on a novel technique for literature indexing and searching in a mechanized library system. The notion of relevance is taken as the key concept in the theory of information retrieval and a comparative concept of relevance is explicated in terms of the theory of probability. The resulting technique called “Probabilistic Indexing,” allows a computing machine, given a
the houses, including home school ranking, distances to shopping centers etc. Please find ways to visualize the dataset! $210k 15 miles Sheahome 1st school $270k 40 miles Weirland 50st school $400k 10 miles Ryan 20st school $160k 13 miles Ryan 1st school $600k 30 miles Sheahome 50st school $... .. Miles .. ... 10 Novel
Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…
Due to the popularity of social media websites, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to tag-based social image search. Both visualinformation and tags have been investigated in the research field. However, most existing methods use tags and visual characteristics either separately or sequentially in order to estimate the relevance of images. In this paper, we propose an approach that simultaneously utilizes both visual and textual information to estimate the relevance of user tagged images. The relevance estimation is determined with a hypergraph learning approach. In this method, a social image hypergraph is constructed, where vertices represent images and hyperedges represent visual or textual terms. Learning is achieved with use of a set of pseudo-positive images, where the weights of hyperedges are updated throughout the learning process. In this way, the impact of different tags and visual words can be automatically modulated. Comparative results of the experiments conducted on a dataset including 370+images are presented, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:22692911
In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context. PMID:22157061
Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…
Action research is seen as one of the solutions to the lack of relevance in the field of information systems because action research has as its primary goal to combine successful intervention in real-world settings with the development of scientific knowledge. The rigor of action research, however, has been questioned regularly. The IS field lacks a set of generally agreed
An introduction is given to a theory of early visualinformation processing. The theory has been implemented, and examples are given of images at various stages of analysis. It is argued that the first step of consequence is to compute a primitive but rich description of the grey-level changes present in an image. The description is expressed in a vocabulary
Interactive maps and visualizations of journal citation networks found in this resource enable the analysis of information flow between academic disciplines. The resources that are based on Eigenfactor Metrics, were developed through the collaboration of the Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner.
Background Crossmodal interactions between relevantvisual and tactile inputs can enhance attentional modulation at early stages in somatosensory cortices to achieve goal-oriented behaviors. However, the specific contribution of each sensory system during attentional processing remains unclear. We used EEG to investigate the effects of visual priming and attentional relevance in modulating somatosensory cortical responses. Methods Healthy adults performed a sensory integration task that required scaled motor responses dependent on the amplitudes of tactile and visual stimuli. Participants completed an attentional paradigm comprised of 5 conditions that presented sequential or concurrent pairs of discrete stimuli with random amplitude variations: 1) tactile-tactile (TT), 2) visual-visual (VV), 3) visual-tactile simultaneous (SIM), 4) tactile-visual delay (TVd), and 5) visual-tactile delay (VTd), each with a 100 ms temporal delay between stimulus onsets. Attention was directed to crossmodal conditions and graded motor responses representing the summation of the 2 stimulus amplitudes were made. Results Results of somatosensory ERPs showed that the modality-specific components (P50, P100) were sensitive to i) the temporal dynamics of crossmodal interactions, and ii) the relevance of these sensory signals for behaviour. Conclusion Notably, the P50 amplitude was greatest in the VTd condition, suggesting that presentation of relevantvisualinformation for upcoming movement modulates somatosensory processing in modality-specific cortical regions, as early as the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). PMID:24683517
The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.
This paper presents and explores a technique for visually integrating and exploring diverse information. Society produces, collects, and processes ever larger and diverse data including semi- and un-structured text, as well as transaction, communication, and scientific data. It is no longer sufficient to analyze one type of data or information in isolation. Users need to explore their data/information in the context of related information to discover often hidden, but meaningful, complex relationships. Our approach visualizes multiple, like entities across multiple dimensions where each dimension is a partitioning of the entities. The partitioning may be based on inherent or assigned attributes of the entities (or entity data) such as meta-data or prior knowledge captured in annotations. The partitioning may also be derived from entity data. For example, clustering, or unsupervised classification, can be applied to arrays of multidimensional entity data to partition the entities into groups of similar entities, or clusters. The same entities may be clustered on data from different experiment types or processing approaches. This reduction of diverse data/information on an entity to a series of partitions, or discrete (and unit-less) categories, allows the user to view the entities across a variety of data without concern for data types and units. Parallel coordinates visualize entity data across multiple dimensions of typically continuous attributes. We adapt parallel coordinates for dimensions with discrete attributes (partitions) to allow the comparison of entity partition patterns for identifying trends and outlier entities. We illustrate this approach through a prototype, Juxter (short for Juxtaposer).
Havre, Susan L.; Shah, Anuj; Posse, Christian; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.
When spatial attention is directed toward a particular stimulus, increased activity is commonly observed in corresponding locations of the visual cortex. Does this attentional increase in activity indicate improved processing of all features contained within the attended stimulus, or might spatial attention selectively enhance the features relevant to the observer's task? We used fMRI decoding methods to measure the strength of orientation-selective activity patterns in the human visual cortex while subjects performed either an orientation or contrast discrimination task, involving one of two laterally presented gratings. Greater overall BOLD activation with spatial attention was observed in visual cortical areas V1-V4 for both tasks. However, multivariate pattern analysis revealed that orientation-selective responses were enhanced by attention only when orientation was the task-relevant feature and not when the contrast of the grating had to be attended. In a second experiment, observers discriminated the orientation or color of a specific lateral grating. Here, orientation-selective responses were enhanced in both tasks, but color-selective responses were enhanced only when color was task relevant. In both experiments, task-specific enhancement of feature-selective activity was not confined to the attended stimulus location but instead spread to other locations in the visual field, suggesting the concurrent involvement of a global feature-based attentional mechanism. These results suggest that attention can be remarkably selective in its ability to enhance particular task-relevant features and further reveal that increases in overall BOLD amplitude are not necessarily accompanied by improved processing of stimulus information. PMID:21632942
The effects of adding information from relevant documents are examined in the TREC routing envi- ronment. A modified Rocchio relevance feedback approach is used, with a varying number of relevant documents retrieved by an initial SMART search, and a varying number of terms from those relevant documents used to expand the initial query. Recall-precision evaluation reveals that as the amount
When spatial attention is directed towards a particular stimulus, increased activity is commonly observed in corresponding locations of the visual cortex. Does this attentional increase in activity indicate improved processing of all features contained within the attended stimulus, or might spatial attention selectively enhance the features relevant to the observer’s task? We used fMRI decoding methods to measure the strength of orientation-selective activity patterns in the human visual cortex while subjects performed either an orientation or contrast discrimination task, involving one of two laterally presented gratings. Greater overall BOLD activation with spatial attention was observed in areas V1-V4 for both tasks. However, multivariate pattern analysis revealed that orientation-selective responses were enhanced by attention only when orientation was the task-relevant feature, and not when the grating’s contrast had to be attended. In a second experiment, observers discriminated the orientation or color of a specific lateral grating. Here, orientation-selective responses were enhanced in both tasks but color-selective responses were enhanced only when color was task-relevant. In both experiments, task-specific enhancement of feature-selective activity was not confined to the attended stimulus location, but instead spread to other locations in the visual field, suggesting the concurrent involvement of a global feature-based attentional mechanism. These results suggest that attention can be remarkably selective in its ability to enhance particular task-relevant features, and further reveal that increases in overall BOLD amplitude are not necessarily accompanied by improved processing of stimulus information. PMID:21632942
A novel CBIR system is described that incorporates both high level (semantic) and low level visual content. It is suitable for medical image information systems, to assist clinical diagnosis or for clinician training purposes. The system is XML-compliant and utilises MPEG-7 content descriptions and encoded metadata. The image retrieval process is driven by relevance feedback, enabling the indirect transferal of expert knowledge. A novel attribute visualisation facility enables the user to understand how the search criteria are modified and the effectiveness of the guidance provided. The relevance feedback visualisation can be used also to re-sort retrieved results according to the user's requirements and permit the interactive investigation of pertinent features. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated by two examples from the field of dermatology. Evaluations show that combining the attribute visualisation with conventional retrieval techniques both increases user confidence levels and provides additional system functionality.
Eye tracking studies of the Hyperbolic Tree browser  suggest that visual search in focus+context displays is highly affected by information scent (i.e., local cues, such as text summaries, used to assess and navigate toward distal information sources). When users detected a strong information scent, they were able to reach their goal faster with the Hyperbolic Tree browser than with
Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card; Mija M. Van Der Wege
The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations Dean F. Jerding and John Abstract Informationvisualizations must allow users to browse information spaces and focus quickly on items of interest. Being able to see some representation of the entire information space provides
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to retain relevantinformation for imminent goal-directed behavior. In the experiments reported here, we found that VWM helps to prioritize relevantinformation that is not yet available for conscious experience. In five experiments, we demonstrated that information matching VWM content reaches visual awareness faster than does information not matching VWM content. Our findings suggest a functional link between VWM and visual awareness: The content of VWM is recruited to funnel down the vast amount of sensory input to that which is relevant for subsequent behavior and therefore requires conscious access. PMID:24121415
Gayet, Surya; Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Stigchel, Stefan
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates informationvisualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS. 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods.
Clutter within informationvisualization (infovis) systems is an area of continuing concern and is receiving increasing research interest. Solutions to the problem vary in their approach, ranging from novel visualizations designed specifically to cope with high data density, through to statistical methodologies such as binning. This paper presents a flexible method that allows interactive placement of a grid based binning system that aims to enhance traditional informationvisualization techniques. User evaluations employing two specific visualization methods are described using a prototype grid based binning system. The method is shown to be a quick and easy way to visually segment a data domain, while the two visualization techniques presented are shown to provide effective data overview. Due to the abstracted nature of the binning grid, its applicability goes beyond the examples provided in this paper, therefore it could be considered as a generic data reduction and/or overview technique within many systems.
Article InformationVisualization 11(4) 339Â359 Ã? The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission to support crisis management: Information foraging for geo-historical context Brian Tomaszewski1 and Alan M MacEachren2 Abstract Information foraging and sense-making with heterogeneous information are context
It has been suggested that much of animal navigation takes place without reference to visualinformation in the environment\\u000a (Gallistel 1990). A geocentric dead reckoning process, which tracks the travel trajectory of animals internally with only\\u000a periodic reference to external visual cues, is thought to be a major component underlying animal navigation. Following Gibson\\u000a (1979),and in contrast to the non-visual
This study examined a measure of children's memory for information from a story about a hypothetical mother and child, the Story Task, as a potential tool to delineate subtypes of aggressive children based on the pattern of information processing...
This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.
Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur
The core of geographic informationvisualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic informationvisualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic informationvisualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic informationvisualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic informationvisualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic informationvisualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".
Term relevance weighting systems in interactive information retrieval are reviewed. An experiment in which information retrieval users ranked query terms in decreasing order of presumed importance prior to actual search and retrieval is described. (Author/KP)
There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if informationrelevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes informationrelevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.
Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
Measures of inspection time (IT) have robust, moderately-sized correlations with IQ-type test scores. However, the reason for the IT-IQ correlation is not understood. Although the original theory asserted that IT performance was based on a single parameter—essentially speed of visual processing—peculiarities of the task have afforded other interpretations of IT differences and the IT-IQ association. In the present report two
the game last night?). An interesting feature of such sites is that the content of the page may change as a tool for high-fidelity computational cognitive models that search complex information displays in the same manner as humans. However, they offer the potential to be a standalone tool for quickly evaluating
The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.
McCrickard, D.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center; Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
alternative ap- proach to traditional sequential management such as waterfall methods . Agile methodologiesInformationVisualization for Agile Software Development Teams Julia Paredes Department of Computer.firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract--Understanding information about software artifacts is key to successful Agile software
Although informationvisualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions
The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory Ashleigh M. Maxcey objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; (c
Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…
Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.
??I examined the processing of stereotype-relevantinformation during reading, in particular the degree to which stereotype-mismatch detection and resolution are resource-dependent. In addition I investigated… (more)
From the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction at Maricopa Community College and Kay Gaisford, this page presents a module on the visual display of information using Microsoft Word 2003 in the cotext of digital visual literacy (DVL), the "set of skills that enable students to function in an increasingly digital and visual workplace." In this lesson, visitors will find an instructors' guide, a PowerPoint presentation, a handout on copyright basics for still images, two assignments with instructions and examples, and a quiz. The presentation covers design principles (contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity), text guidelines, image guidelines, and copyright information. This is an excellent resource not only for courses or programs focused specifically on DVL, but for many other fields to help create effective and well-designed promotional or informational materials.
The potential data base for electronic processing has recently been enlarged significantly to include static and dynamic visualinformation. Emergence of the videodisk and other technology now enables computer-assisted instruction to be audiovisual and audiovisual communication to be interactive. One consequence, now that audiovisual display has been wedded to computer systems, is that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in many medical subjects
Despite a diversity of software architectures supporting informationvisualization, it is often difficult to identify, evaluate, and re-apply the design solutions implemented within such frameworks. One popular and effective approach for addressing such difficulties is to capture successful solutions in design patterns, abstract descriptions of interacting software components that can be customized to solve design problems within a particular context.
Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction we have performed a variety of experiments characterizing the detection, discrimination, and production of 3D shape. A stimulus set of 25 complex, natural appearing, noisy 3D target objects were statistically specified in the Fourier domain and manufactured using a 3D printer. A series of paired-comparison experiments examined subjects' unimodal (visual-visual and haptic-haptic) and crossmodal (visual-haptic) perceptual abilities. Additionally, subjects sculpted objects using uni- or crossmodal source information. In all experiments, the performance in the unimodal conditions were similar to one another and unimodal presentation fared better than crossmodal. Also, the spatial frequency of object features affected performance differentially across the range used in this experiment. The sculpted objects were scanned in 3D and the resulting geometry was compared metrically and statistically to the original stimuli. Objects with higher spatial frequency were harder to sculpt when limited to haptic input compared to only visual input. The opposite was found for objects with low spatial frequency. The psychophysical discrimination and comparison experiments yielded similar findings. There is a marked performance difference between the visual and haptic systems and these differences were systematically distributed along the range of feature details. The existence of non-universal (i.e. modality-specific) representations explain the poor crossmodal performance. Our current findings suggest that haptic and visualinformation is either integrated into a multi-modal form, or each is independent and somewhat efficient translation is possible. Vision shows a distinct advantage when dealing with higher frequency objects but both modalities are effective when comparing objects that differ by a large amount.
The purpose of our work was to develop heuristics for visualizing and interpreting gene-environment interactions (GEIs) and to assess the dependence of candidate visualization metrics on biological and study-design factors. Two information-theoretic metrics, the k-way interaction information (KWII) and the total correlation information (TCI), were investigated. The effectiveness of the KWII and TCI to detect GEIs in a diverse range of simulated data sets and a Crohn disease data set was assessed. The sensitivity of the KWII and TCI spectra to biological and study-design variables was determined. Head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) methods were obtained. The KWII and TCI spectra, which are graphical summaries of the KWII and TCI for each subset of environmental and genotype variables, were found to detect each known GEI in the simulated data sets. The patterns in the KWII and TCI spectra were informative for factors such as case-control misassignment, locus heterogeneity, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium. The KWII and TCI spectra were found to have excellent sensitivity for identifying the key disease-associated genetic variations in the Crohn disease data set. In head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and PDT methods, the results from visual interpretation of the KWII and TCI spectra performed satisfactorily. The KWII and TCI are promising metrics for visualizing GEIs. They are capable of detecting interactions among numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental variables for a diverse range of GEI models. PMID:17924337
The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication
It has been argued that phylogenetic fear-relevant stimuli elicit preattentive capture of attention. To distinguish between fear relevance and time of appearance in evolutionary history, the authors compare phylogenetic and ontogenetic fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli in a visual search task. The authors found no evidence for a special role of phylogenetic fear-relevant stimuli; it seems that fear relevance in general
The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of VWM. We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were five principal findings: 1) Strategic retention of task relevant-objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; 2) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; 3) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; 4) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and 5) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement. PMID:22845068
There is a paucity of research on the visual images used in health communication messages and campaign materials. Even though many studies suggest further investigation of these visual messages and their features, few studies provide specific constructs or assessment tools for evaluating the characteristics of visual messages in health communication contexts. The authors conducted 2 studies to validate a measure of perceived visualinformativeness (PVI), a message construct assessing visual messages presenting statistical or indexical information. In Study 1, a 7-item scale was created that demonstrated good internal reliability (? = .91), as well as convergent and divergent validity with related message constructs such as perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived attractiveness. PVI also converged with a preference for visual learning but was unrelated to a person's actual vision ability. In addition, PVI exhibited concurrent validity with a number of important constructs including perceived message effectiveness, decisional satisfaction, and three key public health theory behavior predictors: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy. Study 2 provided more evidence that PVI is an internally reliable measure and demonstrates that PVI is a modifiable message feature that can be tested in future experimental work. PVI provides an initial step to assist in the evaluation and testing of visual messages in campaign and intervention materials promoting informed decision making and behavior change. PMID:24742307
King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A; Carcioppolo, Nick
The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Enwrging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive aninlaiion offer potential solutions to this problenl, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized.We describe one of these Information Visualtzaiion techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The
George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card
Close behavioural coupling of visual orientation may provide a range of adaptive benefits to social species. In order to investigate the natural properties of gaze-following between pedestrians, we displayed an attractive stimulus in a frequently trafficked corridor within which a hidden camera was placed to detect directed gaze from passers-by. The presence of visual cues towards the stimulus by nearby pedestrians increased the probability of passers-by looking as well. In contrast to cueing paradigms used for laboratory research, however, we found that individuals were more responsive to changes in the visual orientation of those walking in the same direction in front of them (i.e. viewing head direction from behind). In fact, visual attention towards the stimulus diminished when oncoming pedestrians had previously looked. Information was therefore transferred more effectively behind, rather than in front of, gaze cues. Further analyses show that neither crowding nor group interactions were driving these effects, suggesting that, within natural settings gaze-following is strongly mediated by social interaction and facilitates acquisition of environmentally relevantinformation. PMID:22456331
Visualinformation processing will play an increasingly important role in future electronics systems. In many applications, e.g. video surveillance cameras, data throughput of microprocessors is not sufficient and power consumption is too high. Instruction profiling on a typical test algorithm has shown that pixel address calculations are the dominant operations to be optimized. Therefore AddressLib, a structured scheme for pixel addressing was developed, that can be accelerated by AddressEngine, a coprocessor for visualinformation processing. In this paper, the architectural design of AddressEngine is described, which in the first step supports a subset of the AddressLib. Dataflow and memory organization are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG-7 Global Motion Estimation algorithm. Results on processing speed and circuit complexity are given and compared to a pure software implementation. The next step will be the support for the full Addres...
We are developing an approach to organizing bookmarks and other information resources by annotating them with metadata in the form of synsets taken from WordNet. This paper shows how a collection of annotated bookmarks can be semantically enriched by adding hyper-\\/hyponym relations from WordNet. It then illustrates how the semantically enriched bookmark collection can be browsed and visualized using the
software developers to initiate the reuse process and contribute to the reuse repository, and whatSupporting Reuse by Delivering Task-Relevant and Personalized Information Yunwen Ye1,2 1 SRA Key of systematic software reuse. Our research is primarily concerned with the cognitive and social challenges faced
Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of informationvisualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.
BackgroundThe limited capacity of visual working memory (VWM) requires us to select the task relevantinformation and filter out the irrelevant information efficiently. Previous studies showed that the individual differences in VWM capacity dramatically influenced the way we filtered out the distracters displayed in distinct spatial-locations: low-capacity individuals were poorer at filtering them out than the high-capacity ones. However, when
Jifan Zhou; Jun Yin; Tong Chen; Xiaowei Ding; Zaifeng Gao; Mowei Shen; Jan Lauwereyns
Visual Navigation Interface (1) COVER PAGE Empirical Study of a 3D Visualization for Information Navigation Interface (2) Empirical Study of a 3D Visualization for Information Retrieval Tasks Gregory B including choosing between 2D and 3D interfaces, navigation and interaction methods, and selecting
Important perceptual judgments are often made by combining the opinions of several individuals to make a collective decision, such as when teams of physicians make diagnoses based on medical images. Although group-level decisions are generally superior to the decisions made by individuals, it remains unclear whether collective decision making is most effective when information is redundantly provided to all individuals within a group, or when each individual is responsible for only a portion of the total information. Here, we test this idea by having individuals and groups of different sizes make perceptual judgments about the presence of a weak visual signal. We found that groups viewing the entirety of information significantly outperformed groups that viewed limited portions of information, and that this difference in performance could be accounted for by a simple internal noise-averaging model. However, noise averaging alone was insufficient to account for improvements in individual and group-level performance as group size varied. These results indicate that sharing redundant information can enhance the quality of individual perceptual judgments and lead to better group decision making than dividing information across members of a group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365569
This article presents a systematic review of the literature on informationvisualization for making sense of personal health information. Based on this review, five application themes were identified: treatment planning, examination of patients' medical records, representation of pedigrees and family history, communication and shared decision making, and life management and health monitoring. While there are recognized design challenges associated with each of these themes, such as how best to represent data visually and integrate qualitative and quantitative information, other challenges and opportunities have received little attention to date. In this article, we highlight, in particular, the opportunities for supporting people in better understanding their own illnesses and making sense of their health conditions in order to manage them more effectively. PMID:23981395
Informationvisualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual InformationVisualization (or Casual Infovis) as a
Conntet-based VisualInformation Retrieval 37 Chapter III Content-Based VisualInformation hardware and software to support these tasks. Subsequent retrieval of the stored information, however. In the retrieval phase, this additional information is used to guide conventional, text-based, query and search
Web-based Interactive Visualization in an Information Retrieval Course Peter Brusilovsky School interactive visualization in the context of an information retrieval course. Information retrieval has been. With the maturity of the World Wide Web, information retrieval became an important practical subject. Elements
Stasko's Infovis class slides. They are used with his permission. #12;2 3 Definition Social Visualization Domains Social visualization might depict Baby names Conversations Newsgroup activities Email patterns is partially from Stasko's Infovis class slides. #12;3 5 Baby Name Visualization Baby Names, Visualization
This paper addresses the challenge of social legitimacy issues for the technical solutions to environmental problems, and the role of Information Systems to resolve such issues. The paper outlines the Georgia Watershed Information System (GWIS), a comprehensive environmental information system, and one of its scientific visualization interfaces. This paper presents a novel scientific visualization tool based on unique components and
Ibrahim Demir; Feng Jiang; Rodrigo Villarroel Walker; Amanda K. Parker; M. Bruce Beck
Plant is one of the fundamental elements of the urban ecological environment and landscape, and the plant landscape informationvisualization is an important development trend of industrial information system. The plant landscape informationvisualization can be used to highlight the value and effect of plant landscape from many aspects, draw the spatial framework of plant landscape and conduct spatial analysis
reason is that interaction is an intangible concept that is difficult to design, quantify, and evaluate. Unlike for visual design, there are few examples that show visualization practitioners and researchers how to best design the interaction for a new visualization. In this paper, we attempt to address
This paper describes mechanisms for asynchronous collaboration in the context of informationvisualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design and implementation of sense.us, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization types. The site supports view sharing, discussion, graphical annotation, and social navigation and includes novel interaction elements. We
Jeffrey Heer; Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg
(1) Human crystalline lens and vision In order to investigate the hue changes in eyes with UV-absorbing intraocular lenses (IOLs) and tinted IOLs, we simulated the changes in the chromaticity coordinates of the 16 colors of the Farnsworth dichotomous test-panel D-15 (panel D-15), considering the ratio of the spectral transmittance of the IOL and the human crystalline lens, and the results were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. The chromaticity coordinates of each color for UV-absorbing IOLs shifted to close to the origin of coordinates while retaining their hue circle. However, the chromaticity coordinates for the eyes with tinted IOLs did not change much compared to the coordinates for phakic eyes. As a result, it was suggested that cyanopsia after UV-absorbing IOL implantation could be explained by this simulation. As far as the color perception is concerned, it was also felt that tinted IOLs were superior to UV-absorbing intraocular lenses. Next, in order to evaluate the hue changes after IOL implantation, the achromatic point settings were measured once before surgery and several times at intervals after surgery after taking off the eyepatch. Four subjects participated in the experiments. There was a large shift into the "yellowish" region of color space immediately after taking off the eyepatch after cataract surgery. Then, the achromatic point returned to the chromaticity near the achromaticpoint measured prior to the surgery, with the time course of a long time, compared to color constancy in our daily life, which takes as long as several hundreds of seconds to reach an asymptote. Therefore, the mechanism of achromatic point shifts after cataract surgery may be different from the color-constancy mechanism in everyday life. (2) Molecular genetics and vision We demonstrated new clinical and genetic aspects of congenital red-green color vision defects, congenital achromatopsia, enhanced s-cone syndrome (ESCS), and Oguchi disease in Japanese patients. We clinically diagnosed 88 male dichromats(31 protanopes, 56 deuteranopes, and one unclassified subject). This subject had a new form of X-linked pigment gene with a unique arrangement of exon 5(Y277 from the long-wavelength-sensitive gene and A 285 from the middle-wavelength-sensitive gene). Mutational analysis of patients with achromatopsia disclosed CNGA3 mutations (p.R 436 W, p.L633 P) in one of 14 patients, suggesting low frequency (7%, 1/14) of CNGA3 mutations in the Japanese population. Three novel NR2E3 mutations (p.R 104 Q, p.R 334 G, p.Q 350 X) were identified in both mild and severe forms of ESCS. A novel homozygous GRK1 mutation (p.P 391 H) was found in the Oguchi disease patient with reduced cone responses. This is the first reported Japanese patient with GRK1 -associated Oguchi disease. 3. Information processing of the visual cortex and vision Regarding information processing in the visual cortex, we developed the stimulus to improve identifying retinotopy of the human visual cortex. We performed two types of fMRI experiments. One provided a quick method of mapping retinotopy using a composite stimulus with both ring- and wedge-shaped stimuli. The other provided a method which can show the horizontal meridian clearer. We explored the activation of the visual cortex associated with color perception. In our studies of the color center, we first researched the symptoms and lesions of cerebral achromatopsia, and we next performed the fMRI experiments with a pseudoisochromatic plate test and with a color arrangement test. After this we also performed the fMRI experiments with a complex color painting. We realized objective perimetry with functional brain images. We first developed the software to depict a visual field from the signals of MR imaging. Next we performed the experiment with hemifield stimulation and showed the possibility of its clinical application. Then we showed its reproducibility, performing the experiment with more complicated letter-shaped masked visual stimulation. Finally, we applied the technique to patients with cerebral dy
A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.
1 InformationVisualization and the Challenge of Universal Usability Catherine Plaisant, University usability, with example applications using geo-referenced data. InformationVisualization has been shown, disabilities, etc.) but also with the variety of technology used (screen size, network speed, etc
Earlier reports described huge overlapping visual receptive fields and the absence of retinotopic organization in the dorsolateral, caudal part of the caudate nucleus. In the present study we suggest a possible alternative mechanism for the coding of spatial visualinformation. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were carried out in halothane-anesthetized, immobilized, artificially ventilated cats. In order to investigate the responsiveness of the single neurons to visualinformation arriving from different sites of the receptive field, we divided the visual fields to 20 parts of equal size and stimulated the individual parts one-by-one. We found that each single visual caudate nucleus (CN) neuron can carry information about stimulus locations throughout the whole physically approachable visual field of the investigated eye. A large majority (85%) of these neurons exhibited significantly different responses to stimuli appearing in different regions of their huge receptive field. Thus these neurons appear to have the ability to provide information on the site of the stimulus via their discharge rate. The huge receptive fields in combination with the spatial selectivity suggest that these caudate nucleus neurons may serve as panoramic localizers. On the population level, the sites of maximal responsiveness of the visual neurons are distributed over the whole extent of the receptive fields. We argue that groups of these panoramic localizer neurons with different locations of maximal stimulus preference should have the ability to accurately code the locations of visual stimuli. We propose this distributed population code of visualinformation as an alternative information processing mechanism. PMID:21376107
Gombköto, P; Rokszin, A; Berényi, A; Braunitzer, G; Utassy, G; Benedek, G; Nagy, A
In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevantinformation may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevantinformation, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. PMID:24983713
Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Ohlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities,
A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.
Virtual 3D city models are used for different applications such as urban planning, navigation, pedestrian behaviour, historical information, and disaster management. These applications require rich information models that associate urban objects not only with their geometric properties but also with other types of information. When designing such models the choice of visualization techniques is far from trivial because the city objects must be displayed together with additional information, such as historical facts, planning projects, pollutant concentration, noise level, etc. Finding relevant techniques depends on a set of criteria such as the type of information, but also on the tasks that will be performed and the associated context. Furthermore, a technique that is relevant when used in isolation may generate visual incompatibilities when used in conjunction with another one. We have defined a model for the representation of informationvisualization techniques in 3D city models. We have implemented this model in the form of an ontology and a knowledge base of techniques currently used in 3D city models or 3D GIS. The goal of such an approach is to provide a knowledge repository to support the design of 3D virtual city models in which non-geometric information must be presented. In this paper we describe the model and the ontology of informationvisualization techniques that we designed. We also show how the associated knowledge base can be used for the selection of visualization techniques depending on different criteria including task and context, and for the detection of visual incompatibilities between techniques when used in the same scene.
Our visual system can operate at fascinating speeds. Psychophysical experiments teach us that the processing of complex natural images and visual object recognition require a mere split second. Even in everyday life, our gaze seldom rests for long on any particular spot of the visual scene before a sudden movement of the eyes or the head shifts it to a new location. These observations challenge our understanding of how neurons in the visual system of the brain represent, process, and transmit the relevantvisualinformation quickly enough. This article argues that the speed of visual processing provides an adjuvant framework for studying the neural code in the visual system. In the retina, which constitutes the first stage of visual processing, recent experiments have highlighted response features that allow for particularly rapid information transmission. This sets the stage for discussing some of the fundamental questions in the research of neural coding. How do downstream brain regions read out signals from the retina and combine them with intrinsic signals that accompany eye movements? And, how do the neural response features ultimately affect perception and behavior? PMID:19649155
Most users want to find visualinformation based on the semantics of visual contents such as a name of person, semantic relations,\\u000a an action happening in a scene, ...etc. However, techniwues for content-based image or video retrieval are not mature enough\\u000a to recognize visual semantic completely, whereas retrieval based on color, size, texture and shape are within the state of
Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visualinformation (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visualinformation (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visualinformation for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (< 50 years) normally sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visualinformation. PMID:19189732
Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.
We investigated how visual noise in the initial estimate of target location affects precision for rapid pointing. Visual localization thresholds (an error measure) rise systematically with eccentricity, doubling at eccentricities of a degree or less. Previous work, which we confirmed, has shown that the precision of pointing, measured by the standard deviation, to a single isolated target is relatively constant over small lateral extents near the midline, and that pointing error is substantially larger than visual error. We used target uncertainty (randomly chosen locations) to greatly increase visual noise so that we could explore the influence of visual noise on pointing error. We compared precision for comparable visual and pointing tasks as a function of target eccentricity. The target was presented for 110 ms at one of eight isoeccentric locations, chosen at random. Under these conditions, pointing error increased significantly with increasing target eccentricity. Beyond 4 degrees eccentricity, visual thresholds and pointing error were identical. Even when the target remained visible until the movement was completed, initial target eccentricity affected pointing error. The quality of visualinformation varies with task demands, and therefore so does its influence on endpoint precision. Our results demonstrate that the initial visualinformation about target location can limit endpoint precision, even over as small a range as 12 degrees in the central visual field (a lateral extent of +/-8.5 cm at the midline). PMID:17070889
Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…
Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.
Visually Navigating the RMS Titanic with SLAM Information Filters Ryan Eustice and Hanumant Singh of the RMS Titanic. I. INTRODUCTION This paper addresses the problem of precision navigation and mapping demonstrate automatic visually-augmented navigation processing of a sequence of 866 images of the RMS Titanic
Institute of Software Technology & Interactive Systems, Vienna University of Technology 2Department of Child or negative course of the therapy due to the com- bination of various visualization and interaction methods. 1Gravi++: Interactive InformationVisualization of Highly Structured Temporal Data Klaus Hinum1
's for InformationVisualization with Application to Healthcare Informatics Zhiyuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Bing significantly lower the time and effort needed to access the medical patient information required to arrive these views via cross-filtering  and brushing  is the key to successful information (and data
This module, created by The Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction, discusses the visual aspects of Microsoft Word. The directions are concise and fairly straightforward. Almost any type of basic visual modification in the Word is included in the outline. Items such as font, formatting, graphics, layout, page setup and spacing are touched upon. The module employs both textual and graphical examples to walk students through the lesson. An instructor guide, presentation, practice activity, student project, grading rubric and quiz are all included. Other modules focusing on Microsoft Office are featured on the Maricopa website.
The Informedia Digital Video Library contains over a thousand hours of video, consuming over a terabyte of disk space. This paper summarizes the multimedia abstractions used to represent this video in prior systems and introduces the visualization techniques employed to browse and navigate multiple video documents at once.
Both our visual and haptic systems contribute to the perception of the three dimensional world, especially the proximal perception of objects. The interaction of these systems has been the subject of some debate over the years, ranging from the philosophically posed Molyneux problem to the more pragmatic examination of their psychophysical relationship. To better understand the nature of this interaction
This article identifies online lesson plans that can be used to introduce visualizing, a comprehension skill important to both science and literacy learning. Each of the lessons meets NCTE/IRA English language arts standards. The article appears in the free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which is structured around the seven essential principles of climate science and literacy.
This paper presents a Knowledge-oriented InformationVisualization (KIV) approach to facilitating the implementation of building rating systems such as the Asian Intelligent Building Index (AIIB) for the post-assessment of Intelligent Buildings (IBs...
...visualinformation materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...
...visualinformation materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...
...visualinformation materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...
...visualinformation materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...
...visualinformation materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...
Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visualinformation in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visualinformation was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visualinformation, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976
Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.
Second graders (n=60) and adults (n=60 college students) solved word problems containing relevantinformation, irrelevant numeric information, and nonrelevant linguistic information. Recall and recognition tasks, along with cued and uncued word stem completion were used to test subjects' memory for relevant versus nonrelevant information. Recall…
, Rival et al. (2004) found that the different type of spatial information (location versus distance) functionally segregated during childhood. The researchers did note that the reliance on visual feedback decreased with increasing age (5- to 12 years..., Rival et al. (2004) found that the different type of spatial information (location versus distance) functionally segregated during childhood. The researchers did note that the reliance on visual feedback decreased with increasing age (5- to 12 years...
In a world of widespread information access, information can overwhelm collaborators, even with visualizations to help. We extend prior work to study the effect of shared information on collaboration. We analyzed the success and discussion process of remote pairs trying to identify a serial killer in multiple crime cases. Each partner had half of the evidence, or each partner had
Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Susan R. Fussell; Sara B. Kiesler; Aniket Kittur
The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…
This project report documents a design study in the domain of organic agriculture, and presents Informed Omnivore, an exploratory analysis tool for visualizing the Canadian organic food industry. A goal of this application is to provide consumers with the information necessary to make informed choices when buying local or organic food. I provide an overview of the domain, task, and data addressed by the application, followed by a description of the informationvisualization solution. This is followed by an analysis of the solution's strengths and weaknesses. This report concludes with a discussion of potential areas for future work. The contribution of Informed Omnivore is a demonstration of informationvisualization techniques applied to domain of organic agriculture, motivating casual users to make sustainable and healthy food choices.
The visualization results of multi-dimensional and dynamically spatio-temporal information are diversified by the varying user demands. To realize the sharing of spatio-temporal data, information and knowledge, this paper proposes a technical framework for on-line generation and distribution of the visualization of spatio-temporal information to meet personality need from difference level user; then, describes the key technologies that are involved; final, introduces the implementation and application of the system by taking a marine disaster information system as an example.
In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visualinformation. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visualinformation. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax and semantics, and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.
Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)
-sex rivals. Manipulations of reproductive motivations (e.g., mate searching) have also been shown to affect visual attention to these types of stimuli. Most of this work has focused on physical attractiveness in adult targets, which evolutionary theories...
Modern cars provide a large spectrum of electronic functional- ity which is realized by a great number of interconnected elec- tronic control units (ECUs). The constantly increasing complexity of these in-car communication networks challenges developers in terms of understandability. The goal of my PhD research is to find novel and suitable methods of visual analytics (VA) and informationvisualization (InfoVis)
Abstract:? This paper examines the direct relevance of accounting information for credit default swap (CDS) pricing. Prior research on the impact of accounting information for CDS pricing has neglected to include either the output of theoretical CDS pricing models or credit ratings, both of which should impound credit relevant accounting information. Both in? and out?of?sample testing results suggest that accounting
Abstract: This paper examines the direct relevance of accounting information for credit default swap (CDS) pricing. Prior research on the impact of accounting information for CDS pricing has neglected to include either the output of theoretical CDS pricing models or credit ratings, both of which should impound credit relevant accounting information. Both in? and out?of?sample testing results suggest that accounting
Abstract--- The World Wide Web has more online web database which can be searched through their web query interface. Deep Web contents are accessed by queries submitted to Web databases and the returned data records are enwrapped in dynamically generated Web pages. Extracting structured data from deep Web pages is a challenging task due to the underlying complicate structures of such pages. Until now, a large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem, but all of them have inherent limitations because they are Web-pageprogramming-language dependent. As the popular twodimensional media, the contents on Web pages are always displayed regularly for users to browse. This motivates us to seek a different way for deep Web data extraction to overcome the limitations of previous works by utilizing some interesting common visual features on the deep Web pages. In this paper, a novel vision-based approach that is Webpage programming- language-independent is proposed. This approach primarily utilizes the visual features on the deep Web pages to implement deep Web data extraction, including data record extraction and data item extraction.
. Furthermore, additional performance gain is achieved by incorporating our new ranking scheme which modifies instance rankings based on the weighted average of relevance feature values. Experiments on image and music of digital media such as images, video and audio. With the rapid increase of digital multimedia collections
The web has become such an extensive health information repository in the world that it is increasingly difficult to search for relevant medical information. Most medical information available on the web is not peer reviewed, and is retrieved imprecisely by current web search mechanisms (i.e. based on keywords). This paper presents the MedISeek metadata model that allows one to describe
The amount of information a sensory neuron carries about a stimulus is directly related to response reliability. We recorded from individual neurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) while presenting randomly modulated visual stimuli. The responses to repeated stimuli were reproducible, whereas the responses evoked by nonrepeated stimuli drawn from the same ensemble were variable. Stimulus-dependent information was quantified
This paper addresses some fundamental and practical issues that should be considered when pursuing evaluation studies in InformationVisualization. The main focus is on quantitative experimental research but the general information applies to all kinds of studies. The purpose is to increase awareness of what constitutes a sound scientific approach to evaluation and to point out common pitfalls and mistakes
Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visualinformation processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…
Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.
This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visualinformation as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To
Anelia Angelova; Larry Matthies; Daniel M. Helmick; Pietro Perona
Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.
Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities-R&D and application-are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real-world problems.
Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Prabhat; Byna, Suren; Rübel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael
The authors a graph-based object model that may be used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information. After an introduction motivating the need for abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia systems, the authors intro...
One theory of visual communication maintains three things. It holds that attention is a process for obtaining information, that it is a transaction between the visual and the viewer, and that the success of a visual communication is determined by the amount and relevance of information conveyed. Current research aims at evaluating…
The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…
) facilitated real-time complex user interaction with first responder teams, in response to information received consisting of three different scenarios. In this work, we have redesigned the system to be able to handle, the implementation has been redesigned as a WebGL application, facili- tating easy dissemination and use
in the composition space, we developed a new control structure, the ResultDis- tributor. A user study has demonstrated that the participants were able to browse more diverse information using the ResultDistributor-enhanced composition space. Participants also found...
Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if informationrelevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.
Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…
The paper reviews basic spectral features of luminescence from minerals used in dating and allied research. Luminescence production is a result of multiple interactions within the imperfect crystal lattice and spectral information is not limited to the emission of light. Results of spectral investigations of luminescence emission during thermal stimulation (TL) or optical stimulation (OSL) form the main part of
M. R. Krbetschek; J. Götze; A. Dietrich; T. Trautmann
Investigated infants' integration of visualinformation across space and time. In four experiments, infants aged 12 months and 6 months viewed objects after watching light trace similar and dissimilar shapes. Infants looked longer at novel shapes, although six-month-olds did not recognize figures taking more than 10 seconds to trace. One-year-old…
Proposes an information architecture for personal-history data and describes how the data model can be extended to a runtime model for a compact visualization using graphical timelines. The model groups personal-history events into aggregates that are contained in facets, crosslinks are made, and data attributes are mapped. (Author/LRW)
Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…
Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.
User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…
Purpose: To examine the influence of visualinformation on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…
Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.
Several web-native informationvisualization methods (SVG, HTML5's Canvas, native HTML) are studied to contrast their per- formances at different data scales. Using Java implementations of parallel coordinates and squarified treemaps for comparison, we ex- plore the design space of these web-based technologies in order to determine what design trade-offs are required.
1105 INTRODUCTION Bumblebees perform learning flights to acquire visualinformation about are tethered, guidance can be by compass cues alone (Mouritsen and Frost, 2002). Bumblebee learning flights of their nest-based loops and zigzags, and examine how nest- SUMMARY Bumblebees tend to face their nest over
of the increased semantics. For example, an ontology-based search engine could use its ontology to enrich3 Ontology-based InformationVisualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications Christiaan Fluit, Marta Sabou and Frank van Harmelen 3.1 Introduction The Semantic Web is an extension of the current
Visualizinginformation in user interfaces to complex, large-scale systems is difficult due to an enormous amount of dynamic data distributed across multiple displays. While graphical represen- tation techniques can reduce some of the cognitive overhead associated with comprehension, cur- rent interfaces suffer from the over-use of such representation techniques and exceed the human's perceptual capacity to efficiently interpret them. New
This study examined whether developmental differences exist in the ability to suppress irrelevant information that has entered working memory. Second graders, sixth graders, and young adults (Mages = 7.5, 11.7, and 22.4 years, respectively) were asked to provide the ending for a series of sentences that highly constrained a terminal noun (e.g., “He mailed the letters without anystamps.”). Responses to
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
It has previously been reported that humans can determine their direction of 3D translation (heading) from the 2D velocity field of retinal motion experienced during self-motion through a rigid environment, as is done by current computational models of visual heading estimation from optic flow. However, these claims were supported by studies that used stimuli that contained low rotational flow rates and/or additional visual cues beyond the velocity field or a task in which observers were asked to indicate their future trajectory of self-motion (path). Thus, previous conclusions about heading estimation have been confounded by the presence of other visual factors beyond the velocity field, by the use of a path-estimation task, or both. In particular, path estimation involves an exocentric computation with respect to an environmental reference, whereas heading estimation is an egocentric computation with respect to one's line of sight. Here, we use a heading-adjustment task to demonstrate that humans can precisely estimate their heading from the velocity field, independent of visualinformation about path, displacement, layout, or acceleration, with accuracy robust to rotation rates at least as high as 20 deg/s. Our findings show that instantaneous velocity-field information about heading is directly available for the visual control of locomotion and steering. PMID:17083281
Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visualinformation across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.
Prokopowicz, P.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Cooper, P.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups. PMID:24028946
Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D
Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138
Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer
Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138
Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellaker, Christoffer
Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visualinformation processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visualinformation processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visualinformation processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256
Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.
Background With the abundance of information and analysis results being collected for genetic loci, user-friendly and flexible data visualization approaches can inform and improve the analysis and dissemination of these data. A chromosomal ideogram is an idealized graphic representation of chromosomes. Ideograms can be combined with overlaid points, lines, and/or shapes, to provide summary information from studies of various kinds, such as genome-wide association studies or phenome-wide association studies, coupled with genomic location information. To facilitate visualizing varied data in multiple ways using ideograms, we have developed a flexible software tool called PhenoGram which exists as a web-based tool and also a command-line program. Results With PhenoGram researchers can create chomosomal ideograms annotated with lines in color at specific base-pair locations, or colored base-pair to base-pair regions, with or without other annotation. PhenoGram allows for annotation of chromosomal locations and/or regions with shapes in different colors, gene identifiers, or other text. PhenoGram also allows for creation of plots showing expanded chromosomal locations, providing a way to show results for specific chromosomal regions in greater detail. We have now used PhenoGram to produce a variety of different plots, and provide these as examples herein. These plots include visualization of the genomic coverage of SNPs from a genotyping array, highlighting the chromosomal coverage of imputed SNPs, copy-number variation region coverage, as well as plots similar to the NHGRI GWA Catalog of genome-wide association results. Conclusions PhenoGram is a versatile, user-friendly software tool fostering the exploration and sharing of genomic information. Through visualization of data, researchers can both explore and share complex results, facilitating a greater understanding of these data. PMID:24131735
Background Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. Methodology Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID) and inter sound distance (ISD) whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. Conclusions With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives. PMID:23696791
Tan, Shern Shiou; Maul, Tomás Henrique Bode; Mennie, Neil Russell
Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.
Thirty-five second-grade learning disabled children participated in a visualinformation processing training program designed to teach analysis of visual material into component parts, systematic scanning of visual arrays, pick-up, description, and memory storage of distinctive information, and efficient solution of visual match-to-sample…
One of the goals of informationvisualization is to support human thinking through the use of external visual aids. Mathematical mindtools can act as visual cognitive aids to enhance thinking and reasoning about mathematical objects and concepts. Although some mathematical mindtools incorporate informationvisualization techniques, the systematic use of these techniques in the design of these tools and their effect
Kamran Sedig; Sonja Rowhani; Jim Morey; Hai-ning Liang
Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visualinformation to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that informationvisualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and informationvisualization in other safety-related applications where the user's primary task is something other than looking at the computer interface, such as emergency response, air traffic control, or operating a motor vehicle.
In recent years we have seen informationvisualization technology move from an advanced research topic to mainstream adoption\\u000a in both commercial and personal use. This move is in part due to many businesses recognizing the need for more effective tools\\u000a for extracting knowledge from the data warehouses they are gathering. Increased mainstream interest is also a result of more\\u000a exposure
Jeffrey Heer; Frank van Ham; Sheelagh Carpendale; Chris Weaver; Petra Isenberg
This paper presents a new metadata model to describe and retrieve medical visualinformation, such images and their diagnoses, using the Web. The classes of this model allow describing medical images of different medical areas, including their properties, components and relationships. This model supports the international classification of diseases and related health problems (i.e. ICD-10) (1). The MedISeek (Medical Image
Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…
PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevantinformation background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.
Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander
Classical image statistics, such as contrast, entropy, and the correlation between central and nearby pixel intensities, are thought to guide ocular fixation targeting. However, these statistics are not necessarily task relevant and therefore do not provide a complete picture of the relationship between informativeness and ocular targeting. Moreover, it is not known whether either informativeness or classical image statistics affect microsaccade production; thus, the role of microsaccades in information acquisition is also unknown. The objective quantification of the informativeness of a scene region is a major challenge, because it can vary with both image features and the task of the viewer. Thus, previous definitions of informativeness suffered from subjectivity and inconsistency across studies. Here we developed an objective measure of informativeness based on fixation consistency across human observers, which accounts for both bottom-up and top-down influences in ocular targeting. We then analyzed fixations in more versus less informative image regions in relation to classical statistics. Observers generated more microsaccades on more informative than less informative image regions, and such regions also exhibited low redundancy in their classical statistics. Increased microsaccade production was not explained by increased fixation duration, suggesting that the visual system specifically uses microsaccades to heighten information acquisition from informative regions. PMID:24553936
McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana
Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.
The objective of this paper is to show how informationvisualization can play an important and catalytic role in the reconceptualization of digital libraries as interactive knowledge environments. Informationvisualization has long been described as a beneficial and promising technology for digital libraries. Today, however, few digital libraries rely on informationvisualization concepts and techniques. This is because the research
In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visualinformation, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…
Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay
The Kullback-Leibler information deficiency is evaluated along molecular internal rotational or vibrational coordinates and along the intrinsic reaction coordinate for several reactions (intra- and intermolecular proton transfer and SN2 reaction). For the first time an in depth analysis of the information deficiency along the reaction path is reported. The results are consistent with the Hammond postulate, indicating that the information profiles contain relevant chemical information. A local version of the information deficiency is defined by considering Hirshfeld's partitioning of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the local information profiles permits the identification of the atoms taking part in the electron reorganization processes. PMID:19283264
Borgoo, Alex; Jaque, Pablo; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Geerlings, Paul
One of key topics in fMRI analysis is discovery of task-related brain areas. We focus on predictive accuracy as a better relevance measure than traditional univariate voxel activations that miss important multivariate voxel interactions. We use sparse regression (more specifically, the Elastic Net1) to learn predictive models simultaneously with selection of predictive voxel subsets, and to explore transition from task-relevant to task-irrelevant areas. Exploring the space of sparse solutions reveals a much wider spread of task-relevantinformation in the brain than it is typically suggested by univariate correlations. This happens for several tasks we considered, and is most noticeable in case of complex tasks such as pain rating; however, for certain simpler tasks, a clear separation between a small subset of relevant voxels and the rest of the brain is observed even with multivariate approach to measuring relevance.
Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have relevant positive and negative impacts on environmental sustainability on various levels: First-order effects such as increasing electronic waste streams; second-order effects such as improved energy-efficiency of production; third-order effects such as a product-to-service shift in consumption or rebound effects in transport. In the simulation study described in this article, all known relevant effects on
Lorenz M. Hilty; Peter Arnfalk; Lorenz Erdmann; James Goodman; Martin Lehmann; Patrick A. Wäger
Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain informationvisualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…
Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.
We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.
Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick
Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological informationvisualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.
The visual cortex has been traditionally considered as a stimulus-driven, unimodal system with a hierarchical organization. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that the visual cortex responds to non-visual stimuli, especially in individuals with visual deprivation congenitally, indicating the supramodal nature of the functional representation in the visual cortex. To understand the neural substrates of the cross-modal processing of the non-visual signals in the visual cortex, we firstly showed the supramodal nature of the visual cortex. We then reviewed how the nonvisual signals reach the visual cortex. Moreover, we discussed if these non-visual pathways are reshaped by early visual deprivation. Finally, the open question about the nature (stimulus-driven or top-down) of non-visual signals is also discussed. PMID:23840972
Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)
This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of informationvisualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…
Local field potentials (LFPs) reflect subthreshold integrative processes that complement spike train measures. However, little is yet known about the differences between how LFPs and spikes encode rich naturalistic sensory stimuli. We addressed this question by recording LFPs and spikes from the primary visual cortex of anesthetized macaques while presenting a color movie. We then determined how the power of LFPs and spikes at different frequencies represents the visual features in the movie. We found that the most informative LFP frequency ranges were 1-8 and 60-100 Hz. LFPs in the range of 12-40 Hz carried little information about the stimulus, and may primarily reflect neuromodulatory inputs. Spike power was informative only at frequencies <12 Hz. We further quantified "signal correlations" (correlations in the trial-averaged power response to different stimuli) and "noise correlations" (trial-by-trial correlations in the fluctuations around the average) of LFPs and spikes recorded from the same electrode. We found positive signal correlation between high-gamma LFPs (60-100 Hz) and spikes, as well as strong positive signal correlation within high-gamma LFPs, suggesting that high-gamma LFPs and spikes are generated within the same network. LFPs <24 Hz shared strong positive noise correlations, indicating that they are influenced by a common source, such as a diffuse neuromodulatory input. LFPs <40 Hz showed very little signal and noise correlations with LFPs >40 Hz and with spikes, suggesting that low-frequency LFPs reflect neural processes that in natural conditions are fully decoupled from those giving rise to spikes and to high-gamma LFPs. PMID:18509031
In the near future, the number of major missions flying simultaneously will increase. This increase in data will place a heavier burden on the operations staff to verify the health and status of a spacecraft or intrument platform. The problem of verification becomes particularly acute when multiple flight projects are being supported by the same personnel. Operations must be made more efficient and automated to remain successful. A prototype concept for achieving that goal is described. The prototype shows how the concepts of informationvisualization and information retrieval can be applied in developing a user oriented interface for a multimission operations environment. The proposed user interface integrates existing prototypes and includes two dimensional and three dimensional color graphics, animation, and simulation. Techniques of data realization are included.
Baroth, Edmund C.; Chin, Gregory E.; Curran, Patrick S.
Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays. PMID:22612057
Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A
This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…
Visual feedback and non-visualinformation play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visualinformation in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visualinformation is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visualinformation adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking. PMID:23236498
During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g., head and eye gesture) to communicate relevantinformation and to synchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visual feedback, people often ...
The role of perceptual discrimination in the development of the ability to selectively process information was investigated. Using an incidental learning paradigm, the discriminability between relevant and irrelevant stimuli was experimentally varied in two ways: (1) contiguity versus non-contiguity in spatial arrangements and (2) alternating…
processes that take place on the Web, specially in social media, is a fundamental step towards the design/advertising campaigns. Two key concepts in information diffusion are influence and relevance. Influence is the ability Search and Retrieval - Retrieval models General Terms: Algorithms, Experimentation Keywords: Influence
Due to the rapid growth of Web pages available on the Internet recently, searching a relevant and up-to-date information has become a crucial issue. Conventional search engines use heuristics to determine which Web pages are the best match for a given keyword. Results are obtained from a database that is located at their local server to provide fast searching. However,
The field of information retrieval has traditionally focused on textbases consisting of titles and abstracts. As a consequence, many underlying assumptions must be altered for retrieval from full-length text collections. This paper argues for mak- ing use of text structure when retrieving from full text doc- uments, and presents a visualization paradigm, called Tile- Bars, that demonstrates the usefulness of
Retrieval Research & Education Katy BÃ¶rner & Javed Mostafa School of Library and Information Science School 4th , 2002. This research in progress aims to develop an advanced infrastructure for teaching.), and visualization/interaction algorithms (GRIDL GRaphical Interface for Digital Libraries , Treemap , Force
Visualizing the Earth, its processes, and its evolution through time is a fundamental aspect of geoscience. The use of visualizations - diagrams, images, animations, maps, and more - is an essential tool in helping students to visualize the Earth and its processes. This site aggregates resources and results from two workshops on Teaching with Visualizations. The first, Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations, and Models Effectively, was held at Carleton College in Northfield, MN in February, 2004. A follow-up workshop was held at the fall 2004 meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, CA.
Explicit encoding requires humans to select the informationrelevant to their goals, yet not all irrelevant information is discarded. The present study addressed how different quantity and relevance of information modulate the electrophysiological activity during the encoding and retrieval phases of a recognition memory task. Subjects learned associations between two semantically unrelated pictures, and then performed a recognition judgment. After recognition, subjects were asked to recall the associated picture by using the recognized image as a cue. Cues yielded either high quantity of information (the cue evoked two associations, only one of them being relevant to the task), or low quantity of information (the cue evoked a single, relevant association). At encoding, a negative peak (400 ms) showed reduced negativity at left sites for the associative trials compared to the non-associative ones, while at right frontal sites the peak was more negative for goal-unrelated associations, compared to goal-related ones. Late right negativity during the test phase (800-1000 ms) discriminated hits followed either by correct or by no recall, but only when the cue evoked multiple associations. Frontal electrophysiological asymmetry at encoding was affected by the behavioral goal, i.e. activity reflected goal-related encoding on the left and goal-unrelated encoding on the right. The late right effect at retrieval suggests a link between this activity during encoding and the evaluation of the higher quantity of information in light of the behavioral goal during retrieval. Overall, the results indicate that different mechanisms and/or neuronal populations are involved in goal-related versus goal-unrelated association. PMID:23220030
The purpose of our visualinformation retrieval tool is to extract from a database images that are similar to an image query. Color features are generally used to define a measure of similarity between images, as they are usually very robust to noise, image degradation, changes in size, resolution or orientation. Nevertheless, the most often features suffer objectively from the lack of color spatial knowledge. Then, our purpose is to merge two classical methods : the color pyramid and the interest points detection, well-known for grey level image analysis. The pertinence of this new method is demonstrated by an evaluation and a comparison with others keypoints detectors. We show the interest for image indexation with concrete tests on our large images database, using the icobra system.
Codebook-based learning provides a flexible way to extract the contents of an image in a data-driven manner for visual recognition. One central task in such frameworks is codeword assignment, which allocates local image descriptors to the most similar codewords in the dictionary to generate histogram for categorization. Nevertheless, existing assignment approaches, e.g., nearest neighbors strategy (hard assignment) and Gaussian similarity (soft assignment), suffer from two problems: 1) too strong Euclidean assumption and 2) neglecting the label information of the local descriptors. To address the aforementioned two challenges, we propose a graph assignment method with maximal mutual information (GAMI) regularization. GAMI takes the power of manifold structure to better reveal the relationship of massive number of local features by nonlinear graph metric. Meanwhile, the mutual information of descriptor-label pairs is ultimately optimized in the embedding space for the sake of enhancing the discriminant property of the selected codewords. According to such objective, two optimization models, i.e., inexact-GAMI and exact-GAMI, are respectively proposed in this paper. The inexact model can be efficiently solved with a closed-from solution. The stricter exact-GAMI nonparametrically estimates the entropy of descriptor-label pairs in the embedding space and thus leads to a relatively complicated but still trackable optimization. The effectiveness of GAMI models are verified on both the public and our own datasets. PMID:25222732
Deng, Yue; Li, Yipeng; Qian, Yanjun; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai
VxInsight provides a visual mechanism for browsing, exploring and retrieving information from a database. The graphical display conveys information about the relationship between objects in several ways and on multiple scales. In this way, individual objects are always observed within a larger context. For example, consider a database consisting of a set of scientific papers. Imagine that the papers have been organized in a two dimensional geometry so that related papers are located close to each other. Now construct a landscape where the altitude reflects the local density of papers. Papers on physics will form a mountain range, and a different range will stand over the biological papers. In between will be research reports from biophysics and other bridging disciplines. Now, imagine exploring these mountains. If we zoom in closer, the physics mountains will resolve into a set of sub-disciplines. Eventually, by zooming in far enough, the individual papers become visible. By pointing and clicking you can learn more about papers of interest or retrieve their full text. Although physical proximity conveys a great deal of information about the relationship between documents, you can also see which papers reference which others, by drawing lines between the citing and cited papers. For even more information, you can choose to highlight papers by a particular researcher or a particular institution, or show the accumulation of papers through time, watching some disciplines explode and other stagnate. VxInsight is a general purpose tool, which enables this kind of interaction with wide variety of relational data: documents, patents, web pages, and financial transactions are just a few examples. The tool allows users to interactively browse, explore and retrieve information from the database in an intuitive way.
This study shows that when viewers watching an educational movie are presented simultaneously with information in two media--visual and verbal/auditory--there is no competition for resources; when visual and linguistic information are presented sequentially, the extraction of information is not increased. College students appear to be good dual…
Discussion of visualinformation retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more…
. Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.
Research suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has both an item capacity, of around 4 items, and an information capacity. We characterize the information capacity limits of VSTM using a task in which observers discriminated the orientation of a single probed item in displays consisting of 1, 2, 3, or 4 orthogonally oriented Gabor patch stimuli that were presented in noise for 50 ms, 100 ms, 150 ms, or 200 ms. The observed capacity limitations are well described by a sample-size model, which predicts invariance of ?i(d'i)² for displays of different sizes and linearity of (d'i)² for displays of different durations. Performance was the same for simultaneous and sequentially presented displays, which implicates VSTM as the locus of the observed invariance and rules out explanations that ascribe it to divided attention or stimulus encoding. The invariance of ?i(d'i)² is predicted by the competitive interaction theory of Smith and Sewell (2013), which attributes it to the normalization of VSTM traces strengths arising from competition among stimuli entering VSTM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222469
Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L
This study shows that when viewers watching an educational movie are presented simultaneously with information in two media-visual\\u000a and verbal \\/auditory, there is no competition fa resources. When encoding information in one medium, one is not hindered from\\u000a encoding information in the other; even when visual and linguistic information are presented sequentially, doubling study\\u000a time, the extraction of information is
Image processing techniques are applied that enable the viewer to control both the gradients of focus and transparency within an image. In order to demonstrate this concept, the authors use a geographical map whose features are organized as layers of information. This allows a user to select layers related to a particular area of interest. For example, someone interested in air transportation may choose to view airports, airport labels, and airspace in full focus. Relevant layers such as the roads and waterways are also visible but appear somewhat blurry and transparent. The user's attention is drawn to information that is clearly in focus and opaque; blurry transparent features are perceived to be in the background. Focus and transparency produce effective perceptual cues because of the human eye's ability to perceive contrast and depth. The control of focus and transparency are made accessible through a graphic interface based on a scale of importance. Rather than specifying individual focus and transparency settings, the user specifies the importance of the individual feature layers according to his needs for the task at hand. The importance settings are then translated into an appropriate combination of transparency and focus gradients for the layers within the image.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevantinformation on…
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
Attention has been implicated in postural control and other tasks requiring sensory integration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of attention in sensory-motor processing of vestibular and combined visual–vestibular information during seated rotations using a dual-task interference approach. We hypothesized that auditory information processing would be influenced by concurrent visual-ocular, vestibulo-ocular, or combined visual-vestibulo-ocular processing. We
Joseph M. Furman; Martijn L. T. M. Müller; Mark S. Redfern; J. Richard Jennings
In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio–visualinformation. Videos with synchronous audio–visualinformation were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial
Several information measures such as entropy, mutual information, and f-information have been shown to be successful for selecting a set of relevant and nonredundant genes from a high-dimensional microarray data set. However, for continuous gene expression values, it is very difficult to find the true density functions and to perform the integrations required to compute different information measures. In this regard, the concept of the fuzzy equivalence partition matrix is presented to approximate the true marginal and joint distributions of continuous gene expression values. The fuzzy equivalence partition matrix is based on the theory of fuzzy-rough sets, where each row of the matrix represents a fuzzy equivalence partition that can automatically be derived from the given expression values. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of existing approaches using the class separability index and the predictive accuracy of the support vector machine. An important finding, however, is that the proposed approach is shown to be effective for selecting relevant and nonredundant continuous-valued genes from microarray data. PMID:19887323
The Gothic Cathedral: An Immersive InformationVisualization Space Francis T. Marchese Computer the Middle Ages Gothic cathedrals were immersive information spaces which supported religious education. THE CATHEDRAL AS VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT The Gothic cathedral was the nexus of Christian religious practice
How Do Schizophrenia Patients Use VisualInformation to Decode Facial Emotion? Junghee Lee*,1 of schizophrenia patients, but the underlying mechanism of this impairment remains unclear. This study investigated discrimination task (fear vs. happy) in 21 schizophrenia patients and 17 healthy con- trols. Visualinformation
Inspection of videos revealed differences in information accompanying test syllables. Fowler et al.'s claim1 17. Are Phonetic Context Effects Modulated by VisualInformation? Joseph D. Stephens & Lori L audio Visual cue: face "AL" or "AR" Ambiguous precursor Test syllable: /ga/-/da/ series /alda/ video
The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with informationvisualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…
Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence
of evaluators chosen. We describe issues related to interpretation, redundancy, and conflict in heuris- tics. We of heuristic evaluation in InfoVis. 2. HEURISTICS IN INFOVIS The field of informationvisualizationHeuristics for InformationVisualization Evaluation Torre Zuk, Lothar Schlesier, Petra Neumann
. Qualitative research methodolo- gies are designed to place an emphasis on including these reality- based of informationvisualizations, thus far, the research community has largely focused on performance evaluations of visualization tools using quantitative approaches (e. g. , ). These evaluations of information
Improving Aviation Safety with InformationVisualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots by Cecilia Rodriguez Aragon B.S. (California Institute of Technology) 1982 M.S. (University with InformationVisualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots by Cecilia Rodriguez Aragon Doctor
This paper describes a novel method for the visualization of hierarchically structured information. The Tree-Map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information.
Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of informationrelevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ , and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model  to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683
Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T
Six-month-old African-American infants' expectation of a visual stimulus was related to developmental measures. Reaction time was related to eye fixation in tests that measured visual recognition memory (VRM) and presented objects of different shapes to the infant. Reaction time and infants' stimulus expectation predicted VRM novelty preference.…
are poorly understood for non-human animals. In visual search tasks with human subjects, a subject has or failing to respond to target presence) and search reaction time (RT; time between the appearance to understand the mechanisms of complex visual perception have been deployed only in humans and other primates
The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.
Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Results Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (p<0.001), and more sun protection (p<0.001). Regarding gender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. Conclusions The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits. PMID:23573372
Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM) has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP) following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing. PMID:24587170
The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.
Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.
Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.
. For example, different visualization techniques need to be employed when peripherally displaying stock quotes using a ticker than when displaying a company's profits on a presentation during a meeting. However
This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
methods have been explored, including 3D and animations . The problem, however, is that abuse-84, London, UK, July, 2001. Cognitive Effects of Animated Visualization in Exploratory Visual Data Analysis the role and effects of the use of animated informationvisualization in early stages of exploratory data
Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045
Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.
In this paper, an inverse square-root adaptive filtering algorithm for recursive least squares estimation (QR-RLS) was used to carry out the optimal estimation of the relevantinformation coming from a rollover sensor placed in car under performance tests. In this case, the noise that corrupts the relevant signal coming from the sensor is so dangerous that its negative influence on
Focuses on the relevance of principles of information organization in adult second language acquisition. Looks at typological features of information structure that allow speakers to organize and shape the flow of information when carrying out complex tasks and pinpoints factors that lead to the selection of linguistic form. The nature of the…
We investigated the orientation of juvenile pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, during autumn migration in south Sweden using orientation cage experiments, to study the relative importance of visual and magnetic information at sunset. We performed cage tests under 12 experimental conditions that manipulated the geomagnetic and visual sunset cues available for orientation: natural clear skies in the local or a vertical
House flies, Musca domestica, respond to visual contrasts on the substrate if a resource is associated with the contrasting patterns. Visible resource patch boundaries serve as a signal to flies that they are about to leave a rewarding patch. Searching flies respond to such visualinformation by walking along the resource patch boundary and turning back into the patch at
End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information (called WIND - Web INteraction Design) that focuses on both designers' creativity and model executability Environment providing designers with visual functionality. Keywords: Interaction Design, Semantic Web
This study was designed to test whether information transmission between the perceptual and motor levels occurs continuously or in discrete steps. Ss performed visual search across nontargets that shared visual features with one of two possible targets, each assigned to a different response. In addition to reaction time, psychophysiological measures were used to assess the duration of target search and
Henderikus G. O. M. Smid; Wiebo Lamain; Menno M. Hogeboom; Gijsbertus Mulder; Lambertus J. M. Mulder
Visual attention is one of the most important issues for a vision guided mobile robot. Methods have been proposed for visual attention control based on information criterion. However, the robot had to stop walking for observation and decision. This paper presents a method which enables observation and decision more efficiently and adaptively while it is walking. The method uses the
1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon Barker and Xu Shao Abstract The paper presents a robust audio-visual speech recognition technique called on a small vocabulary simultaneous speech recognition task in conditions that promote two contrasting types
We demonstrate a novel approach for the real time visualization and quantification of the 3D spatial frequencies in an image domain. Our approach is based on the spectral encoding of spatial frequency principle and permits the formation of an image as a color map in which spatially separated spectral wavelengths correspond to the dominant 3D spatial frequencies of the object. We demonstrate that our approach can visualize and analyze the dominant axial internal structure for each image point in real time and with nanoscale sensitivity to structural changes. Computer modeling and experimental results of instantaneous color visualization and quantification of 3D structures of a model system and biological samples are presented. PMID:22513632
Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Uttam, Shikhar; Bista, Rajan K.; Zhao, Chengquan; Liu, Yang
This module, created by The Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction, discusses the visual aspects of Microsoft PowerPoint. The directions are concise and fairly straightforward. The presentation focuses on the modification of basic templates. Items such as background options, drawing tools and animations are all addressed. While only focusing on the most visual aspects of PowerPoint, this still proves to be a useful introduction for a fairly novice user. An instructor guide, presentation, practice activity, student project, grading rubric and quiz are all included. Other modules focusing on Microsoft Office are featured on the Maricopa website.
Centering Resonance Analysis (CRA) developed by Corman et al. : Generate networks out of natural language texts: • preprocessing (POS tagging, parsing, stop words, stemming) • nominal phrase ? clique (i.e. no verbs in the network) • sentence ? chain of cliques Sample: “The two planes crashed into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York” Applications: • graph layout ? graphical text representation ? visual analysis • centrality measure ? important words ? summarization  greedy modularity clustering 2 Research Question and Reasonable Approaches LiteratureVis  ? evaluable visual feedback (squares = words/nodes in text order, color = cluster): Clustering of CRA network ? retrieve different topics in the text Problem: CRA networks typically very dense ? node distances don’t embody a proper measure for clustering Two approaches: • edge betweenness clustering  (Corman considers node betweenness as the most appropriate node index for CRA) • greedy modularity clustering algorithm  edge betweenness clustering greedy modularity clustering
Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576
Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L
The breakneck pace of consumer graphics development has yielded an unexpected dividend: using commodity graphics boards in high-end scientific applications. Historically, the visualization community has been a driving force in high-end computer graphics innovation, fostering technologies that have gradually filtered down to the consumer market. In recent years, however, the financial growth of the computer games market has made it
In a simulated aircraft navigation task, a fusion technique known as triangulation was used to improve the accuracy and onscreen availability of location information from two separate radars. Three experiments investigated whether the reduced cognitive processing required to extract information from the fused environment led to impoverished retention of visual-spatial information. Experienced pilots and students completed various simulated flight missions and were required to make a number of location estimates. Following a retention interval, memory for locations was assessed. Experiment 1 demonstrated, in an applied setting, that the retention of fused information was problematic and Experiment 2 replicated this finding under laboratory conditions. Experiment 3 successfully improved the retention of fused information by limiting its availability within the interface, which it is argued, shifted participants' strategies from over-reliance on the display as an external memory source to more memory-dependent interaction. These results are discussed within the context of intelligent interface design and effective human-machine interaction. PMID:18484395
Waldron, Samuel M; Patrick, John; Duggan, Geoffrey B; Banbury, Simon; Howes, Andrew
Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark University emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial
Abstract-- Information Retrieval is a process made by a user to obtain relevantinformation which meets his needs using an Information Retrieval System (IRS). However the IRS shows some differences Retrieval process. Keywords-- information retrieval, user profile, personalized IR, indexing, user re
A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the VisualInformation-Seeking Mantra: Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of informationvisualizations that have been proposed in recent years. This paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data
The human visual system is intrinsically noisy. The benefits of internal noise as part of visual code are controversial. Here the information-theoretic properties of multiplicative (i.e. signal-dependent) neural noise are investigated. A quasi-linear communication channel model is presented. The model shows that multiplicative power law neural noise promotes the minimum information transfer after efficient coding. It is demonstrated that Weber's
During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visualinformation during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled…
The roles of visual exteroception (information regarding environmental characteristics) and exproprioception (the relation of body segments to the environment) during gait adaptation are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how visual exteroception regarding obstacle characteristics provided during obstacle crossing modified foot elevation and placement with and without lower limb-obstacle visual exproprioception (manipulated with goggles). Visual exteroceptive information was provided by an obstacle cue - a second obstacle identical to the obstacle that was stepped over - which was visible during crossing. Ten subjects walked over obstacles under four visual conditions: full vision with no obstacle height cue, full vision with an obstacle height cue, goggles with no obstacle height cue and goggles with an obstacle height cue. Obstacle heights were 2, 10, 20 and 30 cm. The presence of goggles increased horizontal distance (distance between foot and obstacle at foot placement), toe clearance and toe clearance variability. The presence of the obstacle height cue did not alter horizontal distance, toe clearance or toe clearance variability. These observations strengthen the argument that it is the visual exproprioceptive information, not visual exteroceptive information, that is used on-line to fine tune the lower limb trajectory during obstacle avoidance. PMID:17382468
This adaptable, non-commercial instructional module from Maricopa Community Colleges teaches PowerPoint 2003 visual design concepts and typographic guidelines. These lessons are designed to teach students design principles and their application, specifically targeting communication skills. Lesson plans are provided for teaching visual design fundamentals, and presenting drawing and image editing tools and templates in PowerPoint 2003. There is an accompanying student project and quiz with teacher answer guide. Estimated class time is two Ã¢ÂÂ 50 minute sessions with an additional two to three hours of additional student project creation time. This resource was designed for adult learners, or college or technical school students who already have some experience using PowerPoint 2003.
This paper reviews and evaluates the potential use of modern visualization techniques in archaeology. It suggests the need\\u000a to apply and develop such techniques as a central part of any modern archaeological investigation. The use of these methods\\u000a is associated with wider questions about data representations, in particular, their integration with archaeological theory\\u000a and their role in facilitating analysis and
An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner's sensory system.
Chen Yu; Linda B. Smith; Hongwei Shen; Alfredo F. Pereira; Thomas Smith
The fundamental model for Web navigation has not changed much since the beginning of the development of Hypertext and Web search engines. Current browsing allows users to search by formulating queries, entering known URLs, and by navigation by following links embedded in webpages. Considerable research has focused on navigation mechanisms to improve the effectiveness of the process of finding relevant
Anwar Alhenshiri; Michael A. Shepherd; Carolyn R. Watters; Michael Bliemel
Recent research has provided evidence that visual and body-based cues (vestibular, proprioceptive and efference copy) are integrated using a weighted linear sum during walking and passive transport. However, little is known about the specific weighting of visualinformation when combined with proprioceptive inputs alone, in the absence of vestibular information about forward self-motion. Therefore, in this study, participants walked in place on a stationary treadmill while dynamic visualinformation was updated in real time via a head-mounted display. The task required participants to travel a predefined distance and subsequently match this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target using a game controller. Travelled distance information was provided either through visual cues alone, proprioceptive cues alone or both cues combined. In the combined cue condition, the relationship between the two cues was manipulated by either changing the visual gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 1) or the proprioceptive gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 2). Results demonstrated an overall higher weighting of proprioception over vision. These weights were scaled, however, as a function of which sensory input provided more stable information across trials. Specifically, when visual gain was constantly manipulated, proprioceptive weights were higher than when proprioceptive gain was constantly manipulated. These results therefore reveal interesting characteristics of cue-weighting within the context of unfolding spatio-temporal cue dynamics. PMID:24961739
Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced
Elizabeth F. Loftus; David G. Miller; Helen J. Burns
and produce multimodal information because such information has several advantages. Different information and smell conspecifics) were not significantly more attractive than odor (live wasps inside dark, perforated foragers of the ant, Aphaenogaster albisetosus, use multimodal signaling to recruit to prey. An attractant
We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visual- ization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most
Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.
When judging the lightness of objects, the visual system has to take into account many factors such as shading, scene geometry, occlusions or transparency. The problem then is to estimate global lightness based on a number of local samples that differ in luminance. Here, we show that eye fixations play a prominent role in this selection process. We explored a special case of transparency for which the visual system separates surface reflectance from interfering conditions to generate a layered image representation. Eye movements were recorded while the observers matched the lightness of the layered stimulus. We found that observers did focus their fixations on the target layer, and this sampling strategy affected their lightness perception. The effect of image segmentation on perceived lightness was highly correlated with the fixation strategy and was strongly affected when we manipulated it using a gaze-contingent display. Finally, we disrupted the segmentation process showing that it causally drives the selection strategy. Selection through eye fixations can so serve as a simple heuristic to estimate the target reflectance. PMID:24018718
Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.
Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.
Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.
Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations. PMID:24187746
This paper discusses an effective personalization method, especially on push-type systems. Many conventional personalization systems rely strictly on personal interests during information presentation, but the “freshness” of information is often as important as the relation to personal preferences. For example, a user who accesses a WWW newspaper several times a day, expects to see fresh articles displayed in prominent positions
. Stock prices influence investments. Traf- fic information helps decide which routes to take and which while performing other tasks. Today, as information from chat tools, Web alert systems, stock track- ers, score tickers, buddy lists, schedules, and other sources invade our desktops, it is important
-making such as emergency management planning requires collecting and analyzing various kinds of information. The decision on emergency management teams : Three experts are planning an emergency management operation: they need geospatial information, which is critical to many emergency management situations, is often difficult
We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.
information distance (NID) measures in real-world problems, but their application in the field of medical- lated methods in the field of medical image processing. Medical images are typically capturedADAPTIVE WINDOWING FOR OPTIMAL VISUALIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES BASED ON NORMALIZED INFORMATION
(vision only) and in which the target was initially present but disappeared during the first movement information about object location to plan pointing movements. Journal of Vision, 9(1):24, 1Â19, httpHumans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements
Used Visual Expectation Paradigm to describe information processing changes and individual differences during first year of life. Found regular age changes in mean reaction time and variability but not in minimum reaction time, suggesting that growth rate of sensory-detection information is constant during first year but age changes occur in level…
Canfield, Richard L.; Smith, Elliott G.; Brezsnyak, Michael P.; Snow, Kyle L.
Integration of Visual-Vestibular Self Motion: Comparison of Landmark and Optic Flow Information MPI = vestibular Â· Conclusions Â· Results II - varied gain factors, average turn angleÂ· Introduction Â· Methods and vestibular information: Additive, multiplicative, and the "max-rule" model. Markus
Mental rotation is a widely accepted concept indicating an image-like mental representation of visualinformation and an analogue mode of information processing in certain visuospatial tasks. In the task of discriminating between image and mirror-image of rotated figures, human reaction times increase with the angular disparity between the figures. In animals, tests of this kind yield inconsistent results. Pigeons were
Fusion of range and visual data for the extraction of scene structure information Haris Baltzakis data is proposed. Data fusion is achieved by validating assumptions formed according to 2D range scans measurements in large angular fields and at very fast rates. The acquired range information is compact enough
Systems that include multiple integrated displays distributed throughout the working environment are becoming prevalent. Compared to traditional desktop displays, information presented on such systems is typically separated at much wider visual angles. Additionally, since displays are often placed at different depths or are framed by physical bezels, they introduce physical discontinuities in the presentation of information. In this paper, we
This paper deals with the extraction of part of the visualinformation presented in streets, roads, and motorways. This information, provided by either traffic or road signs and route-guidance signs, is extremely important for safe and suc- cessful driving. An automatic system that is capable of extracting and identifying these signs automatically would help human drivers enormously; navigation would be
Arturo De La Escalera; Jose M. Armingol; José Manuel Pastor; Francisco José Rodríguez
A defining characteristic of visual working memory is its limited capacity. This means that it is crucial to maintain only the most relevantinformation in visual working memory. However, empirical research is mixed as to whether it is possible to selectively maintain a subset of the information previously encoded into visual working memory. Here we examined the ability of participants
Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevantvisualinformation from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…
VisualInformation Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter V: Virtual 3D Cities 1 Chapter V Virtual 3D Cities Virtual 3D Cities Â· 5.1 Â Introduction Â· 5.2 Â CityGML Â· 5.3 Â Google Earth Â· 5.4 Â Virtual Earth Â· 5.5 Â Conclusions 5.1 Â Introduction Â· 3D Visualization of cities Â· Languages such as CityGML Â· New
VisualInformation Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter VIII: Virtual 3D Cities 1 Chapter VIII Virtual 3D Cities Virtual 3D Cities Â· 8.1 Â Introduction Â· 8.2 Â CityGML Â· 8.3 Â Google Earth Â· 8.4 Â Virtual Earth Â· 8.5 Â Conclusions 8.1 Â Introduction Â· 3D Visualization of cities Â· Languages such as City
for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subject: Psychology IMPAIRMENT IN EARLY STAGES OF VISUALINFORMATION PROCESSING IN NONPSYCHOTIC SCHIZOTYPIC INDIVIDUALS A Thesis by ROBERT JON STERONKO Approved as to sty1e and content by...- order. The MMPI 2-7-8 code type (elevated Depression, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia scales) was used to iden- tify these subjects. This group was compared on a back- ward visual masking task with two control groups: one whose profiles were...
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.
McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.
We evaluated the role of visual and non-visualinformation in the control of smooth pursuit movements during tracking of a self-moved target. Previous works have shown that self-moved target tracking is characterised by shorter smooth pursuit latency and higher maximal velocity than eye-alone tracking. In fact, when a subject tracks a visual target controlled by his own arm, eye movement
The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources and tools has resulted in a large increase in the level of interaction between S`COOL participants and the NASA team. With the posting of the new Excel tools, we anticipate a large increase in active data analysis by our K-12 teachers and students. www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/usedata.html
Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.
This paper describes a vision-based large-area simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm that respects the constraints of low-overlap imagery typical of underwater vehicles while exploiting the information associated with the inertial sensors that are routinely available on such platforms. We present a novel strategy for ef?ciently accessing and maintaining consistent covariance bounds within a SLAM information ?lter, greatly increasing the
Ryan Eustice; Hanumant Singh; John J. Leonard; Matthew Walter; Robert Ballard
Coordinating one's movements with others is an important aspect of human interactions. Regulating the distance to other moving agents is often necessary to achieve specific task goals such as in invasion sports. This study aimed to examine how distance regulation is mediated by different sources of information that are typically available when humans coordinate their actions to others. Participants followed a virtual leader that moved backwards and forwards, and were instructed to maintain the initial distance. In one condition, participants were presented with a life-size fully animated human avatar as the leader, displaying both segmental (limb motion) and global (optical expansion) motion information. In the other condition, participants had to follow an expanding and receding sphere in which segmental motion information was absent. Optical expansion rates revealed that participants regulated distance equally effective in both conditions. Given the phase relation and response times to direction changes however, the timing to the leader appeared to be more accurate in the avatar condition. These results provide support that forward-backward following can indeed be successfully mediated through global information, but that detection of segmental information allows for earlier tuning to another person's movement intentions. PMID:25153514
Change blindness demonstrations illustrate the limited detail of visual representations. These demonstrations typically require disruption to the visual input when the change occurs or changes that occur very slowly. With sustained viewing or faster changes to the scenes, changes are more easily detected because attention can be effectively allocated to the part of the scene that is changing. Here, we investigate the interaction of visual attention and memory in the domain of 2-D contour shapes. We show, using a novel combination of established change blindness paradigms, that changes can go unnoticed even when they occur on isolated 2-D contour shapes. The effect appears to be due to involuntary updating of stored shape information. This involuntary updating process, however, is constrained so that previously attended shape information is updated only when attention is reallocated to qualitatively similar shape information. PMID:24980153
Cell regulation and signal transduction are becoming increasingly complex, with reports of new cross-signalling, feedback, and feedforward regulations between pathways and between the multiple isozymes discovered at each step of these pathways. However, this information, which requires pages of text for its description, can be summarized in very simple schemes, although there is no consensus on the drawing of such schemes. This article presents a simple set of rules that allows a lot of information to be inserted in easily understandable displays. PMID:10998591
In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visualinformation. Videos with synchronous audio-visualinformation were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visualinformation, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. PMID:22005579
for presentation to end users, and logic that defines how a collection tools should operate on metadata. The long-term goal of this research is to build creativity support tools that facilitate collecting and visualizinginformation in cognitively beneficial... creativity support tool that provides users with the ability to search, browse, collect, mix, organize, and think about information. The software previously had custom code for information sources such as Google, Yahoo, and Flickr. Thus, it required...
Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visualinformation to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656
During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g.,head and eye gesture) to communicate relevantinformation and tosynchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visualfeedback, people often rely ...
and pairs showed evidence of more confirmation bias. They discussed fewer hypotheses and persisted overload, confirmation bias, empirical studies, computer-mediated communication. ACM Classification, particularly confirmation bias--the tendency to seek out information that confirms what one already thinks
Cell regulation and signal transduction are becoming increasingly complex, with reports of new cross-signalling, feedback, and feedforward regulations between pathways and between the multiple isozymes discovered at each step of these pathways. However, this information, which requires pages of text for its description, can be summarized in very simple schemes, although there is no consensus on the drawing of such
Isabelle Pirson; Nathalie Fortemaison; Christine Jacobs; Sarah Dremier; Jacques E Dumont; Carine Maenhaut
In this paper we introduce Statement Map, a project de- signed to help users navigate the vast amounts of informa- tion on the internet and come to informed opinions on top- ics of interest. It does this by mining the Web for a variety of viewpoints and presenting them to users together with supporting evidence in a way that makes
Koji Murakami; Eric Nichols; Suguru Matsuyoshi; Asuka Sumida; Shouko Masuda; Kentaro Inui; Yuji Matsumoto
Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early. PMID:24098919
This study focused on the role played by two factors--interpersonal attractiveness of group members and pattern of distribution of task-relevantinformation--in forming an influence base in task-oriented discussion groups. For purposes of the study, members of discussion groups who were confederates in the study were assigned attitudinal…
Terrorist social networks present information about the relationships between terrorists which is important for investigators\\u000a in combating the war of terrorism. A good analysis of terrorist social networks is essential for discovering knowledge about\\u000a the structure of terrorist organizations. Typical social network analysis techniques discover patterns of interactions between\\u000a social actors, for examples, detecting subgroup and identifying central individuals. Such
\\u000a This chapter describes the Texas Christian University Node-Link Mapping (TCU-NLM) system, and traces its empirical and applied\\u000a history from 1972 to the present. TCU-NLM, which consists of information, guide, and freestyle maps, has been explored in\\u000a the areas of education, counseling, and business. Principles derived from experiences with this system are presented in four\\u000a categories: goal specification, node-link infrastructure, spatial
Humans can perceive affordances both for themselves and for others, and affordance perception is a function of perceptual–motor experience involved in playing a sport. Two experiments investigated the enhanced affordance perception of athletes. In Experiment 1, basketball players and nonbasketball players provided perceptual reports for sports-relevant (maximum standing-reach and reach-with-jump heights) and non-sports-relevant (maximum sitting height) affordances for self and
A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.
Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.
Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.
The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…
Our major goal is to account for some simple digit-recall data with a theory that integrates two models from two scientific traditions. The random-sampling model, founded in the memory and attention literature, holds that (1) stimulus features are randomly sampled throughout the course of stimulus presence and (2) proportion correct recall is equal to the ratio of sampled features to total features. The linear-filter model, founded in the vision and sensation literature, holds that the initial stages of the visual system act as a low-pass temporal filter on the input stimulus, resulting in a time-varying sensory response in the nervous system. We report two experiments in which a variable-duration, masked, four-digit string had to be immediately recalled. Experiment 1 was designed principally to replicate past data confirming the basic random-sampling model. Like others, we were able to confirm the model only by endowing it with an additional processing-delay assumption: that feature sampling does not begin until the stimulus has been physically present for some minimal duration. Experiment 2 was an extension of Experiment 1 in which the target stimulus was preceded, 250 msec prior to its onset, by a 50-msec pre-presentation of the same stimulus called a prime. The Experiment 2 results allowed the following conclusions. First, the initial processing delay found in Experiment 1 is immutably tied to stimulus onset; that is, if there are two stimulus onsets, separated even briefly in time, there are two associated processing delays. Second, processing rate is essentially unaffected by the prime's presentation. Third, being presented with a 50-msec prime is equivalent, in terms of memory performance, to increasing unprimed stimulus duration by approximately 30 msec; the prime can thus said to be worth 30 msec of additional exposure duration. This third conclusion seems superficially paradoxical, in the sense that one would expect that having seen a 50-msec prime would be equivalent to increasing exposure duration by at least the same 50 msec. However, both the initial processing delays and the 30-msec prime's worth are natural consequences of our theory that conjoins the random-sampling model with the linear-filter model. PMID:8255716
The functions of a gene are traditionally annotated textually using either free text (Gene Reference Into Function or GeneRIF) or controlled vocabularies (e.g., Gene Ontology or Disease Ontology). Inspired by the latest word cloud tools developed by the InformationVisualization Group at IBM Research, we have prototyped a visual system for capturing gene annotations, which we named Gene Graph Into Function or GeneGIF. Fully developing the GeneGIF system would be a significant effort. To justify the necessity and to specify the design requirements of GeneGIF, we first surveyed the end-user preferences. From 53 responses, we found that a majority (64%, p < 0.05) of the users were either positive or neutral toward using GeneGIF in their daily work (acceptance); in terms of preference, a slight majority (51%, p > 0.05) of the users favored visual presentation of information (GeneGIF) compared to textual (GeneRIF) information. The results of this study indicate that a visual presentation tool, such as GeneGIF, can complement standard textual presentation of gene annotations. Moreover, the survey participants provided many constructive comments that will specify the development of a phase-two project (http://188.8.131.52/) to visually annotate each gene in the human genome. PMID:20865558
Desai, Jairav; Flatow, Jared M.; Song, Jie; Zhu, Lihua J.; Du, Pan; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Lu, Hui; Lin, Simon M.
Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevantinformation for the Task Force, CSNE addressed several challenges, including: allocating the emission reduction and economic impacts of local- to state-scale mitigation strategies that are in reality integrated on regional and/or national scales; incorporating changes to the details of the strategies over time; identifying and quantifying key variables; choosing appropriate levels of detail for over 100 strategies within the limited analysis timeframe; integrating individual strategies into a coherent whole; and structuring data presentation to maximize transparency of analysis without confusing or overwhelming decision makers.
Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.
Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.
Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.
Cerebral asymmetries result from hemispheric specialization and interhemispheric communication pattern that develop in close gene-environment interactions. To gain a deeper understanding of developmental and functional interrelations, we investigated interhemispheric information exchange in pigeons, which possess a lateralized visual system that develops in response to asymmetrical ontogenetic light stimulation. We monocularly trained pigeons with or without embryonic light experience in color discriminations whereby they learned another pair of colors with each eye. Thereby, information from the ipsilateral eye had to be transferred. Monocular tests confronting the animals with trained and transferred color pairs demonstrated that embryonic light stimulation modulates the balance of asymmetrical handling of transfer information. Stronger embryonic stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly enhanced access to interhemispheric visualinformation, thereby reversing the right-hemispheric advantage that develops in the absence of embryonic light experience. These data support the critical role of environmental factors in molding a functionally lateralized brain. PMID:24584671
Letzner, Sara; Patzke, Nina; Verhaal, Josine; Manns, Martina
To aid designers of digital library interfaces and web sites in creating comprehensible, predictable and controllableenvironments for their users, we define and discuss the benefits of previews and overviews as visual informationrepresentations. Previews and overviews are graphic or textual representations of information abstracted from primaryinformation objects. They serve as surrogates for those objects. When utilized properly, previews and overviews allow
Stephan Greene; Gary Marchionini; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman; AB STRACT
We investigated the importance of visual versus somatosen- sory information for the adaptation of the fingertip forces to object shape when humans used the tips of the right index finger and thumb to lift a test object. The angle of the two flat grip surfaces in relation to the vertical plane was changed between trials from 240 to 30°. At
We developed an intelligent informationvisualization tool that enables public health officials to be aware of health-related trends in any geographic area of interest, based on Twitter data. Monitoring and detecting emergent crisis events in advance such as natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and terrorism is vital for protecting public health. The goal of our tool is to support situation awareness
S. P. Moon; Yikun Liu; S. O. Entezari; A. Pirzadeh; Andrew Pappas; Mark S. Pfaff
will be provided during the semester. Course outline: 1. Motivation: "What is it that we're trying to do and why is it so difficult?" 2. Foundations of VisualInformation: 25 % Â· Homework assignments (3 Ã? 10%): 30 % Â· Final project
The effects of musical accompaniment on two different visualinformation processing activities were examined in individuals of differing selected personality types. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form G was administered to classes of University students. From the results, four subgroups, the sensing-thinking, sensing-feeling, intuitive-feeling,…
Because subjective evaluation is not adequate for assessing work in an automatic system, using an objective image fusion performance metric is a common approach to evaluate the quality of different fusion schemes. In this paper, a multi-resolution image fusion metric using visualinformation fidelity (VIF) is presented to assess fusion performance objectively. This method has four stages: (1) Source and
and Interactive Systems Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria 3 Department of Child and Adolescent of anorectic girls attend a therapy at any one time. The girls and their parents have to fill out numerousAssessing the Usability of an Interactive InformationVisualization Method as the First Step
-2111 ext. 82222 Classroom Management Group http://www.ipb.uwo.ca/cmg/ A/V system guidanceThis is a General University (G.U.) Classroom Audio-Visual assistance & information: 519 661 conditions & Building systems: 519 661-2111 ext. 83304 Facilities Management http
Even though interaction is an important part of informationvisualization (Infovis), it has garnered a relatively low level of attention from the Infovis community. A few frameworks and taxonomies of Infovis interaction techniques exist, but they typically focus on low-level operations and do not address the variety of benefits interaction provides. After conducting an extensive review of Infovis systems and
Ji Soo Yi; Youn ah Kang; J. T. Stasko; J. A. Jacko
The selection of appropriate proximity measures is one of the crucial success factors of content-based visualinformation retrieval. In this area of research, proximity measures are used to estimate the similarity of media objects by the distance of feature vectors. The research focus of this work is the identification of proximity measures that perform better than the usual choices (e.g.
Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…
This study explores the potential of geographic information systems (GIS) for building cost estimation and visualization. The proposed methodology uses AreView 3.2 for the storage of descriptive data of different task and relates these data to the corresponding spatial feature in GIS environment. Methodology utilises the capabilities of GIS to store spatial data in different themes, which can later be
usage of an online digital library of children's books (the International Children's Digital LibraryHow People Read Books Online: Mining and Visualizing Web Logs for Use Information Rong Chen1 , Anneemail@example.com Abstract. This paper explores how people read books online. Instead of observing individuals, we analyze
Information about various visual attributes, such as orientation or color, is represented in the primate striate cortex (VI) before reaching extrastriate cortices. Previous studies, using single-or multi-unit recordings, have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the question of whether these different attributes are represented by separate populations of neurons in VI. We addressed this question with imaging of intrinsic optical signals from
Youping Xiao; Ravi Rao; Guillermo Cecchi; Ehud Kaplan
In this paper, we address the task of automatic digest generating of video data taken from kindergarten surveillance cameras. Our objective is extracting and merging video segments to recode children's daily life. In order to deal with mass video data efficiently, we jointly utilize location information and visual features to segment raw material videos. Our proposed method involves two steps.
The Spatial Relation Query (SRQ) tool is a graphical software environment, supported by a SQL-like language, which enables\\u000a users to perform information extraction driven by the visual appearance and the spatial arrangement of the information. The\\u000a tool has been initially customised to work on specific application domains, like web pages and geospatial data. In this paper,\\u000a we present the theoretical
Giuseppe Della Penna; Daniele Magazzeni; Sergio Orefice
In this paper a robust system for enabling robots to detect and identify humans in domestic environments is proposed. Robust\\u000a human detection is achieved through the use of thermal and visualinformation sources that are integrated to detect human-candidate\\u000a objects, which are further processed in order to verify the presence of humans and their identity using face information in\\u000a the
Mauricio Correa; Gabriel Hermosilla; Rodrigo Verschae; Javier Ruiz-del-Solar
In recent years, finding the most relevant documents or search results in a search engine has become an important issue. Most previous research has focused on expanding the keyword into a more meaningful sequence or using a higher concept to form the semantic search. All of those methods need predictive models, which are based on the training data or Web
...comments received without change in the electronic docket, including any personal information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chia Chang, NIOSH, telephone (202) 245-0625, NORAmiddecade@cdc.gov. Dated: July 13, 2011. John Howard,...
Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings. PMID:20649445
Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwämmlein, Eva; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
A Coprocessor for Accelerating VisualInformation Processing W. Stechele*), L. Alvado CÃ¡rcel**), SEngine, a coprocessor for visualinformation processing. In this paper, the architectural design of Address are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG- 7
In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…
Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…
Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi
An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…
This paper explores the nature of the representations used for computing mean visual size of an array of visual objects of different sizes. In Experiment 1 we found that mean size judgments are accurately made even when the individual objects (circles) upon which those judgments were based were distributed between the two eyes. Mean size judgments were impaired, however, when a subset of the constituent objects involved in the estimation of mean size were rendered invisible by interocular suppression. These findings suggest that mean size is computed from relatively refined stimulus information represented at stages of visual processing beyond those involved in binocular combination and interocular suppression. In Experiment 2 we used an attentional blink paradigm to learn whether this refined information was susceptible to the constraints of attention. Accuracy of mean size judgments was unchanged when one of the two arrays of circles was presented within a rapid serial visual presentation sequence, regardless of task requirement (single vs. dual task) and the array’s time of presentation relative to the brief appearance of a target that was the focus of attention. Evidently the refined stimulus information used for computing mean size remains available even in the absence of focused attention. PMID:19761340
Joo, Sung Jun; Shin, Kilho; Chong, Sang Chul; Blake, Randolph
The mammalian visual system contains an extensive web of feedback connections projecting from “higher” cortical areas to “lower” areas including primary visual cortex. Although multiple theories have been proposed, the role of these connections in perceptual processing is not understood. Here we report a surprising new phenomenon not predicted by prior theories of feedback: the pattern of fMRI response in human foveal retinotopic cortex contains information about objects presented in the periphery, far away from the fovea. This information is position invariant, correlated with perceptual discrimination accuracy, and found only in foveal, not peripheral, retinotopic cortex. Our data cannot be explained by differential eye movements, activation from the fixation cross, or spillover activation from peripheral retinotopic cortex or from LOC. Instead, our findings indicate that position-invariant object information from higher cortical areas is fed back to foveal retinotopic cortex, enhancing task performance. PMID:18978780
Williams, Mark A.; Baker, Chris I.; Op de Beeck, Hans P.; Shim, Won Mok; Dang, Sabin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Kanwisher, Nancy
Recent evidence suggests that environmental conditions may affect whether fishes do or do not respond to the presence of chemical alarm cues in water. We present a simple model which suggests that the combination of risk of predation and information from other sources will determine when fishes should react to these chemical cues. We tested this model with a laboratory experiment which manipulated the risk of predation by altering the animals (hungry or well fed), or their environment (presence or absence of cover). We also altered the availability of visualinformation by manipulating the water clarity. Consistent with our model, fishes were most likely to react to chemical alarm cues in the absence of visualinformation and when the perceived risk of predation was high. The manipulation of either parameter was able to extinguish this response. PMID:10787160
Usually in the traditional science and technology information system, the only text and table form are used to manage the data, and the mathematic statistics method is applied to analyze the data. It lacks for the spatial analysis and management of data. Therefore, GIS technology is introduced to visualize and analyze the information data on science and technology industry. Firstly, by using the developed platform-microsoft visual studio 2005 and ArcGIS Engine, the informationvisualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS is built up, which implements various functions, such as data storage and management, inquiry, statistics, chart analysis, thematic map representation. It can show the change of science and technology information from the space and time axis intuitively. Then, the data of science and technology in Guangdong province are taken as experimental data and are applied to the system. And by considering the factors of humanities, geography and economics so on, the situation and change tendency of science and technology information of different regions are analyzed and researched, and the corresponding suggestion and method are brought forward in order to provide the auxiliary support for development of science and technology industry in Guangdong province.
Background Selective pressure in molecular evolution leads to uneven distributions of amino acids and nucleotides. In fact one observes correlations among such constituents due to a large number of biophysical mechanisms (folding properties, electrostatics, ...). To quantify these correlations the mutual information -after proper normalization - has proven most effective. The challenge is to navigate the large amount of data, which in a study for a typical protein cannot simply be plotted. Results To visually analyze mutual information we developed a matrix visualization tool that allows different views on the mutual information matrix: filtering, sorting, and weighting are among them. The user can interactively navigate a huge matrix in real-time and search e.g., for patterns and unusual high or low values. A computation of the mutual information matrix for a sequence alignment in FASTA-format is possible. The respective stand-alone program computes in addition proper normalizations for a null model of neutral evolution and maps the mutual information to Z-scores with respect to the null model. Conclusions The new tool allows to compute and visually analyze sequence data for possible co-evolutionary signals. The tool has already been successfully employed in evolutionary studies on HIV1 protease and acetylcholinesterase. The functionality of the tool was defined by users using the tool in real-world research. The software can also be used for visual analysis of other matrix-like data, such as information obtained by DNA microarray experiments. The package is platform-independently implemented in Java and free for academic use under a GPL license. PMID:20565748
This paper describes a speech recognition system that uses both acoustic and visual speech information to improve recognition performance in noisy environments. The system consists of three components: a visual module; an acoustic module; and a sensor fusion module. The visual module locates and tracks the lip movements of a given speaker and extracts relevant speech features. This task is
This study investigated the influence of visual cues and perceptual style on static and dynamic balance performance. Twenty-five field dependent (FD) and twenty-five field independent (FI) participants performed tests of static and dynamic balance under five different vision conditions. Balance performance was measured using the Biodex Balance System. The vision conditions included: eyes open with visual feedback (EOFB), without visual feedback (EOEC), viewing lines tilted 18 degrees (EOTL), eyes open without any visual cues (EONC), and eyes closed (EC). All participants were more stable when visual cues were present. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups on the static balance task in any of the vision conditions. A significant difference was found between the two groups on the dynamic balance task. In three of the vision conditions (EOFB, EOEC, EOTL), the FI group was found to be more stable than the FD group. Movement of the body required during a dynamic balance task generates vestibular and somatosensory information which FI individuals may be more efficient in translating into greater stability as compared with FD individuals. PMID:20702896
During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220
The treatment of atrial tachycardia by radio-frequency ablation is a complex and minimally invasive procedure. In most cases the surgeon uses fluoroscopic imaging to guide catheters into the atria. After recording activation potentials from the electrodes on the catheter, which has to be done for different catheter positions, the physiologist has to fuse both the activation times derived from the potentials with the fluoroscopic images and extract from these a 3D anatomical model of the atrium. This model will provide him with the necessary information to locate the ablation regions. To alleviate the problem of mentally reconstructing these different sources of information, we propose a virtual environment that has the ability to visualize the electrodes information onto a patient specific model of the atria. This 3D atrium surface model is derived from pre-operatively taken MR-images. Within the system this model is visualized in 3 different ways: two views correspond to the 2 fluoroscopes images, which are shown registred in the background while the third one can be freely manipulated by the physiologist. The system allows to annotate measurements onto the 3D model. Since the heart is not a static organ, tools are provided to modify previous annotations interactively. The information contained in the measurements can than be dispersed across the heart after extrapolation and interpolation and subsequently visualized by color coding the surface model. Preliminary clinical evaluation on 30 patients indicates that the combined representation of the activation times and the heart model provides a thorough and more accurate insight into the possible causes and solutions to the tachycardia than would be obtained using solely the fluoroscopes images and mental reconstruction. Unlike other tachycardia visualization software, our approach starts with a patient specific surface model which in itself provides extra insight into the problem. Furthermore it can be used very interactively by the physiologist as a kind of 3D sketchbook where he can enter, delete, ... different measurements, tissue types. Finally, the system can visualize at any stage of the surgery a model containing all information at hand. In this paper we present a system to represent electrocardiographic information that allows the physiologist to mark measurements which can than be visualized on a patient specific atrium model by color coding. First clinical evaluation indicates that this approach offers a considerable amount of added value.
De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Anne, Wim; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbuchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul
Modern society require to managers of the organizations to use both technology and knowledge to take necessary decisions in order to ensure the performance and long-term sustainability of the organization. Accounting information provided by financial statements is one of the most decisive factors in future decision making on credit institutions, but also the most important information system reflecting the result
Current knowledge about the precise timing of visual input to the cortex relies largely on spike timings in monkeys and evoked-response latencies in humans. However, quantifying the activation onset does not unambiguously describe the timing of stimulus-feature-specific information processing. Here, we investigated the information content of the early human visual cortical activity by decoding low-level visual features from single-trial magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses. MEG was measured from nine healthy subjects as they viewed annular sinusoidal gratings (spanning the visual field from 2 to 10° for a duration of 1 s), characterized by spatial frequency (0.33 cycles/degree or 1.33 cycles/degree) and orientation (45° or 135°); gratings were either static or rotated clockwise or anticlockwise from 0 to 180°. Time-resolved classifiers using a 20 ms moving window exceeded chance level at 51 ms (the later edge of the window) for spatial frequency, 65 ms for orientation, and 98 ms for rotation direction. Decoding accuracies of spatial frequency and orientation peaked at 70 and 90 ms, respectively, coinciding with the peaks of the onset evoked responses. Within-subject time-insensitive pattern classifiers decoded spatial frequency and orientation simultaneously (mean accuracy 64%, chance 25%) and rotation direction (mean 82%, chance 50%). Classifiers trained on data from other subjects decoded the spatial frequency (73%), but not the orientation, nor the rotation direction. Our results indicate that unaveraged brain responses contain decodable information about low-level visual features already at the time of the earliest cortical evoked responses, and that representations of spatial frequency are highly robust across individuals. PMID:23637162
Ramkumar, Pavan; Jas, Mainak; Pannasch, Sebastian; Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri
The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.
We evaluated the role of visual and non-visualinformation in the control of smooth pursuit movements during tracking of a self-moved target. Previous works have shown that self-moved target tracking is characterised by shorter smooth pursuit latency and higher maximal velocity than eye-alone tracking. In fact, when a subject tracks a visual target controlled by his own arm, eye movement and arm movement are closely synchronised. In the present study, we showed that, in a condition where the direction of motion of a self-moved visual target was opposite to that of the arm (same amplitude, same velocity, but opposite direction of movement), the resulting smooth pursuit eye movements occurred with low latency, and continued for about 140 ms in the direction of the arm movement rather than in the direction of the actual visual target movement. After 140 ms, the eye movement direction reversed through a combination of smooth pursuit and saccades. Subsequently, while arm and visual target still moved in opposite directions, smooth pursuit occurred in pace with the visual target motion. Subjects were also submitted to a series of 60 tracking trials, for which the arm-to-target motion relationship was systematically reversed. Under these conditions subjects were able to initiate early smooth pursuit in the actual direction of the visual target. Overall, these results confirm that non-visualinformation produced by the arm motor system can trigger and control smooth pursuit. They also demonstrate the plasticity of the neuronal network handling eye-arm coordination control. PMID:7789438
The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. PMID:24740963
This paper presents a new warning method for increasing drivers' sensitivity for recognizing hazardous factors in the driving environment. The method is based on a subliminal effect. The results of many experiments performed by three dimensional head-mounted display shows that the response time for detecting a flashing mark tended to decrease when a subliminal mark was shown in advance. Priming effects are observed in subliminal visualinformation. This paper also proposes a scenario for implementing this method in real vehicles.
Past research on automatic laughter classification\\/de- tection has focused mainly on audio-based approaches. Here we present an audiovisual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech, and we show that integrating the information from audio and video channels may lead to improved performance over single-modal approaches. Both audio and visual channels consist of two streams (cues), facial expressions and head pose for
Thispaperpresentsthe'MediaWatch on ClimateChange', an interac- tive Web portal that combines a portfolio of semantic services with a visual inter- face based on tightly coupled views. The interface enablesusers toaccess arepos- itory of environmental knowledge, built by crawling about 300,000 news media articles in weekly intervals. Tagging services annotate each article to create a con- textualized information space. A system component
Arno Scharl; Albert Weichselbraun; Alexander Hubmann-haidvogel; Hermann Stern; Gerhard Wohlgenannt; Dmytro Zibold
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulation of the characteristics of visual stimulus on postural control in dyslexic children. A total of 18 dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room, as still as possible, and looked at a target at different conditions of distance between the participant and a moving room frontal wall (25-150 cm) and vision (full and central). The first trial was performed without vision (baseline). Then four trials were performed in which the room remained stationary and eight trials with the room moving, lasting 60s each. Mean sway amplitude, coherence, relative phase, and angular deviation were calculated. The results revealed that dyslexic children swayed with larger magnitude in both stationary and moving conditions. When the room remained stationary, all children showed larger body sway magnitude at 150 cm distance. Dyslexic children showed larger body sway magnitude in central compared to full vision condition. In the moving condition, body sway magnitude was similar between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children but the coupling between visualinformation and body sway was weaker in dyslexic children. Moreover, in the absence of peripheral visual cues, induced body sway in dyslexic children was temporally delayed regarding visual stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that poor postural control performance in dyslexic children is related to how sensory information is acquired from the environment and used to produce postural responses. In conditions in which sensory cues are less informative, dyslexic children take longer to process sensory stimuli in order to obtain precise information, which leads to performance deterioration. PMID:24864051
This paper presents a new metadata model to describe and retrieve medical visualinformation, such as images and their diagnoses, using the Web. The classes of this model allow to describe medical images of different modalities, including their properties, components and relationships. This model supports the international classification of diseases and related health problems (i.e. ICD-10), and it has been
Silvio Antonio Carro; Jacob Scharcanski; José Valdeni de Lima
A key problem in visual tracking is how to effectively combine spatio-temporal visualinformation from throughout a video to accurately estimate the state of an object. We address this problem by incorporating Dempster-Shafer (DS) information fusion into the tracking approach. To implement this fusion task, the entire image sequence is partitioned into spatially and temporally adjacent subsequences. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for object/nonobject classification on each of these subsequences, the outputs of which act as separate data sources. To combine the discriminative information from these classifiers, we further present a spatio-temporal weighted DS (STWDS) scheme. In addition, temporally adjacent sources are likely to share discriminative information on object/nonobject classification. To use such information, an adaptive SVM learning scheme is designed to transfer discriminative information across sources. Finally, the corresponding DS belief function of the STWDS scheme is embedded into a Bayesian tracking model. Experimental results on challenging videos demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracking approach. PMID:23529089
Li, Xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhongfei; van den Hengel, Anton; Wang, Hanzi
This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.
This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580
The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.
Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC). PMID:16095527
Although prior research clearly shows that toddlers have difficulty learning from video, the basis for their difficulty is unknown. In the 2 current experiments, the effect of social feedback on 2-year-olds' use of information from video was assessed. Children who were told "face to face" where to find a hidden toy typically found it, but children…
Troseth, Georgene L.; Saylor, Megan M.; Archer, Allison H.
The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to vignettes depicting ambiguous relational provocation situations. In Study 2, girls reported their intent attributions, evaluations of
Marcelle M. Crain; Cambra L. Finch; Sharon L. Foster
Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013
Gonzalvez, Francisco G.; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.
We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevantinformation needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice. PMID:23215863
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a degenerative disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopamine system, exhibit deficits in selecting task-relevant stimuli in the presence of irrelevant stimuli, such as in visual search tasks. However, results from previous studies suggest that these deficits may vary as a function of whether selection must rely primarily on the “bottom-up” salience of the target relative
Todd S. Horowitz; Won Yung Choi; Jon C. Horvitz; Lucien J. Côté; Jennifer A. Mangels
The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate InformationVisualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.
Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana
Various papers on visualinformation processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.
Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)
The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview and live demonstration of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.
Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.
, evaluate, and re-apply the design solutions implemented within such frameworks. One popular and effective descriptions of interacting software components that can be customized to solve design problems within software, we present a series of design patterns for the domain of informationvisualization. We discuss
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to objectively measure features of the built environment that may influence adults' physical activity, which is an important determinant of chronic disease. We describe how a previously developed index of walkability was operationalised in an Australian context, using available spatial data. The index was used to generate a stratified sampling frame for the selection of households from 32 communities for the PLACE (Physical Activity in Localities and Community Environments) study. GIS data have the potential to be used to construct measures of environmental attributes and to develop indices of walkability for cities, regions or local communities. PMID:16387522
Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visualinformation, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way.
Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G.
-Kelly Mississippi State University ABSTRACT Several web-native informationvisualization methods (SVG, HTML5's-dimensional raster graphics (HTML5's Canvas ), and 3- dimensional modeling (VRML and its successor X3D [24
Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being “tuned” for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while the information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. PMID:24140820
Coupled interceptive actions are understood to be the result of neural processing—and visualinformation— which is distinct\\u000a from that used for uncoupled perceptual responses. To examine the visualinformation used for action and perception, skilled\\u000a cricket batters anticipated the direction of balls bowled toward them using a coupled movement (an interceptive action that preserved the natural coupling between perception and
The contribution of retinal flow (RF), extraretinal (ER), and egocentric visual direction (VD) information in locomotor control was explored. First, the recovery of heading from RF was examined when ER information was manipulated; results confirmed that ER signals affect heading judgments. Then the task was translated to steering curved paths, and the availability and veracity of VD were manipulated with either degraded or systematically biased RF. Large steering errors resulted from selective manipulation of RF and VD, providing strong evidence for the combination of RF, ER, and VD. The relative weighting applied to RF and VD was estimated. A point-attractor model is proposed that combines redundant sources of information for robust locomotor control with flexible trajectory planning through active gaze. PMID:12760621
in visual short-term memory: The structural gist Juan R. Vidal Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et of visual items in visual short-term memory has been extensively studied by many research groups on the organization of information in visual short-term memory. In a series of experiments we investigated how
We investigated how visual and linguistic information interact in the perception of emotion. We borrowed a phenomenon from film theory which states that presentation of an as such neutral visual scene intensifies the percept of fear or suspense induced by a different channel of information, such as language. Our main aim was to investigate how neutral visual scenes can enhance responses to fearful language content in parts of the brain involved in the perception of emotion. Healthy participants’ brain activity was measured (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) while they read fearful and less fearful sentences presented with or without a neutral visual scene. The main idea is that the visual scenes intensify the fearful content of the language by subtly implying and concretizing what is described in the sentence. Activation levels in the right anterior temporal pole were selectively increased when a neutral visual scene was paired with a fearful sentence, compared to reading the sentence alone, as well as to reading of non-fearful sentences presented with the same neutral scene. We conclude that the right anterior temporal pole serves a binding function of emotional information across domains such as visual and linguistic information. PMID:20530540
Ants in general are primarily olfactory animals, but many species also express visual behaviors. We analyze in 14 species, which range from purely olfactory to predominantly visually behaving ants, how the brains are equipped to control such behavior. We take the size and manifestation of the eyes as an indicator for the prevalence of vision in a given species, and we correlate it with the size of particular brain regions. Our morphometric data show that the size of the eyes generally correlates well with that of the optic lobes. The antennal lobes and the mushroom bodies have a surprisingly constant relative volume whereas, as expected, the relative size of the optic lobes varies strongly across species. Males of different species are more similar. Compared with workers, they all have large eyes, relatively larger optic lobes, smaller mushroom bodies, and similarly sized antennal lobes. The input regions of the mushroom bodies, the lip and the collar, generally correlate with the size of the optic and antennal lobe, respectively. Accordingly, the composition of the calyx reflects the importance of vision for the animal. We present data supporting the view that the mushroom bodies may participate in spatial orientation, landmark recognition, and visualinformation storage. PMID:10441753
Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices. PMID:25339872
Research has revealed that haptic perception of parallelity deviates from physical reality. Large and systematic deviations have been found in haptic parallelity matching most likely due to the influence of the hand-centered egocentric reference frame. Providing information that increases the influence of allocentric processing has been shown to improve performance on haptic matching. In this study allocentric processing was stimulated by providing informative vision in haptic matching tasks that were performed using hand- and arm-centered reference frames. Twenty blindfolded participants (ten men, ten women) explored the orientation of a reference bar with the non-dominant hand and subsequently matched (task HP) or mirrored (task HM) its orientation on a test bar with the dominant hand. Visualinformation was provided by means of informative vision with participants having full view of the test bar, while the reference bar was blocked from their view (task VHP). To decrease the egocentric bias of the hands, participants also performed a visual haptic parallelity drawing task (task VHPD) using an arm-centered reference frame, by drawing the orientation of the reference bar. In all tasks, the distance between and orientation of the bars were manipulated. A significant effect of task was found; performance improved from task HP, to VHP to VHPD, and HM. Significant effects of distance were found in the first three tasks, whereas orientation and gender effects were only significant in tasks HP and VHP. The results showed that stimulating allocentric processing by means of informative vision and reducing the egocentric bias by using an arm-centered reference frame led to most accurate performance on parallelity matching. PMID:23938339
Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visualinformation related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visualinformation to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visualinformation. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies. PMID:19236142
Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J
When people perform an attentionally demanding target task at fixation, they also encode the surrounding visual environment, which serves as a context of the task. Here, we examined the role of the hippocampus in memory for target and context. Thirty-five patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 35 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education participated in the study. Participants completed visual letter detection and auditory tone discrimination target tasks, while also viewing a series of briefly presented urban and natural scenes. For the measurement of hippocampal and cerebral cortical volume, we utilized the FreeSurfer protocol using a Siemens Trio 3 T scanner. Before the quantification of brain volumes, hippocampal atrophy was confirmed by visual inspection in each patient. Results revealed intact letter recall and tone discrimination performances in aMCI patients, whereas they showed severe impairments in the recognition of scenes presented together with the targets. Patients with aMCI showed bilaterally reduced hippocampal volumes, but intact cortical volume, as compared with the controls. In controls and in the whole sample, hippocampal volume was positively associated with scene recognition when a target task was present. This relationship was observed in both visual and auditory conditions. Scene recognition and target tasks were not associated with executive functions. These results suggest that the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of memory traces of the visual environment when people concurrently perform a target task at behaviorally relevant points in time. PMID:23266013
This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, ?-s, l-?/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, ?, ?/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, ?/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /?/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /?/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility. PMID:25190408
The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visualinformation does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.
Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature selection algorithm by combining mRMR and other more sophisticated feature selectors (e.g., wrappers). This allows us to select a compact set of superior features at very low cost. We perform extensive experimental comparison of our algorithm and other methods using three different classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machine, and linear discriminate analysis) and four different data sets (handwritten digits, arrhythmia, NCI cancer cell lines, and lymphoma tissues). The results confirm that mRMR leads to promising improvement on feature selection and classification accuracy. PMID:16119262
We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball. PMID:24197721
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visualinformation. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory
Joseph A. Mikels; Gregory R. Larkin; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Laura L. Carstensen
Suggests that in many situations, visual input tends to dominate other modalities in perceptual and memorial reports and in speeded responses. Visual dominance appears to be related to the relatively weak capacity of visual inputs to alert the organism to their occurrence. In response to this reduced alerting, Ss tend to keep their attention tuned to the visual modality. This
Michael I. Posner; Mary J. Nissen; Raymond M. Klein
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…
Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo
The feasibility of wave function collapse in the human brain has been the subject of vigorous scientific debates since the advent of quantum theory. Scientists like Von Neumann, London, Bauer and Wigner (initially) believed that wave function collapse occurs in the brain or is caused by the mind of the observer. It is a legitimate question to ask how human brain can receive subtle external visual quantum information intact when it must pass through very noisy and complex pathways from the eye to the brain? There are several approaches to investigate information processing in the brain, each of which presents a different set of conclusions. Penrose and Hameroff have hypothesized that there is quantum information processing inside the human brain whose material substrate involves microtubules and consciousness is the result of a collective wavefunction collapse occurring in these structures. Conversely, Tegmark stated that owing to thermal decoherence there cannot be any quantum processing in neurons of the brain and processing in the brain must be classical for cognitive processes. However, Rosa and Faber presented an argument for a middle way which shows that none of the previous authors are completely right and despite the presence of decoherence, it is still possible to consider the brain to be a quantum system. Additionally, Thaheld, has concluded that quantum states of photons do collapse in the human eye and there is no possibility for collapse of visual quantum states in the brain and thus there is no possibility for the quantum state reduction in the brain. In this paper we conclude that if we accept the main essence of the above approaches taken together, each of them can provide a different part of a teleportation mechanism.
A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications ZoÂ´e Drey1 environment into a visual pro- gramming language. A taxonomy describes the relevant entities of a given to taxonomical information. We have implemented a visual environment to develop taxonomies and orchestration
As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visualinformation. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.
Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua
Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.
Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)
Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.
A technique was developed to allow the Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS), a geometry and visualization system, to be used as a dynamic real-time geometry monitor, manipulator, and interrogator for other codes. This technique involves the direct connection of AGPS with one or more external codes through the use of Unix pipes. AGPS has several commands that control communication with the external program. The external program uses several special subroutines that allow simple, direct communication with AGPS. The external program creates AGPS command lines and transmits the line over the pipes or communicates on a subroutine level. AGPS executes the commands, displays graphics/geometry information, and transmits the required solutions back to the external program. The basic ideas discussed in this paper could easily be implemented in other graphics/geometry systems currently in use or under development.
Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.
Thanks to their different senses, human observers acquire multiple information coming from their environment. Complex cross-modal interactions occur during this perceptual process. This article proposes a framework to analyze and model these interactions through a rigorous and systematic data-driven process. This requires considering the general relationships between the physical events or factors involved in the process, not only in quantitative terms, but also in term of the influence of one factor on another. We use tools from information theory and probabilistic reasoning to derive relationships between the random variables of interest, where the central notion is that of conditional independence. Using mutual information analysis to guide the model elicitation process, a probabilistic causal model encoded as a Bayesian network is obtained. We exemplify the method by using data collected in an audio-visual localization task for human subjects, and we show that it yields a well-motivated model with good predictive ability. The model elicitation process offers new prospects for the investigation of the cognitive mechanisms of multisensory perception. PMID:20502912
Spike directivity, a new measure that quantifies the transient charge density dynamics within action potentials provides better results in discriminating different categories of visual object recognition. Specifically, intracranial recordings from medial temporal lobe (MTL) of epileptic patients have been analyzed using firing rate, interspike intervals and spike directivity. A comparative statistical analysis of the same spikes from a local ensemble of four selected neurons shows that electrical patterns in these neurons display higher separability to input images compared to spike timing features. If the observation vector includes data from all four neurons then the comparative analysis shows a highly significant separation between categories for spike directivity (p=0.0023) and does not display separability for interspike interval (p=0.3768) and firing rate (p=0.5492). Since electrical patterns in neuronal spikes provide information regarding different presented objects this result shows that related information is intracellularly processed in neurons and carried out within a millisecond-level time domain of action potential occurrence. This significant statistical outcome obtained from a local ensemble of four neurons suggests that meaningful information can be electrically inferred at the network level to generate a better discrimination of presented images. PMID:22480985
Summary The human motor system is remarkably proficient in the online control of visually guided movements, adjusting to changes in the visual scene within 100 ms [1–3]. This is achieved through a set of highly automatic processes  translating visualinformation into representations suitable for motor control [5, 6]. For this to be accomplished, visualinformation pertaining to target and hand need to be identified and linked to the appropriate internal representations during the movement. Meanwhile, other visualinformation must be filtered out, which is especially demanding in visually cluttered natural environments. If selection of relevant sensory information for online control was achieved by visual attention, its limited capacity  would substantially constrain the efficiency of visuomotor feedback control. Here we demonstrate that both exogenously and endogenously cued attention facilitate the processing of visual target information , but not of visual hand information. Moreover, distracting visualinformation is more efficiently filtered out during the extraction of hand compared to target information. Our results therefore suggest the existence of a dedicated visuomotor binding mechanism that links the hand representation in visual and motor systems. PMID:24631246
Reichenbach, Alexandra; Franklin, David W.; Zatka-Haas, Peter; Diedrichsen, Jorn
Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation, texture, etc. Direct volume rendering techniques do conventionally not make use of these semantics. The transfer function actively prevents the use of these semantic parameters for the description of visualization mappings. In our work on semantic layers we propose an alternative method to achieve meaningful visualization mappings from volumetric attributes to visual appearance. Semantic parameters are used to describe meaningful intervals of data and the rendering techniques. Visualization rules are used to specify a visualization mapping from expert semantics to illustration semantics. Our method enables a multi-dimensional mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple visual abstractions. Semantic values for volumetric attributes and for visual abstractions are represented as membership functions of fuzzy sets. Visualization rules are specified by the user to establish the semantic visualization mapping from various volume attributes to given visual abstractions. The visualization rules are interactively evaluated on modern graphics processing units using fuzzy logic arithmetics. With this approach it is possible to establish a visualization mapping between semantics from expert domains and scientific illustration techniques.
When reaching for an object in the environment, the brain often has access to multiple independent estimates of that object's location. For example, if someone places their coffee cup on a table, then later they know where it is because they see it, but also because they remember how their reaching limb was oriented when they placed the cup. Intuitively, one would expect more accurate reaches if either of these estimates were improved (e.g., if a light were turned on so the cup were more visible). It is now well-established that the brain tends to combine two or more estimates about the same stimulus as a maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE), which is the best thing to do when estimates are unbiased. Even in the presence of small biases, relying on the MLE rule is still often better than choosing a single estimate. For this work, we designed a reaching task in which human subjects could integrate proprioceptive and allocentric (landmark-relative) visualinformation to reach for a remembered target. Even though both of these modalities contain some level of bias, we demonstrate via simulation that our subjects should use an MLE rule in preference to relying on one modality or the other in isolation. Furthermore, we show that when visualinformation is poor, subjects do, indeed, combine information in this way. However, when we improve the quality of visualinformation, subjects counter-intuitively switch to a sub-optimal strategy that occasionally includes reliance on a single modality. PMID:23142707
The relationship of visual field to brain function is examined in research, and the correlation of gifted students' use of visual field of Piagetian theories of formal logical thought is analyzed. (C L)
Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301
Costa, Daniel G.; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo
Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301
Costa, Daniel G; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visualinformation. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visualinformation. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130
Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Hydrometeorological models simulate the atmospheric and hydrological processes at scales of 1- 10 km that are significantly influenced by the local and regional availability of soil moisture. Microwave observations at frequencies < 10 GHz are highly sensitive to changes in near-surface moisture and have been widely used to retrieve soil moisture information. While satellite-based active microwave observations are available at spatial resolutions of hundreds of meters, with temporal resolutions of several weeks, passive observations are obtained only at tens of kilometers with temporal resolutions of sub daily to 2-3 days. The European Space Agency-Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA-SMOS) and the near-future NASA-Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions will provide unprecedented passive microwave observations of brightness temperatures (TB) at the L-band frequency of 1.4 GHz. These products will be available at spatial resolutions of about 40-50 km and need to be downscaled to 1 km to merge them with models for data assimilation and to study the effects of land surface heterogeneity such as dynamic vegetation conditions. Very few studies have directly downscaled coarse-resolution TB observations to match model scales. Since downscaling is an ill-posed problem, additional information is required at the fine scales and some studies have leveraged auxiliary high-resolution remote sensing (RS) products in downscaling TB. Most of the above studies involve a) physical models that are computationally intensive when extended to global scales, or b) multi-scale algorithms that impose hierarchical models on TB assuming spatial homogeneity, or c) statistical algorithms that are based on second-order statistics such as variances and correlations. These approaches are therefore sub-optimal when applied to the real data or extended to regional/global scales. Optimal downscaling requires computationally-efficient algorithms that retain information from higher-order moments, especially under heterogeneous land surface conditions. Novel transformation functions leveraging physical relationships and recent advances in signal processing techniques can be used to transform information from high-resolution RS products into TB. In this study, a downscaling methodology was developed using the Principle of RelevantInformation (PRI) to downscale observations of TB from 50 km to 200 m using observations of land surface temperature, leaf area index, and land cover at 200 m. The PRI provides a hierarchical decomposition of image data that is optimal in terms of the transfer of information across scales and is therefore a better alternative to methods that use second-order statistics only. Non-parametric probability density functions and Bayes' rule was used to transform information from the RS products into TB. An Observing System Simulation Experiment was developed under heterogeneous and dynamic vegetation conditions to generate synthetic observations at 200m to evaluate the downscaling methodology and the transformation functions.
General Terms Human Factors; Design; Measurement. INTRODUCTION The quantitative evaluation of visual of visual interfaces and establish a role for fNIRS in vi- sualization. Research suggests that the evaluation of visual design benefits by going beyond performance measures or questionnaires to measurements
Landmarks play an important role in guiding navigational behavior. A host of studies in the last 15?years has demonstrated that environmental objects can act as landmarks for navigation in different ways. In this review, we propose a parsimonious four-part taxonomy for conceptualizing object location information during navigation. We begin by outlining object properties that appear to be important for a landmark to attain salience. We then systematically examine the different functions of objects as navigational landmarks based on previous behavioral and neuroanatomical findings in rodents and humans. Evidence is presented showing that single environmental objects can function as navigational beacons, or act as associative or orientation cues. In addition, we argue that extended surfaces or boundaries can act as landmarks by providing a frame of reference for encoding spatial information. The present review provides a concise taxonomy of the use of visual objects as landmarks in navigation and should serve as a useful reference for future research into landmark-based spatial navigation. PMID:22969737
Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Mattingley, Jason B.
A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis - as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone - depends on robust info...
Natural visual scenes are cluttered and contain many different objects that cannot all be processed simultaneously. Therefore,\\u000a attentional mechanisms are needed to select relevant and to filter out irrelevant information. Evidence from functional brain\\u000a imaging reveals that attention operates at various processing levels within the visual system and beyond. First, the lateral\\u000a geniculate nucleus appears to be the first stage
: Reaching under reduced vision. Keywords: Vision, motor control. Correspondence: Dr. Neil E. BerthierÂ0996 email: firstname.lastname@example.org 1 #12; Abstract The role of vision in the control of reaching indicated that as visualinformation and object size decreased, subjects used longer movement times, had
Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three nonspecificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback, but several participants defied the…
This study investigated the visualinformation that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to…
Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2 1/2-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar…
Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…
This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…
perception of prosodic focus in French. It therefore appears that vision also plays a role in the perceptionAuditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis ---- Contrastive are combined for the perception of speech segments and recent studies have shown that this is also the case
COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM August 2001/Vol. 44, No. 8 31 Storytelling allows visualization to reveal in the computer. The ancient art of storytelling and its adapta- tion in film and video can now be used to efficiently convey information in our increasingly computerized world. What Storytelling Can Do
This study examined the independent and interactive effects of visualinformation and linguistic class of words on intelligibility of dysarthric speech. Seven speakers with dysarthria participated in the study, along with 224 listeners who transcribed speech samples in audiovisual (AV) or audio-only (AO) listening conditions. Orthographic…
Hustad, Katherine C.; Dardis, Caitlin M.; Mccourt, Kelly A.
The recent development of immersive displays with high resolution and a wide field of view (e.g., hemi-spherical projection screen) has made it possible to play video games with higher levels of presence. However, it is not yet clear how players utilize the visual and auditory information provided by such displays for game play. In this paper, we report three experiments
E-books promise to become a widespread delivery mechanism for educational resources. However, current e-books do not take full advantage of the power of computing tools. In particular, interaction with the content is often reduced to navigation through the information. This article investigates how adding interactive visuals to an e-book…
This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622
Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visualinformation. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194
Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°-2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visualinformation. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%-34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194
Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks—salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location—can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing.
Memory for semantic information is relatively preserved through the normal aging process. Visuospatial memory remains less\\u000a intact. In the present article a theory is proposed that links this processing difference to normal age-related generalized\\u000a cognitive slowing, and to the appearance of specific age-related differences in memory performance. Evidence for these suggestions\\u000a is presented from work in four areas: mental rotation,
In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speed sensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimal multivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noises corrupting the relevantinformation coming from the sensors' outputs are so dangerous that their negative influence on the electrical
This paper lays out a program for analysing relevance constructively. It begins with a summary of results concerning the system C of Pottinger [197a] which has entailment, relevant implication, S4 strict implication, and intuitionist implication among its connectives. A full working out of the motivation for C will require formal analysis of informal concepts derived from the usual explanation of
Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.
It is with enthusiasm and excitement that I join the community of informationvisualization researchers and designers in their data sets. Their quest may last days or years as they seek identify surprising groupings hidden among in their industry group. The users' goals are often noble, valuable, and influential. Which sets of genes limit
The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616
Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.
Background Human core body temperature is kept quasi-constant regardless of varying thermal environments. It is well known that physiological thermoregulatory systems are under the control of central and peripheral sensory organs that are sensitive to thermal energy. If these systems wrongly respond to non-thermal stimuli, it may disturb human homeostasis. Methods Fifteen participants viewed video images evoking hot or cold impressions in a thermally constant environment. Cardiovascular indices were recorded during the experiments. Correlations between the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores and cardiovascular indices were calculated. Results The changes of heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were significantly correlated with the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores, and the tendencies were similar to those in actual thermal environments corresponding to the impressions. Conclusions The present results suggest that visualinformation without any thermal energy can affect physiological thermoregulatory systems at least superficially. To avoid such ‘virtual’ environments disturbing human homeostasis, further study and more attention are needed. PMID:24373765
This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to blind and visually impaired persons, including advocacy and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications offered in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to families of blind and visually impaired persons and training for…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.
Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…
or interpretation procedures), however only a few studies have been dedicated to the evaluation of the visualization of the values. Our study is devoted to the evaluation of the quantitative visualization of these signals in a particular medical application, the clinical epilepsy studies. In this medical field, 3D representations
ultimately affect perception and behavior? [DOI: 10.2976/1.3027089] CORRESPONDENCE Tim Gollisch: tgollisch a newspaper, on a chair. You grab them and storm out of the door without stopping to marvel at the sheer wonders that your visual system performed to guide you towards your object of desire. Visual perception
In this paper we proposed an application on smart phones for interactive mobile learning. Image recognition technology is used to link physical objects seen through the camera to relevantinformation. Through the built-in camera on the smart phone, visual interactive learning can be realized. With the GPS sensor, location activated learning is also possible. Combining both the camera and the
Yiqun Li; Aiyuan Guo; Jimmy Addison Lee; Yan Gao; Yii Leong Ling
This website shows the diversity of visualization methods that are out there. Visualization types are presented in a 'periodic' table; rolling over each 'element' gives an example of the visualization style. Basic categories include data visualization, informationvisualization, concept visualization, strategy visualization, metaphor visualization, and compound visualization.
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory informationvisualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative informationvisualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342
This article addresses the advocacy of organizations like the National Art Education Association that seek greater legislative support, funding and time allocations to be devoted to arts instruction and the development of arts practices in the arena of public education. The author argues the timeliness of a reconceived paradigm for understanding and advocating the relevancy of arts practices in the
represent images and edges measure the vi- sual similarity among images. Then, a clustering methodSupervised Models for Multimodal Image Retrieval based on Visual, Semantic and Geographic media need bet- ter search technologies to achieve suitable performance. Multimodal approaches
This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…
and will be used to assign students to placements and to record students' compliance with NSW Health policyPrivacy Statement The University will collect, manage, use and disclose personal information and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 governs all matters related to personal information
A readily accessible archive of information that is valid, current, and technically defensible is needed to make informed highway-planning, design, and management decisions. The National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS) is a cataloging and assessment of the documentation of informationrelevant to highway-runoff water quality available in published reports. The report review process is based on the NDAMS review sheet, which was designed by the USGS with input from the FHWA, State transportation agencies, and the regulatory community. The report-review process is designed to determine the technical merit of the existing literature in terms of current requirements for data documentation, data quality, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and technical issues that may affect the use of historical data. To facilitate the review process, the NDAMS review sheet is divided into 12 sections: (1) administrative review information, (2) investigation and report information, (3) temporal information, (4) location information (5) water-quality-monitoring information, (6) sample-handling methods, (7) constituent information, (8) sampling focus and matrix, (9) flow monitoring methods, (10) field QA/QC, (11) laboratory, and (12) uncertainty/error analysis. This report describes the NDAMS report reviews and metadata documentation methods and provides an overview of the approach and of the quality-assurance and quality-control program used to implement the review process. Detailed information, including a glossary of relevant terms, a copy of the report-review sheets, and reportreview instructions are completely documented in a series of three appendixes included with this report. Therefore the reviews are repeatable and the methods can be used by transportation research organizations to catalog new reports as they are published.
Dionne, Shannon G.; Granato, Gregory E.; Tana, Cameron K.
This web site for a class on flow visualization showcases the work of engineering and fine arts students. Eleven galleries present student images showing fluids and clouds, with information about both the science and the photography. Some movies are included. Course information and details about the equipment used are also provided, along with links to other web resources on weather, fluids, and art.
Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…
Natural visual scenes are cluttered. In such scenes, many objects in the periphery can be crowded, blocked from identification, simply because of the dense array of clutter. Outside of the fovea, crowding constitutes the fundamental limitation on object recognition and is thought to arise from the limited resolution of the neural mechanisms that select and bind visual features into coherent objects. Thus it is widely believed that in the visual processing stream, a crowded object is reduced to a collection of dismantled features with no surviving holistic properties. Here, we show that this is not so: an entire face can survive crowding and contribute its holistic attributes to the perceived average of the set, despite being blocked from recognition. Our results show that crowding does not dismantle high-level object representations to their component features. PMID:21676930
Retinotopic maps are plastic in response to changes in sensory input; however, the experience-dependent instructive cues that organize retinotopy are unclear. In animals with forward-directed locomotion, the predominant anterior to posterior optic flow activates retinal ganglion cells in a stereotyped temporal to nasal sequence. Here we imaged retinotectal axon arbor location and structural plasticity to assess map refinement in vivo while exposing Xenopus tadpoles to visual stimuli. We show that the temporal sequence of retinal activity driven by natural optic flow organizes retinotopy by regulating axon arbor branch dynamics, whereas the opposite sequence of retinal activity prevents map refinement. Our study demonstrates that a spatial to temporal to spatial transformation of visualinformation controls experience-dependent topographic map plasticity. This organizational principle is likely to apply to other sensory modalities and projections in the brain. PMID:25385606
their users to understand the spatial relationship between a set of places. However, physical Braille maps relationship with each other. They sometimes also need to physically navigate an environment multiple times before they can develop a familiarity with the environment. Although such activities can help visually
It is well established that scenes and objects elicit a highly selective response in specific brain regions in the ventral visual cortex. An inherent difference between these categories that has not been explored yet is their perceived distance from the observer (i.e. scenes are distal whereas objects are proximal). The current study aimed to test…
ABSTRACT: Knowledge of objects, situations, or locations in the environment can be pro- ductive, useful, or even life-critical for mobile augmented reality (AR) users. Users may need assistance with (1) dangers, obstacles, or situations requiring attention; (2) visual search; (3) task sequencing; and (4) spatial navigation. The omnidirectional attention funnel is a general purpose AR interface technique that rapidly guides
Frank Biocca; Charles B. Owen; Arthur Tang; Corey Bohil
This article is the report of a large-scale, international research project involving focus group interviews of adolescent and young adult members of a variety of self-initiated visual culture groups in five urban areas (Amsterdam, Budapest, Chicago, Helsinki, and Hong Kong). Each group was established by young people around their interests in the…
consist of 2D map/GIS overlays stacked in 3D space that only provide a limited extension of the geological of landscapes and the hydrodynamic simulations of surface waters. Progress needs to be made in visualizing; Â· Geologic models to define, assess, and bound resources and/or lithologic properties (water, oil, gas
Experiments were conducted to investigate which sensory cues are used by brown capuchins (Cebus apella) in embedded invertebrate foraging. The importance of visual, olfactory, and acoustic cues in such foraging was determined by presenting subjects with a stimulus log modified to block out given sensory cues. Experiment 1 was designed to investigate whether subjects could locate an invertebrate embedded in
Kimberley A. Phillips; Lisa M. Shauver Goodchild; Meghan E. Haas; Marjorie J. Ulyan; Stephanie Petro
Four experiments with 61 university students demonstrated that more time is required to scan further distances across visual images, even when the same amount of material falls between the initial focus point and the target. Not only did times systematically increase with distance, but subjectively larger images required more time to scan than did subjectively smaller ones. Finally, when Ss
Stephen M. Kosslyn; Thomas M. Ball; Brian J. Reiser
may be far away from the initial one). Thanks to sensor based navigation, we have seen autonomous the navigation task is a well known problem and the main difficulties here are i) the complexity of the initial.Marchand@irisa.fr Abstract In this paper we propose a new way to achieve a navigation task (visual path following) for a non
that exceed those of traditional web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive visualizations providers, understanding of user visit patterns is essential for effective design of sites involving online issues such as depth vs. breadth of tree structures, incidental learning patterns, utility of graphics
that exceed those of traditional web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive visualizations for effective design of sites involving online communities, government services, digital libraries, and electronic commerce. Such understanding helps resolve issues such as depth vs. breadth of tree structures
In this paper we report an investigation conducted on a brain-damaged patient who presents a selective impairment in processing elements of some semantic categories, in particular animals, fruit, and vegetables. His difficulties appear mainly when naming pictures, but are also present when naming to definition and when retrieving visual attributes of concepts from memory. The pattern of the patient's performance
The prevalence of visual impairment (that is, blindness and low vision) is increasing in the United States, especially in persons aged 65 and older, with more than half of all people who are blind in this age demographic. It has been estimated that about 6.5 million Americans aged 55 and older report vision loss, and this number is expected to…
Blogs and other social media are playing an increasingly central role in the public sphere as sources complex, and so social media visualization has a crucial role to play in helping people to interpret analytics system for both social scientists and media monitors (to help their investigations
To be climate literate, students must be data-literate. To connect with the evidence behind scientists' assertions about climate change, students (and other novices) must be able to distinguish long-term trends from short-term variability in graphs, recognize the distribution of sea surface temperature or precipitation changes on maps, and discern important patterns in animations that display changes in data over time. Although the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near digital, sharable, real-time and archived earth systems data has the potential to transform how climate science is taught by connecting students directly with evidence to support their understanding, online interfaces to scientific data are typically industrial-strength - built by scientists for scientists - and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. To inform efforts at bridging scientific data portals to the classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by student learners and their instructors. The >70 cross-cutting and specific guidelines in our project report are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schema theory and Universal Design for Learning. The components of the human visual system and associated cognitive processes are highly specialized and have evolved in response to survival demands of the three-dimensional world humans have lived in for thousands of years. Because the use of two-dimensional representations, such as maps and graphs, and the use and navigation of Web interfaces has developed quite recently in human history, our visual perception system is not specifically adapted to these tasks. Therefore, it's critical to understand how to design two-dimensional media to take advantage of the strengths of our highly evolved and complex visual system and to compensate for its weaknesses. Looking at the design of data interfaces through this lens helps us understand, for example, why red stands out (finding ripe berries in a bush), why movement grabs our attention (hunting and avoiding predators), and why variations in light luminance and shading work better than variations in color hue for perceiving shape and form. This presentation will, through specific examples, explain how to avoid the pitfalls and make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user interface and visualizations so that it doesn't exceed the amount of information the learner can actively process; 2) drawing attention to important features and patterns; and 3) enabling customization of visualizations and tools to meet the needs of diverse learners
Krumhansl, R.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Foster, J.; Baker, I.
Social behavior can influence physiological systems dramatically yet the sensory cues responsible are not well understood. Behavior of male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in their natural habitat suggests that visual cues from conspecifics contribute significantly to regulation of social behavior. Using a novel paradigm, we asked whether visual cues alone from a larger conspecific male could influence behavior, reproductive physiology and the physiological stress response of a smaller male. Here we show that just seeing a larger, threatening male through a clear barrier can suppress dominant behavior of a smaller male for up to 7 days. Smaller dominant males being “attacked” visually by larger dominant males through a clear barrier also showed physiological changes for up to 3 days, including up-regulation of reproductive- and stress-related gene expression levels and lowered plasma 11-ketotestesterone concentrations as compared to control animals. The smaller males modified their appearance to match that of non-dominant males when exposed to a larger male but they maintained a physiological phenotype similar to that of a dominant male. After 7 days, reproductive- and stress- related gene expression, circulating hormone levels, and gonad size in the smaller males showed no difference from the control group suggesting that the smaller male habituated to the visual intruder. However, the smaller male continued to display subordinate behaviors and assumed the appearance of a subordinate male for a full week despite his dominant male physiology. These data suggest that seeing a larger male alone can regulate the behavior of a smaller male but that ongoing reproductive inhibition depends on additional sensory cues. Perhaps, while experiencing visual social stressors, the smaller male uses an opportunistic strategy, acting like a subordinate male while maintaining the physiology of a dominant male. PMID:21633515
How is visualinformation linked to aesthetic experience, and what factors determine whether an individual finds a particular visual experience pleasing? We have previously shown that individuals' aesthetic responses are not determined by objective image features but are instead a function of internal, subjective factors that are shaped by a viewers' personal experience. Yet for many classes of stimuli, culturally shared semantic associations give rise to similar aesthetic taste across people. In this paper, we investigated factors that govern whether a set of observers will agree in which images are preferred, or will instead exhibit more "personalized" aesthetic preferences. In a series of experiments, observers were asked to make aesthetic judgments for different categories of visual stimuli that are commonly evaluated in an aesthetic manner (faces, natural landscapes, architecture or artwork). By measuring agreement across observers, this method was able to reveal instances of highly individualistic preferences. We found that observers showed high agreement on their preferences for images of faces and landscapes, but much lower agreement for images of artwork and architecture. In addition, we found higher agreement for heterosexual males making judgments of beautiful female faces than of beautiful male faces. These results suggest that preferences for stimulus categories that carry evolutionary significance (landscapes and faces) come to rely on similar information across individuals, whereas preferences for artifacts of human culture such as architecture and artwork, which have fewer basic-level category distinctions and reduced behavioral relevance, rely on a more personalized set of attributes.
Vessel, Edward A.; Stahl, Jonathan; Maurer, Natalia; Denker, Alexander; Starr, G. G.
This perspective paper explores principles of unsupervised learning and how they relate to face recognition. Dependency coding and information maximization appear to be central principles in neural coding early in the visual system. These principles may be relevant to how we think about higher visual processes such as face recognition as well. The paper first reviews examples of dependency learning