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1

Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.  

PubMed

Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing. PMID:24184882

Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

2013-01-01

2

Is Information Still Relevant?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

Ma, Lia

2013-01-01

3

Information VisualizationInformation Visualization Spring 2010  

E-print Network

1 Information VisualizationInformation Visualization Ji Y 1 Jing Yang Spring 2010 Visual PerceptionVisual y y Sensory representation Understanding without training Resistance to instructional bias Sensory Embedded in culture and applications Formally powerful Capable of rapid change Most visualizations

Yang, Jing

4

Information Visualization Spring 2008  

E-print Network

1 1 Information Visualization Jing Yang Spring 2008 2 Visual Perception (1) #12;2 3 Semiotics Understanding without training Resistance to instructional bias Sensory immediacy Cross-cultural validity Capable of rapid change Most visualizations are hybrids! 4 Related Disciplines Psychophysics Applying

Yang, Jing

5

Information Visualization and Visual Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In- formation visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There is a large number of information visualization techniques which have been developed over the last decade to support the exploration of large data sets. In

Daniel A. Keim

2002-01-01

6

Visualizing Qualitative Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

Slone, Debra J.

2009-01-01

7

How information visualization novices construct visualizations.  

PubMed

It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process. PMID:20975131

Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

2010-01-01

8

Concise and scale-specific extraction of biomedically relevant information from visual evoked potential signals: combining factor analysis with wavelet decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nervous system possesses an intrinsic multiscale organization of processing systems. Evoked potentials (EPs) and other neurometric signals contain corresponding multiscale information about the normal and disordered functioning of the nervous system. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) explicitly distinguishes among multiple scales of waveform structure, and can be used to decompose EPs in a manner that respects this intrinsic organization. In this paper we provide evidence for the multiscale structure of EPs. We demonstrate that EPs contain scale-specific information of biomedical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological relevance. Finally, we show that the DWT provides information about small-scale phenomena that is inaccessible by standard neurometric waveform analysis techniques.

Samar, Vincent J.; Kulkarni, Gauri; Swartz, Kenneth P.; Parasnis, Ila; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Udpikar, Vishwas

1994-10-01

9

BINOCULAR INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND VISUAL MEMORY  

E-print Network

-relevant information. This theory successfully predicts performance in a number of different information processing & Ruthruff, 1994; Busey & Loftus, 1994). The theory consists of a sensory front end followed by informationBINOCULAR INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND VISUAL MEMORY Thomas A. Busey Indiana University and Geoffrey

Busey, Thomas A.

10

Developing calendar visualizers for the information visualizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers

Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Robert DeLine

1994-01-01

11

Relevance of Science Information: Origins and Dimensions of Relevance and Their Implications to Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevance is the key abstract concept in information retrieval. For effective information retrieval the system needs to retrieve documents based on the user's notion of relevance. To find dimensions and characteristics of relevance, 24 graduate students' relevance judgments were observed. The findings are (1) that relevance is multidimensional; (2) that there are two types of relevance dimension, primary and secondary;

Hongseok Park

1997-01-01

12

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

13

Large Scale Information Visualization  

E-print Network

. "Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study". Infovis 2001 #12;18 35 Landscapes How.4 0.2 ... ... ... ... 5.9 3 5.1 1.8 A. Inselberg. The Plane with Parallel Coordinates. Special Issue was the figure generated? Documents (data items) Keywords (dimensions) N-d vector for each documents Projection

Yang, Jing

14

Science information systems: Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

Wall, Ray J.

1991-01-01

15

Information Visualization 1 Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Information Visualization 1 Spring 2014 Project 1: Information Visualization Evaluation System is a framework that produces Visualization Evaluation Task Lists based on a set of user provided data. Each team and instructions on how to use it. Documentation about the existing system will be provided. Expected Functionality

Rusu, Adrian

16

Information VisualizationInformation Visualization Spring 2010  

E-print Network

earlier Children of a node are laid out in a cylinder "below" the parent Siblings live in one of the 2D categories of tree visualization techniques: Node-link diagram Visible graphical edge from parents to their children 6 children Space-filling #12;4 Node Link DiagramsNode-Link Diagrams 7 Node-Link Diagrams Root

Yang, Jing

17

Information visualization as creative nonfiction  

E-print Network

Information visualizations are an important means through which we communicate knowledge. By considering visualizations as data-driven narratives, this thesis uses narrative thinking as an orienting concept to support the ...

Zhang, Jia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

18

On Relevance, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a novel technique for literature indexing and searching in a mechanized library system. The notion of relevance is taken as the key concept in the theory of information retrieval and a comparative concept of relevance is explicated in terms of the theory of probability. The resulting technique called “Probabilistic Indexing,” allows a computing machine, given a

M. E. Maron; J. L. Kuhns

1960-01-01

19

VISUALIZING INFORMATION DURING EARLY DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We visualize information by presenting it in pictorial, diagrammatic, or graphical ways. Compared to written text, a visualization can be more concise, more explanatory and revealing, and more usable. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but it must be the right picture. A poor visualization is just as difficult to understand and just as useless as a poorly

Filippo A. Salustri

2010-01-01

20

The Value of Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and users of Information Visualization are convinced that it has value. This value can easily be communicated\\u000a to others in a face-to-face setting, such that this value is experienced in practice. To convince broader audiences, and also,\\u000a to understand the intrinsic qualities of visualization is more difficult, however. In this paper we consider information visualization\\u000a from different points of

Jean-Daniel Fekete; Jarke van Wijk; John Stasko; Chris North

2008-01-01

21

Information visualization for the people  

E-print Network

The design of information visualization, defined as the interactive, graphical presentation of data, is on the verge of a significant paradigm shift brought on by the continued maturation of the Information Age. Its ...

Danziger, Michael (Michael J.)

2008-01-01

22

Information Visualization for Knowledge Discovery  

E-print Network

Information Visualization for Knowledge Discovery Ben Shneiderman ben@cs.umd.edu Founding Director, color, sound · Text, tables, graphics · Instructions, messages, help · Collaboration & communitiesPC versions www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/piccolo #12;Information Visualization The eye... the window of the soul

Shneiderman, Ben

23

POSITION STATEMENT Evaluating Information Visualizations  

E-print Network

methods for evaluating usability and I feel that we have a reasonable handle on doing that. AssessingPOSITION STATEMENT Evaluating Information Visualizations: Issues and Opportunities John Stasko stasko@cc.gatech.edu ABSTRACT The evaluation of information visualization techniques and systems

Stasko, John T.

24

Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

Thomas, James J.

1995-01-01

25

The information visualizer, an information workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its

Stuart K. Card; George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay

1991-01-01

26

VISUAL INFORMATION OPERATIONS 10 MARCH 2009  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................................... 1-8 Chapter 2 VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION................................................... 2 ............................................................. 2-9 Army Visual Information Documentation Program........................................... 2FM 6-02.40 VISUAL INFORMATION OPERATIONS 10 MARCH 2009 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved

US Army Corps of Engineers

27

Bead: explorations in information visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work on the visualization of bibliographic data and, to aid in this task, the application of numerical techniques for multidimensional scaling.Many areas of scientific research involve complex multivariate data. One example of this is Information Retrieval. Document comparisons may be done using a large number of variables. Such conditions do not favour the more well-known methods of visualization

Matthew Chalmers; Paul Chitson

1992-01-01

28

Rigorously Relevant Action Research in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action research is seen as one of the solutions to the lack of relevance in the field of information systems because action research has as its primary goal to combine successful intervention in real-world settings with the development of scientific knowledge. The rigor of action research, however, has been questioned regularly. The IS field lacks a set of generally agreed

Erik J. de Vries

29

A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

Zhang, Jin

2000-01-01

30

Visual Representation of Scientific Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Great technological advances have enabled researchers to generate an enormous amount of data. Data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in scientific research. With this wealth of information, we have an opportunity to understand the molecular causes of human diseases. However, the unprecedented scale, resolution, and variety of data pose new analytical challenges. Visual representation of data offers insights that can lead to new understanding, whether the purpose is analysis or communication. This presentation shows how art, design, and traditional illustration can enable scientific discovery. Examples will be drawn from the Broad Institute’s Data Visualization Initiative, aimed at establishing processes for creating informative visualization models.

Bang Wong (Broad Institute; REV)

2011-02-15

31

Information Visualization Spring 2008  

E-print Network

techniques: Node-link diagram Visible graphical edge from parents to their children Space-filling 8 Node Visualization E. Kleiberg et. al. InfoVis 2001 14 Different Styles Rectangular: Well suited for displaying://www.hyphy.org/docs/GUIExamples/treepanel.html #12;8 15 A Classical Hierarchical View Position children "below" their common ancestors Layout can

Yang, Jing

32

Music Information Retrieval & Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The growing,possibilities for digital storage has led to large personal,music collections that require new,technologies,to use and maintain them. There has been a lot of research done related to visualizing music collections in order to improve browsing, exploring and searching,of music. While almost every publication in this subject has its own purpose,and approach,to achieve it there still exist common problems, ideas

Tim Langer

33

Information Visualization Spring 2008  

E-print Network

coin into a copper coin #12;13 25 InfoVis Is About All Kinds of Information 26 What is Information Event: Cholera broke out in the Broad Street area. Dr. John Snow suspected that the water supply Story 1: Cholera Dr. Snow's conclusion The water pump at the Broad Street was contamin

Yang, Jing

34

Mobile medical visual information retrieval.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context. PMID:22157061

Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

2012-01-01

35

Visual MRI: Merging Information Visualization and non-parametric clustering  

E-print Network

Visual MRI: Merging Information Visualization and non-parametric clustering techniques for MRI data Objective. This paper presents Visual MRI, an innovative tool for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI type of therapy than the chemotherapy-based ones. The advance- ments brought by Visual MRI are two

Castellani, Umberto

36

The attentional-relevance and temporal dynamics of visual-tactile crossmodal interactions differentially influence early stages of somatosensory processing  

PubMed Central

Background Crossmodal interactions between relevant visual and tactile inputs can enhance attentional modulation at early stages in somatosensory cortices to achieve goal-oriented behaviors. However, the specific contribution of each sensory system during attentional processing remains unclear. We used EEG to investigate the effects of visual priming and attentional relevance in modulating somatosensory cortical responses. Methods Healthy adults performed a sensory integration task that required scaled motor responses dependent on the amplitudes of tactile and visual stimuli. Participants completed an attentional paradigm comprised of 5 conditions that presented sequential or concurrent pairs of discrete stimuli with random amplitude variations: 1) tactile-tactile (TT), 2) visual-visual (VV), 3) visual-tactile simultaneous (SIM), 4) tactile-visual delay (TVd), and 5) visual-tactile delay (VTd), each with a 100 ms temporal delay between stimulus onsets. Attention was directed to crossmodal conditions and graded motor responses representing the summation of the 2 stimulus amplitudes were made. Results Results of somatosensory ERPs showed that the modality-specific components (P50, P100) were sensitive to i) the temporal dynamics of crossmodal interactions, and ii) the relevance of these sensory signals for behaviour. Conclusion Notably, the P50 amplitude was greatest in the VTd condition, suggesting that presentation of relevant visual information for upcoming movement modulates somatosensory processing in modality-specific cortical regions, as early as the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). PMID:24683517

Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

2014-01-01

37

Object specificity and personal relevance in long-term visual remembering.  

PubMed

The personal relevance of an object is multi-faceted, each facet being capable of contributing to the effects on object memory attributed to personal relevance. An object's status as an individual object (object specificity), rather than just a category of object, is one such facet and its impact on the long-term visual remembering of everyday objects is assessed in two experiments. Images and drawings were produced under generic (e.g., "Please draw a bed") and personal exemplar (e.g., "Please draw your bed") instructions, and participants indicated the degree to which the image on which their drawing was based was of a specific object or a generic object. Object specificity induced a sense of time and place for a remembered object, the most recent encounter with the object being most salient. Other aspects of personal relevance collectively facilitated the retrieval of an object's category-irrelevant features (thereby increasing the vividness of the object image), the other objects with which it was seen, and a more general episodic sense of place. Against a broader theoretical perspective, it is proposed that visual episodic memory and visual knowledge are primary sources of information for specific personally relevant objects and generic objects, respectively. PMID:22994894

Walker, Peter; Mahon, Louise; Kennedy, Helen; Berridge, Damon

2013-01-01

38

Early Processing of Visual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction is given to a theory of early visual information processing. The theory has been implemented, and examples are given of images at various stages of analysis. It is argued that the first step of consequence is to compute a primitive but rich description of the grey-level changes present in an image. The description is expressed in a vocabulary

D. Marr

1976-01-01

39

Visualizing Information Flow in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive maps and visualizations of journal citation networks found in this resource enable the analysis of information flow between academic disciplines. The resources that are based on Eigenfactor Metrics, were developed through the collaboration of the Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner.

Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner

40

Stress impairs retrieval of socially relevant information.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that stress impairs memory retrieval, even though findings are not unequivocal. Moreover, memory for socially relevant information was not previously investigated. The present study aimed to test the effects of stress on the retrieval of social memory (e.g., memory concerning names, birthdays, or biographies). In a randomized cross-over experiment, the cognitive performance of 29 subjects (15 women) was tested twice. Social memory was tested in a stress session, in which participants were exposed to a brief standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor between encoding and retrieval. Performance was compared with a stress-free control session. Stress exposure caused an increase in cortisol concentrations and changes in several mood measures. Social memory retrieval was reduced in the stress compared with the control session. An association between the cortisol stress response and poorer retrieval was significant in responders, that is, those participants displaying a cortisol rise after stress onset. Thus, similar to other forms of declarative memory, the retrieval of declarative memory for socially relevant information learned from biographical notes is impaired after acute stress exposure. This effect is linked to the stress-induced cortisol increase. PMID:20364888

Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T; Hennig, Jürgen

2010-04-01

41

Personalized online information search and visualization  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevant information efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure is usually similar and simple. Likely, it involves a search engine and a visualization interface. Different words or combination reflects different research topics. The objective of this study is to automate this tedious procedure by recording those words/terms in a database and online sources, and use the information for an automated search and retrieval. The retrieved information will be available anytime and anywhere through a secure web server. Results We developed such a database that stored searching terms, journals and et al., and implement a piece of software for searching the medical subject heading-indexed sources such as the Medline and other online sources automatically. The returned information were stored locally, as is, on a server and visible through a Web-based interface. The search was performed daily or otherwise scheduled and the users logon to the website anytime without typing any words. The system has potentials to retrieve similarly from non-medical subject heading-indexed literature or a privileged information source such as a clinical information system. The issues such as security, presentation and visualization of the retrieved information were thus addressed. One of the presentation issues such as wireless access was also experimented. A user survey showed that the personalized online searches saved time and increased and relevancy. Handheld devices could also be used to access the stored information but less satisfactory. Conclusion The Web-searching software or similar system has potential to be an efficient tool for both bench scientists and clinicians for their daily information needs. PMID:15766382

Chen, Dongquan; Orthner, Helmuth F; Sell, Susan M

2005-01-01

42

Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

Chen, Chwen Jen

2006-01-01

43

Guidance of Visual Search by Preattentive Information  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 17 Guidance of Visual Search by Preattentive Information Jeremy M. Wolfe 101 ABSTRACT When and dimensions are on the list on the basis of rather few data. Much evidence comes from visual search tasks OF VISUAL SEARCH BY PREATTENTIVE INFORMATION SECTION I. FOUNDATIONS slope of these functions should be near

44

JOURNAL SUBMISSION 1 Empirical Studies in Information Visualization  

E-print Network

JOURNAL SUBMISSION 1 Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios Heidi Lam based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Abstraction of Process Relevant Information from Geotechnical Standards and Regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

3) Summary The paper presents the abstraction of process relevant information in order to enable the workflow management based on semantic data. It is shown for three examples, how the standards define the information needed to perform a certain planning activity. Abstraction of process relevant information is discussed for different granularities of the underlying process- model. As one possible application

Rolf Katzenbach; Udo F. Meissner; Uwe Rueppel; Stavros A. Savidis; Johannes Giere; Steffen Greb; Marcus Mejstrik

46

Lighthouse: Showing the Way to Relevant Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighthouse is an on-line interface for a Web-based in- formation retrieval system. It accepts queries from a user, collects the retrieved documents from the search engine, or- ganizes and presents them to the user. The system inte- grates two known presentations of the retrieved results - the ranked list and clustering visualization - in a novel and ef- fective way.

Anton Leuski; James Allan

2000-01-01

47

MonkEllipse: Visualizing the History of Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the process and result of creating a visualization to capture the past 10 years of history in the field of Information Visualization, as part of the annual InfoVis Conference Contest. We began with an XML file containing data provided by the contest organizers, scrubbed and augmented the data, and created a database to hold the

Tzu-Wei Hsu; Lee Inman; Dave McColgin; Kevin Stamper

2004-01-01

48

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams  

E-print Network

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams Julia Paredes Department of Computer.maurer@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Understanding information about software artifacts is key to successful Agile software of a systematic mapping study of existing literature on information visualization techniques used by Agile

Maurer, Frank

49

The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations  

E-print Network

The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations Dean F. Jerding and John Abstract Information visualizations must allow users to browse information spaces and focus quickly on items of interest. Being able to see some representation of the entire information space provides

Stasko, John T.

50

A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

51

Effective Information Extraction with Semantic Affinity Patterns and Relevant Regions  

E-print Network

terrorism corpus and ProMed disease outbreak stories. This approach requires only a few seed extractionEffective Information Extraction with Semantic Affinity Patterns and Relevant Regions Siddharth,riloff}@cs.utah.edu Abstract We present an information extraction system that decouples the tasks of finding relevant regions

Riloff, Ellen

52

Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

2012-01-01

53

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

54

Environmental agency providing policy relevant information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental protection agencies are the major providers of comprehensive environmental information to the policy-makers and politician. Information designed for policy-makers should be integrated, carefully selected and aggregated, accompanied with appropriate interpretation. During the process of aggregating the purpose of such aggregation should be kept in focus. Meteorological, climatological and hydrological information should be regarded as part of the integral environmental information. In order to enable high compatibility of environmental information with other kind of information GIS approach was introduced as an efficient and easy tool to present various combinations of data. GIS based Environmental atlas with above 100 layers available is an example of such application. EIONET and SEIS are powerful tools to implement reporting obligations and information providing to policy-makers, general and scientific community. Benefits and priorities for SEIS will be outlined. Some examples including implementation of the INSPIRE directive at the national level, environmental report, environmental indicators and country report to the EU, EEA, OECD, EUROSTAT, UNEP and UNFCCC will be presented.

Urban?i?, J.; Cegnar, T.

2009-09-01

55

Some informational aspects of visual perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also

Fred Attneave

1954-01-01

56

SELECTING RELEVANT VISUAL FEATURES FOR SPEECHREADING V. Estellers, M. Gurban, J.P. Thiran  

E-print Network

SELECTING RELEVANT VISUAL FEATURES FOR SPEECHREADING V. Estellers, M. Gurban, J.P. Thiran Ecole relevance and measuring the redundancy between features. Our appli- cation is speechreading, that is, speech of dimensionality reduction for speechreading, linear discrim- inant analysis. Index Terms-- Feature extraction

Soatto, Stefano

57

Information Visualization 11(4) 339359  

E-print Network

Article Information Visualization 11(4) 339­359 � The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission to support crisis management: Information foraging for geo-historical context Brian Tomaszewski1 and Alan M MacEachren2 Abstract Information foraging and sense-making with heterogeneous information are context

Maroncelli, Mark

58

Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

2002-01-01

59

Visualizing and Manipulating Complex Calendar Scheduling Information  

E-print Network

Visualizing and Manipulating Complex Calendar Scheduling Information Andrew Faulring* and Brad A a task is under-specified, has ambiguous instructions, deviates from the normal, or when the task has the "availability bar," an interaction and visualization technique for complex, multi-dimensional calendar

Myers, Brad A.

60

VisArchive: A Time and Relevance Based Visual Interface for Searching, Browsing, and Exploring Project Archives (with Timeline  

E-print Network

VisArchive: A Time and Relevance Based Visual Interface for Searching, Browsing, and Exploring Supervisory Committee VisArchive: A Time and Relevance Based Visual Interface for Searching, Browsing users with better awareness of search results within project archives. VisArchive visualizes

Tory, Melanie

61

Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands  

PubMed Central

An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner’s sensory system. In real-world interactions, what the child perceives critically depends on his own actions as these actions bring information into and out of the learner’s sensory field. The present analyses indicate how, in the case of a toddler playing with toys, these perception-action loops may simplify the learning environment by selecting relevant information and filtering irrelevant information. This paper reports new findings using a novel method that seeks to describe the visual learning environment from a young child’s point of view and measures the visual information that a child perceives in real-time toy play with a parent. The main results are 1) what the child perceives primarily depends on his own actions but also his social partner’s actions; 2) manual actions, in particular, play a critical role in creating visual experiences in which one object dominates; 3) this selecting and filtering of visual objects through the actions of the child provides more constrained and clean input that seems likely to facilitate cognitive learning processes. These findings have broad implications for how one studies and thinks about human and artificial learning systems. PMID:21031153

Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.; Shen, Hongwei; Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Thomas

2010-01-01

62

Alignment to visual speech information.  

PubMed

Speech alignment is the tendency for interlocutors to unconsciously imitate one another's speaking style. Alignment also occurs when a talker is asked to shadow recorded words (e.g., Shockley, Sabadini, & Fowler, 2004). In two experiments, we examined whether alignment could be induced with visual (lipread) speech and with auditory speech. In Experiment 1, we asked subjects to lipread and shadow out loud a model silently uttering words. The results indicate that shadowed utterances sounded more similar to the model's utterances than did subjects' nonshadowed read utterances. This suggests that speech alignment can be based on visual speech. In Experiment 2, we tested whether raters could perceive alignment across modalities. Raters were asked to judge the relative similarity between a model's visual (silent video) utterance and subjects' audio utterances. The subjects' shadowed utterances were again judged as more similar to the model's than were read utterances, suggesting that raters are sensitive to cross-modal similarity between aligned words. PMID:20675805

Miller, Rachel M; Sanchez, Kauyumari; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

2010-08-01

63

Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

2003-01-01

64

A Model for Mining Relevant and Non-redundant Information  

E-print Network

A Model for Mining Relevant and Non-redundant Information Laura Langohr Department of Computer Science and Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT University of Helsinki, Finland laura University of Helsinki, Finland hannu.toivonen@cs.helsinki.fi ABSTRACT We propose a relatively simple yet

Toivonen, Hannu

65

Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

1993-01-01

66

Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

2010-01-01

67

Relevance similarity: an alternative means to monitor information retrieval systems  

PubMed Central

Background Relevance assessment is a major problem in the evaluation of information retrieval systems. The work presented here introduces a new parameter, "Relevance Similarity", for the measurement of the variation of relevance assessment. In a situation where individual assessment can be compared with a gold standard, this parameter is used to study the effect of such variation on the performance of a medical information retrieval system. In such a setting, Relevance Similarity is the ratio of assessors who rank a given document same as the gold standard over the total number of assessors in the group. Methods The study was carried out on a collection of Critically Appraised Topics (CATs). Twelve volunteers were divided into two groups of people according to their domain knowledge. They assessed the relevance of retrieved topics obtained by querying a meta-search engine with ten keywords related to medical science. Their assessments were compared to the gold standard assessment, and Relevance Similarities were calculated as the ratio of positive concordance with the gold standard for each topic. Results The similarity comparison among groups showed that a higher degree of agreements exists among evaluators with more subject knowledge. The performance of the retrieval system was not significantly different as a result of the variations in relevance assessment in this particular query set. Conclusion In assessment situations where evaluators can be compared to a gold standard, Relevance Similarity provides an alternative evaluation technique to the commonly used kappa scores, which may give paradoxically low scores in highly biased situations such as document repositories containing large quantities of relevant data. PMID:16029513

Dong, Peng; Loh, Marie; Mondry, Adrian

2005-01-01

68

prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions

Jeffrey Heer; Stuart K. Card; James A. Landay

2005-01-01

69

Monitoring and visualizing information resources  

SciTech Connect

The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.

McCrickard, D.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center; Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01

70

Interactive Information Visualization for Exploratory Analysis of Spatiotemporal Trend Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an interactive information visualization system that supports exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information. A trend generally means a general direction in which a situation is changing / developing. Recent growth of computer and network systems has enabled us to obtain trend information at less cost, and it becomes important how to utilize such information. Exploratory data analysis is one of necessary activities of users to utilize trend information, in which users examine data space from various viewpoints using various views, notice interesting trend, and find interpretation useful for decision making or problem solving. As exploratory data analysis essentially involves trial and error, an interactive information visualization system that supports users' exploratory analysis of trend information should encourage users' trial and error. In order to design such systems, adequate interaction model that covers various actions to data space is necessary. In this paper, the visualization cube is proposed as abstract data model of spatiotemporal trend information, based on which interaction model for exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information is defined. The visualization cube consists of 4 axes; spatial and temporal axes, statistical data axis, and type-of-views axis. Interactions for generating views are defined as the operations on the visualization cube, which include drill down / up, comparison, spin, and transition. The interactive information visualization system for spatiotemporal trend information is developed based on the concept of visualization cube. Experiment is performed to compare the operating time between users with / without experience of using the system. The result shows the operations of the system based on the proposed interaction model are easy to understand without training. The system was also used in actual classes of an elementary school, of which the result shows the system has enough usability for 5th-grade elementary school children to perform exploratory data analysis.

Takama, Yasufumi; Yamada, Takashi

71

The Potential for Synergy between Information Visualization and Software Engineering Visualization  

E-print Network

The Potential for Synergy between Information Visualization and Software Engineering Visualization, it could be argued that information visualization is a tool in search of an application. This viewpoint becomes most apparent when one seeks to adopt and adapt practices from the information visualization field

Marchese, Francis

72

Information Sharing during Diagnostic Assessments: What Is Relevant for Parents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended…

Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St. Pierre, Cherie

2011-01-01

73

Information visualization; assisting low spatial individuals with information access tasks through the use of visual mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of visual mediators to facilitate information access by low spatial individuals. Based on theories of adaptive learning and field-dependence, two human-computer interfaces were developed which were intended to compensate for the inability of low spatial individuals to readily construct visual mental models of a menu system's structure. The two compensatory interfaces included: a 2D visual

KAY M. STANNEY; GAVRIEL SALVENDY

1995-01-01

74

Information-Theoretic Metrics for Visualizing Gene-Environment Interactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our work was to develop heuristics for visualizing and interpreting gene-environment interactions (GEIs) and to assess the dependence of candidate visualization metrics on biological and study-design factors. Two information-theoretic metrics, the k-way interaction information (KWII) and the total correlation information (TCI), were investigated. The effectiveness of the KWII and TCI to detect GEIs in a diverse range of simulated data sets and a Crohn disease data set was assessed. The sensitivity of the KWII and TCI spectra to biological and study-design variables was determined. Head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) methods were obtained. The KWII and TCI spectra, which are graphical summaries of the KWII and TCI for each subset of environmental and genotype variables, were found to detect each known GEI in the simulated data sets. The patterns in the KWII and TCI spectra were informative for factors such as case-control misassignment, locus heterogeneity, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium. The KWII and TCI spectra were found to have excellent sensitivity for identifying the key disease-associated genetic variations in the Crohn disease data set. In head-to-head comparisons with the relevance-chain, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and PDT methods, the results from visual interpretation of the KWII and TCI spectra performed satisfactorily. The KWII and TCI are promising metrics for visualizing GEIs. They are capable of detecting interactions among numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental variables for a diverse range of GEI models. PMID:17924337

Chanda, Pritam ; Zhang, Aidong ; Brazeau, Daniel ; Sucheston, Lara ; Freudenheim, Jo L. ; Ambrosone, Christine ; Ramanathan, Murali 

2007-01-01

75

Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

2009-04-01

76

Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Information Visualization 1. Peer review policy  

E-print Network

Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Information Visualization 1. Peer review policy 2. Article types-Prints and complimentary copies 10.3 SAGE production 11. Further information Information Visualization is published and developing the unique and significant aspects of information visualization. Emphasis is placed

Chen, Chaomei

77

Cone Trees: animated 3D visualizations of hierarchical information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Enwrging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive aninlaiion offer potential solutions to this problenl, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized.We describe one of these Information Visualtzaiion techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The

George G. Robertson; Jock D. Mackinlay; Stuart K. Card

1991-01-01

78

Information Sky: Exploring the Visualization of Information on Architectural Ceilings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we suggest the ceiling as a new physical surface for information visualization. To provide a design framework for application designers, we present the notion of 'information sky'. This concept is based on (1) the metaphor of the natural sky, (2) historical examples of ceiling art and (3) recent computing paradigms, including mediatecture, ubiquitous computing and ambient display.

Martin Tomitsch; Thomas Grechenig; Andrew Vande Moere; Sheldon Renan

2008-01-01

79

An Information Theoretic Model of Saliency and Visual Search  

E-print Network

An Information Theoretic Model of Saliency and Visual Search Neil D.B. Bruce and John K. Tsotsos visual search tasks, including many for which only specialized models have had success. As a whole: Attention, Visual Search, Saliency, Information Theory, Fix- ation, Entropy. 1 Introduction Visual search

80

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach  

E-print Network

Saliency, attention, and visual search: An information theoretic approach Department of Computer that a variety of visual search behaviors appear as emergent properties of the model and therefore basic: saliency, visual attention, visual search, eye movements, information theory, efficient coding, pop

81

Between Aesthetics and Utility: Designing Ambient Information Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike traditional infomation visualization, ambient information visualizations reside in the environment of the user rather than on the screen of a desktop computer. Currently, most dynamic infor- mation that is displayed in public places consists of text and num- bers. We argue that information visualization can be employed to make such' dynamic data more useful and appealing. However, visualizations intended

Tobias Skog; Sara Ljungblad; Lars Erik Holmquist

2003-01-01

82

Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

2005-01-01

83

A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing  

E-print Network

Visual information processing will play an increasingly important role in future electronics systems. In many applications, e.g. video surveillance cameras, data throughput of microprocessors is not sufficient and power consumption is too high. Instruction profiling on a typical test algorithm has shown that pixel address calculations are the dominant operations to be optimized. Therefore AddressLib, a structured scheme for pixel addressing was developed, that can be accelerated by AddressEngine, a coprocessor for visual information processing. In this paper, the architectural design of AddressEngine is described, which in the first step supports a subset of the AddressLib. Dataflow and memory organization are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG-7 Global Motion Estimation algorithm. Results on processing speed and circuit complexity are given and compared to a pure software implementation. The next step will be the support for the full Addres...

Stechele, W; Herrmann, S; Simon, J Lidon

2011-01-01

84

Teaching with Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Bob MacKay, Clark College. What are Visualizations? Visualizations can present massive amounts of information to help scientists identify relevant patterns and processes in nature. Data visualization ...

85

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a)...

2013-07-01

86

32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

2011-07-01

87

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a)...

2014-07-01

88

32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

2012-07-01

89

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a)...

2010-07-01

90

32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

2010-07-01

91

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a)...

2012-07-01

92

32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

2013-07-01

93

32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a)...

2011-07-01

94

32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program...SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC)...

2014-07-01

95

From Metaphor to Method: Cartographic Perspectives on Information Visualization  

E-print Network

From Metaphor to Method: Cartographic Perspectives on Information Visualization André Skupin in information visualization research is the result of the realization that those cognitive skills also have the design of visualizations for textual information spaces. Map projections, generalization, feature

Indiana University

96

Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visual evoked potential (VEP) to rare, task-relevant (counted) numerical stimuli was compared with VEPs to rare, task-irrelevant stimuli, both being randomly interspersed within a sequence of tachistoscopically-flashed background numbers. These task-irrelevant stimuli were of two classes: (1) easily recognizable (e.g., simple geometric shapes) and (2) completely novel (i.e., complex, colorful abstract-type drawings which were unrecognizable). It was found that such novel stimuli did, in fact, evoke large P3 waves, but they had different scalp distributions from those which followed the task-relevant stimuli. This indicates that at least two types of late positive P3 waves exist, differing both in brain source and psychological correlates.

Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

97

User-Adaptive Information Visualization -Using Eye Gaze Data to Infer Visualization Tasks and User Cognitive  

E-print Network

User-Adaptive Information Visualization - Using Eye Gaze Data to Infer Visualization Tasks and User Visualization systems have traditionally followed a one-size-fits-all model, typically ignoring an individual user's needs, abilities and preferences. However, recent research has indicated that visualization

Conati, Cristina

98

Personalized online information search and visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevant information efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure

Dongquan Chen; Helmuth F Orthner; Susan M Sell

2005-01-01

99

Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

100

Casual Information Visualization: Depictions of Data in Everyday Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual Information Visualization (or Casual Infovis) as a

Zachary Pousman; John T. Stasko; Michael Mateas

2007-01-01

101

Scalable Foveated Visual Information Coding and Communications Ligang Lu,1  

E-print Network

Scalable Foveated Visual Information Coding and Communications Ligang Lu,1 Zhou Wang2 and Alan C Abstract: This paper introduces our recent research work on the development of a scalable foveated visual rate in terms of foveated visual quality measurement. Such a scalable foveated vi- sual information

Wang, Zhou

102

Considerations for the Composition of Visual Scene Displays: Potential Contributions of Information from Visual and Cognitive Sciences (Forum Note)  

PubMed Central

Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing – that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display – therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations. PMID:22946989

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

2013-01-01

103

50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01...information and relevant data. 424.13 Section 424.13 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...information and relevant data. When...

2014-10-01

104

50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01...information and relevant data. 424.13 Section 424.13 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...information and relevant data. When...

2010-10-01

105

50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01...information and relevant data. 424.13 Section 424.13 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...information and relevant data. When...

2011-10-01

106

50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01...information and relevant data. 424.13 Section 424.13 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...information and relevant data. When...

2012-10-01

107

Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

108

Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds  

E-print Network

, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulusVisual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds Andrew C. Gallupa,1,2 , Joseph of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions

Couzin, Iain D.

109

Voyagers and voyeurs: supporting asynchronous collaborative information visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mechanisms for asynchronous collaboration in the context of information visualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design and implementation of sense.us, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization types. The site supports view sharing, discussion, graphical annotation, and social navigation and includes novel interaction elements. We

Jeffrey Heer; Fernanda B. Viégas; Martin Wattenberg

2007-01-01

110

The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual…

Dasgupta, Aritra

2012-01-01

111

Differential Memory for Relevant and Irrelevant Information in Arithmetic Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second graders (n=60) and adults (n=60 college students) solved word problems containing relevant information, irrelevant numeric information, and nonrelevant linguistic information. Recall and recognition tasks, along with cued and uncued word stem completion were used to test subjects' memory for relevant versus nonrelevant information. Recall…

Kinne, Lenore J.

112

Supporting Web Searching of Business Intelligence with Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we proposed and validated an approach to using information visualization to augment search engines in supporting the analysis of business stakeholder information on the Web. We report in this paper findings from a preliminary evaluation comparing a visualization prototype with a traditional method of stakeholder analysis (Web browsing and searching). We found that the prototype achieved a

Wingyan Chung; Ada Leung

2007-01-01

113

Modeling the Impact of Shared Visual Information on Collaborative Reference  

E-print Network

Modeling the Impact of Shared Visual Information on Collaborative Reference Darren Gergle , Carolyn of the ways in which shared visual information influences collaborative reference. In this paper we present P. Rosé , Robert E. Kraut Center for Technology and Social Behavior Northwestern University 2240

Rose, Carolyn Penstein

114

May 2009 Edition Copyright ITT Visual Information Solutions  

E-print Network

changes to this document at any time and without notice. Limitation of Warranty ITT Visual InformationMay 2009 Edition Copyright © ITT Visual Information Solutions All Rights Reserved Installation® , and ENVI ZoomTM software programs and the accompanying procedures, functions, and documentation described

Wu, Shiliang

115

Measuring Aesthetics for Information Visualization Daniel Filonik, Dominikus Baur  

E-print Network

Measuring Aesthetics for Information Visualization Daniel Filonik, Dominikus Baur Media Informatics Aesthetics is an unsolved problem of information visual- ization, because there is no satisfactory understanding of what constitutes aesthetic effect. This survey paper gives an overview of approaches to model

116

Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by an additional memory task. Singleton distractors interfered even more when

Christian N. L. Olivers; Frank Meijer; Jan Theeuwes

2006-01-01

117

VisKo: Semantic Web Support for Information and Science Visualization  

E-print Network

VisKo: Semantic Web Support for Information and Science Visualization Nicholas Del Rio and Paulo 79968 USA Abstract. Specialized knowledge in visualization software packages such as Visualization for writ- ing applications that visualize datasets or information. Technical under- standing

Ward, Karen

118

Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

Jobson, Daniel J.

1991-01-01

119

Impact of a Prototype Visualization Tool for New Information in EHR Clinical Documents  

PubMed Central

Background EHR clinical document synthesis by clinicians may be time-consuming and error-prone due to the complex organization of narratives, excessive redundancy within documents, and, at times, inadvertent proliferation of data inconsistencies. Development of EHR systems that are easily adaptable to the user’s work processes requires research into visualization techniques that can optimize information synthesis at the point of care. Objective To evaluate the effect of a prototype visualization tool for clinically relevant new information on clinicians’ synthesis of EHR clinical documents and to understand how the tool may support future designs of clinical document user interfaces. Methods A mixed methods approach to analyze the impact of the visualization tool was used with a sample of eight medical interns as they synthesized EHR clinical documents to accomplish a set of four pre-formed clinical scenarios using a think-aloud protocol. Results Differences in the missing (unretrieved) patient information (2.3±1.2 [with the visualization tool] vs. 6.8±1.2 [without the visualization tool], p = 0.08) and accurate inferences (1.3±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3, p = 0.09) were not statistically significant but suggest some improvement with the new information visualization tool. Despite the non-significant difference in total times to task completion (43±4 mins vs 36±4 mins, p = 0.35) we observed shorter times for two scenarios with the visualization tool, suggesting that the time-saving benefits may be more evident with certain clinical processes. Other observed effects of the tool include more intuitive navigation between patient details and increased efforts towards methodical synthesis of clinical documents. Conclusion Our study provides some evidence that new information visualization in clinical notes may positively influence synthesis of patient information from EHR clinical documents. Our findings provide groundwork towards a more effective display of EHR clinical documents using advanced visualization applications. PMID:23646087

Farri, O.; Rahman, A.; Monsen, K.A.; Zhang, R.; Pakhomov, S.V.; Pieczkiewicz, D.S.; Speedie, S.M.; Melton, G.B.

2012-01-01

120

Performance of visual tasks from contour information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.

Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Itan, Liron

2010-08-01

121

Throwing a glance at the neural code: rapid information transmission in the visual system  

PubMed Central

Our visual system can operate at fascinating speeds. Psychophysical experiments teach us that the processing of complex natural images and visual object recognition require a mere split second. Even in everyday life, our gaze seldom rests for long on any particular spot of the visual scene before a sudden movement of the eyes or the head shifts it to a new location. These observations challenge our understanding of how neurons in the visual system of the brain represent, process, and transmit the relevant visual information quickly enough. This article argues that the speed of visual processing provides an adjuvant framework for studying the neural code in the visual system. In the retina, which constitutes the first stage of visual processing, recent experiments have highlighted response features that allow for particularly rapid information transmission. This sets the stage for discussing some of the fundamental questions in the research of neural coding. How do downstream brain regions read out signals from the retina and combine them with intrinsic signals that accompany eye movements? And, how do the neural response features ultimately affect perception and behavior? PMID:19649155

Gollisch, Tim

2009-01-01

122

RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

123

Relevance and contributing information types of searched documents in task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-users base the relevance judgements of the searched documents on the expected contribution to their task of the information contained in the documents. There is a shortage of studies analyzing the relationships between the experienced contribution, relevance assessments and type of information initially sought. This study categorizes the types of information in documents being used in writing a research proposal

Pertti Vakkari

2000-01-01

124

Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

Abilock, Debbie

2008-01-01

125

Presentation of Information on Visual Displays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of factors involved in the presentation of text, numeric data, and/or visuals using video display devices describes in some detail the following types of presentation: (1) visual displays, with attention to additive color combination; measurements, including luminance, radiance, brightness, and lightness; and standards, with…

Pettersson, Rune

126

Improving Information Access by Relevance and Topical Feedback  

E-print Network

, for individual queries results are unpredictable. There is a large potential for improvement if we can predict, this also de- creases the potential positive effects of the feedback. If we could predict the effect-relevance feedback, explicit feedback and topical context by looking at different statistics and at the individual

Kamps, Jaap

127

Multilingual Information Retrieval Using Machine Translation, Relevance Feedback and Decompounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilingual retrieval (querying of multiple document collections each in a different language) can be achieved by combining several individual techniques which enhance retrieval: machine translation to cross the language barrier, relevance feedback to add words to the initial query, decompounding for languages with complex term structure, and data fusion to combine monolingual retrieval results from different languages. Using the CLEF

Aitao Chen; Fredric C. Gey

2004-01-01

128

32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials...format, dates, etc. (2) Visual information record identification...or Research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E...television materials to the Defense Visual Information Center...

2010-07-01

129

Is information literacy relevant in the real world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a reworking of a paper presented at the Australian Library and Information Association, Special Health and Law Libraries Conference in Melbourne, Victoria in August 2001. The author asks whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a “new economy” skills set, and a solution to information overload. The move to a knowledge based economy, along with

Carmel O’Sullivan

2002-01-01

130

Impaired Filtering of Behaviourally Irrelevant Visual Information in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent proposal suggests that dyslexic individuals suffer from attentional deficiencies, which impair the ability to selectively process incoming visual information. To investigate this possibility, we employed a spatial cueing procedure in conjunction with a single fixation visual search task measuring thresholds for discriminating the…

Roach, Neil W.; Hogben, John H.

2007-01-01

131

TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1  

E-print Network

TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1 , Bongshin Lee1, 2 , Dana@wam.umd.edu +1-301-405-7445 ABSTRACT Biodiversity databases have recently become widely available to the public in the biodiversity domain. Users indicated that the system was usable and tree visualization aided

Golbeck, Jennifer

132

Spatial Reasoning: No Need for Visual Information Markus Knauff 1  

E-print Network

Spatial Reasoning: No Need for Visual Information Markus Knauff 1 , Corinne Jola2 & Gerhard Strube1 questions of spatial reasoning research is whether the underlying processes are inherently visual or spatial of human spatial reasoning. The main tasks were inferences based on a spatial version of the interval

133

Predictive knowledge of stimulus relevance does not influence top-down suppression of irrelevant information in older adults  

PubMed Central

Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortices. Previous research has shown that older adults exhibit a deficit in suppressing task-irrelevant information, the magnitude of which is associated with a decline in working memory performance. However, it remains unclear if a failure to suppress is a reflection of an inability of older adults to rapidly assess the relevance of information upon stimulus presentation when they are not aware of the relevance beforehand. To address this, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy older participants (aged 60–80 years) while they performed two different versions of a selective face/scene working memory task, both with and without prior knowledge as to when relevant and irrelevant stimuli would appear. Each trial contained two faces and two scenes presented sequentially followed by a nine second delay and a probe stimulus. Participants were given the following instructions: remember faces (ignore scenes), remember scenes (ignore faces), remember the xth and yth stimuli (where x and y could be 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th), or passively view all stimuli. Working memory performance remained consistent regardless of task instructions. Enhanced neural activity was observed at posterior electrodes to attended stimuli, while neural responses that reflected the suppression of irrelevant stimuli was absent for both tasks. The lack of significant suppression at early stages of visual processing was revealed by P1 amplitude and N1 latency modulation indices. These results reveal that prior knowledge of stimulus relevance does not modify early neural processing during stimulus encoding and does not improve working memory performance in older adults. These results suggest that the inability to suppress irrelevant information early in the visual processing stream by older adults is related to mechanisms specific to top-down suppression. PMID:19744649

Zanto, Theodore P.; Hennigan, Kelly; Östberg, Mattias; Clapp, Wesley C.; Gazzaley, Adam

2009-01-01

134

77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information...facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the...

2012-07-18

135

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, Andreas

2013-01-01

136

The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory  

E-print Network

: visual working memory, visual short-term memory, scene perception, attention, eye movements Supplemental are fairly well understood, considerable re- search has turned to the function of VWM (Ballard, Hayhoe entering into a comparison cannot be perceived simultaneously, requiring a saccade from one object

Hollingworth, Andrew

137

Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.  

PubMed Central

Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

2001-01-01

138

A relevance feedback architecture for content-based multimedia information retrieval systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based multimedia information retrieval (MIR) has become one of the most active research areas in the past few years. Many retrieval approaches based on extracting and representing visual properties of multimedia data have been developed. While these approaches establish the viability of MIR based on visual features, techniques for incorporating human expertise directly during the query process to improve retrieval

Yong Rui; T. S. Huang; Sharad Mehrotra; Michael Ortega

1997-01-01

139

A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

1994-01-01

140

Visual search with animal fear-relevant stimuli: A tale of two procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed preferential attentional processing of animal fear-relevant stimuli in two procedures, Search and\\u000a Interference tasks, which have been suggested to reflect on attentional capture due to the fear-relevance of the stimuli presented.\\u000a In the Search task, participants (N = 154) searched fear-relevant (i.e., snakes and spiders) and non fear-relevant (i.e.,\\u000a fish and birds) backgrounds to determine the presence or

Allison M. WatersOttmar; Ottmar V. Lipp; Ranjiv S. Randhawa

2011-01-01

141

Data Science Center Eindhoven Information Visualization for  

E-print Network

representations of abstract data to amplify cognition. (Card et al., 1999) Data Visualization User Infographics: - Static - Explanation - Made by data journalist - Viewed by lay audience Kentico.com Infographics vs InfoVis Infographics: - Static vs interactive - Explanation vs explorative - Made by data journalist vs domain expert

Franssen, Michael

142

Lessons about Visualizing with Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article identifies online lesson plans that can be used to introduce visualizing, a comprehension skill important to both science and literacy learning. Each of the lessons meets NCTE/IRA English language arts standards. The article appears in the free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which is structured around the seven essential principles of climate science and literacy.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

143

Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

2011-01-01

144

Use of Visual Information for Phonetic Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy with which naive listeners can report sentences presented 12 dB below a background of continuous prose was compared with accuracy in four audio visually supplemented conditions. With monochrome displays of the talker showing (i) the face, (ii) the lips and (iii) four points at the centres of the lips and the corners of the mouth, accuracy improved by

Quentin Summerfield

1979-01-01

145

Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science…

Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

2009-01-01

146

TUTORIAL: Development of a cortical visual neuroprosthesis for the blind: the relevance of neuroplasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.

Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.

2005-12-01

147

Information Visualization within a Digital Video Library MICHAEL CHRISTEL AND DAVID MARTIN  

E-print Network

Information Visualization within a Digital Video Library MICHAEL CHRISTEL AND DAVID MARTIN Computer and introduces the visualization techniques employed to browse and navigate multiple video documents at once. Keywords: digital video library, information visualization, multimedia abstraction 1. Introduction

148

The Development of Sensitivity to Causally Relevant Dynamic Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…

Kaiser, Mary Kister; Proffitt, Dennis R.

1984-01-01

149

Le differenti relevance in information retrieval: una classificazione  

E-print Network

Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Udine V. delle Scienze, 206 -- Loc. Rizzi -- 33100. 755­756. L'attinenza 1 ha ormai quasi 40 anni, risalendo alla International Conference for Scientific Information del 1958. Non si può dire che in questi 40 anni sia stata trascurata: soprattutto negli anni '60 e

Mizzaro, Stefano

150

Le differenti relevance in information retrieval: una classificazione  

E-print Network

Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Udine V. delle Scienze, 206 ­ Loc. Rizzi ­ 33100 Udine. 755-756. L'attinenza1 ha ormai quasi 40 anni, risalendo alla International Conference for Scientific Information del 1958. Non si può dire che in questi 40 anni sia stata trascurata: soprattutto negli anni '60 e

Mizzaro, Stefano

151

User-Adaptive Information Visualization -Using eye gaze data to infer visualization tasks and user cognitive abilities  

E-print Network

User-Adaptive Information Visualization - Using eye gaze data to infer visualization tasks and user Visualization systems have traditionally followed a one-size-fits-all model, typically ignoring an individual user's needs, abilities and preferences. However, recent research has indicated that visualization

Carenini, Giuseppe

152

Information theoretical assessment of visual communication with wavelet coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A visual communication channel can be characterized by the efficiency with which it conveys information, and the quality of the images restored from the transmitted data. Efficient data representation requires the use of constraints of the visual communication channel. Our information theoretic analysis combines the design of the wavelet compression algorithm with the design of the visual communication channel. Shannon's communication theory, Wiener's restoration filter, and the critical design factors of image gathering and display are combined to provide metrics for measuring the efficiency of data transmission, and for quantitatively assessing the visual quality of the restored image. These metrics are: a) the mutual information (Eta) between the radiance the radiance field and the restored image, and b) the efficiency of the channel which can be roughly measured by as the ratio (Eta) /H, where H is the average number of bits being used to transmit the data. Huck, et al. (Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993) have shown that channels desinged to maximize (Eta) , also maximize. Our assessment provides a framework for designing channels which provide the highest possible visual quality for a given amount of data under the critical design limitations of the image gathering and display devices. Results show that a trade-off exists between the maximum realizable information of the channel and its efficiency: an increase in one leads to a decrease in the other. The final selection of which of these quantities to maximize is, of course, application dependent.

Rahman, Zia-ur

1995-06-01

153

Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory  

E-print Network

A primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist suf...

Knuth, Kevin H; Curry, Charles T; Huyser, Karen A; Wheeler, Kevin R; Rossow, William B

2013-01-01

154

Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

2005-01-01

155

Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

2008-01-01

156

SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

1999-01-01

157

Why high performance visual data analytics is both relevant and difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities-R&D and application-are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real-world problems.

Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Prabhat; Byna, Suren; Rübel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

2013-01-01

158

The visual analysis of textual information: Browsing large document sets  

SciTech Connect

Visualization tools have been invaluable in the process of scientific discovery by providing researchers with insights gained through graphical tools and techniques. At PNL, the Multidimensional Visualization and Advanced Browsing (MVAB) project is extending visualization technology to the problems of intelligence analysis of textual documents by creating spatial representations of textual information. By representing an entire corpus of documents as points in a coordinate space of two or more dimensions, the tools developed by the MVAB team give the analyst the ability to quickly browse the entire document base and determine relationships among documents and publication patterns not readily discernible through traditional lexical means.

Thomas, J.; Pennock, K.; Fiegel, T.; Wise, J.; Pottier, M.; Schur, A.; Crow, V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lantrip, D. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

159

Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

2014-01-01

160

Visualization of information with an established order  

DOEpatents

Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

2007-02-13

161

Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

162

Visual information for judging temporal range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

1993-01-01

163

On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

2002-01-01

164

Relevance Reliability in Cyberspace: Toward Measurement Theory for Internet Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a reliability framework to examine the role that relevance judgments play in quantitative information retrieval (IR) performance measurement with an eye toward issues introduced by Internet IR. Argues that a theoretical basis for reliable measurement is possible if the relevance yardstick is reconsidered in light of recent research and if the…

MacCall, Steven L.

1998-01-01

165

Neural processing of visual information under interocular suppression: a critical review  

PubMed Central

When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visual information that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visual information is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevant information. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469

Sterzer, Philipp; Stein, Timo; Ludwig, Karin; Rothkirch, Marcus; Hesselmann, Guido

2014-01-01

166

Information Retrieval eXperience (IRX): Towards a Human-Centered Personalized Model of Relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We approach Information Retrieval (IR) from a User eXperience (UX) perspective. Through introducing a model for Information Retrieval eXperience (IRX), this paper operationalizes a perspective on IR that reaches beyond topicality. Based on a document's topicality, complexity, and emotional value, a model of relevance is proposed to influence user's IRX and, consequently, the synthesis and use of the retrieved information.

Frans van der Sluis; Egon L. van den Broek; Betsy van Dijk; O. Hoeber; Y. Li; X. J. Huang

2010-01-01

167

Is a stimulus conveying task-relevant information a sufficient condition to elicit a stimulus-preceding negativity?  

PubMed

Movement-preceding and stimulus-preceding negativities were recorded when a movement was followed by one of three informative visual stimuli. The meaning of the visual stimulus alternated between (a) conveying a task-relevant instruction about a subsequent time production task and (b) providing feedback (knowledge of results) about performance on the current time production task. In a control condition, premovement and postmovement scalp potentials were recorded when subjects made the same movements but in a voluntary, self-paced manner. Under all conditions, movements were preceded by a movement-preceding negativity, and neither the amplitude nor the lateral asymmetry of this negativity was affected by the subsequent presentation of either kind of informative stimulus. When the movement was followed by a stimulus conveying knowledge of results, the negativity in the postmovement epoch was enhanced, but this enhancement was not evident in epochs preceding instruction stimuli. We conclude that not all task relevant stimuli elicit a stimulus-preceding negativity, and we provide a functional interpretation of this negativity in terms of emotional anticipation and the contingency of the stimulus on a previous event. PMID:8153249

Damen, E J; Brunia, C H

1994-03-01

168

Curvature and the Visual Perception of Shape: Theory on Information along Object Boundaries and the Minima Rule Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…

Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E. Charles

2012-01-01

169

Visual acuity and its implications for display systems: a review of previous, relevant research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes to be a comprehensive review of earlier papers by government, industry and university authors regarding performance of the human eye-brain system relative to resolution. An understanding as to the background and conditions of these studies shall be given. A summary of findings with regard visual resolution performance shall be reported, with consequent implications as to maximizing display system design.

Desjardins, Daniel D.

2014-06-01

170

WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

2002-06-09

171

Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway  

PubMed Central

The spatial components of a visual scene are processed neurally in a sequence of coarse features followed by fine features. This coarse-to-fine temporal stream was initially considered to be a cortical function, but has recently been demonstrated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that coarse-to-fine processing is present at earlier stages of visual processing in the retinal ganglion cells that supply lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. To compare coarse-to-fine processing in the cat’s visual system, we measured the visual responses of connected neuronal pairs from the retina and LGN, and separate populations of cells from each region. We found that coarse-to-fine processing was clearly present at the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Interestingly, peak and high-spatial-frequency cutoff responses were higher in the LGN than in the retina, indicating that there was a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine information from the retina to the LGN to the visual cortex. The analysis of early visual pathway receptive field characteristics showed that the physiological response interplay between the center and surround regions was consistent with coarse-to-fine features and may provide a primary role in the underlying mechanism. Taken together, the results from this study provided a framework for understanding the emergence and refinement of coarse-to-fine processing in the visual system. PMID:24251425

Moore, Bartlett D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Freeman, Ralph D.

2014-01-01

172

Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway.  

PubMed

The spatial components of a visual scene are processed neurally in a sequence of coarse features followed by fine features. This coarse-to-fine temporal stream was initially considered to be a cortical function, but has recently been demonstrated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that coarse-to-fine processing is present at earlier stages of visual processing in the retinal ganglion cells that supply lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. To compare coarse-to-fine processing in the cat's visual system, we measured the visual responses of connected neuronal pairs from the retina and LGN, and separate populations of cells from each region. We found that coarse-to-fine processing was clearly present at the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Interestingly, peak and high-spatial-frequency cutoff responses were higher in the LGN than in the retina, indicating that there was a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine information from the retina to the LGN to the visual cortex. The analysis of early visual pathway receptive field characteristics showed that the physiological response interplay between the center and surround regions was consistent with coarse-to-fine features and may provide a primary role in the underlying mechanism. Taken together, the results from this study provided a framework for understanding the emergence and refinement of coarse-to-fine processing in the visual system. PMID:24251425

Moore, Bartlett D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Usrey, W Martin; Freeman, Ralph D

2014-02-01

173

Lunar and solar influences on human visual disease: the relevance of oedema?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term visual acuity measurements from an eye affected with macular oedema revealed an unexpected rhythm. In order to see if the data bore any evidence of a celestial influence, we made further analyses. A time-series analysis revealed intrinsic rhythms with periods of about 30 days, i.e. circalunar rhythms. A plot of the data according to the phase of the Moon

W. Burke; J. Leung; D. F. Davey

2011-01-01

174

Lunar and solar influences on human visual disease: the relevance of oedema?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term visual acuity measurements from an eye affected with macular oedema revealed an unexpected rhythm. In order to see if the data bore any evidence of a celestial influence, we made further analyses. A time-series analysis revealed intrinsic rhythms with periods of about 30 days, i.e. circalunar rhythms. A plot of the data according to the phase of the Moon

W. Burke; J. Leung; D. F. Davey

2012-01-01

175

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

176

The Information Available in Brief Visual Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much can be seen in a single brief exposure? This is an important problem because our normal mode of seeing greatly resembles a sequence of brief exposures. In this report, the following experiments were conducted to study quantitatively the information that becomes available to an observer following a brief exposure. Lettered stimuli were chosen because these contain a relatively

George Sperling

1960-01-01

177

Visual User Interfaces for Information Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of human-computer interfaces focuses on the use of graphical and direct manipulation approaches to improve the user interface. Topics discussed include information seeking; computerized search capabilities, including full-text string searches, index searches, and hypertext; Boolean expressions; dynamic or direct manipulation queries;…

Shneiderman, Ben

1991-01-01

178

Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

Koroscik, Judith Smith

179

Cellphone Accessible Information Via Bluetooth Beaconing for the Visually Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a complete hardware\\/software system, dubbed Universal Real-Time Navigational Assistance (URNA), which enables communication of relevant location-aware information to a blind person carrying a Bluetooth- enabled cell phone. Although URNA can be used for a number of different applications (e.g., an information kiosk at a shopping mall or public transit information at a bus stop), we concentrate on the

S. Bohonos; A. Lee; A. Malik; C. Thai; Roberto Manduchi

2008-01-01

180

Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

2007-01-01

181

3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications  

E-print Network

3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications Christiaan Fluit, Marta Sabou and Frank van Harmelen 3.1 Introduction The Semantic Web is an extension of the current yet unheard of. Rather than being merely a vision, the Semantic Web has significant backing from

van Harmelen, Frank

182

Adaptation and Evaluation of 3Dimensional Collaborative Information Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports work in progress on the adaptation and evaluation of 3-dimensional (3-D) Collaborative Information Visualizations (CIVs). It starts with a motivation for 3-D CIVs that adapt to single users as well as user groups. Next, a sample adaptive CIV is introduced - a virtual 'Document Space' that provides access to online documents (Web pages, papers, images, videos, software

Katy Börner

2001-01-01

183

AN INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE TO SUPPORT THE VISUALIZATION OF PERSONAL HISTORIES  

E-print Network

, Hawthorne, NY 10532, USA (Received 13 February 1998; accepted 7 July 1998) AbstractÐThis paper proposes to a runtime model for a compact visualization using graphical timelines. Our information architecture was developed for juvenile justice and medical patient records, but is usable in other application domains

Shneiderman, Ben

184

Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

2007-01-01

185

Visual Information Systems Chapter IX: Introduction to Virtual Reality 1  

E-print Network

Visual Information Systems Chapter IX: Introduction to Virtual Reality 1 Pr. Robert LAURINI Chapter IX Introduction to Virtual Reality Introduction to Virtual Reality · 9.1 ­ Introduction · 9.2 ­ Hardware · 9.3 ­Virtual Worlds · 9.4 ­ Examples of VR Applications · 9.5 ­ Augmented Reality · 9

Laurini, Robert

186

How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

2012-01-01

187

Large Scale Information Vi li tiVisualization  

E-print Network

, and T. Tanasse. "Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study". Infovis 2001 #12.2 ... ... ... ... 5.9 3 5.1 1.8 24A. Inselberg. The Plane with Parallel Coordinates. Special Issue on Computational;17 Landscapes How was the figure generated? Documents (data items) Keywords (dimensions) N-d vector for each

Yang, Jing

188

How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

2009-01-01

189

Strategy Development as a Function of the Amount of Relevant or Irrelevant Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this experiment was to provide further information on how an individual's strategy and his performance are affected by increasing the amount of relevant or irrelevant information he receives. The subjects were sixty volunteers from an undergraduate course in educational psychology who were randomly assigned to one of six treatment…

Culross, Rita R.; Davis, J. Kent

190

Visual sensory networks and effective information transfer in animal groups.  

PubMed

Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups. PMID:24028946

Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

2013-09-01

191

Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.  

PubMed

Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

2014-01-01

192

Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review  

PubMed Central

Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

2014-01-01

193

TOWARD THE INTRODUCTION OF AUDITORY INFORMATION IN DYNAMIC VISUAL ATTENTION MODELS  

E-print Network

TOWARD THE INTRODUCTION OF AUDITORY INFORMATION IN DYNAMIC VISUAL ATTENTION MODELS Antoine Coutrot life a visual scene generally comes with a corresponding auditory scene, visual attention models do ABSTRACT Classical visual attention models only use visual features to predict where observers should look

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in facial emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormal emotion perception and functional outcome remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial Emotion Perception Task to identify differences in usage of visual facial information in schizophrenia patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 20), when differentiating between angry and neutral facial expressions. As hypothesized, schizophrenia patients required more facial information than controls to accurately differentiate between angry and neutral facial expressions, and they relied on different facial features and spatial frequencies to differentiate these facial expressions. Specifically, schizophrenia patients underutilized the eye regions, overutilized the nose and mouth regions, and virtually ignored information presented at the lowest levels of spatial frequency. In addition, a post hoc one-tailed t test revealed a positive relationship of moderate strength between the degree of divergence from "normal" visual facial information usage in the eye region and lower overall social functioning. These findings provide direct support for aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia in differentiating between socially salient emotional states. PMID:23713505

Clark, Cameron M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Goghari, Vina M

2013-05-01

195

Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant) and white circle (target) stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard), 10% (deviant), and 10% (target) probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus. Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls. Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in BD, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli. Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD. PMID:23898256

Maekawa, Toshihiko; Katsuki, Satomi; Kishimoto, Junji; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ogata, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Takao; Ueno, Takefumi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kanba, Shigenobu

2013-01-01

196

The display of spatial information and visually guided behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.

Bennett, C. Thomas

1991-01-01

197

RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EXPLORATION FOR STRENGTHENING SPATIAL THINKING & SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous amount of spatial data reside in operational or legacy data stores of public and private institutions. These databases contain topographic maps, aerial photos, satellite images, medical data, laser\\/lidar scanner data, video images among others. In addition to spatially referenced data, there are links from spatial objects to non-spatial data such as census, economic, security, and statistical information. It is

Abdulvahit Torun

198

Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

2003-01-01

199

Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby. PMID:22529369

Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

2012-01-01

200

Image gathering and restoration - Information and visual quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is investigated for optimizing the end-to-end performance of image gathering and restoration for visual quality. To achieve this objective, one must inevitably confront the problems that the visual quality of restored images depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations and that these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The method adopted in this paper is to optimize image gathering informationally and to restore images interactively to obtain the visually preferred trade-off among fidelity resolution, sharpness, and clarity. The results demonstrate that this method leads to significant improvements in the visual quality obtained by the traditional digital processing methods. These traditional methods allow a significant loss of visual quality to occur because they treat the design of the image-gathering system and the formulation of the image-restoration algorithm as two separate tasks and fail to account for the transformations between the continuous and the discrete representations in image gathering and reconstruction.

Mccormick, Judith A.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.

1989-01-01

201

Measuring the Performance of Visual to Auditory Information Conversion  

PubMed Central

Background Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. Methodology Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID) and inter sound distance (ISD) whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. Conclusions With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives. PMID:23696791

Tan, Shern Shiou; Maul, Tomás Henrique Bode; Mennie, Neil Russell

2013-01-01

202

Dynamic visual information facilitates object recognition from novel viewpoints.  

PubMed

Normally, people have difficulties recognizing objects from novel as compared to learned views, resulting in increased reaction times and errors. Recent studies showed, however, that this "view-dependency" can be reduced or even completely eliminated when novel views result from observer's movements instead of object movements. This observer movement benefit was previously attributed to extra-retinal (physical motion) cues. In two experiments, we demonstrate that dynamic visual information (that would normally accompany observer's movements) can provide a similar benefit and thus a potential alternative explanation. Participants performed sequential matching tasks for Shepard-Metzler-like objects presented via head-mounted display. As predicted by the literature, object recognition performance improved when view changes (45° or 90°) resulted from active observer movements around the object instead of object movements. Unexpectedly, however, merely providing dynamic visual information depicting the viewpoint change showed an equal benefit, despite the lack of any extra-retinal/physical self-motion cues. Moreover, visually simulated rotations of the table and hidden target object (table movement condition) yielded similar performance benefits as simulated viewpoint changes (scene movement condition). These findings challenge the prevailing notion that extra-retinal (physical motion) cues are required for facilitating object recognition from novel viewpoints, and highlight the importance of dynamic visual cues, which have previously received little attention. PMID:21075836

Teramoto, Wataru; Riecke, Bernhard E

2010-01-01

203

Access to Attitude-Relevant Information in Memory as a Determinant of Persuasion: The Role of Message and Communicator Attributes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research literature shows that people with access to attitude-relevant information in memory are able to draw on relevant beliefs and prior experiences when analyzing a persuasive message. This suggests that people who can retrieve little attitude-relevant information should be less able to engage in systematic processing. Two experiments were…

Wood, Wendy; And Others

204

Highly informative natural scene regions increase microsaccade production during visual scanning.  

PubMed

Classical image statistics, such as contrast, entropy, and the correlation between central and nearby pixel intensities, are thought to guide ocular fixation targeting. However, these statistics are not necessarily task relevant and therefore do not provide a complete picture of the relationship between informativeness and ocular targeting. Moreover, it is not known whether either informativeness or classical image statistics affect microsaccade production; thus, the role of microsaccades in information acquisition is also unknown. The objective quantification of the informativeness of a scene region is a major challenge, because it can vary with both image features and the task of the viewer. Thus, previous definitions of informativeness suffered from subjectivity and inconsistency across studies. Here we developed an objective measure of informativeness based on fixation consistency across human observers, which accounts for both bottom-up and top-down influences in ocular targeting. We then analyzed fixations in more versus less informative image regions in relation to classical statistics. Observers generated more microsaccades on more informative than less informative image regions, and such regions also exhibited low redundancy in their classical statistics. Increased microsaccade production was not explained by increased fixation duration, suggesting that the visual system specifically uses microsaccades to heighten information acquisition from informative regions. PMID:24553936

McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

2014-02-19

205

An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future, Vol.VIII-6-4 An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment Ju Hong Zhen Chen Heng Li Qian Xu Associate Professor Research Fellow... Professor Research Student Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture The University of Reading The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Beijing, China Reading, UK Hong Kong, China hongjucn@yahoo.com.cn; z.chen@reading.ac.uk Abstract...

Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

2006-01-01

206

Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

2011-01-01

207

Visualization and Integrated Data Mining of Disparate Information  

SciTech Connect

The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have developed a framework for this integration, including common conceptual data models for multiple data types and linked visualizations that provide an overview of the entire data set, a measure of how each data record is related to every other record, and an assessment of the associations within the data set.

Saffer, Jeffrey D. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Albright, Cory L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Calapristi, Augustin J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chen, Guang (OMNIVIZ, INC); Crow, Vernon L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Decker, Scott D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Groch, Kevin M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Havre, Susan L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Malard, Joel (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Martin, Tonya J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Miller, Nancy E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Monroe, Philip J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Nowell, Lucy T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Payne, Deborah A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Reyes Spindola, Jorge F. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Scarberry, Randall E. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Sofia, Heidi J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stillwell, Lisa C. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Thomas, Gregory S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thurston, Sarah J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); Williams, Leigh K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zabriskie, Sean J. (OMNIVIZ, INC); MG Hicks

2001-05-11

208

Short-term retention of visual information: Evidence in support of feature-based attention as an underlying mechanism.  

PubMed

Retention of features in visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves maintenance of sensory traces in early visual cortex. However, the mechanism through which this is accomplished is not known. Here, we formulate specific hypotheses derived from studies on feature-based attention to test the prediction that visual cortex is recruited by attentional mechanisms during VSTM of low-level features. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human visual areas revealed that neural populations coding for task-irrelevant feature information are suppressed during maintenance of detailed spatial frequency memory representations. The narrow spectral extent of this suppression agrees well with known effects of feature-based attention. Additionally, analyses of effective connectivity during maintenance between retinotopic areas in visual cortex show that the observed highlighting of task-relevant parts of the feature spectrum originates in V4, a visual area strongly connected with higher-level control regions and known to convey top-down influence to earlier visual areas during attentional tasks. In line with this property of V4 during attentional operations, we demonstrate that modulations of earlier visual areas during memory maintenance have behavioral consequences, and that these modulations are a result of influences from V4. PMID:25445778

Sneve, Markus H; Sreenivasan, Kartik K; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

2015-01-01

209

Seeking Information with an Information Visualization System: A Study of Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain information visualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…

Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.

2011-01-01

210

An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients’ medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease like asthma. Methods We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our Patient Advocates facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe 1) researchers’ journals of these unique communications, 2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management, 3) Patient Advocates’ formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment-making, and 4) observations of patients’ interactions with the clinical practices. Results In 83 journals, patients’ social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. Patient Advocate assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. Conclusions These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and especially those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to accessing care, and confirming understanding of medical information. PMID:22788543

Black, Heather L.; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J.

2012-01-01

211

Spatial and temporal distribution of visual information coding in lateral prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Prefrontal neurons code many kinds of behaviourally relevant visual information. In behaving monkeys, we used a cued target detection task to address coding of objects, behavioural categories and spatial locations, examining the temporal evolution of neural activity across dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (encompassing parts of areas 9, 46, 45A and 8A), and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Within each hemisphere there was little evidence for regional specialisation, with neurons in dorsal and ventral regions showing closely similar patterns of selectivity for objects, categories and locations. For a stimulus in either visual field, however, there was a strong and temporally specific difference in response in the two cerebral hemispheres. In the first part of the visual response (50–250 ms from stimulus onset), processing in each hemisphere was largely restricted to contralateral stimuli, with strong responses to such stimuli, and selectivity for both object and category. Later (300–500 ms), responses to ipsilateral stimuli also appeared, many cells now responding more strongly to ipsilateral than to contralateral stimuli, and many showing selectivity for category. Activity on error trials showed that late activity in both hemispheres reflected the animal's final decision. As information is processed towards a behavioural decision, its encoding spreads to encompass large, bilateral regions of prefrontal cortex. PMID:25307044

Kadohisa, Mikiko; Kusunoki, Makoto; Petrov, Philippe; Sigala, Natasha; Buckley, Mark J; Gaffan, David; Duncan, John

2015-01-01

212

Context-based visual feedback recognition  

E-print Network

During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g., head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and to synchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visual feedback, people often ...

Morency, Louis-Philippe, 1977-

2007-01-01

213

TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

Zhang, Jin

2001-01-01

214

AmbiGlasses Information in the Periphery of the Visual Field  

E-print Network

AmbiGlasses ­ Information in the Periphery of the Visual Field Benjamin Poppinga1 , Niels Henze2 for Information Technology, Oldenburg 2 Institute for Visualization and Interactive Systems, University with 92% accuracy. Participants were further asked to exemplary design visualization configurations

Boll, Susanne

215

Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

2010-01-01

216

A theory of visual information acquisition and visual memory with special application to intensity-duration trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a theory of memory for visual material in which the visual system acts as a linear filter operating on a stimulus to produce a function, a(t), relating some sensory response to t (the time since stimulus onset). Stimulus information is acquired at a rate proportional to the product of the magnitude by which a(t) exceeds some threshold, and

Geoffrey R. Loftus; Eric Ruthruff

1994-01-01

217

Information Visualization Using Internet for Activation of Shopping Streets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to activate a large scale shopping streets (shotengai) using Internet technique. Shotengai is a style of Japanese commercial district street. Recently, decline in shotengai is a serious problem. So, we take up “Osu” which is famous shotengai in Nagoya, Japan. We architect Web visualization system, which has useful usability and findability for Osu shotengai information. We also develop methods for competing for a store owner with another one by their prominency and for attractive design to increase motivation of store owners. The number of users of Osu map is increased rapidly. We hope to apply our instance to the activation of shotengai in Japan.

Torii, Ippei; Okada, Yousuke; Onogi, Manabu; Niwa, Takahito; Ishii, Naohiro

218

The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

2012-01-01

219

Information visualization and interactive querying for online documentation and electronic books  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe recent research that we have conducted on the use of information visualization [3] and a new style of query-based browsing [7] to enhance the exploration of online information. Our goal is to increase the performance and usability of online documentation, and of electronic information in general.Information visualization using three dimensional hierarchies provides a convenient way

Mark H. Chignell; Gene Golovchinsky; Ferdie Poblete; Sarah Zuberec

1993-01-01

220

From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization  

PubMed Central

Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ?300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

2004-01-01

221

In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

2010-01-01

222

Information visualization techniques in a multi-mission operations environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the near future, the number of major missions flying simultaneously will increase. This increase in data will place a heavier burden on the operations staff to verify the health and status of a spacecraft or intrument platform. The problem of verification becomes particularly acute when multiple flight projects are being supported by the same personnel. Operations must be made more efficient and automated to remain successful. A prototype concept for achieving that goal is described. The prototype shows how the concepts of information visualization and information retrieval can be applied in developing a user oriented interface for a multimission operations environment. The proposed user interface integrates existing prototypes and includes two dimensional and three dimensional color graphics, animation, and simulation. Techniques of data realization are included.

Baroth, Edmund C.; Chin, Gregory E.; Curran, Patrick S.

1990-01-01

223

Modeling of human perception of pictorial visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the investigation and modeling of human perception of pictorial visual information during landscape interpretation of space and air earth's surface remote images. The conception of iconic sign (element of perceptive clusterization) is taken as a principle. The perception process is modeled from semiotical approach. The division of information into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects is assumed as a basis. Image syntax (construction) is determined according to spatial distribution of image brightness. Image could be described by formal language, consisting of image structural element's alphabet (such as unreduced element, grain, contour, region), range alphabet, which characterizes some hierarchical ranges of structural element's relations and a number of substitution rules. Such image representation describes its syntax in terms of hierarchical typical fragments of image, takes into consideration image construction and relation's structure, corresponding to human perception. Different types of semantics are discussed. The limiters of algorithmic, heuristic, and creative types are considered.

Zakharko, E.; Bachevskij, Roman S.

1994-05-01

224

Visualizing patient trajectories on wall-mounted boards - information security challenges.  

PubMed

Since operating room departments are among the costliest resources at a hospital, much attention is devoted to maximize their utilization. Operating room activities are however notoriously hard to plan in advance. This has to do with the unpredictable, problem-solving nature of the work and that the work is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of health personnel, members of which also have commitments outside the operating room department. We assume that operating room teams have the capacity to coordinate themselves and that coordination might be facilitated by visualizing relevant information on wall-mounted boards. To characterize clinical situations that require coordination and re-planning of the teams' work, we have developed a realistic scenario. We analyse and discuss the information security challenges that follow from displaying information on the whereabouts of other teams, actors and patients on wall-mounted boards in the operating rooms. Information security threats could be mitigated by de-identification techniques. Information demands could thereby be met without sacrificing the privacy of those whose information is displayed. PMID:19745404

Faxvaag, Arild; Røstad, Lillian; Tøndel, Inger A; Seim, Andreas R; Toussaint, Pieter J

2009-01-01

225

Toward a socio-visual theory of information and information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report an evolving collaboration between a social theorist and a visual communication theorist-graphic designer. We are exploring the contributions that can be made by integrating our theories and practices to theory, design and practice in information technology. We discuss the nature and current state of our collaboration and a project in which we are developing a

Sal Restivo; Audrey Steinhauer

2000-01-01

226

TileBars: visualization of term distribution information in full text information access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of information retrieval has traditionally focused on textbases consisting of titles and abstracts. As a consequence, many underlying assumptions must be altered for retrieval from full-length text collections. This paper argues for mak- ing use of text structure when retrieving from full text doc- uments, and presents a visualization paradigm, called Tile- Bars, that demonstrates the usefulness of

Marti A. Hearst

1995-01-01

227

Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information

Henning Müller; Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer; Charles E. Kahn Jr.; William Hersh

2009-01-01

228

Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment  

PubMed Central

The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

2013-01-01

229

Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment.  

PubMed

The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

2013-01-01

230

Investigation of display issues relevant to the presentation of aircraft fault information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.

Allen, Donald M.

1989-01-01

231

Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Results Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (p<0.001), and more sun protection (p<0.001). Regarding gender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. Conclusions The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits. PMID:23573372

Cervinka, Renate

2013-01-01

232

LINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY  

E-print Network

................................................................................................. 12 1.6.2 Augmented RealityLINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY BY BRIANA

Ware, Colin

233

Bimanual force variability in chronic stroke: With and without visual information.  

PubMed

Visual information is critical to producing and controlling force output to achieve targeted levels. This study investigated bimanual force control in chronic stroke individuals while manipulating visual information. Nine chronic stroke individuals and nine age-matched controls executed bimanual wrist and finger extension at 5% of maximum voluntary contraction. Bimanual force control outcome measures included: (a) coefficient of variation, (b) approximate entropy, and (c) bimanual coordination. Without visual information, chronic stroke individuals displayed less force variability and more regular force production in comparison to age-matched controls. These findings suggest that chronic stroke individuals depended on visual information during bimanual force execution. PMID:25528403

Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

2015-02-01

234

Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory  

E-print Network

Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory L. Gregory shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions

Mitroff, Stephen

235

Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through a Longitudinal Field Study  

E-print Network

1 Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through and practices, and resultant design implications for visual analytics systems for intelligence analysis. Munzner of Technology ABSTRACT While intelligence analysis has been a primary target domain for visual analytics system

Stasko, John T.

236

The Blind Leading the Blind: Toward Collaborative Online Route Information Management by Individuals with Visual Impairments  

E-print Network

by Individuals with Visual Impairments Vladimir Kulyukin vladimir.kulyukin@usu.edu Department of Computer Science information by travelers with visual impairments. The specific research hypothesis is two-fold: 1) people whose objectives are to collect sam- ples of route descriptions from travelers with visual impair- ments

Kulyukin, Vladimir

237

SpaceSense: Representing Geographical Information to Visually Impaired People Using Spatial Tactile Feedback  

E-print Network

SpaceSense: Representing Geographical Information to Visually Impaired People Using Spatial Tactile@microsoft.com ABSTRACT Learning an environment can be challenging for people with visual impairments. Braille maps allow about an environment can be challenging for people with visual impairments. They often need support

Toronto, University of

238

VisIRR: Visual Analytics for Information Retrieval and Recommendation with Large-Scale Document Data  

E-print Network

VisIRR: Visual Analytics for Information Retrieval and Recommendation with Large-Scale Document with a user-initiated query (A) (e.g., a keyword `disease'), VisIRR visualizes the retrieved documents retrieval and recommendation system for large-scale document data. Starting with a query, VisIRR visualizes

Stasko, John T.

239

Full Motion Tracking in Ultrasound Using Image Speckle Information and Visual Servoing  

E-print Network

-- Visual servoing, ultrasound, speckle correla- tion, medical robotics. I. INTRODUCTION Over the last control of a medical robot by using visual servoing from ultrasound B-scan images. Rather than relyingFull Motion Tracking in Ultrasound Using Image Speckle Information and Visual Servoing Alexandre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Encoding and retaining information in the visuals and verbals of an educational movie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that when viewers watching an educational movie are presented simultaneously with information in two media-visual\\u000a and verbal \\/auditory, there is no competition fa resources. When encoding information in one medium, one is not hindered from\\u000a encoding information in the other; even when visual and linguistic information are presented sequentially, doubling study\\u000a time, the extraction of information is

Patricia Baggett; Andrzej Ehrenfeucht

1983-01-01

241

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War M

Harris, Harold H.

1999-02-01

242

Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; ?ura?iová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

2014-03-01

243

Effects of body lean and visual information on the equilibrium maintenance during stance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of equilibrium was tested in conditions when humans assume different leaning postures during upright standing.\\u000a Subjects (n=11) stood in 13 different body postures specified by visual center of pressure (COP) targets within their base of support\\u000a (BOS). Different types of visual information were tested: continuous presentation of visual target, no vision after target\\u000a presentation, and with simultaneous visual feedback

Marcos Duarte; Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

2002-01-01

244

Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.

Hogan, P.

2009-12-01

245

The Relevance of Information Organization to Second Language Acquisition Studies. The Descriptive Discourse of Advanced Adult Learners of German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the relevance of principles of information organization in adult second language acquisition. Looks at typological features of information structure that allow speakers to organize and shape the flow of information when carrying out complex tasks and pinpoints factors that lead to the selection of linguistic form. The nature of the…

Caroll, Mary; Murcia-Serra, Jorge; Watorek, Marzena; Bendiscioli, Alessandra

2000-01-01

246

Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex??  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students’ learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visual information. Results from three experiments consistently

Marc Marschark; Jeff B Pelz; Carol Convertino; Patricia Sapere; Mary Ellen Arndt; Rosemarie Seewagen

2005-01-01

247

Visualizing information during early design Filippo A. Salustri, PhD, PEng  

E-print Network

Visualizing information during early design Filippo A. Salustri, PhD, PEng Ryerson University, Canada Abstract We visualize information by presenting it in pictorial, diagrammatic, or graphical ways is just as difficult to understand and just as useless as a poorly written text description. "Early design

Salustri, Filippo A.

248

A service-portlet based visual paradigm for personalized convergence of information resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

It gains more and more attentions on how to enable users to dynamically construct and reconstruct Web applications of information convergence in run time to resolving urgent and unplanned business requirements. Visual programming environment, information resources virtualization and management, and visual representation of user-defined applications are important and challenging issues in dynamically constructing these applications. To address these needs, a

Yongshan Wei; Zhonglin Sun; Xin Chen; Feng Zhang

2009-01-01

249

Visual information seeking: tight coupling of dynamic query filters with starfield displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers new principles for visual information seeking (VIS). A key concept is to support browsing, which is distinguished from familiar query composition and information retrieval because of its emphasis on rapid filtering to reduce result sets, progressive refinement of search parameters, continuous reformulation of goals, and visual scanning to identify results. VIS principles developed include: dynamic query filters

Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman

1994-01-01

250

Multi-Spectral Face Recognition -Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information  

E-print Network

Multi-Spectral Face Recognition - Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information Pradeep for face recognition using visual imagery as well as the physiological information extracted from thermal face recognition methods. For each subject in the database, we store facial images collected

251

Flexible information visualization of multivariate data from biological sequence similarity searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualization faces challenges presented by the need to represent abstract data and the relationships within the data. Previ- ously, we presented a system for visualizing similarities between a single DNA sequence and a large database of other DNA se- quences (6). Similarity algorithms generate similarity information in textual reports that can be hundreds or thousands of pages long. Our

Ed Huai-hsin Chi; John Riedlt; Elizabeth Shoopt; John V. Carlist; Ernest Retzel; Phillip Barry

1996-01-01

252

Tree-Maps: a space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for the visualization of hierarchically structured information. The Tree-Map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information.

Brian Johnson; Ben Shneiderman

1991-01-01

253

Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

2014-09-22

254

Abstract--Information Retrieval is a process made by a user to obtain relevant information which meets his needs using an  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Information Retrieval is a process made by a user to obtain relevant information which meets his needs using an Information Retrieval System (IRS). However the IRS shows some differences Retrieval process. Keywords-- information retrieval, user profile, personalized IR, indexing, user re

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

2005-03-01

256

Enhancing Policymakers’ Understanding of Disparities: Relevant Data from an Information-Rich Environment  

PubMed Central

Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576

Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L

2010-01-01

257

Visualization and identification of health space, based on personalized molecular phenotype and treatment response to relevant underlying biological processes  

PubMed Central

Background Being able to visualize multivariate biological treatment effects can be insightful. However the axes in visualizations are often solely defined by variation and thus have no biological meaning. This makes the effects of treatment difficult to interpret. Methods A statistical visualization method is presented, which analyses and visualizes the effects of treatment in individual subjects. The visualization is based on predefined biological processes as determined by systems-biological datasets (metabolomics proteomics and transcriptomics). This allows one to evaluate biological effects depending on shifts of either groups or subjects in the space predefined by the axes, which illustrate specific biological processes. We built validated multivariate models for each axis to represent several biological processes. In this space each subject has his or her own score on each axis/process, indicating to which extent the treatment affects the related process. Results The health space model was applied to visualize the effects of a nutritional intervention, with the goal of applying diet to improve health. The model was therefore named the 'health space' model. The 36 study subjects received a 5-week dietary intervention containing several anti-inflammatory ingredients. Plasma concentrations of 79 proteins and 145 metabolites were quantified prior to and after treatment. The principal processes modulated by the intervention were oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolism. These processes formed the axes of the 'health space'. The approach distinguished the treated and untreated groups, as well as two different response subgroups. One subgroup reacted mainly by modulating its metabolic stress profile, while a second subgroup showed a specific inflammatory and oxidative response to treatment. Conclusions The 'health space' model allows visualization of multiple results and to interpret them. The model presents treatment group effects, subgroups and individual responses. PMID:22221319

2012-01-01

258

Children's use of visual information in action planning  

E-print Network

years of age). The participants performed visually open-loop reaches to two different sized objects at two different distances along the midline. Reaches took place either immediately, or 2s after the occlusion of the stimulus. With all age groups... maximum reach (used as the comparison) and imaged reach responses were collected via a projection system linked to a PC programmed with Visual Basic. Visual images were systematically projected onto a table surface at midline (90o). actual reach...

Cordova, Alberto

2012-02-14

259

Residual information processing in the neglected visual half-field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with neglect of visual half-field without hemianopia performed “same\\/different” interfield comparisons and named stimuli presented either unilaterally or bilaterally in the visual half-fields. With unilateral presentation he could name all stimuli in both fields, whereas with simultaneous bilateral stimulation his performance decreased to about 50% correct naming of left visual field (LVF) stimuli. This performance was not improved

H.-O. Karnath; W. Hartje

1987-01-01

260

Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision.

Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Fried, Shelley I.

2011-06-01

261

Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

262

How Information Visualization Novices Construct Visualizations Lars Grammel, Melanie Tory, and Margaret-Anne Storey  

E-print Network

barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual charts. From our observations, we derived abstract models that describe barriers in the data exploration that could benefit from these tools lack visualization construction expertise. In particular, it has been

Tory, Melanie

263

Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

1988-06-01

264

Effects of shrinkage of the visual field through ageing on parking performance: a parametric manipulation of salience and relevance of contextual components.  

PubMed

The Master Activation model of attention (Michael, Vairet, and Fernandez, Capture attentionnelle en vision: La saillance, la pertinence, et la balance cortico-sous-corticale. In: G. A. Michael (ed), Neuroscience cognitive de l'attention visuelle [Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Attention], Solal, Marseille, pp. 165-201, 2007; Michael, Lété, and Ducrot, Trajectories of Attentional Development: An Exploration with the Master Activation Map Model, Developmental Psychology, 49:615-631, 2013) was used to study visual attention and driving behaviours of younger and older drivers while parking a car. The salience and the relevance of elements present in the parking environment were manipulated during parking manoeuvres. Different effects on manoeuvring were observed depending on driver characteristics such as age and the extent of the field of view (FV). It was found that the presence of a relevant element, such as a pedestrian, impaired parking performance only among older drivers with a narrower FV. The distinct effects of salience and relevance suggest that they had different statuses in attentional processing of manoeuvring drivers. PMID:25443310

Douissembekov, Evgueni; Michael, George A; Rogé, Joceline; Bonhoure, Patrick; Gabaude, Catherine; Navarro, Jordan

2014-12-01

265

Web-Based Interactive Visualization in an Information Retrieval Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive visualization is a powerful educational tool. It has been used to enhance the teaching of various subjects from computer science to chemistry to engineering. In computer science education, this powerful tool is used almost exclusively in programming and data structure courses. This paper suggests that visualization could be very…

Brusilovsky, Peter

266

Recursive Information Hiding in Visual Cryptography Sandeep Katta  

E-print Network

, Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078 ABSTRACT: Visual Cryptography is a secret sharing scheme for 3 out of 5 secret sharing. The idea used is to hide smaller secrets in the shares of a larger secret without an expansion in the size of the latter. KEYWORDS: visual cryptography, secret sharing, recursive

267

The Neurophysiology of Backward Visual Masking: Information Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backward masking can potentially provide evidence of the time needed for visual processing, a fundamental constraint that must be incorporated into computational models of vision. Although backward masking has been extensively used psychophysically, there is little direct evidence for the effects of visual masking on neuronal responses. To investigate the effects of a backward masking paradigm on the responses of

Edmund T. Rolls; Martin J. Tovée; Stefano Panzeri

1999-01-01

268

Rhetorical figures in headings and their effect on text processing: the moderating role of information relevance and text length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professionals involved in the creation of text-based communication face a number of challenges. These include overburdened and often uninterested users juxtaposed with the writer's desire to communicate relevant topical information. Uninvolved users are likely to ignore the message. This may be exacerbated by increases in text length designed to increase the amount and\\/or detail of information to be communicated. An

BRUCE A. HUHMANN; DAVID L. MOTHERSBAUGH; GEORGE R. FRANKE

2002-01-01

269

The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…

Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

2011-01-01

270

A method for enhancing digital information displayed to computer users with visual refractive errors via spatial and spectral processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research pursued the conceptualization, implementation, and verification of a system that enhances digital information displayed on an LCD panel to users with visual refractive errors. The target user groups for this system are individuals who have moderate to severe visual aberrations for which conventional means of compensation, such as glasses or contact lenses, does not improve their vision. This research is based on a priori knowledge of the user's visual aberration, as measured by a wavefront analyzer. With this information it is possible to generate images that, when displayed to this user, will counteract his/her visual aberration. The method described in this dissertation advances the development of techniques for providing such compensation by integrating spatial information in the image as a means to eliminate some of the shortcomings inherent in using display devices such as monitors or LCD panels. Additionally, physiological considerations are discussed and integrated into the method for providing said compensation. In order to provide a realistic sense of the performance of the methods described, they were tested by mathematical simulation in software, as well as by using a single-lens high resolution CCD camera that models an aberrated eye, and finally with human subjects having various forms of visual aberrations. Experiments were conducted on these systems and the data collected from these experiments was evaluated using statistical analysis. The experimental results revealed that the pre-compensation method resulted in a statistically significant improvement in vision for all of the systems. Although significant, the improvement was not as large as expected for the human subject tests. Further analysis suggest that even under the controlled conditions employed for testing with human subjects, the characterization of the eye may be changing. This would require real-time monitoring of relevant variables (e.g. pupil diameter) and continuous adjustment in the pre-compensation process to yield maximum viewing enhancement.

Alonso, Miguel, Jr.

2007-12-01

271

IVORY - An Object-Oriented Framework for Physics-Based Information Visualization in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present IVORY, a newly developed, platform-independent framework for physics-based visualization. IVORY is especially designed for information visualization applications and multidi- mensional graph layout. It is fully implemented in Java 1.1 and its architecture features client-server setup, which allows to run the visualization even on thin clients. In addition, VRML 2.0 exports can be viewed by any VRML plugged-in WWW-browser.

T. C. Sprenger; Markus H. Gross; Daniel Bielser; T. Strasser

1998-01-01

272

An alternative information web for visually impaired users in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Websites in World Wide Web are primarily meant for visual consumption. Moreover, the wide variety of visual controls available make it harder to interpret the websites with screen readers. This problem of accessing information and services on the web escalates even further for visually impaired in developing regions since most are either semi-literate\\/illiterate or cannot afford computers and high-end phones

Nitendra Rajput; Sheetal Agarwal; Arun Kumar; Amit Anil Nanavati

2008-01-01

273

Using neural networks to understand the information that guides behavior: a case study in visual navigation.  

PubMed

To behave in a robust and adaptive way, animals must extract task-relevant sensory information efficiently. One way to understand how they achieve this is to explore regularities within the information animals perceive during natural behavior. In this chapter, we describe how we have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore efficiencies in vision and memory that might underpin visually guided route navigation in complex worlds. Specifically, we use three types of neural network to learn the regularities within a series of views encountered during a single route traversal (the training route), in such a way that the networks output the familiarity of novel views presented to them. The problem of navigation is then reframed in terms of a search for familiar views, that is, views similar to those associated with the route. This approach has two major benefits. First, the ANN provides a compact holistic representation of the data and is thus an efficient way to encode a large set of views. Second, as we do not store the training views, we are not limited in the number of training views we use and the agent does not need to decide which views to learn. PMID:25502385

Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; Baddeley, Bart; Husbands, Philip

2015-01-01

274

Standard operating procedure for audio visual recording of informed consent: an initiative to facilitate regulatory compliance.  

PubMed

The office of the Drugs Controller General (India) vide order dated 19 th November 2013 has made audio visual (AV) recording of the informed consent mandatory for the conduct of all clinical trials in India. We therefore developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) to ensure that this is performed in compliance with the regulatory requirements, internationally accepted ethical standards and that the recording is stored as well as archived in an appropriate manner. The SOP was developed keeping in mind all relevant orders, regulations, laws and guidelines and have been made available online. Since, we are faced with unique legal and regulatory requirements that are unprecedented globally, this SOP will allow the AV recording of the informed consent to be performed, archived and retrieved to demonstrate ethical, legal and regulatory compliance. We also compared this to the draft guidelines for AV recording dated 9 th January 2014 developed by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization. Our future efforts will include regular testing, feedback and update of the SOP. PMID:25104190

Parikh, P M; Prabhash, K; Govind, K B; Digumarti, R; Pandit, S; Banerjee, I; Biyani, R; Deshmukh, A; Doval, D; Bhattacharyya, G S; Gupta, S

2014-01-01

275

LKL Seminar, 14/11/2005 Information Visualization  

E-print Network

/PowerViz Network Visualization System http://www.avs.com/software/soft_b/openviz/conedison.html Con Edison Taps own pump; Brewery (No) ­ drank beer; Remote cases (Yes) ­ drank water from the pump #12;"...I found

Mirkin, Boris

276

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

277

Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

2015-01-01

278

Remembering more than meets the eye: A study of memory confusions about incomplete visual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this series of four experiments was to examine the possible role of spontaneous imagery in memory confusions about the way in which visual information had been experienced. After viewing pictures of familiar objects, complete or incomplete in visual form, participants were asked to remember the way in which the objects had been presented. Although, as predicted, memory

Mary Ann Foley; Hugh J. Foley; Rachel Scheye; Angelica M. Bonacci

2007-01-01

279

End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information  

E-print Network

End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information (called WIND - Web INteraction Design) that focuses on both designers' creativity and model executability Environment providing designers with visual functionality. Keywords: Interaction Design, Semantic Web

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Development of transit information assistant system for the visual impaired in a multimodal transit environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper were to identify the problems and requirements of the visual impaired in the transit environment by questionnaire survey and develop a transit information assistant system base on the APTS technology. The questionnaire includes forty items under six categories to understand the difficulties and requirements for of visual impaired in the transit environment. Regarding the investigation

Jau-Ming Su; Chih-Hung Chang; Wen-Chi Ho; Hong-Jen Liao

2010-01-01

281

Interspike Intervals, Receptive Fields, and Information Encoding in Primary Visual Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the primate primary visual cortex (V1), the significance of individual action potentials has been difficult to determine, particularly in light of the considerable trial-to-trial variability of responses to visual stimuli. We show here that the information conveyed by an action potential depends on the duration of the immediately preceding interspike interval (ISI). The interspike intervals can be grouped into

Daniel S. Reich; Ferenc Mechler; Keith P. Purpura; Jonathan D. Victor

2000-01-01

282

Spatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates  

E-print Network

of the human brain using body-centred coordinates to code the spatial position of both visual and somatic the ®rst indication of such processing networks in the human brain. Introduction Sensory systems conveyingSpatial coding of visual and somatic sensory information in body-centred coordinates Gaspare Galati

283

Combined visualization of structural and metric information for software evolution analysis  

E-print Network

Combined visualization of structural and metric information for software evolution analysis Antonio@usal.es ABSTRACT This paper discusses a proposal for the visualization of software evolution, with a focus to the project during the creation of a given revision. We discuss several design elements supporting these tasks

Telea, Alexandru C.

284

Brain processing of visual information during fast eye movements maintains motor performance.  

PubMed

Movement accuracy depends crucially on the ability to detect errors while actions are being performed. When inaccuracies occur repeatedly, both an immediate motor correction and a progressive adaptation of the motor command can unfold. Of all the movements in the motor repertoire of humans, saccadic eye movements are the fastest. Due to the high speed of saccades, and to the impairment of visual perception during saccades, a phenomenon called "saccadic suppression", it is widely believed that the adaptive mechanisms maintaining saccadic performance depend critically on visual error signals acquired after saccade completion. Here, we demonstrate that, contrary to this widespread view, saccadic adaptation can be based entirely on visual information presented during saccades. Our results show that visual error signals introduced during saccade execution--by shifting a visual target at saccade onset and blanking it at saccade offset--induce the same level of adaptation as error signals, presented for the same duration, but after saccade completion. In addition, they reveal that this processing of intra-saccadic visual information for adaptation depends critically on visual information presented during the deceleration phase, but not the acceleration phase, of the saccade. These findings demonstrate that the human central nervous system can use short intra-saccadic glimpses of visual information for motor adaptation, and they call for a reappraisal of current models of saccadic adaptation. PMID:23382932

Panouillères, Muriel; Gaveau, Valérie; Socasau, Camille; Urquizar, Christian; Pélisson, Denis

2013-01-01

285

A parieto-frontal network for visual numerical information in the monkey  

E-print Network

A parieto-frontal network for visual numerical information in the monkey Andreas Nieder* and Earl K, 2004 (received for review January 16, 2004) Recent electrophysiological studies in monkeys have activity in the PPC and the anterior inferior temporal cortex while monkeys performed a visual numerosity

Nieder, Andreas

286

User perspectives on relevance criteria: A comparison among relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the use of criteria to assess rel- evant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 docu- ment representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant, partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed

Kelly L. Maglaughlin; Diane H. Sonnenwald

2002-01-01

287

Throwing a glance at the neural code: rapid information transmission in the visual system  

E-print Network

understanding of how neurons in the visual system of the brain represent, process, and transmit the relevant questions in the research of neural coding. How do downstream brain regions read out signals from the retina that you are already being expected else- where. But, alas, your car keys are missing. You know that you

Gollisch, Tim

288

Perceptual load improves the expression but not learning of relevant sequence information.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we investigated the hypothesis of Rowland and Shanks (2006a) that sequence learning of relevant information is resistant to variations in perceptual load. Under conditions of increased selection difficulty, participants incidentally learned a sequence of targets presented together with three distractors. Target and distractors were composed of pairs of letters and shared more or less features with each other, rendering perceptual identification of the target either more (high load) or less (low load) attention demanding. The expression of sequence learning improved significantly under high load conditions as compared to low load conditions. This could indicate that the cognitive system promotes the development of response-based sequence learning in order to cope with the attentional demands arising from high perceptual load. However, the learning process proved to be unaffected by perceptual load when tested under baseline conditions without distractors (Experiment 1) or under opposite load conditions as during training (Experiment 2). This demonstrates that sequence learning is not influenced by increasing selection demands and suggests that sequence learning runs independently of input attention. PMID:19261583

Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné; Soetens, Eric

2009-01-01

289

Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception.  

PubMed

The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the formation of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed an increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

2014-10-15

290

S`COOL: Leveraging Information Technology Advances to Present K-12 Students with Specifically Relevant Satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources and tools has resulted in a large increase in the level of interaction between S`COOL participants and the NASA team. With the posting of the new Excel tools, we anticipate a large increase in active data analysis by our K-12 teachers and students. www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/usedata.html

Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.

2007-12-01

291

Visualization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and role of visualization in the study of mathematics. Also includes a list of seven broad methods (often referred to as the design spectrum) by which individuals solve problems. (JN)

Sharma, Mahesh C.

1985-01-01

292

The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the Visual Information-Seeking Mantra: Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. This paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data

Ben Shneiderman

1996-01-01

293

Hearing lips in a second language: visual articulatory information enables the perception of second language sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of visual speech information (articulatory gestures) on the perception of second language (L2)\\u000a sounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that listeners often fail to hear the difference between certain non-native phonemic\\u000a contrasts, such as in the case of Spanish native speakers regarding the Catalan sounds \\/?\\/ and \\/e\\/. Here, we tested whether\\u000a adding visual information about the

Jordi Navarra; Salvador Soto-Faraco

2007-01-01

294

Relevance of Electronic Health Information to Doctors in the Developing World: Results of the Ptolemy Project’s Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons’ clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at

Kirsteen R. Burton; Andrew Howard; Massey Beveridge

2005-01-01

295

Introduction In most visually guided animals, the amount of information  

E-print Network

or failing to respond to target presence) and search reaction time (RT; time between the appearance example, a prey item, a predator, a mate) out of a multitude of other objects that might (at the time to understand the mechanisms of complex visual perception have been deployed only in humans and other primates

Chittka, Lars

296

Tactons: Structured Tactile Messages for Non-Visual Information Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactile displays are now becoming available in a form that can be easily used in a user interface. This paper describes a new form of tactile output. , or tactile icons, are structured, abstract messages that can be used to communicate messages non-visually. A range of different parameters can be used for Tacton construction including: frequency, amplitude and duration of

Stephen A. Brewster; Lorna M. Brown

2004-01-01

297

The table lens: merging graphical and symbolic representations in an interactive focus+context visualization for tabular information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visual- ization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most

Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card

1994-01-01

298

Summary of: The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual

K. Dalley

2010-01-01

299

The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual

D. R. Moles; N. Kumar; S. R. Porter; E. K. Watson

2010-01-01

300

Contributions of visual and proprioceptive information to travelled distance estimation during changing sensory congruencies.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided evidence that visual and body-based cues (vestibular, proprioceptive and efference copy) are integrated using a weighted linear sum during walking and passive transport. However, little is known about the specific weighting of visual information when combined with proprioceptive inputs alone, in the absence of vestibular information about forward self-motion. Therefore, in this study, participants walked in place on a stationary treadmill while dynamic visual information was updated in real time via a head-mounted display. The task required participants to travel a predefined distance and subsequently match this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target using a game controller. Travelled distance information was provided either through visual cues alone, proprioceptive cues alone or both cues combined. In the combined cue condition, the relationship between the two cues was manipulated by either changing the visual gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 1) or the proprioceptive gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 2). Results demonstrated an overall higher weighting of proprioception over vision. These weights were scaled, however, as a function of which sensory input provided more stable information across trials. Specifically, when visual gain was constantly manipulated, proprioceptive weights were higher than when proprioceptive gain was constantly manipulated. These results therefore reveal interesting characteristics of cue-weighting within the context of unfolding spatio-temporal cue dynamics. PMID:24961739

Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

2014-10-01

301

Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

2012-01-01

302

Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data  

SciTech Connect

A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.

Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.

2005-10-01

303

Methods study for the relocation of visual information in central scotoma cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we test the benefit on the reading performance of different ways to relocating the visual information present under the scotoma. The relocation (or unmasking) allows to compensate the loss of information and avoid the patient developing driving strategies not adapted for the reading. Eight healthy subjects were tested on a reading task, on each a central scotoma of various sizes was simulated. We then evaluate the reading speed (words/min) during three visual information relocation methods: all masked information is relocated - on both side of scotoma, - on the right of scotoma, - and only essentials letters for the word recognition too on the right of scotoma. We compare these reading speeds versus the pathological condition, ie without relocating visual information. Our results show that unmasking strategy improve the reading speed when all the visual information is unmask to the right of scotoma, this only for large scotoma. Taking account the word morphology, the perception of only certain letters outside the scotoma can be sufficient to improve the reading speed. A deepening of reading processes in the presence of a scotoma will then allows a new perspective for visual information unmasking. Multidisciplinary competences brought by engineers, ophtalmologists, linguists, clinicians would allow to optimize the reading benefit brought by the unmasking.

Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Gautier, Vincent

2005-03-01

304

Effects of frequency shifts and visual gender information on vowel category judgments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual morphing techniques were used together with a high-quality vocoder to study the audiovisual contribution of talker gender to the identification of frequency-shifted vowels. A nine-step continuum ranging from ``bit'' to ``bet'' was constructed from natural recorded syllables spoken by an adult female talker. Upward and downward frequency shifts in spectral envelope (scale factors of 0.85 and 1.0) were applied in combination with shifts in fundamental frequency, F0 (scale factors of 0.5 and 1.0). Downward frequency shifts generally resulted in malelike voices whereas upward shifts were perceived as femalelike. Two separate nine-step visual continua from ``bit'' to ``bet'' were also constructed, one from a male face and the other a female face, each producing the end-point words. Each step along the two visual continua was paired with the corresponding step on the acoustic continuum, creating natural audiovisual utterances. Category boundary shifts were found for both acoustic cues (F0 and formant frequency shifts) and visual cues (visual gender). The visual gender effect was larger when acoustic and visual information were matched appropriately. These results suggest that visual information provided by the speech signal plays an important supplemental role in talker normalization.

Glidden, Catherine; Assmann, Peter F.

2003-10-01

305

Intelligent Visualization of Geo-Information on the Future Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization is a key component of the "Observation Web" and will become even more important in the future as geo data becomes more widely accessible. The common statement that "Data that cannot be seen, does not exist" is especially true for non-experts, like most citizens. The Web provides the most interesting platform for making data easily and widely available. However, today's Web is not well suited for the interactive visualization and exploration that is often needed for geo data. Support for 3D data was added only recently and at an extremely low level (WebGL), but even the 2D visualization capabilities of HTML e.g. (images, canvas, SVG) are rather limited, especially regarding interactivity. We have developed XML3D as an extension to HTML-5. It allows for compactly describing 2D and 3D data directly as elements of an HTML-5 document. All graphics elements are part of the Document Object Model (DOM) and can be manipulated via the same set of DOM events and methods that millions of Web developers use on a daily basis. Thus, XML3D makes highly interactive 2D and 3D visualization easily usable, not only for geo data. XML3D is supported by any WebGL-capable browser but we also provide native implementations in Firefox and Chromium. As an example, we show how OpenStreetMap data can be mapped directly to XML3D and visualized interactively in any Web page. We show how this data can be easily augmented with additional data from the Web via a few lines of Javascript. We also show how embedded semantic data (via RDFa) allows for linking the visualization back to the data's origin, thus providing an immersive interface for interacting with and modifying the original data. XML3D is used as key input for standardization within the W3C Community Group on "Declarative 3D for the Web" chaired by the DFKI and has recently been selected as one of the Generic Enabler for the EU Future Internet initiative.

Slusallek, P.; Jochem, R.; Sons, K.; Hoffmann, H.

2012-04-01

306

Cultural Differences in Allocation of Attention in Visual Information Processing  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that when processing visual scenes, Westerners attend to salient objects and East Asians attend to the relationships between focal objects and background elements. It is possible that cross-cultural differences in attentional allocation contribute to these earlier findings. In this article, the authors investigate cultural differences in attentional allocation in two experiments, using a visual change detection paradigm. They demonstrate that East Asians are better than Americans at detecting color changes when a layout of a set of colored blocks is expanded to cover a wider region and worse when it is shrunk. East Asians are also slower than Americans are at detecting changes in the center of the screen. The data suggest that East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans. The authors consider potential factors that may contribute to the development of such attention allocation differences. PMID:20234851

Boduroglu, Aysecan; Shah, Priti; Nisbett, Richard E.

2010-01-01

307

Cultural Differences in Allocation of Attention in Visual Information Processing.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that when processing visual scenes, Westerners attend to salient objects and East Asians attend to the relationships between focal objects and background elements. It is possible that cross-cultural differences in attentional allocation contribute to these earlier findings. In this article, the authors investigate cultural differences in attentional allocation in two experiments, using a visual change detection paradigm. They demonstrate that East Asians are better than Americans at detecting color changes when a layout of a set of colored blocks is expanded to cover a wider region and worse when it is shrunk. East Asians are also slower than Americans are at detecting changes in the center of the screen. The data suggest that East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans. The authors consider potential factors that may contribute to the development of such attention allocation differences. PMID:20234851

Boduroglu, Aysecan; Shah, Priti; Nisbett, Richard E

2009-01-01

308

Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

2005-01-01

309

Extracting, Integrating, and Visualizing Uncertain Web Information about Moving  

E-print Network

paper how Web content can be exploited instead to gather information (trajectories, metadata) about some of a system that constructs trajectories of ships from social networking data, presenting to a user inferred trajectories, meta information, as well as the level of uncertainty on extracted information. 1 Introduction

Senellart, Pierre

310

Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

2013-05-01

311

Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology.  

PubMed

This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China. PMID:25209925

Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh

2014-12-01

312

Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.  

PubMed

The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role. PMID:25274823

Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

2014-10-01

313

Context-based Visual Feedback Recognition  

E-print Network

During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g.,head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and tosynchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visualfeedback, people often rely ...

Morency, Louis-Philippe

2006-11-15

314

The Relative Effectiveness of Varied Visual Testing Formats in Retrieving Information Related to Different Educational Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…

Williams, Jaison; Dwyer, Francis

2004-01-01

315

New Interface Metaphors for Complex Information Space Visualization: an ECG Monitor Object Prototype  

E-print Network

New Interface Metaphors for Complex Information Space Visualization: an ECG Monitor Object describe our first efforts in this process: the implementation of interface objects for display of real-time electrocardiographic monitoring information and an evaluation methodology using a simulated clinical environment. Our

Poupyrev, Ivan

316

Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

Snyder, Jaime

2012-01-01

317

Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display  

E-print Network

1 Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display Abstract-- 3D interactive virtual reality museum exhibits should be easy to use, entertaining and informative and implemented in a museum exhibit. Index Terms-- multimedia, virtual reality, educational software, kiosk I

Ware, Colin

318

Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex®?  

PubMed Central

This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students’ learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visual information. Results from three experiments consistently indicated no differences in learning between three-dimensional and two-dimensional presentations among hearing or deaf students. Analyses of students’ allocation of visual attention and the influence of various demographic and experimental variables suggested considerable flexibility in deaf students’ receptive communication skills. Nevertheless, the findings also revealed a robust advantage in learning in favor of hearing students. PMID:16628250

Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie

2006-01-01

319

Visual information about past, current and future properties of irregular target paths in isometric force tracking.  

PubMed

In visual-motor tracking, information about past, current, and future properties of a target path can be available but, because they are typically manipulated independently, the relative contribution of these information categories to tracking performance is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of visual information pertaining to past, current, and future states of the target path in guiding isometric tracking performance as a function of the irregularity of the target path (sine wave, brown/pink noise, white noise). The findings from local and global properties of the force output showed that the role of visual information about the past, current, and future states of target paths is dependent on the regularity of the signal to be tracked. The brown/pink noise pathway condition was most strongly influenced by future and past-future visual information for both local error properties (lead/lag, root mean square error (RMSE)) and global properties of the force output (ApEn, cross correlation). The highly irregular white noise pathway did not benefit from past or future information and the highly regular sine wave was only influenced for the local error properties of RMSE and lead/lag. It appears that visual information about past and future tracking states is more effective with a pathway that is middling with respect to regularity/irregularity. This is consistent with the role of visual information in tracking to be dependent on the potential adaptability for change in the dimension of the motor output. PMID:25214307

Mazich, Molly M; Studenka, Breanna E; Newell, Karl M

2015-01-01

320

Application of Information Visualization Technologies in Masters' Experience Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiences which belong to a kind of tacit knowledge were gradually summarized by the experts during their long working procedures. To analyze and inherit those experiences are worthwhile to the social construction and improvement. We build a platform composed of some visualization methods and analysis methods to present and analyze the data (from database, paper, web and etc.). So that students can intuitively understand the academic thinking of masters better than before. The platform has been applied in investigating the masters’ experiences of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the positive results were also introduced.

Wuqi, Song; Jifa, Gu

321

Pinwheels: visualizing information flow in an architectural space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will become an interface between humans and online digital information. We have been designing ambient information displays to explore the use of kinetic physical objects to present information at the periphery of human perception.This paper reports the design of a large-scale Pinwheels installation made of 40 computer-controlled pinwheel units in a museum

Hiroshi Ishii; Sandia Ren; Phil Frei

2001-01-01

322

Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

2005-09-01

323

Selection of visual information for lightness judgements by eye movements  

PubMed Central

When judging the lightness of objects, the visual system has to take into account many factors such as shading, scene geometry, occlusions or transparency. The problem then is to estimate global lightness based on a number of local samples that differ in luminance. Here, we show that eye fixations play a prominent role in this selection process. We explored a special case of transparency for which the visual system separates surface reflectance from interfering conditions to generate a layered image representation. Eye movements were recorded while the observers matched the lightness of the layered stimulus. We found that observers did focus their fixations on the target layer, and this sampling strategy affected their lightness perception. The effect of image segmentation on perceived lightness was highly correlated with the fixation strategy and was strongly affected when we manipulated it using a gaze-contingent display. Finally, we disrupted the segmentation process showing that it causally drives the selection strategy. Selection through eye fixations can so serve as a simple heuristic to estimate the target reflectance. PMID:24018718

Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

2013-01-01

324

Selection of visual information for lightness judgements by eye movements.  

PubMed

When judging the lightness of objects, the visual system has to take into account many factors such as shading, scene geometry, occlusions or transparency. The problem then is to estimate global lightness based on a number of local samples that differ in luminance. Here, we show that eye fixations play a prominent role in this selection process. We explored a special case of transparency for which the visual system separates surface reflectance from interfering conditions to generate a layered image representation. Eye movements were recorded while the observers matched the lightness of the layered stimulus. We found that observers did focus their fixations on the target layer, and this sampling strategy affected their lightness perception. The effect of image segmentation on perceived lightness was highly correlated with the fixation strategy and was strongly affected when we manipulated it using a gaze-contingent display. Finally, we disrupted the segmentation process showing that it causally drives the selection strategy. Selection through eye fixations can so serve as a simple heuristic to estimate the target reflectance. PMID:24018718

Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2013-10-19

325

Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

2005-01-01

326

Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

2011-01-01

327

76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...following information: Name of the institution or site. Respondent, title, and full contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Jerry Holmberg, Senior Advisor for Blood Safety, Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

2011-06-10

328

76 FR 44337 - Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...comments received without change in the electronic docket, including any personal information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chia Chang, NIOSH, telephone (202) 245-0625, NORAmiddecade@cdc.gov. Dated: July 13, 2011. John Howard,...

2011-07-25

329

The Relationship Between Relevance and Reliability in Internet-based Information and Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, interact information retrieval systems are modeled as an intermediate step between users of the system and the original or expected information. For example, use of a search engine will generate a \\

Daniel E. O'Leary

330

An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio-visual information.  

PubMed

In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visual information. Videos with synchronous audio-visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visual information, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. PMID:22005579

Liu, Baolin; Meng, Xianyao; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

2011-11-14

331

Characterizing the role of disparity information in alleviating visual crowding.  

PubMed

The ability to identify a target is reduced by the presence of nearby objects, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. The extent to which crowding impairs our perception is generally governed by the degree of similarity between a target stimulus and its surrounding flankers. Here we investigated the influence of disparity differences between target and flankers on crowding. Orientation discrimination thresholds for a parafoveal target were first measured when the target and flankers were presented at the same depth to establish a flanker separation that induced a significant elevation in threshold for each individual. Flankers were subsequently fixed at this spatial separation while the disparity of the flankers relative to the target was altered. For all participants, thresholds showed a systematic decrease as flanker-target disparity increased. The resulting tuning function was asymmetric: Crowding was lower when the target was perceived to be in front of the flankers rather than behind. A series of control experiments confirmed that these effects were driven by disparity, as opposed to other factors such as flanker-target separation in three-dimensional (3-D) space or monocular positional offsets used to create disparity. When flankers were distributed over a range of crossed and uncrossed disparities, such that the mean was in the plane of the target, there was an equivalent or greater release of crowding compared to when all flankers were presented at the maximum disparity of that range. Overall, our results suggest that depth cues can reduce the effects of visual crowding, and that this reduction is unlikely to be caused by grouping of flankers or positional shifts in the monocular image. PMID:25424981

Astle, Andrew T; McGovern, David P; McGraw, Paul V

2014-01-01

332

AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

2001-01-01

333

Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Conclusion Many critical information needs of PH practitioners are not being met efficiently or at all. We propose a dual strategy of: 1) promoting incremental improvements in existing information delivery systems based on the expressed preferences of the PH users of the systems and 2) the concurrent development and rigorous evaluation of new models of information organization and delivery that draw on successful resources already operating to deliver information to clinical medical practitioners. PMID:16597331

LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R

2006-01-01

334

The influence of selective attention to auditory and visual speech on the integration of audiovisual speech information.  

PubMed

Conflicting visual speech information can influence the perception of acoustic speech, causing an illusory percept of a sound not present in the actual acoustic speech (the McGurk effect). We examined whether participants can voluntarily selectively attend to either the auditory or visual modality by instructing participants to pay attention to the information in one modality and to ignore competing information from the other modality. We also examined how performance under these instructions was affected by weakening the influence of the visual information by manipulating the temporal offset between the audio and video channels (experiment 1), and the spatial frequency information present in the video (experiment 2). Gaze behaviour was also monitored to examine whether attentional instructions influenced the gathering of visual information. While task instructions did have an influence on the observed integration of auditory and visual speech information, participants were unable to completely ignore conflicting information, particularly information from the visual stream. Manipulating temporal offset had a more pronounced interaction with task instructions than manipulating the amount of visual information. Participants' gaze behaviour suggests that the attended modality influences the gathering of visual information in audiovisual speech perception. PMID:22308887

Buchan, Julie N; Munhall, Kevin G

2011-01-01

335

Information Visualization (2007) 6, 169--188 2007 Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. All rights reserved 1473-8716 $30.00  

E-print Network

Information Visualization (2007) 6, 169--188 © 2007 Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. All rights reserved 1473-8716 $30.00 www.palgrave-journals.com/ivs Visualization Summit 2007: ten research goals for 2010 2007 Abstract At the first international Visualization Summit, more than 100 international researchers

Indiana University

336

CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources  

PubMed Central

During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

2012-01-01

337

In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

2009-01-01

338

GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

2013-04-01

339

Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display.  

PubMed

Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

2010-01-01

340

How do batters use visual, auditory, and tactile information about the success of a baseball swing?  

PubMed

Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation between the point of contact and "sweet spot") was compared for no feedback (N), visual alone, auditory alone, and tactile alone. Swings were more accurate for all single-modality combinations as compared to no feedback, and visual produced the greatest accuracy. In Experiment 2, the congruency between visual, tactile, and auditory was varied so that in some trials, the different modalities indicated that the simulated ball contacted the bat at different points. Results indicated that batters combined information but gave more weight to visual. Batting training manuals, which typically only discuss visual cues, should emphasize the importance of auditory and tactile feedback in baseball batting. PMID:19791635

Gray, Rob

2009-09-01

341

Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display  

PubMed Central

Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

342

Mental Models, Visual Reasoning and Interaction in Information Visualization: A Top-down Perspective  

E-print Network

, information foraging, and cognitive offloading. Finally we discuss the implications of our approach for design- ties of the internal and external structures and the cognitive benefits of different graphical existing work actually addresses more concrete questions such as the following: · What is meant

Stasko, John T.

343

How visual information influences coordination dynamics when following the leader.  

PubMed

Coordinating one's movements with others is an important aspect of human interactions. Regulating the distance to other moving agents is often necessary to achieve specific task goals such as in invasion sports. This study aimed to examine how distance regulation is mediated by different sources of information that are typically available when humans coordinate their actions to others. Participants followed a virtual leader that moved backwards and forwards, and were instructed to maintain the initial distance. In one condition, participants were presented with a life-size fully animated human avatar as the leader, displaying both segmental (limb motion) and global (optical expansion) motion information. In the other condition, participants had to follow an expanding and receding sphere in which segmental motion information was absent. Optical expansion rates revealed that participants regulated distance equally effective in both conditions. Given the phase relation and response times to direction changes however, the timing to the leader appeared to be more accurate in the avatar condition. These results provide support that forward-backward following can indeed be successfully mediated through global information, but that detection of segmental information allows for earlier tuning to another person's movement intentions. PMID:25153514

Meerhoff, L A; De Poel, Harjo J; Button, Chris

2014-10-17

344

Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes  

PubMed Central

Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

2014-01-01

345

Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes.  

PubMed

Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

2014-01-01

346

Perceptual interfaces for information interaction: joint processing of audio and visual information for human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are exploiting the human perceptual principle of sen- sory integration (the joint use of audio and visual information) to improve the recognition of human activity (speech recogni- tion, speech event detection and speaker change), intent (intent to speak) and human identity (speaker recognition), particularly in the presence of acoustic degradation due to noise and channel. In this paper, we

Chalapathy Neti; Giridharan Iyengar; Gerasimos Potamianos; Andrew W. Senior; Benoît Maison

2000-01-01

347

How Relevant Are Library and Information Science Curricula outside Their Geographic Domain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate outside…

Tam, Lawrence Wai-hong; Harvey, Ross; Mills, John

2007-01-01

348

MUTUAL INFORMATION RELEVANCE NETWORKS: FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC CLUSTERING USING PAIRWISE ENTROPY MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of methodologies are available to find functional genomic clusters in RNA expression data. We describe a technique that computes comprehensive pair-wise mutual information for all genes in such a data set. An association with a high mutual information means that one gene is non-randomly associated with another; we hypothesize this means the two are related biologically. By picking

A. J. BUTTE; I. S. KOHANE

2000-01-01

349

The Effect of Verbal Contextual Information in Processing Visual Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal contextual information affected photography and nonphotography students' performance on semantic retention tests. For example, correct titles aided the formation and retention of accurate memories, while erroneous titles misled students into remembering meanings that had relatively little to do with what was actually pictured in the…

Koroscik, Judith S.; And Others

1985-01-01

350

Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.  

PubMed

How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience. PMID:24980274

Wood, Justin N

2015-03-01

351

Audio-Visual Speech Modeling for Continuous Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a speech recognition system that uses both acoustic and visual speech information to improve recognition performance in noisy environments. The system consists of three components: a visual module; an acoustic module; and a sensor fusion module. The visual module locates and tracks the lip movements of a given speaker and extracts relevant speech features. This task is

Stéphane Dupont; Juergen Luettin

2000-01-01

352

Visual Knowledge Annotation and Management by Using Qualitative Spatial Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide use of the Internet and the increasingly improvement of communication technologies have led users to need to manage\\u000a multimedia information. In particular, there is an ample consensus about the necessity of new computational systems capable\\u000a of processing images and “understand” what they contain. Such systems would ideally allow to retrieve multimedia content,\\u000a to improve the way of storing

Pedro José Vivancos Vicente; Jesualdo Tomás Fernández-breis; Rodrigo Martínez-béjar; Rafael Valencia-garcía

2006-01-01

353

Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.  

E-print Network

1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon of masking: energetic masking caused by the energy of the masker utterance swamping that of the target the effects of both types of masking. Further, whereas recovery from energetic masking may require detailed

Barker, Jon

354

The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

2012-01-01

355

Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

2013-01-01

356

Visualizations for the spyglass ontology-based information analysis and retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spyglass is an ontology-based information retrieval system designed to help analysts explore very large collections of unstructured text documents. The tool includes two main components: server and client. The server is a web-based service that uses a specific domain ontology to index a collection of documents, answer queries from the client, and provide retrieval and visualization services based on the

Hong Lin; John A. Rushing; Todd Berendes; Cara Stein; Sara J. Graves

2010-01-01

357

Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 96-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and consultation, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations offer guidance to families…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

358

Ensuring Equal Access to Information for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obstacles to full access to electronic information-based technology and assistive devices for people who are blind or visually impaired include: high costs and limited financial assistance sources for assistive technology, insufficient resources for providing instruction in the use of new technology, and developments such as the graphical user…

Augusto, C. R.; Schroeder, P. W.

1995-01-01

359

Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 01-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organizations listed in this reference circular provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and referral, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

360

The Effects of Alcohol and of Varying Amounts of Visual Information on a Balancing Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of dynamic balancing test has been devised. Eight subjects carried out experiments in which the effects of alcohol and the effects of varying amounts of visual information on sway and oscillation were studied. It was concluded that peripheral vision was a crucial factor in the effective performance of the test, and it was noted that quite modest

G. H. BEGBIE

1966-01-01

361

Forecasting and visualization of wildfires in a 3D geographical information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a wildfire forecasting application based on a 3D virtual environment and a fire simulation engine. A novel open-source framework is presented for the development of 3D graphics applications over large geographic areas, offering high performance 3D visualization and powerful interaction tools for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) community. The application includes a remote module that allows simultaneous connections of several users for monitoring a real wildfire event. The system is able to make a realistic composition of what is really happening in the area of the wildfire with dynamic 3D objects and location of human and material resources in real time, providing a new perspective to analyze the wildfire information. The user is enabled to simulate and visualize the propagation of a fire on the terrain integrating at the same time spatial information on topography and vegetation types with weather and wind data. The application communicates with a remote web service that is in charge of the simulation task. The user may specify several parameters through a friendly interface before the application sends the information to the remote server responsible of carrying out the wildfire forecasting using the FARSITE simulation model. During the process, the server connects to different external resources to obtain up-to-date meteorological data. The client application implements a realistic 3D visualization of the fire evolution on the landscape. A Level Of Detail (LOD) strategy contributes to improve the performance of the visualization system.

Castrillón, M.; Jorge, P. A.; López, I. J.; Macías, A.; Martín, D.; Nebot, R. J.; Sabbagh, I.; Quintana, F. M.; Sánchez, J.; Sánchez, A. J.; Suárez, J. P.; Trujillo, A.

2011-03-01

362

Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Marc Ernst, Max-Planck fr biol. Kybernetik  

E-print Network

Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Organizer Marc Ernst, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Panelists Martin Banks, University of California, Berkeley Felix Wichmann, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Laurence Maloney, New York University Heinrich Bülthoff, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Abstract

Laidlaw, David

363

Digital echo visualization and information system (DEVIS) for processing spatially-explicit fisheries acoustic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially explicit analysis of fisheries acoustic data preserves heterogeneity observed in spatial distributions of fish. A software system — Digital Echo Visualization and Information System (DEVIS) — has been developed to process digital underwater acoustic data for spatially-explicit fisheries acoustic research. This system can be used to obtain spatial and temporal distributions of fish density, fish abundance, and fish lengths

J. Michael Jech; Jiangang Luo

2000-01-01

364

Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

1989-01-01

365

Deconstructing Visual Scenes in Cortex: Gradients of Object and Spatial Layout Information  

PubMed Central

Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity. PMID:22473894

Kravitz, Dwight J.; Baker, Chris I.

2013-01-01

366

Toward an Improved Haptic Zooming Algorithm for Graphical Information Accessed by Individuals Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

2013-01-01

367

A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing W. Stechele*), L. Alvado Crcel**), S. Herrmann*), J. Lidn Simn**)  

E-print Network

A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing W. Stechele*), L. Alvado Cárcel**), SEngine, a coprocessor for visual information processing. In this paper, the architectural design of Address are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG- 7

Boyer, Edmond

368

Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.  

PubMed

This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

2013-08-01

369

Evaluating the behaviour of information systems developers: the relevance and utility of paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research was to investigate the behaviour of information systems (IS) developers during the IS development (ISD) process using the four-paradigm framework of Hirschheim et al. (1995), who introduced this approach to uncover the relationships between developers' assumptions and concomitant behaviours. The central issue is whether this four-paradigm framework can be operationalised to categorise the behaviours

Zahid Hussain; W. Andrew Taylor

2007-01-01

370

The increasing relevance of Pask’s work to modern information seeking and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of seven empirical studies conducted in Sheffield lend support to the notion that learners do spontaneously display styles of information processing behaviour originally identified by Pask and Scott, that even versatile postgraduate students are susceptible to the effects of matching and mismatching of teaching and learning styles, and that the arena in which these learning styles may be

Nigel Ford

2001-01-01

371

Task constraints in visual working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nature of visual representations that direct ongoing performance in sensorimotor tasks. Performance of such natural tasks requires relating visual information from different gaze positions. To explore this we used the technique of making task relevant display changes during saccadic eye movements. Subjects copied a pattern of colored blocks on a computer monitor, using the mouse to

Mary M. Hayhoe; David G. Bensinger; Dana H. Ballard

1998-01-01

372

Task Constraints in Visual Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nature of visual representations that direct ongoing performance in sensorimotortasks. Performance of such natural tasks requires relating visual information from differentgaze positions. To explore this we used the technique of making task relevant display changesduring saccadic eye movements. Subjects copied a pattern of colored blocks on a computer monitor,using the mouse to drag the blocks across

Mary M. Hayhoe; David G. Bensinger; Dana H. Ballard

1998-01-01

373

Time Course of Information Processing in Visual and Haptic Object Classification  

PubMed Central

Vision identifies objects rapidly and efficiently. In contrast, object recognition by touch is much slower. Furthermore, haptics usually serially accumulates information from different parts of objects, whereas vision typically processes object information in parallel. Is haptic object identification slower simply due to sequential information acquisition and the resulting memory load or due to more fundamental processing differences between the senses? To compare the time course of visual and haptic object recognition, we slowed visual processing using a novel, restricted viewing technique. In an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment, participants discriminated familiar, nameable from unfamiliar, unnamable objects both visually and haptically. Analyses focused on the evoked and total fronto-central theta-band (5–7?Hz; a marker of working memory) and the occipital upper alpha-band (10–12?Hz; a marker of perceptual processing) locked to the onset of classification. Decreases in total upper alpha-band activity for haptic identification of objects indicate a likely processing role of multisensory extrastriate areas. Long-latency modulations of alpha-band activity differentiated between familiar and unfamiliar objects in haptics but not in vision. In contrast, theta-band activity showed a general increase over time for the slowed-down visual recognition task only. We conclude that haptic object recognition relies on common representations with vision but also that there are fundamental differences between the senses that do not merely arise from differences in their speed of processing. PMID:22470327

Martinovic, Jasna; Lawson, Rebecca; Craddock, Matt

2012-01-01

374

(De)synchronization of advanced visual information and ball flight characteristics constrains emergent information-movement couplings during one-handed catching.  

PubMed

Advance visual information of a projection action and ball flight information is important for organizing dynamic interceptive actions like catching. However, how the central nervous system (CNS) manages the relationship between advance visual information and emerging ball flight information in regulating behavior is less well understood. Here, we sought to examine the extent that advance visual information to the CNS constrains regulation of catching actions by synchronizing and desynchronizing its relationship with ball trajectory characteristics. Novel technology was used to present video footage of an actor throwing a ball at three different speeds, integrated with information from a real ball projected by a machine set to the three speeds. The technology enabled three synchronized and six desynchronized conditions between advance visual information and subsequent ball flight trajectories. Catching performance, kinematic data from the catching hand and gaze behaviors were recorded. Findings revealed that desynchronization of video images of ball projection shaped emergent catching behaviors. Footage of slower throws, paired with faster ball projection speeds, caused catching performance decrements. Timing in early phases of action was organized by the CNS to match the advance visual information presented. In later phases, like the grasp, ball flight information constraints adapted and regulated behaviors. Gaze behaviors showed increased ball projection speed resulted in participants tracking the ball for a smaller percentage of ball flight. Findings highlighted the role of the two visual systems in perception and action, implicating the importance of coupling advanced visual information and ball flight to regulate emergent movement coordination tendencies during interceptive behaviors. PMID:25362517

Stone, J A; Maynard, I W; North, J S; Panchuk, D; Davids, K

2015-02-01

375

Sensory compensation and the detection of predators: the interaction between chemical and visual information.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that environmental conditions may affect whether fishes do or do not respond to the presence of chemical alarm cues in water. We present a simple model which suggests that the combination of risk of predation and information from other sources will determine when fishes should react to these chemical cues. We tested this model with a laboratory experiment which manipulated the risk of predation by altering the animals (hungry or well fed), or their environment (presence or absence of cover). We also altered the availability of visual information by manipulating the water clarity. Consistent with our model, fishes were most likely to react to chemical alarm cues in the absence of visual information and when the perceived risk of predation was high. The manipulation of either parameter was able to extinguish this response. PMID:10787160

Hartman, E J; Abrahams, M V

2000-01-01

376

Static and dynamic visual information about the size and passability of an aperture.  

PubMed

The role of static eyeheight-scaled information in perceiving the passability of and guiding locomotion through apertures is well established. However, eyeheight-scaled information is not the only source of visual information about size and passability. In this study we tested the sufficiency of two other sources of information, both of which are available only to moving observers (ie are dynamic) and specify aperture size in intrinsic body-scaled units. The experiment was conducted in an immersive virtual environment that was monocularly viewed through a head-mounted display. Subjects walked through narrow openings between obstacles, rotating their shoulders as necessary, while head and shoulder position were tracked. The task was performed in three virtual environments that differed in terms of the availability of eyeheight-scaled information and the two dynamic sources of information. Analyses focused on the timing and amplitude of shoulder rotation as subjects walked through apertures, as well as walking speed and the number of collisions. Subjects successfully timed and appropriately scaled the amplitude of shoulder rotation to fit through apertures in all three conditions. These findings suggest that visual information other than eyeheight-scaled information can be used to guide locomotion through apertures. PMID:22132505

Fath, Aaron J; Fajen, Brett R

2011-01-01

377

CHI Data Visualization Thinking with Visualizations  

E-print Network

CHI Data Visualization Thinking with Visualizations #12;CHI Data Visualization Two concepts s Active attention is filled with external visual information s Visual memory extension s Seeing solutions programs Visual Externalization Distributed Cognition #12;CHI Data Visualization A problem solving system

Chi, Ed Huai-hsin

378

Visualizing abstract information using motion properties of data-driven infoticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel exploratory information visualization technique that allows users to analyze time-varying characteristics of large datasets within immersive virtual reality environments. This metaphor represents data objects as particles, coined infoticles, which are placed inside a three-dimensional scene. Forces correspond to specific data value conditions and influence matching infoticles according to the rules of Newtonian mechanics. In addition, infoticles are driven by a set of local behavior rules that react upon successive data updates, hereby generating distinct emergent motion typologies which are visually interpretable by users. These data patterns can be detected dynamically by observing the spatial transformations of infoticle streams, or statically, by interpreting the shapes of individual pathlines. This visualization method exploits the qualities of immersive virtual reality technology as it combines the characteristics of behavior generation and motion perception with the concepts of spatial awareness and stereoscopic vision. Infoticles are useful in visualizing time-varying characteristics of large, dynamic datasets because of their cognitively distinguishable and interpretative animation properties. The generation and evolution of infoticle patterns are based upon empirically defined grammatical rules. These visualization principles are demonstrated using the access logs of an internal knowledge document management website of a global consultancy company.

Vande Moere, Andrew; Mieusset, Kuk Hwan; Gross, Markus

2004-06-01

379

Using heterogeneous annotation and visual information for the benchmarking of image retrieval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many image retrieval systems, and the evaluation methodologies of these systems, make use of either visual or textual information only. Only few combine textual and visual features for retrieval and evaluation. If text is used, it is often relies upon having a standardised and complete annotation schema for the entire collection. This, in combination with high-level semantic queries, makes visual/textual combinations almost useless as the information need can often be solved using just textual features. In reality, many collections do have some form of annotation but this is often heterogeneous and incomplete. Web-based image repositories such as FlickR even allow collective, as well as multilingual annotation of multimedia objects. This article describes an image retrieval evaluation campaign called ImageCLEF. Unlike previous evaluations, we offer a range of realistic tasks and image collections in which combining text and visual features is likely to obtain the best results. In particular, we offer a medical retrieval task which models exactly the situation of heterogenous annotation by combining four collections with annotations of varying quality, structure, extent and language. Two collections have an annotation per case and not per image, which is normal in the medical domain, making it difficult to relate parts of the accompanying text to corresponding images. This is also typical of image retrieval from the web in which adjacent text does not always describe an image. The ImageCLEF benchmark shows the need for realistic and standardised datasets, search tasks and ground truths for visual information retrieval evaluation.

Müller, Henning; Clough, Paul; Hersh, William; Deselaers, Thomas; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Janvier, Bruno; Geissbuhler, Antoine

2006-01-01

380

Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

1991-01-01

381

Extracting Relevant Information from FDA Drug Files to Create a Structurally Diverse Drug Database Using KnowItAll(®)  

PubMed

Each Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consumer drug information file contains an inordinate amount of useful chemical, pharmaceutical, and pharmacological data. These files profile approved drugs by chemical structure, solubility, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicity (ADME/Tox), and possible adverse reactions. The ability to utilize this data in the classroom is a new approach to connect theory, technology, and reality. The KnowItAll(®) Informatics System available through Bio-Rad Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA, offers fully integrated software and/or database desktop solutions. It holds a large collection of in silico ADME/Tox predictors and is a chemical informatics platform used to record experimental data. This project had three goals: (1) extract relevant information for 75 drugs from their freely available FDA drug files (limited to orally administrated drugs, pro-drugs, having a chemical structure), (2) build a database so this extracted FDA information is indexed for search and analysis, and when completed, (3) undergraduates involved in such a project should be capable of harvesting useful chemical, pharmaceutical, and pharmacological information; be adept in computational chemistry software tools; and should gain an enhanced vocabulary and new insights into organic chemistry, molecular biology, and physiology. PMID:25356090

D'Souza, Malcolm J; Koyoshi, Fumie

2009-05-01

382

Using deformable templates to infer visual speech dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual image of a talker provides information complementary to the acoustic speech waveform, and enables improved recognition accuracy, especially in environments corrupted by high acoustic noise or multiple talkers. Because most of the phonologically relevant visual information is from the mouth and lips, it is important to infer accurately and robustly their dynamics; moreover it is desirable to extract

Marcus E. Hennecke; K. Venkatesh Prasad; David G. Stork

1994-01-01

383

The Colorectal cancer disease-specific transcriptome may facilitate the discovery of more biologically and clinically relevant information  

PubMed Central

Background To date, there are no clinically reliable predictive markers of response to the current treatment regimens for advanced colorectal cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare and assess the power of transcriptional profiling using a generic microarray and a disease-specific transcriptome-based microarray. We also examined the biological and clinical relevance of the disease-specific transcriptome. Methods DNA microarray profiling was carried out on isogenic sensitive and 5-FU-resistant HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2.0 array and the Almac Diagnostics Colorectal cancer disease specific Research tool. In addition, DNA microarray profiling was also carried out on pre-treatment metastatic colorectal cancer biopsies using the colorectal cancer disease specific Research tool. The two microarray platforms were compared based on detection of probesets and biological information. Results The results demonstrated that the disease-specific transcriptome-based microarray was able to out-perform the generic genomic-based microarray on a number of levels including detection of transcripts and pathway analysis. In addition, the disease-specific microarray contains a high percentage of antisense transcripts and further analysis demonstrated that a number of these exist in sense:antisense pairs. Comparison between cell line models and metastatic CRC patient biopsies further demonstrated that a number of the identified sense:antisense pairs were also detected in CRC patient biopsies, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Conclusions Analysis from our in vitro and clinical experiments has demonstrated that many transcripts exist in sense:antisense pairs including IGF2BP2, which may have a direct regulatory function in the context of colorectal cancer. While the functional relevance of the antisense transcripts has been established by many studies, their functional role is currently unclear; however, the numbers that have been detected by the disease-specific microarray would suggest that they may be important regulatory transcripts. This study has demonstrated the power of a disease-specific transcriptome-based approach and highlighted the potential novel biologically and clinically relevant information that is gained when using such a methodology. PMID:21172019

2010-01-01

384

Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

2010-10-01

385

Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

2014-01-01

386

Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

2014-05-01

387

Visualization and exploratory analysis of epidemiologic data using a novel space time information system.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of GIS to properly handle temporal information is increasingly recognised as a significant constraint. The effective representation and visualization of both spatial and temporal dimensions therefore is expected to significantly enhance our ability to undertake environmental health research using time-referenced geospatial data. Especially for diseases with long latency periods (such as cancer) the ability to represent, quantify and model individual exposure through time is a critical component of risk estimation. In response to this need a STIS - a Space Time Information System has been developed to visualize and analyze objects simultaneously through space and time. RESULTS: In this paper we present a "first use" of a STIS in a case-control study of the relationship between arsenic exposure and bladder cancer in south eastern Michigan. Individual arsenic exposure is reconstructed by incorporating spatiotemporal data including residential mobility and drinking water habits. The unique contribution of the STIS is its ability to visualize and analyze residential histories over different temporal scales. Participant information is viewed and statistically analyzed using dynamic views in which values of an attribute change through time. These views include tables, graphs (such as histograms and scatterplots), and maps. In addition, these views can be linked and synchronized for complex data exploration using cartographic brushing, statistical brushing, and animation. CONCLUSION: The STIS provides new and powerful ways to visualize and analyze how individual exposure and associated environmental variables change through time. We expect to see innovative space-time methods being utilized in future environmental health research now that the successful "first use" of a STIS in exposure reconstruction has been accomplished. PMID:15533253

Avruskin, Gillian A; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Meliker, Jaymie R; Slotnick, Melissa J; Kaufmann, Andrew M; Nriagu, Jerome O

2004-11-01

388

Dyslexic children suffer from less informative visual cues to control posture.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulation of the characteristics of visual stimulus on postural control in dyslexic children. A total of 18 dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic children stood upright inside a moving room, as still as possible, and looked at a target at different conditions of distance between the participant and a moving room frontal wall (25-150 cm) and vision (full and central). The first trial was performed without vision (baseline). Then four trials were performed in which the room remained stationary and eight trials with the room moving, lasting 60s each. Mean sway amplitude, coherence, relative phase, and angular deviation were calculated. The results revealed that dyslexic children swayed with larger magnitude in both stationary and moving conditions. When the room remained stationary, all children showed larger body sway magnitude at 150 cm distance. Dyslexic children showed larger body sway magnitude in central compared to full vision condition. In the moving condition, body sway magnitude was similar between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children but the coupling between visual information and body sway was weaker in dyslexic children. Moreover, in the absence of peripheral visual cues, induced body sway in dyslexic children was temporally delayed regarding visual stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that poor postural control performance in dyslexic children is related to how sensory information is acquired from the environment and used to produce postural responses. In conditions in which sensory cues are less informative, dyslexic children take longer to process sensory stimuli in order to obtain precise information, which leads to performance deterioration. PMID:24864051

Razuk, Milena; Barela, Jose A

2014-09-01

389

A Study on Attention Guidance to Driver by Subliminal Visual Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new warning method for increasing drivers' sensitivity for recognizing hazardous factors in the driving environment. The method is based on a subliminal effect. The results of many experiments performed by three dimensional head-mounted display shows that the response time for detecting a flashing mark tended to decrease when a subliminal mark was shown in advance. Priming effects are observed in subliminal visual information. This paper also proposes a scenario for implementing this method in real vehicles.

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

390

Visualization and exploratory analysis of epidemiologic data using a novel space time information system  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of GIS to properly handle temporal information is increasingly recognised as a significant constraint. The effective representation and visualization of both spatial and temporal dimensions therefore is expected to significantly enhance our ability to undertake environmental health research using time-referenced geospatial data. Especially for diseases with long latency periods (such as cancer) the ability to represent, quantify and model individual exposure through time is a critical component of risk estimation. In response to this need a STIS – a Space Time Information System has been developed to visualize and analyze objects simultaneously through space and time. Results In this paper we present a "first use" of a STIS in a case-control study of the relationship between arsenic exposure and bladder cancer in south eastern Michigan. Individual arsenic exposure is reconstructed by incorporating spatiotemporal data including residential mobility and drinking water habits. The unique contribution of the STIS is its ability to visualize and analyze residential histories over different temporal scales. Participant information is viewed and statistically analyzed using dynamic views in which values of an attribute change through time. These views include tables, graphs (such as histograms and scatterplots), and maps. In addition, these views can be linked and synchronized for complex data exploration using cartographic brushing, statistical brushing, and animation. Conclusion The STIS provides new and powerful ways to visualize and analyze how individual exposure and associated environmental variables change through time. We expect to see innovative space-time methods being utilized in future environmental health research now that the successful "first use" of a STIS in exposure reconstruction has been accomplished. PMID:15533253

AvRuskin, Gillian A; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Meliker, Jaymie R; Slotnick, Melissa J; Kaufmann, Andrew M; Nriagu, Jerome O

2004-01-01

391

Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals  

SciTech Connect

The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant.

McClellan, R.O.

1988-08-01

392

Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

1979-01-01

393

Using Visual Information to Train Foreign-Language Vowel Production. National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, Md.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a feasibility study exploring the use of visual information for vowel production training in a foreign language. After 10 minutes of visual articulatory modeling and shaping, a native Spanish speaker improved her ability to produce a tongue position difference between English and Spanish vowels. (57 references) (Author/CB)

Flege, James Emil

1988-01-01

394

Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex[R]?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students' learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced…

Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie

2005-01-01

395

Approaches to Relevance Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is relevance filtering, whichreduces communication and processing requirements byrelaying only relevant event and state information. Theemphasis in this paper has been placed on entity state trafficfor clarity and concreteness. Even so, the concepts andapproaches presented can certainly be extended to other datatypes as well.Two approaches to relevance filtering are examined: gridbasedand object-based. The key difference between these twoschemes

Daniel J. Van Hook; Steven J. Rak; James O. Calvin

1994-01-01

396

The Five W's for Information Visualization with Application to Healthcare Informatics.  

PubMed

The Five W's is a popular concept for information gathering in journalistic reporting. It captures all aspects of a story or incidence: who, when, what, where, and why. We propose a framework composed of a suite of cooperating visual information displays to represent the Five W's and demonstrate its use within a healthcare informatics application. Here, the who is the patient, the where is the patient's body, and the when, what, why is a reasoning chain which can be interactively sorted and brushed. The patient is represented as a radial sunburst visualization integrated with a stylized body map. This display captures all health conditions of the past and present to serve as a quick overview to the interrogating physician. The reasoning chain is represented as a multi-stage flow chart, composed of date, symptom, data, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Our system seeks to improve the usability of information captured in the electronic medical record (EMR) and makes ample use of popular hierarchical medical codes, such as ICD9 and CPT, for information organization. We show via multiple examples that our framework can significantly lower the time and effort needed to access the medical patient information required to arrive at a diagnostic conclusion. PMID:23751321

Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Bing; Ahmed, Faisal; Ramakrishnan, Iv; Zhao, Rong; Viccellio, Asa; Mueller, Klaus

2013-06-01

397

Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

398

Effects of Visual Information on Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of the Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of visual information on wind-evoked escape behavior in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Most agitated crickets were found to retreat into a shelter made of cardboard installed in the test arena within a short time. As this behavior was thought to be a type of escape, we confirmed how a visual image of a shelter affected wind-evoked escape behavior. Irrespective of the brightness of the visual background (black or white) or the absence or presence of a shelter, escape jumps were oriented almost 180° opposite to the source of the air puff stimulus. Therefore, the direction of wind-evoked escape depends solely depended on the direction of the stimulus air puff. In contrast, the turning direction of the crickets during the escape was affected by the position of the visual image of the shelter. During the wind-evoked escape jump, most crickets turned in the direction in which a shelter was presented. This behavioral nature is presumably necessary for crickets to retreat into a shelter within a short time after their escape jump. PMID:25186926

Kanou, Masamichi; Matsuyama, Akane; Takuwa, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

399

Age Trends in Visual Exploration of Social and Nonsocial Information in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing children and 51 children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 18. Results indicated a sharp increase in visual exploration with age and a decrease in perseverative and detail-focused attention for both groups of children. However, increased age was associated with greater increases in visual exploration for typically developing children than for those children with ASD. The developmental differences were most pronounced for attention to certain nonsocial stimuli as children with ASD demonstrated a disproportionate attentional bias for these stimuli from very early in life. Disproportionate visual attention to certain nonsocial objects relative to social stimuli in ASD spanned from early to late childhood, and thus may represent both an early and a persistent characteristic of the disorder. PMID:22639682

Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel; Bodfish, James W.

2011-01-01

400

Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues  

PubMed Central

Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

401

The Challenge to Library and Information Professionals in the Visual Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses multimedia/hypermedia information delivery and the effects of new technological developments; describes hypermedia applications, including PROJECT EMPEROR-I; considers the use of multimedia technology for end-user information delivery and its influence on library and information systems and services; and suggests possible future trends.…

Chen, Ching-chih

1990-01-01

402

Value in the Visual: On Public Injecting, Visual Methods and their Potential for Informing Policy (and Change)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the application of visual methods within qualitative research and the ways in which they can be developed and applied to a range of settings for applied health (and other policy) purposes. Traditionally visual methods have been used as adjunct means to record data and representations of individuals, groups and cultures. Having emerged from a research tradition deeply

Stephen Parkin; Ross Coomber

403

The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here we will present some background to emergent and reductionist views in the physical sciences and their implication for climate science. In this context we will discuss issues in the relationship between climate science and practical decision making, addressing factors including the evaluation and communication of: (i) information content in model produced data, (ii) relevant and robust information, and (iii) the exploration of aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. Illustrations will come from palaeo-climate and geomorphology along with the latest multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of complex climate models.

Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.

2009-12-01

404

The role of visual speech cues in reducing energetic and informational masking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two experiments compared the effect of supplying visual speech information (e.g., lipreading cues) on the ability to hear one female talker's voice in the presence of steady-state noise or a masking complex consisting of two other female voices. In the first experiment intelligibility of sentences was measured in the presence of the two types of maskers with and without perceived spatial separation of target and masker. The second study tested detection of sentences in the same experimental conditions. Results showed that visual cues provided more benefit for both recognition and detection of speech when the masker consisted of other voices (versus steady-state noise). Moreover, visual cues provided greater benefit when the target speech and masker were spatially coincident versus when they appeared to arise from different spatial locations. The data obtained here are consistent with the hypothesis that lipreading cues help to segregate a target voice from competing voices, in addition to the established benefit of supplementing masked phonetic information. .

Helfer, Karen S.; Freyman, Richard L.

2005-02-01

405

Visual landmark information gains control of the head direction signal at the lateral mammillary nuclei.  

PubMed

The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS ? LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

Yoder, Ryan M; Peck, James R; Taube, Jeffrey S

2015-01-28

406

Aspects of multisensory perception: the integration of visual and auditory information in musical experiences.  

PubMed

One of the requirements for being a successful musical conductor is to be able to locate sounds instantaneously in time and space. Because this requires the integration of auditory and visual information, the purpose of this study was to examine multisensory processing in conductors and a matched set of control subjects. Subjects participated in a series of behavioral tasks, including pitch discrimination, temporal-order judgment (TOJ), and target localization. Additionally, fMRI scans were done on a subset of subjects who performed a multisensory TOJ task. Analyses of behavioral data indicate that, in the auditory realm, conductors were more accurate in both pitch discrimination and TOJs as well as in locating targets in space. Furthermore, these same subjects also demonstrated a benefit from the combination of auditory and visual information that was not observed in control subjects when locating visual targets. Finally, neural substrates in BA 37, 39/40 were identified as potential areas underlying the conductors' superior multisensory TOJs. Data collection and analyses are ongoing and will lead to an improved understanding of multisensory integration in a complex, musical behavior. PMID:16597762

Hodges, Donald A; Hairston, W David; Burdette, Jonathan H

2005-12-01

407

Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

408

Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

1993-01-01

409

The quiet eye without a target: the primacy of visual information processing.  

PubMed

Motor-performance-enhancing effects of long final fixations before movement initiation-a phenomenon called quiet eye (QE)-have repeatedly been demonstrated. Drawing on the information-processing framework, it is assumed that the QE supports information processing revealed by the close link between QE duration and task demands concerning, in particular, response selection and movement parameterization. However, the question remains whether the suggested mechanism also holds for processes referring to stimulus identification. Thus, in a series of 2 experiments, performance in a targeting task was tested as a function of experimentally manipulated visual processing demands as well as experimentally manipulated QE durations. The results support the suggested link because a performance-enhancing QE effect was found under increased visual processing demands only: Whereas QE duration did not affect performance as long as positional information was preserved (Experiment 1), in the full versus no target visibility comparison, QE efficiency turned out to depend on information processing time as soon as the interval falls below a certain threshold (Experiment 2). Thus, the results rather contradict alternative, for example, posture-based explanations of QE effects and support the assumption that the crucial mechanism behind the QE phenomenon is rooted in the cognitive domain. PMID:25314047

Klostermann, André; Kredel, Ralf; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

2014-12-01

410

Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

Kuvich, Gary

2006-05-01

411

Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

2012-03-01

412

Spatial information mining and visualization for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject intersection becomes a hot research topic recently. This paper tried to couple the Bibliometrics and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies for studying on the spatial information mining and visualization from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature. All the literatures about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau research were indexed in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The statistical tables about the authors were extracted from the papers by using the method of bibliometrics. The spatial information of the author's countries was linked with the GIS database. The spatial distribution was presented by the format of maps based on the GIS technologies. Comparing with the regular presentation forms of the bibliometrical analysis, the spatial distribution maps can afford more abundant and intuitive senses for the users.

Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo

2009-10-01

413

Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.  

PubMed

Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

2014-09-01

414

Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions  

PubMed Central

Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices. PMID:25339872

Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

2014-01-01

415

A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications  

E-print Network

A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications Zo´e Drey1 environment into a visual pro- gramming language. A taxonomy describes the relevant entities of a given to taxonomical information. We have implemented a visual environment to develop taxonomies and orchestration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Visual Search in Typically Developing Toddlers and Toddlers with Fragile X or Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual selective attention is the ability to attend to relevant visual information and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Little is known about its typical and atypical development in early childhood. Experiment 1 investigates typically developing toddlers' visual search for multiple targets on a touch-screen. Time to hit a target, distance between…

Scerif, Gaia; Cornish, Kim; Wilding, John; Driver, Jon; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

2004-01-01

417

The influence of visual speech information on the intelligibility of English consonants produced by non-native speakers.  

PubMed

This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, ?-s, l-?/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, ?, ?/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, ?/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /?/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /?/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility. PMID:25190408

Kawase, Saya; Hannah, Beverly; Wang, Yue

2014-09-01

418

The effect of removing visual information on reach control in young children.  

PubMed

Visual information about the hand, the reach space, and a target can all contribute to the control of a reaching movement. When visual information is removed, both feedforward mechanisms (involved in planning the movement) and feedback mechanisms (involved in correcting errors) may be affected. This study looks at how 4- to 5-year-old children use visual information to guide reaching movements. Children reached for a toy object in four conditions--in the light, in the dark while the toy was glowing, and in complete darkness after a 0-s delay and a 4-s delay. When a reach in the glowing condition was compared with a reach in the light, reaches were more curved, had a longer duration, and earlier time-to-peak-velocity than a reach in the light but the number of grasping responses were comparable to in the light condition. When a reach in the two dark conditions (0- and 4-s) was compared with a reach in the light, the number of grasping responses decreased and 14 and 31 % of reaches resulted in a miss, that is, no contact was made with the object. While we did not find any significant kinematic differences between the 0- and 4-s dark conditions, there was a significantly larger number of misses in the 4-s dark condition, suggesting that memory of target position may decay over time. Overall, removing vision of the hand and reach space in the glowing condition appears to affect the planning of a reach (as vision of the hand was not available at reach initiation) and feedback control, while removing vision of the object in the dark conditions has an effect on endpoint response as we found that children experience difficulty retrieving the object in the dark. While young children demonstrate more adult-like reach control (i.e., relatively longer deceleration time, increased reach duration) under reduced feedback conditions, they have difficulty retrieving the object in the dark, particularly after a 4-s delay, and it is possible that mechanisms guiding predictive control and visual memory are still developing. PMID:22923224

Babinsky, Erin; Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

2012-10-01

419

Motion information is sometimes used as an aid to the visual tracking of objects.  

PubMed

In everyday life, observers often need to visually track moving objects. Currently, there is a debate as to whether observers utilize motion information in doing this or whether they rely purely on positional information (e.g., frame-by-frame locations). In our experiments, we had observers keep track of a subset of moving objects. In one condition, the objects moved in straight lines and their future positions were thus predictable. In a second condition, the objects changed directions randomly. Across three experiments, tracking performance was better in the predictable condition, suggesting that observers can use motion to help them track objects, at least when tracking just two. When tracking four objects, performance was not different between the two conditions. We discuss these findings in relation to several theories of object tracking. PMID:23232339

Howe, Piers D L; Holcombe, Alex O

2012-01-01

420

Presentation of spatio-temporal data in the context of information capacity and visual suggestiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to present the concept of information capacity and visual suggestiveness as a map characteristic on the example of two maps of human migration. From this viewpoint the literature study has been performed. Proposed by the author the features of cartographic visualization are an attempt to establish cartographic pragmatics and find the way to increase effectiveness of dynamic maps with large information capacity. Among the works on cartographic pragmatics, muliaspectuality of spatio-temporal data the proposed solution has not been taken so far, and refers to the map design problematic. Celem rozwa?a? by?o podsumowanie wiedzy dotycz?cej projektowania dynamicznych opracowa? przestrzennych oraz ich klasyfi kacja ze wzgl?du na ilo?? zmiennych grafi cznych oraz dynamicznych, które mog? zosta? u?yte w procesie geowizualizacji. Zró?nicowanie ilo?ci zmiennych grafi cznych i dynamicznych w przestrzennych wizualizacjach autor proponuje nazywa? pojemno?ci? wizualn? prezentacji. Autor stawia równie? hipotez?, ?e im wi?ksz? pojemno?? wizualn? stosujemy tym bardziej sugestywne musi by? to przestawienie, aby efektywno?? przekazywania informacji by?a zachowana

Cybulski, Pawe?

2014-12-01

421

How visual timing and form information affect speech and non-speech processing.  

PubMed

Auditory speech processing is facilitated when the talker's face/head movements are seen. This effect is typically explained in terms of visual speech providing form and/or timing information. We determined the effect of both types of information on a speech/non-speech task (non-speech stimuli were spectrally rotated speech). All stimuli were presented paired with the talker's static or moving face. Two types of moving face stimuli were used: full-face versions (both spoken form and timing information available) and modified face versions (only timing information provided by peri-oral motion available). The results showed that the peri-oral timing information facilitated response time for speech and non-speech stimuli compared to a static face. An additional facilitatory effect was found for full-face versions compared to the timing condition; this effect only occurred for speech stimuli. We propose the timing effect was due to cross-modal phase resetting; the form effect to cross-modal priming. PMID:25190328

Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

2014-10-01

422

OVERVIEW: USING MODE OF ACTION AND LIFE STAGE INFORMATION TO EVALUATE THE HUMAN RELEVANCE OF ANIMAL TOXICITY DATA.  

EPA Science Inventory

A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis - as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone - depends on robust info...

423

Perceptions of document relevance  

PubMed Central

This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

2014-01-01

424

Combined Visually and Geometrically Informative Link Hypothesis for Pose-Graph Visual SLAM using Bag-of-Words  

E-print Network

Bag-of-Words Ayoung Kim and Ryan M. Eustice Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Naval simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Two different bag-of-words saliency metrics are introduced of the bag-of-words histogram, and is useful to avoid adding visually benign key frames to the map. The two

Eustice, Ryan

425

Integrated information visualization to support decision making for use of antibiotics in intensive care: design and usability evaluation.  

PubMed

Overuse of antibiotics is a critical problem in intensive care today. The situation is further complicated by the extremely data-intensive environment with clinical data presented in distributed, often stand-alone information systems. To access and interpret all data is a complex and time-consuming technical and cognitive challenge. We propose a holistic integrated visualization in the form of a patient overview to support physicians in decision making for use of antibiotics at intensive care units. Special emphasis is put on analysis of work processes to identify information needs, the development of a visualization tool based on an integrated data model, and usability testing of the tool in combination with an eye-tracking technology. The visualization tool was highly rated in terms of user performance and preferences, and the analysis of users' visual patterns showed that different types of data visualization may benefit specialist and resident intensive care physicians depending on the task to be performed. A highly interactive tool for integrated information visualization could potentially increase the understanding of a patient's infection status and ultimately enhance decision making for the use of antibiotics. PMID:23957739

Forsman, Johanna; Anani, Nadim; Eghdam, Aboozar; Falkenhav, Magnus; Koch, Sabine

2013-12-01

426

Temporal dynamics of neural activity in an integration of visual and contextual information in an esthetic preference task.  

PubMed

While viewing works of art in galleries, we evaluate them by integrating at least two types of information: their visual properties (e.g., colors, symmetry, and proportion) and contextual information accompanying them (e.g., titles and names of artists). How rapidly the brain integrates visual and contextual information of artworks remains to be investigated. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated neural activity when subjects with no professional experience in art viewed images of sculptures (masterpieces from the Classical and Renaissance periods, characterized by a canonical proportion of the golden ratio) and performed a five-scale rating of how appealing they were. At the beginning of each trial, we manipulated the expectations of the subjects for an upcoming sculpture by presenting information about its authenticity (either "genuine" or "fake"), although all images were actually taken from genuine artworks. The image of the sculpture was then presented, either in its original proportion or after being deformed by a photo-editing software. This 2 × 2 factorial design enabled us to identify whether each component of the EEG response was sensitive to contextual information (genuine or fake), visual information (original or deformed), or both. Results revealed that amplitudes of a positive EEG component emerging at 200-300ms after the presentation of the artworks (mainly distributed over the parietal cortex) were significantly modulated by both visual and contextual factors, indicating a rapid integration of these two types of information in the brain. PMID:23499850

Noguchi, Yasuki; Murota, Miharu

2013-05-01

427

Viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in visual working memory.  

PubMed

Objects are not represented individually in visual working memory (VWM), but in relation to the contextual information provided by other memorized objects. We studied whether the contextual information provided by the spatial configuration of all memorized objects is viewpoint-dependent. We ran two experiments asking participants to detect changes in locations between memory and probe for one object highlighted in the probe image. We manipulated the changes in viewpoint between memory and probe (Exp. 1: 0°, 30°, 60°; Exp. 2: 0°, 60°), as well as the spatial configuration visible in the probe image (Exp. 1: full configuration, partial configuration; Exp. 2: full configuration, no configuration). Location change detection was higher with the full spatial configuration than with the partial configuration or with no spatial configuration at viewpoint changes of 0°, thus replicating previous findings on the nonindependent representations of individual objects in VWM. Most importantly, the effect of spatial configurations decreased with increasing viewpoint changes, suggesting a viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in VWM. We discuss these findings within the context of this special issue, in particular whether research performed within the slots-versus-resources debate and research on the effects of contextual information might focus on two different storage systems within VWM. PMID:24470259

Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

2014-04-01

428

Once and for all-How people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.  

PubMed

Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

2015-03-01

429

Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards and the Quality of Financial Statement Information; An Investigation of Earnings Management and Value Relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impact of the implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) on key financial measures of UK firms and explores their incentives to provide voluntary disclosures before the official IFRS adoption. The study also examines the volatility effects of IFRS implementation, the earnings management potential under IFRSs and the value relevance of IFRS-based financial statement information.

George Iatridis

430

Availability Issues in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301

Costa, Daniel G.; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

2014-01-01

431

A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

2005-07-01

432

IR and visual image registration based on mutual information and PSO-Powell algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared and visual image registration has a wide application in the fields of remote sensing and military. Mutual information (MI) has proved effective and successful in infrared and visual image registration process. To find the most appropriate registration parameters, optimal algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm or Powell search method, are often used. The PSO algorithm has strong global search ability and search speed is fast at the beginning, while the weakness is low search performance in late search stage. In image registration process, it often takes a lot of time to do useless search and solution's precision is low. Powell search method has strong local search ability. However, the search performance and time is more sensitive to initial values. In image registration, it is often obstructed by local maximum and gets wrong results. In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm, which combined PSO algorithm and Powell search method, is proposed. It combines both advantages that avoiding obstruction caused by local maximum and having higher precision. Firstly, using PSO algorithm gets a registration parameter which is close to global minimum. Based on the result in last stage, the Powell search method is used to find more precision registration parameter. The experimental result shows that the algorithm can effectively correct the scale, rotation and translation additional optimal algorithm. It can be a good solution to register infrared difference of two images and has a greater performance on time and precision than traditional and visible images.

Zhuang, Youwen; Gao, Kun; Miu, Xianghu

2014-11-01

433

Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

1996-01-01

434

Visual information processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed in these proceedings include nonlinear processing and communications; feature extraction and recognition; image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; image coding; and wavelet transform. Papers are presented on noise reduction for signals from nonlinear systems; driving nonlinear systems with chaotic signals; edge detection and image segmentation of space scenes using fractal analyses; a vision system for telerobotic operation; a fidelity analysis of image gathering, interpolation, and restoration; restoration of images degraded by motion; and information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication. Attention is also given to image coding methods and their assessment, hybrid JPEG/recursive block coding of images, modified wavelets that accommodate causality, modified wavelet transform for unbiased frequency representation, and continuous wavelet transform of one-dimensional signals by Fourier filtering.

Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

1992-01-01

435

Blind Image Steganalysis Based on Local Information and Human Visual System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new steganalysis method is introduced based on human visual system. Steganalysis uses the effect of steganography on the statistical characteristics to detect if such effect exists or not. Steganography methods do not have the same effect on all of the pixels of an image. We use local information to select the best area. We cannot use each individual pixel for feature extraction, so we use blocks. At first, segmentation and clustering algorithm are employed to detect the best segments for steganalysis. In the next step, the features based on wavelet are extracted. At the end, Support Vector Machine is applied as the classifier. The performance of this algorithm is verified by experimental results. The results show that the detection accuracy of our method reaches 98.67% for true positive and 90.67% for true negative when 100% capacity of the image is used with spread spectrum steganography algorithm.

Bakhshandeh, Soodeh; Jamjah, Javad Ravan; Azami, Bahram Zahir

436

Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system, and a precipitation model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.

Hay, L.E.; Knapp, L.K.

1996-01-01

437

Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D. The latter is the interactive LA3D software of the SCEC EIT intern team, which will be demonstrated at this session.

Perry, S.

2003-12-01

438

Visual homing in the absence of feature-based landmark information.  

PubMed

Despite that fact that landmarks play a prominent role in human navigation, experimental evidence on how landmarks are selected and defined by human navigators remains elusive. Indeed, the concept of a 'landmark' is itself not entirely clear. In everyday language, the term landmark refers to salient, distinguishable, and usually nameable objects, rendering the problem of landmark recognition a special case of the general object recognition problem. In contrast, in the insect and robot literature, this notion of landmarks is often replaced by the "local position information" [e.g., Trullier, O., Wiener, S., Berthoz, A., & Meyer, J.-A. (1997). Biologically based artificial navigation systems: Review and prospects. Progress in Neurobiology, 51, 483-544], referring to the entire set of sensor readings obtained at one location. This set may then serve as a characteristic of the particular location. Honey bees have been shown to base place recognition and homing on a snapshot-like memory of the place's visual environment, not on the distances to recognized objects [Cartwright, B., & Collett, T. (1983). Landmark learning in bees. Experiments and models. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 151, 521-543]. A number of theoretical models of snapshot-based homing [e.g., Franz, M., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H. A., Bülthoff, H. H. (1998). Where did I take that snapshot? Scene-based homing by image matching. Biological Cybernetics, 79, 191-202; Vardy, A., & Möller, R. (2005). Biologically plausible visual homing methods based on optical flow techniques. Connection Science, 17, 47-89] predict that the accuracy of snapshot-based homing should depend on image contrast. For rodent hippocampal place fields, models have been developed using additional image information such as three-dimensional depth and allocentric orientations (e.g., room axes) and are thus less sensitive to image contrast and noise [e.g. Barry, C., Lever, C., Hayman, R., Hartley, T., Burton, S., O'Keefe, J., et al. (2006). The boundary vector cell model of place cell firing and spatial memory. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17, 71-79]. Here, we study human visual homing in a virtual environment void of objects and readily detected image features. The environment was a circular room with a homogenous colour gradient covering the wall and uniform floor and ceiling. Subjects were able to approach remembered places. Accuracy decreased with colour gradient modulation and room size, in qualitative agreement with the snapshot model but not with other models of place recognition. We conclude that human memory for places can make use of a snapshot algorithm. PMID:18804202

Gillner, Sabine; Weiss, Anja M; Mallot, Hanspeter A

2008-10-01

439

Object-Based Visual Attention in 8-Month-Old Infants: Evidence from an Eye-Tracking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention is one of the infant's primary tools for gathering relevant information from the environment for further processing and learning. The space-based component of visual attention in infants has been widely investigated; however, the object-based component of visual attention has received scarce interest. This scarcity is…

Bulf, Hermann; Valenza, Eloisa

2013-01-01

440

Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

2010-01-01

441

Complex queries in information visualizations: distributing instruction across documentation and interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful visual querying requires users to understand what data selection means and how it works in interactive and dynamically linked graphics. Visually selecting data differs from writing query or search statements, and users who are new to visualizations have to learn this new paradigm of querying. A usability study that I conducted provides findings about problems that users encounter in

Barbara Mirel

1999-01-01

442

Visualizing User Communities and Usage Trends of Digital Libraries Based on User Tracking Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe VUDM, our Visual User-model Data Mining tool, and its application to data logged regarding interactions of 1,200 users of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD). The goals of VUDM are to visualize social networks, patrons' distributions, and usage trends of NDLTD. The distinctive approach of this research is that we focus on analysis and visualization

Seonho Kim; Subodh Lele; Sreeram Ramalingam; Edward A. Fox

2006-01-01

443

Developmental Change in Young Children's Use of Haptic Information in a Visual Task: The Role of Hand Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2 1/2-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar…

Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

2011-01-01

444

Goal-Directed Grasping: The Dimensional Properties of an Object Influence the Nature of the Visual Information Mediating Aperture Shaping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue of continued debate in the visuomotor control literature surrounds whether a 2D object serves as a representative proxy for a 3D object in understanding the nature of the visual information supporting grasping control. In an effort to reconcile this issue, we examined the extent to which aperture profiles for grasping 2D and 3D objects…

Holmes, Scott A.; Heath, Matthew

2013-01-01

445

Auditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis ----Contrastive Focus in French and Japanese  

E-print Network

Auditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis ---- Contrastive are combined for the perception of speech segments and recent studies have shown that this is also the case and audition for the perception of speech segments however seems to be less important in Japanese. This study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Changes in the Management of Information in Audio-Visual Archives following Digitization: Current and Future Outlook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to offer an overview of the current changes that are being experienced in the management of audio-visual documentation and those that can be forecast in the future as a result of the migration from analogue to digital information. For this purpose the documentary chain will be used as a basis to analyse individually the tasks…

Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

2008-01-01

447

Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

2014-01-01

448

Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

Hyman, Harvey

2012-01-01

449

Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking  

PubMed Central

Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

Saunders, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

450

Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task.  

PubMed

Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks-salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location-can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing. PMID:25309374

Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert

2014-01-01

451

Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task  

PubMed Central

Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks—salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location—can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing. PMID:25309374

Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert

2014-01-01

452

SUR 3323 Visualization of Spatial Information Catalog Description: Methods of mapping, modeling, communicating and visualizing spatial features.  

E-print Network

CAD (2004 edition or later) Shawna Lockhart, Prentice Hall New Jersey Other Sources for Study: course video PLUS and/or MINUS grades. For further information on the new university grading policy see: http://www.isis

Florida, University of

453

Visual information transfer. 1: Assessment of specific information needs. 2: The effects of degraded motion feedback. 3: Parameters of appropriate instrument scanning behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.

Comstock, J. R., Jr.; Kirby, R. H.; Coates, G. D.

1984-01-01

454

Chaomei Chen (2004) Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. Springer. pp. vii-ix It is with enthusiasm and excitement that I join the community of information  

E-print Network

. pp. vii-ix secondary functions of known genes, or stocks that will outperform others cancer growth? Which stock movements are often precursors of a major market rise? Which companies fraud, or detecting terrorists. The process of information visualization is to take

Chen, Chaomei

455

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis that the moving particle with varied speed and the simple tone with varied frequency were highly associated. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that an N400 effect and a late posterior negativity (LPN) were elicited under the Incongruent condition as compared to the Congruent condition. It was further determined that there was semantic association between ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. We considered that the N400 effect in our results reflected the process that stimulus-driven activities are bound together through a temporal semantic network (TSN) to form multimodal representations, while the state of this temporal semantic network was determined by both long-term learned association among stimuli and short-term experience of incoming information. The LPN might reflect the process that the human brain searches and retrieves context-specifying information in order to make a judgment, and the context-specifying information might have originated from the long-term learned association stored in the brain. PMID:21722711

Liu, B; Wu, G; Wang, Z; Meng, X; Wang, Q

2011-09-29

456

Performance of visual search tasks from various types of contour information.  

PubMed

A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide-field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks, such as visual search, mobility, and orientation. The sufficiency of image contours for performing everyday visual tasks is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. This research aims is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items, such as cutlery, housewares, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from mere detection (when the object is not necessarily identified). Some nonconventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal-vision subjects by superposing contours of the wide field of the scene over a narrow field (see-through) background. From the results, it appears that about 85% success is obtained for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed. Pilot experiments with video simulations are reported at the end of the paper. PMID:23456115

Itan, Liron; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

2013-03-01

457

How distributed is visual category information in human occipito-temporal cortex? An fMRI study.  

PubMed

We used fMRI to study the distribution of object category information in the ventral visual pathway. Extending the findings of, we find that categories of stimuli can be distinguished by the pattern of activation they elicit across this entire pathway, even when the stimuli within a category differ in viewpoint, exemplar, or image format. However, regions within the ventral visual pathway are neither interchangeable nor equipotential. Although the FFA and PPA permit excellent discrimination between preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli (e.g., faces-bottles and houses-bottles, respectively), we find that neither region alone permits accurate discrimination between pairs of nonpreferred stimuli (e.g., bottles-shoes). These findings indicate that the ventral visual pathway is not homogeneous, but contains some regions (including FFA and PPA) that are primarily involved in the analysis of a single class of stimulus. PMID:12354404

Spiridon, Mona; Kanwisher, Nancy

2002-09-12

458

Stereoscopic visualization of laparoscope image using depth information from 3D model.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic surgery is indispensable from the current surgical procedures. It uses an endoscope system of camera and light source, and surgical instruments which pass through the small incisions on the abdomen of the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Conventional laparoscope (endoscope) systems produce 2D colored video images which do not provide surgeons an actual depth perception of the scene. In this work, the problem was formulated as synthesizing a stereo image of the monocular (conventional) laparoscope image by incorporating into them the depth information from a 3D CT model. Various algorithms of the computer vision including the algorithms for the feature detection, matching and tracking in the video frames, and for the reconstruction of 3D shape from shading in the 2D laparoscope image were combined for making the system. The current method was applied to the laparoscope video at the rate of up to 5 frames per second to visualize its stereo video. A correlation was investigated between the depth maps calculated with our method with those from the shape from shading algorithm. The correlation coefficients between the depth maps were within the range of 0.70-0.95 (P<0.05). A t-test was used for the statistical analysis. PMID:24444752

Kumar, Atul; Wang, Yen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Jen; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

2014-03-01

459

Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information  

PubMed Central

The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

2013-01-01

460

Visual information without thermal energy may induce thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses  

PubMed Central

Background Human core body temperature is kept quasi-constant regardless of varying thermal environments. It is well known that physiological thermoregulatory systems are under the control of central and peripheral sensory organs that are sensitive to thermal energy. If these systems wrongly respond to non-thermal stimuli, it may disturb human homeostasis. Methods Fifteen participants viewed video images evoking hot or cold impressions in a thermally constant environment. Cardiovascular indices were recorded during the experiments. Correlations between the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores and cardiovascular indices were calculated. Results The changes of heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were significantly correlated with the ‘hot-cold’ impression scores, and the tendencies were similar to those in actual thermal environments corresponding to the impressions. Conclusions The present results suggest that visual information without any thermal energy can affect physiological thermoregulatory systems at least superficially. To avoid such ‘virtual’ environments disturbing human homeostasis, further study and more attention are needed. PMID:24373765

2013-01-01

461

A Periodic Table of Visualization Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website shows the diversity of visualization methods that are out there. Visualization types are presented in a 'periodic' table; rolling over each 'element' gives an example of the visualization style. Basic categories include data visualization, information visualization, concept visualization, strategy visualization, metaphor visualization, and compound visualization.

Lengler, Ralph A.

462

Web-GIS-based SARS epidemic situation visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to research, perform statistical analysis and broadcast the information of SARS epidemic situation according to the relevant spatial position, this paper proposed a unified global visualization information platform for SARS epidemic situation based on Web-GIS and scientific virtualization technology. To setup the unified global visual information platform, the architecture of Web-GIS based interoperable information system is adopted to enable public report SARS virus information to health cure center visually by using the web visualization technology. A GIS java applet is used to visualize the relationship between spatial graphical data and virus distribution, and other web based graphics figures such as curves, bars, maps and multi-dimensional figures are used to visualize the relationship between SARS virus tendency with time, patient number or locations. The platform is designed to display the SARS information in real time, simulate visually for real epidemic situation and offer an analyzing tools for health department and the policy-making government department to support the decision-making for preventing against the SARS epidemic virus. It could be used to analyze the virus condition through visualized graphics interface, isolate the areas of virus source, and control the virus condition within shortest time. It could be applied to the visualization field of SARS preventing systems for SARS information broadcasting, data management, statistical analysis, and decision supporting.

Lu, Xiaolin

2004-03-01

463

Obtaining health care in another European Union Member State: how easy is it to find relevant information?  

PubMed

The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. PMID:25096256

Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

2015-02-01

464

Gamma Oscillations Underlie the Maintenance of Feature-Specific Information and the Contents of Visual Working Memory.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (VWM) sustains information online as integrated object representations. Neuronal mechanisms supporting the maintenance of feature-specific information have remained unidentified. Synchronized oscillations in the gamma band (30-120 Hz) characterize VWM retention and predict task performance, but whether these oscillations are specific to memorized features and VWM contents or underlie general executive VWM functions is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether gamma oscillations reflect the maintenance of feature-specific information in VWM. Concurrent magneto- and electroencephalography was recorded while subjects memorized different object features or feature conjunctions in identical VWM experiments. Using a data-driven source analysis approach, we show that the strength, load-dependence, and source topographies of gamma oscillations in the visual cortex differentiate these memorized features. Load-dependence of gamma oscillations in feature-specific visual and prefrontal areas also predicts VWM accuracy. Furthermore, corroborating the hypothesis that gamma oscillations support the perceptual binding of feature-specific neuronal assemblies, we also show that VWM for color-location conjunctions is associated with stronger gamma oscillations than that for these features separately. Gamma oscillations hence support the maintenance of feature-specific information and reflect VWM contents. The results also suggest that gamma oscillations contribute to feature binding in the formation of memory representations. PMID:25405942

Honkanen, Roosa; Rouhinen, Santeri; Wang, Sheng H; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

2014-11-01

465

Visual Form, Ethics, and a Typology of Purpose: Teaching Effective Information Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams's proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those…

Rosenquist, Christina

2012-01-01

466

How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

Gray, Rob

2009-01-01

467

Interactions Between Visual Working Memory and Selective Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between working memory and selective attention has traditionally been discussed as operating in one direc- tion: Attention filters incoming information, allowing only relevant information into short-term processing stores. This study tested the prediction that the contents of visual working memory also influence the guidance of selective attention. Participants held a sample object in working memory on each trial.

Paul E. Downing

2000-01-01

468

Benchmarking and Its Relevance to the Library and Information Sector. Interim Findings of "Best Practice Benchmarking in the Library and Information Sector," a British Library Research and Development Department Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This British Library Research and Development Department study assesses current activities and attitudes toward quality management in library and information services (LIS) in the academic sector as well as the commercial/industrial sector. Definitions and types of benchmarking are described, and the relevance of benchmarking to LIS is evaluated.…

Kinnell, Margaret; Garrod, Penny

469

Visualizing Music  

E-print Network

A process of experientially deriving visual information from music is described. The author describes her methodology behind the translation of a music composition to a computer animation. The methodology described could be adapted and applied...

Haggerty, Mary Beth

1995-01-01

470

[Evidence-based medicine. 2. Research of clinically relevant biomedical information. Gruppo Italiano per la Medicina Basata sulle Evidenze--GIMBE].  

PubMed

Evidence-based Medicine is a product of the electronic information age and there are several databases useful for practice it--MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized compendiums of evidence (Cochrane Library, Best Evidence), practice guidelines--most of them free available through Internet, that offers a growing number of health resources. Because searching best evidence is a basic step to practice Evidence-based Medicine, this second review (the first one has been published in the issue of March 1998) has the aim to provide physicians tools and skills for retrieving relevant biomedical information. Therefore, we discuss about strategies for managing information overload, analyze characteristics, usefulness and limits of medical databases and explain how to use MEDLINE in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:9676136

Cartabellotta, A

1998-05-01

471

The Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM): A Self-tuning Bayesian Model for Informative Image-based Prediction  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatially clustered sets of voxels that are particularly suited for clinical interpretation. RVoxM automatically tunes all its free parameters during the training phase, and offers the additional advantage of producing probabilistic prediction outcomes. We demonstrate RVoxM as a regression model by predicting age from volumetric gray matter segmentations, and as a classification model by distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease from healthy controls using surface-based cortical thickness data. Our results indicate that RVoxM yields biologically meaningful models, while providing state-of-the-art predictive accuracy. PMID:23008245

Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen

2013-01-01

472

Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.  

PubMed

Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization