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Sample records for relevant visual information

  1. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-01-01

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing. PMID:24184882

  2. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  3. Attentional demand and processing of relevant visual information during simulated driving: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Fort, Alexandra; Martin, Robert; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Combe-Pangaud, Chantal; Foliot, Gérald; Daligault, Sébastien; Delpuech, Claude

    2010-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that attention is crucial for driving a car. This innovative study aims to assess the impact of attentional workload modulation on cerebral activity during a simulated driving task using magnetoencephalography (MEG). A car simulator equipped with a steering wheel, turn indicators, an accelerator and a brake pedal has been specifically designed to be used with MEG. Attentional demand has been modulated using a radio broadcast. During half of the driving scenarios, subjects could ignore the broadcast (simple task, ST) and during the other half, they had to actively listen to it in order to answer 3 questions (dual task, DT). Evoked magnetic responses were computed in both conditions separately for two visual stimuli of interest: traffic lights (from green to amber) and direction signs (arrows to the right or to the left) shown on boards. The cortical sources of these activities have been estimated using a minimum-norm current estimates modeling technique. Results show the activation of a large distributed network similar in ST and DT and similar for both the traffic lights and the direction signs. This network mainly involves sensory visual areas as well as parietal and frontal regions known to play a role in selective attention and motor areas. The increase of attentional demand affects the neuronal processing of relevant visual information for driving, as early as the perceptual stage. By demonstrating the feasibility of recording MEG activity during an interactive simulated driving task, this study opens new possibilities for investigating issues regarding drivers' activity. PMID:20920486

  4. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  5. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  6. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  7. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J.W.; Sami, Saber A.; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain’s attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO’s predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  8. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  9. Science information systems: Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

  10. Visuals for Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This report focuses on the visual component of verbo-visual literacy, a communications concept involving the production, transmission, and perception of verbal and visual images. Five current problem areas in verbal-visual research are introduced and discussed: (1) communication (communication models, media consumption, new media, the information…

  11. Information efficiency in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  12. Neural correlates for task-relevant facilitation of visual inputs during visually-guided hand movements.

    PubMed

    Lebar, Nicolas; Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence; Blouin, Jean

    2015-11-01

    response to visual inputs but increased the latencies of the responses in the occipital, temporal, and parietal regions. However, the HP group showed cortical responses that largely differed from those displayed by the LP group. Specifically, the HP group demonstrated movement-related increases of visual sensitivity in regions of the visual cortex that were not observed in the LP group. These increased responses to visual inputs were evidenced in the posterior inferior parietal, temporal-occipital, and inferior-temporal regions. Overall, our results are in line with the assertion that increasing the sensitivity to visual inputs serves to promote relevant visual information for the different processes involved during visually-guided hand movements. Our results also suggest that maintaining accurate hand tracing movements in the presence of discrepant visual and somatosensory feedback requires additional perceptual and spatial information processing that is tightly linked to visual inputs. PMID:26191651

  13. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  14. Foundations of Advanced Information Visualization for Visual Information (Retrieval) Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark; Hemmje, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a conference workshop that addressed Visual Information Retrieval Interfaces (VIRIs). Topics include evaluation methods; task dimension for evaluating VIRIs; efforts to fund European development of VIRIs; metrics, including cosine vector; navigation among documents; and interactions with users. (LRW)

  15. How to Select Visuals: The Information-Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview and an example of use of the Information-Visualization System, an approach to visual selection enabling educators to match desired learning outcomes with the best visuals to carry the message. Decision tables and resource book containing visual options, information types, and suggested methods of enhancing visuals are…

  16. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  17. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  18. Control information in visual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.

  19. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Erez, Yaara; Duncan, John

    2015-09-01

    Allocating attentional resources to currently relevant information in a dynamically changing environment is critical to goal-directed behavior. Previous studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) have demonstrated modulation of neural representations of stimuli, in particular visual categorizations, by behavioral significance in the lateral prefrontal cortex. In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions, the "multiple demand" (MD) system, is involved in cognitive and attentional control. To test for the effect of behavioral significance on categorical discrimination in the MD system in humans, we adapted a previously used task in the NHP and used multivoxel pattern analysis for fMRI data. In a cued-detection categorization task, participants detected whether an image from one of two target visual categories was present in a display. Our results revealed that categorical discrimination is modulated by behavioral relevance, as measured by the distributed pattern of response across the MD network. Distinctions between categories with different behavioral status (e.g., a target and a nontarget) were significantly discriminated. Category distinctions that were not behaviorally relevant (e.g., between two targets) were not discriminated. Other aspects of the task that were orthogonal to the behavioral decision did not modulate categorical discrimination. In a high visual region, the lateral occipital complex, modulation by behavioral relevance was evident in its posterior subregion but not in the anterior subregion. The results are consistent with the view of the MD system as involved in top-down attentional and cognitive control by selective coding of task-relevant discriminations. Significance statement: Control of cognitive demands fundamentally involves flexible allocation of attentional resources depending on a current behavioral context. Essential to such a mechanism is the ability to select currently relevant information and at the same time filter out

  20. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocating attentional resources to currently relevant information in a dynamically changing environment is critical to goal-directed behavior. Previous studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) have demonstrated modulation of neural representations of stimuli, in particular visual categorizations, by behavioral significance in the lateral prefrontal cortex. In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions, the “multiple demand” (MD) system, is involved in cognitive and attentional control. To test for the effect of behavioral significance on categorical discrimination in the MD system in humans, we adapted a previously used task in the NHP and used multivoxel pattern analysis for fMRI data. In a cued-detection categorization task, participants detected whether an image from one of two target visual categories was present in a display. Our results revealed that categorical discrimination is modulated by behavioral relevance, as measured by the distributed pattern of response across the MD network. Distinctions between categories with different behavioral status (e.g., a target and a nontarget) were significantly discriminated. Category distinctions that were not behaviorally relevant (e.g., between two targets) were not discriminated. Other aspects of the task that were orthogonal to the behavioral decision did not modulate categorical discrimination. In a high visual region, the lateral occipital complex, modulation by behavioral relevance was evident in its posterior subregion but not in the anterior subregion. The results are consistent with the view of the MD system as involved in top-down attentional and cognitive control by selective coding of task-relevant discriminations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Control of cognitive demands fundamentally involves flexible allocation of attentional resources depending on a current behavioral context. Essential to such a mechanism is the ability to select currently relevant information and at the same time filter

  1. The Research Uses of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussim, Estelle

    1977-01-01

    Visual information is not yet in common usage among librarians. It is hoped that the term will be adopted by the information profession at large as new areas of research develop which depend largely on nonverbal documents. A decision must be made as to which forms of visual information will be needed for--scholarly and scientific use. (Author/AP)

  2. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  3. The Relevance of Visual Sequential Memory to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispin, Lisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Results of three visual sequential memory tests and a group reading test given to 19 elementary students are discussed in terms of task analysis and structuralist approaches to analysis of reading skills. Relation of visual sequential memory to other reading subskills is considered in light of current reasearch. (CMG)

  4. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  5. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  6. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  7. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  8. GIS-based epidemical disease information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bisong; Gong, Jianhua; Sun, Jia; Cao, Wuchun; Fang, Liqun

    2008-10-01

    In recent epidemical researches based on GIS, a great deal of studies focus on the data analysis and result deduction using spatial-temporal analysis, scientific visualization, etc. However, there are rare researches on information visualization of various epidemical diseases. This paper studied information visualization of epidemical disease attributes, distribution, and statistics based on GIS, designed a multi-scale and population-based epidemical spreading model by considering the influence of real geographical and demographic information, and implemented its information visualization. The epidemical influence of population immigration is also considered. This model is based on the traditional SEIRS model, and could be applied to the real epidemical spreading simulation on the basis of real epidemical, geographical, social, and demographic data.

  9. Physician information seeking: improving relevance through research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, L D

    1990-04-01

    Health sciences libraries have considerable potential as resources for both formal continuing professional education, as well as the informal continuing education that results from the professional's efforts to solve problems in daily practice. While there is a growing interest in making the resources of health sciences libraries more accessible to practitioners on a routine, day-to-day basis, there also needs to be more awareness of how, when, where, and why professionals look for information in the context of practical problems. This paper reviews recent research that identifies the context in which physicians seek information and advice from external sources, the information sources that physicians access, and the factors that influence which particular sources are sought. The results indicate that physicians vary in their information needs, preferences, motivations, and strategies for seeking information. This diversity suggests that health sciences libraries, in their efforts to be more accessible, should consider "market research" to determine the needs, preferences, and use patterns of the library's targeted users. Libraries may also benefit from exploring alternative methods of improving access to their resources. PMID:2183904

  10. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  11. Monitoring and visualizing information resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCrickard, D.S.; Rowan, T.H.

    1996-07-01

    The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.

  12. Finding the Critical Facts: Children's Visual Scan Patterns When Solving Story Problems That Contain Irrelevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Joan Littlefield; Rieser, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to understand the processes through which 5th graders discriminate relevant from irrelevant information when solving mathematical story problems. Visual scanning was recorded and coded as directed toward relevant information, irrelevant information, the question, workspace, and elsewhere. Experiment 1 focused on the…

  13. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  14. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  15. Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

  16. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety ofmore » relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.« less

  17. The Acquisition of Visual Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Eugene A.

    Two important processes in the acquisition of visually presented information are the ability to maintain discrete perceptual events as separate in time and the ability to abstract information from brief exposures. Five phenomena were measured which appear to reflect these abilities. Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) is the intermittency rate at…

  18. Ranking Refinement via Relevance Feedback in Geographic Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro-Tello, Esaú; Villaseñor-Pineda, Luis; Montes-Y-Gómez, Manuel

    Recent evaluation results from Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) indicate that current information retrieval methods are effective to retrieve relevant documents for geographic queries, but they have severe difficulties to generate a pertinent ranking of them. Motivated by these results in this paper we present a novel re-ranking method, which employs information obtained through a relevance feedback process to perform a ranking refinement. Performed experiments show that the proposed method allows to improve the generated ranking from a traditional IR machine, as well as results from traditional re-ranking strategies such as query expansion via relevance feedback.

  19. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  20. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  1. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  2. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  3. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  4. Visualizing intelligence information using correlation graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vivek; Gagvani, Nikhil

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new information model to help intelligence analysts in organizing, querying, and visualizing the information present in large volumes of unstructured data sources such as text reports, multi-media, and human discourse. Our primary goal is to create a system that would combine the human pattern recognition abilities of intelligence analysis with the storage and processing capabilities of computers. Our system models the collective mental map of intelligence analysts in the form of the Correlation Graph, a modified graph data structure with objects and events as nodes and subjective probabilistic correlations between them as edges. Objects are entities such as people, places, and things. Events are actions that involve the objects. A taxonomy is also associated with the model to enable intelligence domain specific querying of the data. Graph drawing techniques are used to visualize the information represented by the correlation graph. Through real world examples, we demonstrate that the resulting information model can be used for efficient representation, presentation, and querying to discover novel patterns in the intelligence data via graph visualization techniques.

  5. Retinal Oscillations Carry Visual Information to Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Kilian; Wang, Xin; Vaingankar, Vishal; Wei, Yichun; Wang, Qingbo; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Hirsch, Judith A.; Sommer, Friedrich T.

    2009-01-01

    Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs) and thalamic outputs (spikes) and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz), is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40–80 Hz) and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene. PMID:19404487

  6. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    PubMed

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend. PMID:26152963

  7. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  8. The directional flow of visual information transfer between pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Chong, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D.

    2012-01-01

    Close behavioural coupling of visual orientation may provide a range of adaptive benefits to social species. In order to investigate the natural properties of gaze-following between pedestrians, we displayed an attractive stimulus in a frequently trafficked corridor within which a hidden camera was placed to detect directed gaze from passers-by. The presence of visual cues towards the stimulus by nearby pedestrians increased the probability of passers-by looking as well. In contrast to cueing paradigms used for laboratory research, however, we found that individuals were more responsive to changes in the visual orientation of those walking in the same direction in front of them (i.e. viewing head direction from behind). In fact, visual attention towards the stimulus diminished when oncoming pedestrians had previously looked. Information was therefore transferred more effectively behind, rather than in front of, gaze cues. Further analyses show that neither crowding nor group interactions were driving these effects, suggesting that, within natural settings gaze-following is strongly mediated by social interaction and facilitates acquisition of environmentally relevant information. PMID:22456331

  9. Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

    Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked

  10. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  11. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PRACTICES ACTIONS TO ADDRESS CONDITIONS UNDULY IMPAIRING ACCESS OF U.S.-FLAG VESSELS TO OCEAN TRADE BETWEEN... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include... decision and may provide the basis for Commission findings of fact and conclusions of law, and for...

  12. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI...

  13. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI...

  14. Visualizing Information: An Overview of This Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbons, William M.; Elser, Arthur G.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of information visualization, the present state of the art, and the possibilities and challenges that lie ahead. Describes how the articles in this special issue (devoted to visualizing information) help explain the principles and practices of information visualization. Challenges technical communicators to expand their view…

  15. The strategic retention of task-relevant objects in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory (VWM). We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention of task-relevant objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; (b) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; (c) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; (d) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and (e) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement. PMID:22845068

  16. Making sense of personal health information: challenges for information visualization.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Sarah; Blandford, Ann; Potts, Henry W W

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature on information visualization for making sense of personal health information. Based on this review, five application themes were identified: treatment planning, examination of patients' medical records, representation of pedigrees and family history, communication and shared decision making, and life management and health monitoring. While there are recognized design challenges associated with each of these themes, such as how best to represent data visually and integrate qualitative and quantitative information, other challenges and opportunities have received little attention to date. In this article, we highlight, in particular, the opportunities for supporting people in better understanding their own illnesses and making sense of their health conditions in order to manage them more effectively. PMID:23981395

  17. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  18. The Behavioral Relevance of Task Information in Human Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2016-06-01

    Human lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to play a critical role in enabling cognitive flexibility, particularly when performing novel tasks. However, it remains to be established whether LPFC representation of task-relevant information in such situations actually contributes to successful performance. We utilized pattern classification analyses of functional MRI activity to identify novelty-sensitive brain regions as participants rapidly switched between performance of 64 complex tasks, 60 of which were novel. In three of these novelty-sensitive regions-located within distinct areas of left anterior LPFC-trial-evoked activity patterns discriminated correct from error trials. Further, these regions also contained information regarding the task-relevant decision rule, but only for successfully performed trials. This suggests that left anterior LPFC may be particularly important for representing task information that contributes to the cognitive flexibility needed to perform successfully in novel task situations. PMID:25870233

  19. Acoustic-tactile rendering of visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.

    2012-03-01

    In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visual information via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.

  20. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment. PMID:24429836

  1. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data. PMID:23542973

  2. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  3. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line

  4. The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of VWM. We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were five principal findings: 1) Strategic retention of task relevant-objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; 2) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; 3) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; 4) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and 5) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement. PMID:22845068

  5. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  6. A novel method for visualizing nuclear hormone receptor networks relevant to drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Kirillov, Eugene; Rakhmatulin, Eugene A; Nikolskaya, Tatiana

    2005-03-01

    The increasing generation of biological data represents a challenge to understanding the complexity of systems, resulting in scientists increasingly focused on a relatively narrow area of study, thereby limiting insight that can be gained from a broader perspective. In the field of drug metabolism and toxicology we are witnessing the characterization of many proteins. Most of the key enzymes and transporters are recognized as transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone receptors such as pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, vitamin D receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and others. There is apparent cross talk in regulation, since multiple receptors may modulate expression of a single enzyme or transporter, representing one of many areas of active research interest. We have used published data on nuclear hormone receptors, enzymes, ligands, and other biological information to manually annotate an Oracle database, forming the basis of a platform for querying (MetaDrug). Using algorithms, we have demonstrated how nuclear hormone receptors alone can form a network of direct interactions, and when expanded, this network increases in complexity to describe the interactions with target genes as well as small molecules known to bind a receptor, enzyme, or transporter. We have also described how the database can be used for visualizing high-throughput microarray data derived from a published study of MCF-7 cells treated with 4-hydroxytamoxifen, to highlight potential downstream effects of molecule treatment. The database represents a novel knowledge mining and analytical tool that, to be relevant, requires continual updating to evolve alongside other key storage systems and sources of biological knowledge. PMID:15608136

  7. Seeing without knowing: task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and recognition.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Shoval, Roy; Yeshurun, Yaffa

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and knowledge activation to create a state of seeing without knowing-visual awareness of familiar stimuli without recognizing them. We rely on the fact that in order to experience a Kanizsa illusion, participants must be aware of its inducers. While people can indicate the orientation of the illusory rectangle with great ease (signifying that they have consciously experienced the illusion's inducers), almost 30% of them could not report the inducers' color. Thus, people can see, in the sense of phenomenally experiencing, but not know, in the sense of recognizing what the object is or activating appropriate knowledge about it. Experiment 2 tests whether relevance-based selection operates within objects and shows that, contrary to the pattern of results found with features of different objects in our previous studies and replicated in Experiment 1, selection does not occur when both relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. We discuss these findings in relation to the existing theories of consciousness and to attention and inattentional blindness, and the role of cognitive load, object-based attention, and the use of self-reports as measures of awareness. PMID:25716140

  8. Considerations for the composition of visual scene displays: potential contributions of information from visual and cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing - that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display - therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations. PMID:22946989

  9. Considerations for the Composition of Visual Scene Displays: Potential Contributions of Information from Visual and Cognitive Sciences (Forum Note)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing – that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display – therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations. PMID:22946989

  10. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) to rare, task-relevant (counted) numerical stimuli was compared with VEPs to rare, task-irrelevant stimuli, both being randomly interspersed within a sequence of tachistoscopically-flashed background numbers. These task-irrelevant stimuli were of two classes: (1) easily recognizable (e.g., simple geometric shapes) and (2) completely novel (i.e., complex, colorful abstract-type drawings which were unrecognizable). It was found that such novel stimuli did, in fact, evoke large P3 waves, but they had different scalp distributions from those which followed the task-relevant stimuli. This indicates that at least two types of late positive P3 waves exist, differing both in brain source and psychological correlates.

  11. Translating Ensemble Weather Forecasts into Probabilistic User-Relevant Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias; Sharman, Robert; Hopson, Thomas; Liu, Yubao; Chapman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Weather-related decisions increasingly rely on probabilistic information as a means of assessing the risk of one potential outcome over another. Ensemble forecasting presents one of the key approaches trying to grasp the uncertainty of weather forecasting. Moreover, in the future decision makers will rely on tools that fully integrate weather information into the decision making process. Through these decision support tools, weather information will be translated into impact information. This presentation will highlight the translation of gridded ensemble weather forecasts into probabilistic user-relevant information. Examples will be discussed that relate to the management of air traffic, noise and pollution dispersion, missile trajectory prediction, water resources and flooding, wind energy production, and road maintenance. The primary take-home message from these examples will be that weather forecasts have to be tailored with a specific user perspective in mind rather than a "one fits all" approach, where a standard forecast product gets thrown over the fence and the user has to figure out what to do with it.

  12. Visual information, sparse decomposition, and transmission for multi- UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, visual navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been an active area of research. There is a large amount of visual information to be processed and transmitted with real-time requirements for the flight scenes change rapidly. However, it has already become one of the major factors that block the cooperative communication in multi-UAV visual navigation. The traditional video image orthogonal decomposition methods can not be well adapted to the multi-UAV visual navigation system, because with the compression ratio increases, there is a sharp decline in video image quality. This paper proposes a novel visual information sparse decomposition and transmission (VSDT) framework for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the framework, aiming at the visual information characteristics, firstly we pre-process the video images by introducing a multi-scale visual information acquisition mechanism. Then a fast video image sparse decomposition is made for transmission. It can greatly reduce the original video information amount, while the quality of visual information needed for navigation is guaranteed. Finally, based on data correlations and feature matching, a real-time transmission scheme is designed to make the receiver UAV can quickly reconstruct the flight scene information for navigation. The simulated results are presented and discussed. The main advantage of this framework lies in the ability to reduce the visual information transmission amount while ensuring the quality of visual information needed for navigation and solve the cooperative communication problems such as information lag, data conjunction and match error often encountered in multi-UAV visual navigation environment.

  13. Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  14. Sex differences in memory for sexually-relevant information.

    PubMed

    McCall, Katie M; Rellini, Alessandra H; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  15. Visual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance

    PubMed Central

    Enns, James T.; Oriet, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. PMID:20517510

  16. Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

  17. Gingival Biotype Assessement: Visual Inspection Relevance And Maxillary Versus Mandibular Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Cuny-Houchmand, Madline; Renaudin, Stéphane; Leroul, Mustapha; Planche, Lucie; Guehennec, Laurent Le; Soueidan, Assem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This clinical study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of gingival visual inspection procedures during clinical examination and determining whether differences existed between the maxillary and mandibular gingival biotypes. Materials and Methods: The study included 53 patients and 124 clinicians. The clinicians were asked to assign to each subject, using photographic documents, one of three biotypes: thin-scalloped, thick-scalloped, or thick-flat gingival biotype. A total of 19716 responses were collected for statistical analysis. Results: Identification accuracy of the gingival biotype and the intra-examiner repeatability presented poor highlighting of the limited relevance of visual inspection. In addition, the percent of agreement between classifications based on the global view of both the maxilla and mandible and the classification based on the individual mandibular or maxillary anterior teeth was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the above results, it can be concluded that a simple visual inspection is not effective for the identification of gingival biotype. Furthermore, evidence suggests that a difference of biotype between the maxilla and the mandible in the same patient is conceivable. Therefore, orthodontic clinical examination should incorporate a reproducible method of determining the individualized gingival biotype for each group of teeth that will be moved. PMID:23400554

  18. iVisDesigner: Expressive Interactive Design of Information Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Ren, Donghao; Höllerer, Tobias; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2014-12-01

    We present the design, implementation and evaluation of iVisDesigner, a web-based system that enables users to design information visualizations for complex datasets interactively, without the need for textual programming. Our system achieves high interactive expressiveness through conceptual modularity, covering a broad information visualization design space. iVisDesigner supports the interactive design of interactive visualizations, such as provisioning for responsive graph layouts and different types of brushing and linking interactions. We present the system design and implementation, exemplify it through a variety of illustrative visualization designs and discuss its limitations. A performance analysis and an informal user study are presented to evaluate the system. PMID:26356923

  19. Visual control of navigation in insects and its relevance for robotics.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-08-01

    Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles. PMID:21689925

  20. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity... information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information.../omb/procurement/frn/frn-access-to-relevant-integrity-information-public-comments.pdf . Joseph...

  1. On the assessment of visual communication by information theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.

  2. Snap2Diverse: coordinating information visualizations and virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polys, Nicholas F.; North, Chris; Bowman, Doug A.; Ray, Andrew; Moldenhauer, Maxim; Dandekar, Chetan

    2004-06-01

    The field of Information Visualization is concerned with improving how users perceive, understand, and interact with visual representations of abstract information. Immersive Virtual Environments (VEs) excel at a greater comprehension of spatial information. This project addresses the intersection of these two fields known as Information-Rich Virtual Environments (IRVEs) where perceptually realistic information, such as models and scenes, are enhanced with abstract information, such as text, numeric data, hyperlinks, or multimedia resources. IRVEs present a number of important design challenges including the management, coordination, and display of interrelated perceptual and abstract information. We describe a set of design issues for this type of integrated visualization and demonstrate a coordinated, multiple-views approach to support 2D and 3D visualization interactions such as overview, navigation, details-on-demand, and brushing-and-linking. In the CAVE, spatial information in a VE is interactively linked to embedded visualizations of related abstract information. Software architecture issues are discussed with details of our implementation applied to the domain of chemical information visualization. Lastly, we subject our system to an informal usability evaluation and identify usability issues with interaction and navigation that guides future work in these environments.

  3. Encoding and processing biologically relevant temporal information in electrosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Fortune, E S; Rose, G J; Kawasaki, M

    2006-06-01

    Wave-type weakly electric fish are specialists in time-domain processing: behaviors in these animals are often tightly correlated with the temporal structure of electrosensory signals. Behavioral responses in these fish can be dependent on differences in the temporal structure of electrosensory signals alone. This feature has facilitated the study of temporal codes and processing in central nervous system circuits of these animals. The temporal encoding and mechanisms used to transform temporal codes in the brain have been identified and characterized in several species, including South American gymnotid species and in the African mormyrid genus Gymnarchus. These distantly related groups use similar strategies for neural computations of information on the order of microseconds, milliseconds, and seconds. Here, we describe a suite of mechanisms for behaviorally relevant computations of temporal information that have been elucidated in these systems. These results show the critical role that behavioral experiments continue to have in the study of the neural control of behavior and its evolution. PMID:16450118

  4. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

  5. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  6. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

    2001-08-20

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

  7. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Loew, Ellis R.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P.; Smith, W. Leo; Davis, Matthew P.; Stern, Jennifer H.; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Sparks, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440–540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a “shark eye” camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks’ eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology. PMID:27109385

  8. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Loew, Ellis R; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P; Smith, W Leo; Davis, Matthew P; Stern, Jennifer H; Pieribone, Vincent A; Sparks, John S

    2016-01-01

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440-540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a "shark eye" camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks' eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology. PMID:27109385

  9. Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

  10. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  11. Is the auditory sensory memory sensitive to visual information?

    PubMed Central

    Besle, Julien; Fort, Alexandra; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity component of the auditory event-related brain potentials can be used as a probe to study the representation of sounds in Auditory Sensory Memory (ASM). Yet, it has been shown that an auditory MMN can also be elicited by an illusory auditory deviance induced by visual changes. This suggests that some visual information may be encoded in ASM and is accessible to the auditory MMN process. However, it is not known whether visual information influences ASM representation for any audiovisual event or whether this phenomenon is limited to specific domains in which strong audiovisual illusions occur. To highlight this issue, we have compared the topographies of MMNs elicited by non-speech audiovisual stimuli deviating from audiovisual standards on the visual, the auditory or both dimensions. Contrary to what occurs with audiovisual illusions, each unimodal deviants elicited sensory-specific MMNs and the MMN to audiovisual deviants included both sensory components. The visual MMN was however different from a genuine visual MMN obtained in a visual-only control oddbbal paradigm, suggesting that auditory and visual information interacts before the MMN process occurs. Furthermore, the MMN to audiovisual deviants was significantly different from the sum of the two sensory-specific MMNs, showing that the processes of visual and auditory change detection are not completely independent. PMID:16041497

  12. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  13. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... provide additional opportunities for potential stakeholders to identify and obtain relevant...

  14. Task Demands Control Acquisition and Storage of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.

    2005-01-01

    Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…

  15. Fitting the Jigsaw of Citation: Information Visualization in Domain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Paul, Ray J.; O'Keefe, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of information visualization in modeling and representing intellectual structures associated with scientific disciplines and visualizes the domain of computer graphics based on bibliographic data from author cocitation patterns. Highlights include author cocitation maps, citation time lines, animation of a high-dimensional…

  16. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  17. Impact of a Prototype Visualization Tool for New Information in EHR Clinical Documents

    PubMed Central

    Farri, O.; Rahman, A.; Monsen, K.A.; Zhang, R.; Pakhomov, S.V.; Pieczkiewicz, D.S.; Speedie, S.M.; Melton, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background EHR clinical document synthesis by clinicians may be time-consuming and error-prone due to the complex organization of narratives, excessive redundancy within documents, and, at times, inadvertent proliferation of data inconsistencies. Development of EHR systems that are easily adaptable to the user’s work processes requires research into visualization techniques that can optimize information synthesis at the point of care. Objective To evaluate the effect of a prototype visualization tool for clinically relevant new information on clinicians’ synthesis of EHR clinical documents and to understand how the tool may support future designs of clinical document user interfaces. Methods A mixed methods approach to analyze the impact of the visualization tool was used with a sample of eight medical interns as they synthesized EHR clinical documents to accomplish a set of four pre-formed clinical scenarios using a think-aloud protocol. Results Differences in the missing (unretrieved) patient information (2.3±1.2 [with the visualization tool] vs. 6.8±1.2 [without the visualization tool], p = 0.08) and accurate inferences (1.3±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3, p = 0.09) were not statistically significant but suggest some improvement with the new information visualization tool. Despite the non-significant difference in total times to task completion (43±4 mins vs 36±4 mins, p = 0.35) we observed shorter times for two scenarios with the visualization tool, suggesting that the time-saving benefits may be more evident with certain clinical processes. Other observed effects of the tool include more intuitive navigation between patient details and increased efforts towards methodical synthesis of clinical documents. Conclusion Our study provides some evidence that new information visualization in clinical notes may positively influence synthesis of patient information from EHR clinical documents. Our findings provide groundwork towards a more effective display of EHR clinical

  18. Throwing a glance at the neural code: rapid information transmission in the visual system

    PubMed Central

    Gollisch, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Our visual system can operate at fascinating speeds. Psychophysical experiments teach us that the processing of complex natural images and visual object recognition require a mere split second. Even in everyday life, our gaze seldom rests for long on any particular spot of the visual scene before a sudden movement of the eyes or the head shifts it to a new location. These observations challenge our understanding of how neurons in the visual system of the brain represent, process, and transmit the relevant visual information quickly enough. This article argues that the speed of visual processing provides an adjuvant framework for studying the neural code in the visual system. In the retina, which constitutes the first stage of visual processing, recent experiments have highlighted response features that allow for particularly rapid information transmission. This sets the stage for discussing some of the fundamental questions in the research of neural coding. How do downstream brain regions read out signals from the retina and combine them with intrinsic signals that accompany eye movements? And, how do the neural response features ultimately affect perception and behavior? PMID:19649155

  19. Does visual information influence infants’ movement to music?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  20. Does visual information influence infants' movement to music?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M; Thompson, Laura A

    2013-03-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants' movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  1. Visual Information for the Desktop, version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-29

    VZIN integrates visual analytics capabilities into popular desktop tools to aid a user in searching and understanding an information space. VZIN allows users to Drag-Drop-Visualize-Explore-Organize information within tools such as Microsoft Office, Windows Explorer, Excel, and Outlook. VZIN is tailorable to specific client or industry requirements. VZIN follows the desktop metaphors so that advanced analytical capabilities are available with minimal user training.

  2. Digital Media and Education: Cognitive Impact of Information Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraidy, Ute

    2002-01-01

    Argues that like other technological innovations, the rise of the digital information age is contributing to shape people's mode of cognition. Reviews the use of computers in teaching and learning in terms of their impact on our ability to process parallel data, access information in a non-linear order, and visualize information. (Author/LRW)

  3. Lark: coordinating co-located collaboration with information visualization.

    PubMed

    Tobiasz, Matthew; Isenberg, Petra; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2009-01-01

    Large multi-touch displays are expanding the possibilities of multiple-coordinated views by allowing multiple people to interact with data in concert or independently. We present Lark, a system that facilitates the coordination of interactions with information visualizations on shared digital workspaces. We focus on supporting this coordination according to four main criteria: scoped interaction, temporal flexibility, spatial flexibility, and changing collaboration styles. These are achieved by integrating a representation of the information visualization pipeline into the shared workspace, thus explicitly indicating coordination points on data, representation, presentation, and view levels. This integrated meta-visualization supports both the awareness of how views are linked and the freedom to work in concert or independently. Lark incorporates these four main criteria into a coherent visualization collaboration interaction environment by providing direct visual and algorithmic support for the coordination of data analysis actions over shared large displays. PMID:19834173

  4. Information visualization in a distributed virtual decision support environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blocher, Timothy W.

    2002-07-01

    The visualization of and interaction with decision quality information is critical for effective decision makers in today's data rich environments. The generation and presentation of intuitively meaningful decision support information is the challenge. In order to investigate various visualization approaches to improve the timeliness and quality of Commander decisions, a robust, distributed virtual simulation environment, based on AFRL's Global Awareness Virtual Testbed (GAVTB), is being developed to represent an Air Operations Center (AOC) environment. The powerful Jview visualization technology is employed to efficiently and effectively utilize the simulation products to experiment with various decision quality representations and interactions required by military commanders.

  5. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  6. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  7. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Munsters, Nicolette M.; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli. PMID:27560368

  8. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Nicolette M; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli. PMID:27560368

  9. Interactive tree comparison for co-located collaborative information visualization.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Petra; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2007-01-01

    In many domains increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of information visualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to support collaboration around information visualizations poses special challenges and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around information visualizations in a co-located setting, using a shared interactive tabletop display. We introduce an analysis of challenges and requirements for the design of co-located collaborative information visualization systems. We then present a new system that facilitates hierarchical data comparison tasks for this type of collaborative work. Our system supports multi-user input, shared and individual views on the hierarchical data visualization, flexible use of representations, and flexible workspace organization to facilitate group work around visualizations. PMID:17968069

  10. Conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Chang, Shih-Fu

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax and semantics, and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.

  11. Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

  12. Information visualization techniques for sensing and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Paulovich, Fernando V; Moraes, Marli L; Maki, Rafael Mitsuo; Ferreira, Marystela; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F

    2011-04-01

    The development of new methods and concepts to visualize massive amounts of data holds the promise to revolutionize the way scientific results are analyzed, especially when tasks such as classification and clustering are involved, as in the case of sensing and biosensing. In this paper we employ a suite of software tools, referred to as PEx-Sensors, through which projection techniques are used to analyze electrical impedance spectroscopy data in electronic tongues and related sensors. The possibility of treating high dimension datasets with PEx-Sensors is advantageous because the whole impedance vs. frequency curves obtained with various sensing units and for a variety of samples can be analyzed at once. It will be shown that non-linear projection techniques such as Sammon's Mapping or IDMAP provide higher distinction ability than linear methods for sensor arrays containing units capable of molecular recognition, apparently because these techniques are able to capture the cooperative response owing to specific interactions between the sensing unit material and the analyte. In addition to allowing for a higher sensitivity and selectivity, the use of PEx-Sensors permits the identification of the major contributors for the distinguishing ability of sensing units and of the optimized frequency range. The latter will be illustrated with sensing units made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films to detect phytic acid, whose capacitance data were visualized with Parallel Coordinates. Significantly, the implementation of PEx-Sensors was conceived so as to handle any type of sensor based on any type of principle of detection, representing therefore a generic platform for treating large amounts of data for sensors and biosensors. PMID:21283854

  13. Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

  14. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  15. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual…

  16. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  17. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

  18. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

  19. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

    2001-08-20

    AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

  20. The visual analysis of textual information: Browsing large document sets

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Pennock, K.; Fiegel, T.; Wise, J.; Pottier, M.; Schur, A.; Crow, V.; Lantrip, D.

    1995-05-01

    Visualization tools have been invaluable in the process of scientific discovery by providing researchers with insights gained through graphical tools and techniques. At PNL, the Multidimensional Visualization and Advanced Browsing (MVAB) project is extending visualization technology to the problems of intelligence analysis of textual documents by creating spatial representations of textual information. By representing an entire corpus of documents as points in a coordinate space of two or more dimensions, the tools developed by the MVAB team give the analyst the ability to quickly browse the entire document base and determine relationships among documents and publication patterns not readily discernible through traditional lexical means.

  1. Memory Effects in Visual Spatial Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Harold D.

    1978-01-01

    Eight, ten, and twelve year old children were tested on a novel procedure involving the successive presentation of standard and comparision stimuli. Two hypotheses were evaluated: one dealing with memory effects, and the other with children's pretesting of choice responses in spatial information processing. (Editor/RK)

  2. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  3. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  4. WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2002-06-09

    WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

  5. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject,...

  6. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  7. Preferential Reactivation of Motivationally Relevant Information in the Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Lansink, Carien S.; Goltstein, Pieter M.; Lankelma, Jan V.; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous “off-line” reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component. PMID:18562607

  8. The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory (VWM). We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention…

  9. Within- and Cross-Modal Distance Information Disambiguate Visual Size-Change Perception

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Peter W.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.; Schrater, Paul R.; Machulla, Tonja; Kersten, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional “auxiliary” (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property) sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond “bistable” stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy—though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning. PMID:20221263

  10. DUAL PATHWAYS FOR HAPTIC AND VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SPATIAL AND TEXTURE INFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sathian, K.; Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Gibson, Gregory O.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; LaConte, Stephen; Glielmi, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of information flow along a dorsally directed pathway for processing object location and a ventrally directed pathway for processing object identity is well established in the visual and auditory systems, but is less clear in the somatosensory system. We hypothesized that segregation of location vs. identity information in touch would be evident if texture is the relevant property for stimulus identity, given the salience of texture for touch. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the pathways for haptic and visual processing of location and texture are segregated, and the extent of bisensory convergence. Haptic texture-selectivity was found in the parietal operculum and posterior visual cortex bilaterally, and in parts of left inferior frontal cortex. There was bisensory texture-selectivity at some of these sites in posterior visual and left inferior frontal cortex. Connectivity analyses demonstrated, in each modality, flow of information from unisensory non-selective areas to modality-specific texture-selective areas and further to bisensory texture-selective areas. Location-selectivity was mostly bisensory, occurring in dorsal areas, including the frontal eye fields and multiple regions around the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Many of these regions received input from unisensory areas in both modalities. Together with earlier studies, the activation and connectivity analyses of the present study establish that somatosensory processing flows into segregated pathways for location and object identity information. The location-selective somatosensory pathway converges with its visual counterpart in dorsal frontoparietal cortex, while the texture-selective somatosensory pathway runs through the parietal operculum before converging with its visual counterpart in visual and frontal cortex. Both segregation of sensory processing according to object property and multisensory convergence appear to be universal

  11. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization. PMID:25280165

  12. Rendering Information Literacy Relevant: A Case-Based Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spackman, Andy; Camacho, Leticia

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of case studies in a program of extracurricular library instruction and explain the benefits of case teaching in developing information literacy. The paper presents details of example cases and analyzes surveys to evaluate the impact of case teaching on student satisfaction. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. The Development of Sensitivity to Causally Relevant Dynamic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…

  14. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  15. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  16. Chromatic Information and Feature Detection in Fast Visual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Del Viva, Maria M.; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-and-white movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity of color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. We conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in. PMID:27478891

  17. Chromatic Information and Feature Detection in Fast Visual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del Viva, Maria M; Punzi, Giovanni; Shevell, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The visual system is able to recognize a scene based on a sketch made of very simple features. This ability is likely crucial for survival, when fast image recognition is necessary, and it is believed that a primal sketch is extracted very early in the visual processing. Such highly simplified representations can be sufficient for accurate object discrimination, but an open question is the role played by color in this process. Rich color information is available in natural scenes, yet artist's sketches are usually monochromatic; and, black-and-white movies provide compelling representations of real world scenes. Also, the contrast sensitivity of color is low at fine spatial scales. We approach the question from the perspective of optimal information processing by a system endowed with limited computational resources. We show that when such limitations are taken into account, the intrinsic statistical properties of natural scenes imply that the most effective strategy is to ignore fine-scale color features and devote most of the bandwidth to gray-scale information. We find confirmation of these information-based predictions from psychophysics measurements of fast-viewing discrimination of natural scenes. We conclude that the lack of colored features in our visual representation, and our overall low sensitivity to high-frequency color components, are a consequence of an adaptation process, optimizing the size and power consumption of our brain for the visual world we live in. PMID:27478891

  18. Toward an Information Visualization Workspace: Combining Multiple Means of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Steven F.; Chuah, Mei C.; Kerpedjiev, Stephan; Kolojejchick, John A.; Lucas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Presents an information visualization workspace in which users are able to explore data presented in diverse but coordinated formats using related systems called Visage, SAGE, and selective dynamic manipulation (SDM). Discusses four dimensions for analyzing user interfaces that reveal the combination of design approaches needed for visualizations…

  19. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

    2009-01-01

    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  20. Integration of Visual and Verbal Information in Children's Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Edward M.; And Others

    Two experiments, designed to examine the developmental changes in the modification of visual memory by verbal information, are described in this paper. In both experiments, first, third, and fifth grade children and college students were shown slides of short episodes followed by oral questions. Questions either described or did not describe…

  1. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

  2. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  3. Neural processing of visual information under interocular suppression: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stein, Timo; Ludwig, Karin; Rothkirch, Marcus; Hesselmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visual information that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visual information is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevant information. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469

  4. Visual search in depth: The neural correlates of segmenting a display into relevant and irrelevant three-dimensional regions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Allen, Harriet A.; Dent, Kevin; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is facilitated by the ability to selectively attend to relevant parts of the world and to ignore irrelevant regions or features. In visual search tasks, viewers are able to segment displays into relevant and irrelevant items based on a number of factors including the colour, motion, and temporal onset of the target and distractors. Understanding the process by which viewers prioritise relevant parts of a display can provide insights into the effect of top-down control on visual perception. Here, we investigate the behavioural and neural correlates of segmenting a display according to the expected three-dimensional (3D) location of a target. We ask whether this segmentation is based on low-level visual features (e.g. common depth or common surface) or on higher-order representations of 3D regions. Similar response-time benefits and neural activity were obtained when items fell on common surfaces or within depth-defined volumes, and when displays were vertical (such that items shared a common depth/disparity) or were tilted in depth. These similarities indicate that segmenting items according to their 3D location is based on attending to a 3D region, rather than a specific depth or surface. Segmenting the items in depth was mainly associated with increased activation in depth-sensitive parietal regions rather than in depth-sensitive visual regions. We conclude that segmenting items in depth is primarily achieved via higher-order, cue invariant representations rather than through filtering in lower-level perceptual regions. PMID:26220748

  5. TUTORIAL: Development of a cortical visual neuroprosthesis for the blind: the relevance of neuroplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, E.; Pelayo, F.; Romero, S.; Bongard, M.; Marin, C.; Alfaro, A.; Merabet, L.

    2005-12-01

    Clinical applications such as artificial vision require extraordinary, diverse, lengthy and intimate collaborations among basic scientists, engineers and clinicians. In this review, we present the state of research on a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital visual cortex as a means through which a limited, but useful, visual sense could be restored in profoundly blind individuals. We review the most important physiological principles regarding this neuroprosthetic approach and emphasize the role of neural plasticity in order to achieve desired behavioral outcomes. While full restoration of fine detailed vision with current technology is unlikely in the immediate near future, the discrimination of shapes and the localization of objects should be possible allowing blind subjects to navigate in a unfamiliar environment and perhaps even to read enlarged text. Continued research and development in neuroprosthesis technology will likely result in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of blind and visually impaired individuals.

  6. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  7. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science…

  8. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. PMID:25843936

  9. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  10. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138

  11. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

  12. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the visual information documentation... AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. Using various visual and audio media, the Air Force VIDOC...

  13. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose of the visual information documentation... AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. Using various visual and audio media, the Air Force VIDOC...

  14. The role of shared visual information for joint action coordination.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Safra, Lou; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has identified a number of coordination processes that enable people to perform joint actions. But what determines which coordination processes joint action partners rely on in a given situation? The present study tested whether varying the shared visual information available to co-actors can trigger a shift in coordination processes. Pairs of participants performed a movement task that required them to synchronously arrive at a target from separate starting locations. When participants in a pair received only auditory feedback about the time their partner reached the target they held their movement duration constant to facilitate coordination. When they received additional visual information about each other's movements they switched to a fundamentally different coordination process, exaggerating the curvature of their movements to communicate their arrival time. These findings indicate that the availability of shared perceptual information is a major factor in determining how individuals coordinate their actions to obtain joint outcomes. PMID:27183398

  15. Haptic eyes: mapping visual information in to haptic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, S.; Rudolph, H.; Kumar, D. K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a method of mapping visual data into haptic cues for the blind to support them in navigation. Employing auditory cues alone to support blind navigation may help some extent but too much information to the ear may lead to confusion so important information such as dangers from the obstacles, stairs, potholes, sharp edges etc given through haptic signals not only reduce the over load on the auditory channel but also improves the speed of navigation by enabling quicker reaction. The proposed system for representing visual information intuitively and easily using haptic signals may assist the visually impaired in their navigation. This technique translates the images captured from digital cameras, extracts the required information and converts it into tactile signals. The use of the haptic channel is suggested in order to prevent overload of the auditory system and to use the special qualities of the haptic sense to convey important messages of danger and hazards. This paper presents a tactile display design and discusses the application framework for using these displays for tactile information design experimentation.

  16. Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Cooper, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

  17. Curvature and the Visual Perception of Shape: Theory on Information along Object Boundaries and the Minima Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E. Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…

  18. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

  19. Image gathering and restoration - Information and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, Judith A.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    A method is investigated for optimizing the end-to-end performance of image gathering and restoration for visual quality. To achieve this objective, one must inevitably confront the problems that the visual quality of restored images depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations and that these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The method adopted in this paper is to optimize image gathering informationally and to restore images interactively to obtain the visually preferred trade-off among fidelity resolution, sharpness, and clarity. The results demonstrate that this method leads to significant improvements in the visual quality obtained by the traditional digital processing methods. These traditional methods allow a significant loss of visual quality to occur because they treat the design of the image-gathering system and the formulation of the image-restoration algorithm as two separate tasks and fail to account for the transformations between the continuous and the discrete representations in image gathering and reconstruction.

  20. Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby. PMID:22529369

  1. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  2. Auditory, tactile, and audiotactile information processing following visual deprivation.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing that visual deprivation affects the establishment of the spatial coordinate systems involved in the processing of auditory and tactile inputs within the peripersonal space around an individual. In blind individuals, the absence of a conjoint activation of external coordinate systems across modalities co-occurs with a higher capacity to direct auditory and tactile attentional resources to different spatial locations and to ignore irrelevant distractors. Both processes could thus contribute to the reduced spatial multisensory binding that has been observed in those who are blind. The interplay between auditory and tactile information in visually deprived individuals is modulated by attentional factors. Blind individuals typically outperform sighted people in those tasks where the target is presented in one sensory modality (and the other modality acts as a distractor). By contrast, they are less efficient in tasks explicitly requiring the combination of information across sensory modalities. The review highlights how these behavioral effects are subserved by extensive plastic changes at the neural level, with brain areas traditionally involved in visual functioning switching and being recruited for the processing of stimuli within the intact residual senses. We also discuss the roles played by other intervening factors with regard to compensatory mechanisms, such as previous visual experience, age at onset of blindness, and learning effects. PMID:22612281

  3. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  4. The display of spatial information and visually guided behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.

  5. Searching the Visual Arts: An Analysis of Online Information Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Darlene; Serban, William

    1981-01-01

    A search for stained glass bibliographic information using DIALINDEX identified 57 DIALOG files from a variety of subject categories and 646 citations as relevant. Files include applied science, biological sciences, chemistry, engineering, environment/pollution, people, business research, and public affairs. Eleven figures illustrate the search…

  6. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  7. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  8. Visual Information Processing: Evaluation of a Training Program for Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; And Others

    Thirty-five second-grade learning disabled children participated in a visual information processing training program designed to teach analysis of visual material into component parts, systematic scanning of visual arrays, pick-up, description, and memory storage of distinctive information, and efficient solution of visual match-to-sample…

  9. Visualization and Integrated Data Mining of Disparate Information

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Jeffrey D.; Albright, Cory L. ); Calapristi, Augustin J. ); Chen, Guang; Crow, Vernon L. ); Decker, Scott D. ); Groch, Kevin M. ); Havre, Susan L. ); Malard, Joel ); Martin, Tonya J. ); Miller, Nancy E. ); Monroe, Philip J.; Nowell, Lucy T. ); Payne, Deborah A. ); Reyes Spindola, Jorge F. ); Scarberry, Randall E.; Sofia, Heidi J. ); Stillwell, Lisa C.; Thomas, Gregory S. ); Thurston, Sarah J.; Williams, Leigh K. ); Zabriskie, Sean J.; MG Hicks

    2001-05-11

    The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have developed a framework for this integration, including common conceptual data models for multiple data types and linked visualizations that provide an overview of the entire data set, a measure of how each data record is related to every other record, and an assessment of the associations within the data set.

  10. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  11. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…

  12. A Comparative Study of Differences in Judged Relevance of Abstracts Located by Two Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John

    Differences in judged relevance of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) abstracts identified by two different information systems were investigated. A national semi-private educational service agency which utilizes mechanical searching of the research literature was one information system, while the other was a regional,…

  13. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  14. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  15. Local versus Global Information Relevance in Website Use: A Case Study with the Information Literacy Portal AlfinEEES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Francisco Javier Garcia; Pinto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…

  16. Seeking Information with an Information Visualization System: A Study of Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain information visualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…

  17. Highly informative natural scene regions increase microsaccade production during visual scanning.

    PubMed

    McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-02-19

    Classical image statistics, such as contrast, entropy, and the correlation between central and nearby pixel intensities, are thought to guide ocular fixation targeting. However, these statistics are not necessarily task relevant and therefore do not provide a complete picture of the relationship between informativeness and ocular targeting. Moreover, it is not known whether either informativeness or classical image statistics affect microsaccade production; thus, the role of microsaccades in information acquisition is also unknown. The objective quantification of the informativeness of a scene region is a major challenge, because it can vary with both image features and the task of the viewer. Thus, previous definitions of informativeness suffered from subjectivity and inconsistency across studies. Here we developed an objective measure of informativeness based on fixation consistency across human observers, which accounts for both bottom-up and top-down influences in ocular targeting. We then analyzed fixations in more versus less informative image regions in relation to classical statistics. Observers generated more microsaccades on more informative than less informative image regions, and such regions also exhibited low redundancy in their classical statistics. Increased microsaccade production was not explained by increased fixation duration, suggesting that the visual system specifically uses microsaccades to heighten information acquisition from informative regions. PMID:24553936

  18. Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

  19. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6 Section 811.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may...

  20. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6 Section 811.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may...

  1. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization.

    PubMed

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source's position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot's mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system's performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  2. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  3. Information Visualization Using Internet for Activation of Shopping Streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Ippei; Okada, Yousuke; Onogi, Manabu; Niwa, Takahito; Ishii, Naohiro

    This paper attempts to activate a large scale shopping streets (shotengai) using Internet technique. Shotengai is a style of Japanese commercial district street. Recently, decline in shotengai is a serious problem. So, we take up “Osu” which is famous shotengai in Nagoya, Japan. We architect Web visualization system, which has useful usability and findability for Osu shotengai information. We also develop methods for competing for a store owner with another one by their prominency and for attractive design to increase motivation of store owners. The number of users of Osu map is increased rapidly. We hope to apply our instance to the activation of shotengai in Japan.

  4. A web-based 3D geological information visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renbo; Jiang, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological information visualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.

  5. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator. PMID:26356911

  6. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  7. Oculomotor Remapping of Visual Information to Foveal Retinotopic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knapen, Tomas; Swisher, Jascha D.; Tong, Frank; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Our eyes continually jump around the visual scene to bring the high-resolution, central part of our vision onto objects of interest. We are oblivious to these abrupt shifts, perceiving the visual world to appear reassuringly stable. A process called remapping has been proposed to mediate this perceptual stability for attended objects by shifting their retinotopic representation to compensate for the effects of the upcoming eye movement. In everyday vision, observers make goal-directed eye movements towards items of interest bringing them to the fovea and, for these items, the remapped activity should impinge on foveal regions of the retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Previous research has focused instead on remapping for targets that were not saccade goals, where activity is remapped to a new peripheral location rather than to the foveal representation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding design to investigate remapping of spatial patterns of activity towards the fovea/parafovea for saccade targets that were removed prior to completion of the eye movement. We found strong evidence of foveal remapping in retinotopic visual areas, which failed to occur when observers merely attended to the same peripheral target without making eye movements towards it. Significantly, the spatial profile of the remapped response matched the orientation and size of the saccade target, and was appropriately scaled to reflect the retinal extent of the stimulus had it been foveated. We conclude that this remapping of spatially structured information to the fovea may serve as an important mechanism to support our world-centered sense of location across goal-directed eye movements under natural viewing conditions. PMID:27445715

  8. Oculomotor Remapping of Visual Information to Foveal Retinotopic Cortex.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Tomas; Swisher, Jascha D; Tong, Frank; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Our eyes continually jump around the visual scene to bring the high-resolution, central part of our vision onto objects of interest. We are oblivious to these abrupt shifts, perceiving the visual world to appear reassuringly stable. A process called remapping has been proposed to mediate this perceptual stability for attended objects by shifting their retinotopic representation to compensate for the effects of the upcoming eye movement. In everyday vision, observers make goal-directed eye movements towards items of interest bringing them to the fovea and, for these items, the remapped activity should impinge on foveal regions of the retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Previous research has focused instead on remapping for targets that were not saccade goals, where activity is remapped to a new peripheral location rather than to the foveal representation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding design to investigate remapping of spatial patterns of activity towards the fovea/parafovea for saccade targets that were removed prior to completion of the eye movement. We found strong evidence of foveal remapping in retinotopic visual areas, which failed to occur when observers merely attended to the same peripheral target without making eye movements towards it. Significantly, the spatial profile of the remapped response matched the orientation and size of the saccade target, and was appropriately scaled to reflect the retinal extent of the stimulus had it been foveated. We conclude that this remapping of spatially structured information to the fovea may serve as an important mechanism to support our world-centered sense of location across goal-directed eye movements under natural viewing conditions. PMID:27445715

  9. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  10. Energy-Efficient Information Transfer by Visual Pathway Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Julia J.; Jolivet, Renaud; Engl, Elisabeth; Attwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The architecture of computational devices is shaped by their energy consumption. Energetic constraints are used to design silicon-based computers but are poorly understood for neural computation. In the brain, most energy is used to reverse ion influxes generating excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials. Thus, EPSCs should be small to minimize energy use, but not so small as to impair information transmission. We quantified information flow through the retinothalamic synapse in the visual pathway in brain slices, with cortical and inhibitory input to the postsynaptic cell blocked. Altering EPSC size with dynamic clamp, we found that a larger-than-normal EPSC increased information flow through the synapse. Thus, the evolutionarily selected EPSC size does not maximize retinal information flow to the cortex. By assessing the energy used on postsynaptic ion pumping and action potentials, we show that, instead, the EPSC size optimizes the ratio of retinal information transmitted to energy consumed. These data suggest maximization of information transmission per energy used as a synaptic design principle. PMID:26671670

  11. Real Time Visualization and Characterization of Platelet Deposition under Flow onto Clinically-Relevant Opaque Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Kameneva, Marina V.; Antaki, James F.; Wagner, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across 6 opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 sec−1. Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2O3, YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (P <0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  12. Real time visualization and characterization of platelet deposition under flow onto clinically relevant opaque surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Woolley, Joshua R; Kameneva, Marina V; Antaki, James F; Wagner, William R

    2015-04-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across six opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 s(-1). Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2 O3 , YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (p < 0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  13. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A

    2011-04-01

    Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control. PMID:21510190

  14. Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  15. Sparse regression analysis of task-relevant information distribution in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Heuton, Kyle; Baliki, Marwan N.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2012-02-01

    One of key topics in fMRI analysis is discovery of task-related brain areas. We focus on predictive accuracy as a better relevance measure than traditional univariate voxel activations that miss important multivariate voxel interactions. We use sparse regression (more specifically, the Elastic Net1) to learn predictive models simultaneously with selection of predictive voxel subsets, and to explore transition from task-relevant to task-irrelevant areas. Exploring the space of sparse solutions reveals a much wider spread of task-relevant information in the brain than it is typically suggested by univariate correlations. This happens for several tasks we considered, and is most noticeable in case of complex tasks such as pain rating; however, for certain simpler tasks, a clear separation between a small subset of relevant voxels and the rest of the brain is observed even with multivariate approach to measuring relevance.

  16. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  17. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ≈300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  18. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays. PMID:22612057

  19. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  20. Children's locomotion on slopes given visual, acoustic, and tactile information.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, R; Cordovil, R; Barreiros, J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of visual, acoustic, and tactile information on 5 blind and 5 sighted children's locomotion on slopes (10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees) were investigated. Children's ages ranged from 5.8 to 7.7 years (M= 6.8, SD= 0.7). The sighted children performed the task of walking up and down different slopes blindfolded and with full vision. Locomotion modes, locomotor skill, gait deviation, and time to complete the task were analyzed. Walking was the preferred locomotion mode up to 20 degrees, but steeper slopes were perceived as "non-walkable." Doubly multivariate MANOVAs revealed an effect of visual information (blindfolded vs full vision) on the sighted children's gait patterns, and a significant interaction between cue condition and group (blind vs blindfolded), underlining a distinct influence of the cues in the gait patterns of the two groups of children. Acoustic and tactile cues were generally more effective for the blind than for the sighted blindfolded children. PMID:23033757

  1. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  2. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  3. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  4. Children's Television Viewing: Attention and Comprehension of Auditory versus Visual Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy; Hartman, Eileen F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between children's attention and comprehension of auditory and visual information on television. After viewing a videotape of "Sesame Street" with visual, auditory, or no distractors, 60 five-year-olds were asked comprehension questions. Findings indicated that children could process auditory and visual information from…

  5. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  6. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official requests for visual information productions or materials. 811.3 Section 811.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual...

  7. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official requests for visual information productions or materials. 811.3 Section 811.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual...

  8. Optimal sampling of visual information for lightness judgments.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-07-01

    The variable resolution and limited processing capacity of the human visual system requires us to sample the world with eye movements and attentive processes. Here we show that where observers look can strongly modulate their reports of simple surface attributes, such as lightness. When observers matched the color of natural objects they based their judgments on the brightest parts of the objects; at the same time, they tended to fixate points with above-average luminance. When we forced participants to fixate a specific point on the object using a gaze-contingent display setup, the matched lightness was higher when observers fixated bright regions. This finding indicates a causal link between the luminance of the fixated region and the lightness match for the whole object. Simulations with rendered physical lighting show that higher values in an object's luminance distribution are particularly informative about reflectance. This sampling strategy is an efficient and simple heuristic for the visual system to achieve accurate and invariant judgments of lightness. PMID:23776251

  9. Optimal sampling of visual information for lightness judgments

    PubMed Central

    Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The variable resolution and limited processing capacity of the human visual system requires us to sample the world with eye movements and attentive processes. Here we show that where observers look can strongly modulate their reports of simple surface attributes, such as lightness. When observers matched the color of natural objects they based their judgments on the brightest parts of the objects; at the same time, they tended to fixate points with above-average luminance. When we forced participants to fixate a specific point on the object using a gaze-contingent display setup, the matched lightness was higher when observers fixated bright regions. This finding indicates a causal link between the luminance of the fixated region and the lightness match for the whole object. Simulations with rendered physical lighting show that higher values in an object’s luminance distribution are particularly informative about reflectance. This sampling strategy is an efficient and simple heuristic for the visual system to achieve accurate and invariant judgments of lightness. PMID:23776251

  10. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  11. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  12. Virtual-real spatial information visualization registration using affine representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueling; Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial information visualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.

  13. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Arita, Jason T.; Ianni, Julianna D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long-debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. PMID:26669285

  14. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

  15. A Methodological Approach To Eliciting Information Relevant to Alcohol Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, K.; And Others

    To attempt to incorporate the perceptions of consumers of alcohol education programs about topic relevance and importance, a modified version of a methodology that extracts, evaluates, and combines information from novices and experts to determine commonly held scripts and schema was used. In the first of two studies, 37 students at Texas…

  16. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other

  17. Multiple hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct visual information

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M; Wynne, Jonathan; Piggins, Hugh D; Lucas, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    the periventricular hypothalamus and ventral thalamus were excited or inhibited solely according to the activity of melanopsin. These cells appeared to convey a filtered version of the visual signal, suitable for modulating physiology/behaviour purely according to environmental irradiance. In summary, these findings reveal unexpectedly widespread hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct qualities of visual information. PMID:21224225

  18. Mosaicing of optical microscope imagery based on visual information.

    PubMed

    Carozza, Ludovico; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Piccinini, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Tools for high-throughput high-content image analysis can simplify and expedite different stages of biological experiments, by processing and combining different information taken at different time and in different areas of the culture. Among the most important in this field, image mosaicing methods provide the researcher with a global view of the biological sample in a unique image. Current approaches rely on known motorized x-y stage offsets and work in batch mode, thus jeopardizing the interaction between the microscopic system and the researcher during the investigation of the cell culture. In this work we present an approach for mosaicing of optical microscope imagery, based on local image registration and exploiting visual information only. To our knowledge, this is the first approach suitable to work on-line with non-motorized microscopes. To assess our method, the quality of resulting mosaics is quantitatively evaluated through on-purpose image metrics. Experimental results show the importance of model selection issues and confirm the soundness of our approach. PMID:22255746

  19. The contribution of visual information to the perception of speech in noise with and without informative temporal fine structure.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Paula C; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Morris, Saffron D; Sumner, Christian J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what is said in demanding listening situations is assisted greatly by looking at the face of a talker. Previous studies have observed that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from this visual information when a talker's voice is presented in background noise. These benefits have also been observed in quiet listening conditions in cochlear-implant users, whose device does not convey the informative temporal fine structure cues in speech, and when normal-hearing individuals listen to speech processed to remove these informative temporal fine structure cues. The current study (1) characterised the benefits of visual information when listening in background noise; and (2) used sine-wave vocoding to compare the size of the visual benefit when speech is presented with or without informative temporal fine structure. The accuracy with which normal-hearing individuals reported words in spoken sentences was assessed across three experiments. The availability of visual information and informative temporal fine structure cues was varied within and across the experiments. The results showed that visual benefit was observed using open- and closed-set tests of speech perception. The size of the benefit increased when informative temporal fine structure cues were removed. This finding suggests that visual information may play an important role in the ability of cochlear-implant users to understand speech in many everyday situations. Models of audio-visual integration were able to account for the additional benefit of visual information when speech was degraded and suggested that auditory and visual information was being integrated in a similar way in all conditions. The modelling results were consistent with the notion that audio-visual benefit is derived from the optimal combination of auditory and visual sensory cues. PMID:27085797

  20. Bimanual force variability in chronic stroke: with and without visual information.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2015-02-01

    Visual information is critical to producing and controlling force output to achieve targeted levels. This study investigated bimanual force control in chronic stroke individuals while manipulating visual information. Nine chronic stroke individuals and nine age-matched controls executed bimanual wrist and finger extension at 5% of maximum voluntary contraction. Bimanual force control outcome measures included: (a) coefficient of variation, (b) approximate entropy, and (c) bimanual coordination. Without visual information, chronic stroke individuals displayed less force variability and more regular force production in comparison to age-matched controls. These findings suggest that chronic stroke individuals depended on visual information during bimanual force execution. PMID:25528403

  1. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

  2. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

  3. Transparency and blur as selective cues for complex visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Grace; Scholl, Laura

    1991-08-01

    Image processing techniques are applied that enable the viewer to control both the gradients of focus and transparency within an image. In order to demonstrate this concept, the authors use a geographical map whose features are organized as layers of information. This allows a user to select layers related to a particular area of interest. For example, someone interested in air transportation may choose to view airports, airport labels, and airspace in full focus. Relevant layers such as the roads and waterways are also visible but appear somewhat blurry and transparent. The user's attention is drawn to information that is clearly in focus and opaque; blurry transparent features are perceived to be in the background. Focus and transparency produce effective perceptual cues because of the human eye's ability to perceive contrast and depth. The control of focus and transparency are made accessible through a graphic interface based on a scale of importance. Rather than specifying individual focus and transparency settings, the user specifies the importance of the individual feature layers according to his needs for the task at hand. The importance settings are then translated into an appropriate combination of transparency and focus gradients for the layers within the image.

  4. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yin-Yuan; A-Ping Liu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Sensory-specific cortices appear to be sensitive to information from another modality. Here we investigate whether the human brain automatically extracts the phonological information in visual words in early visual processing. We continuously presented native Chinese speakers peripherally with Chinese homophone characters in an oddball paradigm, while they performed a visual detection task presented in the centre of the visual field. We found the lexical tone phonology embedded in the characters is processed automatically by the brain of native speakers, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN). Source solution further revealed the MMN involved the neural activations from the visual cortex to the auditory cortex (130-460 ms). The spatial-temporal dynamics indicate a visual-auditory interaction in the early, automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. PMID:24336606

  6. Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel K; Rizzo, Joseph F; Fried, Shelley I

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision. PMID:21593546

  7. Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision.

  8. Web-Based Interactive Visualization in an Information Retrieval Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Interactive visualization is a powerful educational tool. It has been used to enhance the teaching of various subjects from computer science to chemistry to engineering. In computer science education, this powerful tool is used almost exclusively in programming and data structure courses. This paper suggests that visualization could be very…

  9. Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

  10. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html . PMID:26264058

  11. An Empirical Comparison of Visualization Tools To Assist Information Retrieval on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Misook; Hirtle, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems with navigation in hypertext systems, including cognitive overload, and describes a study that tested information visualization techniques to see which best represented the underlying structure of Web space. Considers the effects of visualization techniques on user performance on information searching tasks and the effects of…

  12. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  13. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  14. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  15. A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

    The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

  16. Adapting relative phase of bimanual isometric force coordination through scaling visual information intermittency.

    PubMed

    Lafe, Charley W; Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M

    2016-06-01

    Visual information plays an adaptive role in the relation between bimanual force coupling and error corrective processes of isometric force control. In the present study, the evolving distribution of the relative phase properties of bimanual isometric force coupling was examined by scaling within a trial the temporal feedback rate of visual intermittency (short to long presentation intervals and vice versa). The force error (RMSE) was reduced, and time-dependent irregularity (SampEn) of the force output was increased with greater amounts of visual information (shorter intermittency). Multi-stable coordination patterns of bimanual isometric force control were differentially shifted toward and away from the intrinsic dynamics by the changing the intermittency of visual information. The distribution of Hilbert transformed relative phase values showed progressively a predominantly anti-phase mode under less intermittent visual information to predominantly an in-phase mode with limited (almost no) visual information. Correlation between the hands showed a continuous reduction, rather than abrupt "transition," with increase in visual information, although no mean negative correlation was realized, despite the tendency towards an anti-phase distribution. Lastly, changes in both the performance outcome and bimanual isometric force coordination occurred at visual feedback rates faster than the minimal visual processing times established from single limb movement and isometric force protocols. PMID:27017544

  17. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-09-22

    Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  18. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a “sensory recruitment” model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  19. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a "sensory recruitment" model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  20. The benefits of synchronous collaborative information visualization: evidence from an experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Sabrina; Eppler, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    A great corpus of studies reports empirical evidence of how information visualization supports comprehension and analysis of data. The benefits of visualization for synchronous group knowledge work, however, have not been addressed extensively. Anecdotal evidence and use cases illustrate the benefits of synchronous collaborative information visualization, but very few empirical studies have rigorously examined the impact of visualization on group knowledge work. We have consequently designed and conducted an experiment in which we have analyzed the impact of visualization on knowledge sharing in situated work groups. Our experimental study consists of evaluating the performance of 131 subjects (all experienced managers) in groups of 5 (for a total of 26 groups), working together on a real-life knowledge sharing task. We compare (1) the control condition (no visualization provided), with two visualization supports: (2) optimal and (3) suboptimal visualization (based on a previous survey). The facilitator of each group was asked to populate the provided interactive visual template with insights from the group, and to organize the contributions according to the group consensus. We have evaluated the results through both objective and subjective measures. Our statistical analysis clearly shows that interactive visualization has a statistically significant, objective and positive impact on the outcomes of knowledge sharing, but that the subjects seem not to be aware of this. In particular, groups supported by visualization achieved higher productivity, higher quality of outcome and greater knowledge gains. No statistically significant results could be found between an optimal and a suboptimal visualization though (as classified by the pre-experiment survey). Subjects also did not seem to be aware of the benefits that the visualizations provided as no difference between the visualization and the control conditions was found for the self-reported measures of satisfaction

  1. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  2. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  3. Investigation of display issues relevant to the presentation of aircraft fault information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.

  4. Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

  5. Strategic relevance and accountability expectations: new perspectives for health care information technology design.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K; Modrow, R E

    1999-05-01

    In this article, we discuss the traditional systems analysis perspective on end-user information requirements analysis and extend it to merge with the new accountability expectations perspective to guide the future planning and design of health organization information systems. Underlying the strategic relevance of health care information technology (HCIT) are three critical questions: (1) What is the ideal HCIT model for the health organization in terms of achieving strategic expertise and competitive advantage? Specifically, how does this model link industry performance standards with organizational performance and accountability expectations? (2) How should the limitations of past HCIT models be reconciled to the benefits presented by the superior arrangement of the ideal model in the context of changing accountability expectations? (3) How should alternative HCIT solutions be evaluated in light of evidence-based accountability and organizational performance benchmarking? Insights into these questions will ensure that health care managers, HCIT practitioners and researchers can continue to focus on the most critical issues in harnessing today's fast-paced changing technologies for evolving strategically relevant, performance-based health organization systems. PMID:10387658

  6. Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration. PMID:23727955

  7. Haptic over visual information in the distribution of visual attention after tool-use in near and far space.

    PubMed

    Park, George D; Reed, Catherine L

    2015-10-01

    Despite attentional prioritization for grasping space near the hands, tool-use appears to transfer attentional bias to the tool's end/functional part. The contributions of haptic and visual inputs to attentional distribution along a tool were investigated as a function of tool-use in near (Experiment 1) and far (Experiment 2) space. Visual attention was assessed with a 50/50, go/no-go, target discrimination task, while a tool was held next to targets appearing near the tool-occupied hand or tool-end. Target response times (RTs) and sensitivity (d-prime) were measured at target locations, before and after functional tool practice for three conditions: (1) open-tool: tool-end visible (visual + haptic inputs), (2) hidden-tool: tool-end visually obscured (haptic input only), and (3) short-tool: stick missing tool's length/end (control condition: hand occupied but no visual/haptic input). In near space, both open- and hidden-tool groups showed a tool-end, attentional bias (faster RTs toward tool-end) before practice; after practice, RTs near the hand improved. In far space, the open-tool group showed no bias before practice; after practice, target RTs near the tool-end improved. However, the hidden-tool group showed a consistent tool-end bias despite practice. Lack of short-tool group results suggested that hidden-tool group results were specific to haptic inputs. In conclusion, (1) allocation of visual attention along a tool due to tool practice differs in near and far space, and (2) visual attention is drawn toward the tool's end even when visually obscured, suggesting haptic input provides sufficient information for directing attention along the tool. PMID:26126805

  8. A Method to Quantify Visual Information Processing in Children Using Eye Tracking.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen-Kant, Sanny P; van der Steen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Visual problems that occur early in life can have major impact on a child's development. Without verbal communication and only based on observational methods, it is difficult to make a quantitative assessment of a child's visual problems. This limits accurate diagnostics in children under the age of 4 years and in children with intellectual disabilities. Here we describe a quantitative method that overcomes these problems. The method uses a remote eye tracker and a four choice preferential looking paradigm to measure eye movement responses to different visual stimuli. The child sits without head support in front of a monitor with integrated infrared cameras. In one of four monitor quadrants a visual stimulus is presented. Each stimulus has a specific visual modality with respect to the background, e.g., form, motion, contrast or color. From the reflexive eye movement responses to these specific visual modalities, output parameters such as reaction times, fixation accuracy and fixation duration are calculated to quantify a child's viewing behavior. With this approach, the quality of visual information processing can be assessed without the use of communication. By comparing results with reference values obtained in typically developing children from 0-12 years, the method provides a characterization of visual information processing in visually impaired children. The quantitative information provided by this method can be advantageous for the field of clinical visual assessment and rehabilitation in multiple ways. The parameter values provide a good basis to: (i) characterize early visual capacities and consequently to enable early interventions; (ii) compare risk groups and follow visual development over time; and (iii), construct an individual visual profile for each child. PMID:27500922

  9. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  10. Effector-specific visual information influences kinesthesis and reaction time performance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Byblow, Winston D; Lewis, Gwyn N; Stinear, James W

    2003-06-01

    Twelve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 11 age-matched control participants performed a continuous bimanual wrist flexion-extension tracking task while vision of their hands was manipulated. Participants were required to match the frequency and amplitude of movements of 1 limb that was driven at 0.6 Hz by a torque motor by actively moving the contralateral limb. In half the trials, the more affected limb (subdominant for controls) was driven, and in the other half, the less affected limb (dominant for controls) was driven. Vision of both hands, vision of the driven hand only, vision of the active hand only, or no vision of the hands was allowed. Simple and probe reaction times were assessed. Parkinson's disease patients performed the tracking task to a reasonable level of temporal and spatial accuracy as compared with control participants in terms of hand phasing and root mean square error. Patients demonstrated a marked posture deviation (toward flexion), which was exaggerated when the less affected limb was active. Amplitude deviations were smaller in both groups when the less affected (dominant) limb was active and when participants had vision of the driven hand. Overall, patients delivered slower responses in both simple and probe conditions. Reaction times of Parkinson's disease patients who were allowed vision of only the active hand were longer than were those of patients in all other visual conditions, whereas visual conditions did not affect the reaction times of control participants. The authors conclude that central demands increase when movement regulation must be based solely on kinesthetic information and when vision directs attention away from the most relevant source of kinesthetic information. PMID:12711581