Science.gov

Sample records for relevant visual information

  1. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  2. Attentional demand and processing of relevant visual information during simulated driving: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Fort, Alexandra; Martin, Robert; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Combe-Pangaud, Chantal; Foliot, Gérald; Daligault, Sébastien; Delpuech, Claude

    2010-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that attention is crucial for driving a car. This innovative study aims to assess the impact of attentional workload modulation on cerebral activity during a simulated driving task using magnetoencephalography (MEG). A car simulator equipped with a steering wheel, turn indicators, an accelerator and a brake pedal has been specifically designed to be used with MEG. Attentional demand has been modulated using a radio broadcast. During half of the driving scenarios, subjects could ignore the broadcast (simple task, ST) and during the other half, they had to actively listen to it in order to answer 3 questions (dual task, DT). Evoked magnetic responses were computed in both conditions separately for two visual stimuli of interest: traffic lights (from green to amber) and direction signs (arrows to the right or to the left) shown on boards. The cortical sources of these activities have been estimated using a minimum-norm current estimates modeling technique. Results show the activation of a large distributed network similar in ST and DT and similar for both the traffic lights and the direction signs. This network mainly involves sensory visual areas as well as parietal and frontal regions known to play a role in selective attention and motor areas. The increase of attentional demand affects the neuronal processing of relevant visual information for driving, as early as the perceptual stage. By demonstrating the feasibility of recording MEG activity during an interactive simulated driving task, this study opens new possibilities for investigating issues regarding drivers' activity. PMID:20920486

  3. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

  4. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  5. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  6. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  7. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  8. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J.W.; Sami, Saber A.; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain’s attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO’s predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  9. Finding Relevant Items: Attentional Guidance Improves Visual Selection Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Sonja; Hild, Isabella; Wiesbeck, Mathey; Zaeh, Michael F.; Schubö, Anna

    In daily life and at work people are confronted with complex information. Especially elderly or disabled users might be overburdened by the amount of information and distracted by irrelevant items. Due to this, they possibly fail to find and select relevant items in visual search. This could be demotivating for the use of media like the internet or could result in an inability to achieve certain job requirements. A method for supporting performance in visual search tasks is the guidance of attention. The present study compares different methods for attentional guidance. Results show a benefit for peripheral exogenous cues realized as luminance changes in comparison to endogenous central cues. Possible applications for the proposed attentional guidance method are discussed.

  10. Science information systems: Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Future programs in earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics will involve complex instruments that produce data at unprecedented rates and volumes. Current methods for data display, exploration, and discovery are inadequate. Visualization technology offers a means for the user to comprehend, explore, and examine complex data sets. The goal of this program is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of scientists in extracting scientific information from large volumes of instrument data.

  11. Visuals for Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This report focuses on the visual component of verbo-visual literacy, a communications concept involving the production, transmission, and perception of verbal and visual images. Five current problem areas in verbal-visual research are introduced and discussed: (1) communication (communication models, media consumption, new media, the information…

  12. Neural correlates for task-relevant facilitation of visual inputs during visually-guided hand movements.

    PubMed

    Lebar, Nicolas; Bernier, Pierre-Michel; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence; Blouin, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Vision is a powerful source of information for controlling movements, especially fine actions produced by the hand that require a great deal of accuracy. However, the neural processes that enable vision to enhance movement accuracy are not well understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the cortical sensitivity to visual inputs increases during a spatially-constrained hand movement compared to a situation where visual information is irrelevant to the task. Specifically, we compared the cortical visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) in response to flashes (right visual hemifield) recorded while participants followed the outline of an irregular polygon with a pen (i.e., tracing), with VEPs recorded when participants simply kept the pen still. This tracing task was chosen specifically because it requires many different visual processes (e.g., detection of line orientation, motion perception, visuomotor transformation) to be completed successfully. The tracing and resting tasks were performed with normal vision and also with mirror-reversed vision, thereby increasing task difficulty when tracing. We predicted that the sensitivity to visual inputs would be enhanced (i.e. greater VEPs) during tracing and that this increase in response sensitivity would be greater when tracing was performed with mirror-reversed vision. In addition, in order to investigate the existence of a link between the sensitivity to visual inputs and the accuracy with which participants traced the shape, we assigned participants to high performer (HP) or low performer (LP) groups according to their tracing performance in the condition with mirror-reversed visual feedback. Source analyses revealed that, for both groups, the sensitivity to visual inputs of the left occipital and MT/MST regions increased when participants traced the shape as compared to when they were resting. Also, for both groups of participants, the mirror-reversed vision did not affect the amplitude of the cortical response to visual inputs but increased the latencies of the responses in the occipital, temporal, and parietal regions. However, the HP group showed cortical responses that largely differed from those displayed by the LP group. Specifically, the HP group demonstrated movement-related increases of visual sensitivity in regions of the visual cortex that were not observed in the LP group. These increased responses to visual inputs were evidenced in the posterior inferior parietal, temporal-occipital, and inferior-temporal regions. Overall, our results are in line with the assertion that increasing the sensitivity to visual inputs serves to promote relevant visual information for the different processes involved during visually-guided hand movements. Our results also suggest that maintaining accurate hand tracing movements in the presence of discrepant visual and somatosensory feedback requires additional perceptual and spatial information processing that is tightly linked to visual inputs. PMID:26191651

  13. Finding the Relevant Attribute of Visual Auditory Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda

    1976-01-01

    These experiments allow a comparison between visual and auditory presentation per se: Will it be easier to identify "red" as relevant given a geometric design or its verbal description? Suggests that visual presentation confers one advantage: allows the formation of a nonverbal code in addition to a verbal description. (Author/RK)

  14. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  15. Browsing Access to Visual Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecsei, Jan; Martin, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Discusses browsing in the particular context of visual and multimedia (e.g., videodisc) information databases and describes a working prototype system based on a fisheye view of documents in their context. Topics discussed include selecting and presenting information, exploratory access to information, artificial intelligence, user needs, and…

  16. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  17. Making Information Visual: Seventh Grade Art Information and Visual Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel; Schau, Elizabeth; Ayers, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Seventh grade students entering South East Junior High in Iowa City come from eight elementary feeder schools, as well as from schools around the world. Their information literacy skills and knowledge of reference sources vary, but since all seventh graders and new eighth graders are required to take one trimester of Visual Studies, all entering…

  18. Mobile medical visual information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context. PMID:22157061

  19. Relevance model in information retrieval based on information science perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Relevance models in relevance research is the main research issue in information retrieval and information science. Relevance research of information retrieval can be divided into the system-oriented school and the user-oriented schoo1.The evaluation of relevance is closely related to user's experiences, cognitive status and thinking, and includes the interaction of several level. On this basis, a four-dimension model (information resource, representation of user problem time and components) and an interactive model are critically illuminated. A better understanding of the cognitive model, the episode model and the stratified model is of great importance to the interactive model.

  20. Control information in visual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.

  1. Personalized online information search and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongquan; Orthner, Helmuth F; Sell, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevant information efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure is usually similar and simple. Likely, it involves a search engine and a visualization interface. Different words or combination reflects different research topics. The objective of this study is to automate this tedious procedure by recording those words/terms in a database and online sources, and use the information for an automated search and retrieval. The retrieved information will be available anytime and anywhere through a secure web server. Results We developed such a database that stored searching terms, journals and et al., and implement a piece of software for searching the medical subject heading-indexed sources such as the Medline and other online sources automatically. The returned information were stored locally, as is, on a server and visible through a Web-based interface. The search was performed daily or otherwise scheduled and the users logon to the website anytime without typing any words. The system has potentials to retrieve similarly from non-medical subject heading-indexed literature or a privileged information source such as a clinical information system. The issues such as security, presentation and visualization of the retrieved information were thus addressed. One of the presentation issues such as wireless access was also experimented. A user survey showed that the personalized online searches saved time and increased and relevancy. Handheld devices could also be used to access the stored information but less satisfactory. Conclusion The Web-searching software or similar system has potential to be an efficient tool for both bench scientists and clinicians for their daily information needs. PMID:15766382

  2. Diverse Information Integration and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Havre, Susan L.; Shah, Anuj; Posse, Christian; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2006-01-16

    This paper presents and explores a technique for visually integrating and exploring diverse information. Society produces, collects, and processes ever larger and diverse data including semi- and un-structured text, as well as transaction, communication, and scientific data. It is no longer sufficient to analyze one type of data or information in isolation. Users need to explore their data/information in the context of related information to discover often hidden, but meaningful, complex relationships. Our approach visualizes multiple, like entities across multiple dimensions where each dimension is a partitioning of the entities. The partitioning may be based on inherent or assigned attributes of the entities (or entity data) such as meta-data or prior knowledge captured in annotations. The partitioning may also be derived from entity data. For example, clustering, or unsupervised classification, can be applied to arrays of multidimensional entity data to partition the entities into groups of similar entities, or clusters. The same entities may be clustered on data from different experiment types or processing approaches. This reduction of diverse data/information on an entity to a series of partitions, or discrete (and unit-less) categories, allows the user to view the entities across a variety of data without concern for data types and units. Parallel coordinates visualize entity data across multiple dimensions of typically continuous attributes. We adapt parallel coordinates for dimensions with discrete attributes (partitions) to allow the comparison of entity partition patterns for identifying trends and outlier entities. We illustrate this approach through a prototype, Juxter (short for Juxtaposer).

  3. Astronomical Data and Information Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2010-01-01

    As the size and complexity of data sets increases, the need to "see" them more clearly increases as well. In the past, many scientists saw "fancy" data and information visualization as necessary for "outreach," but not for research. In this talk, I wlll demonstrate, using specific examples, why more and more scientists--not just astronomers--are coming to rely upon the development of new visualization strategies not just to present their data, but to understand it. Principal examples will be drawn from the "Astronomical Medicine" project at Harvard's Initiative in Innovative Computing, and from the "Seamless Astronomy" effort, which is co-sponsored by the VAO (NASA/NSF) and Microsoft Research.

  4. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocating attentional resources to currently relevant information in a dynamically changing environment is critical to goal-directed behavior. Previous studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) have demonstrated modulation of neural representations of stimuli, in particular visual categorizations, by behavioral significance in the lateral prefrontal cortex. In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions, the “multiple demand” (MD) system, is involved in cognitive and attentional control. To test for the effect of behavioral significance on categorical discrimination in the MD system in humans, we adapted a previously used task in the NHP and used multivoxel pattern analysis for fMRI data. In a cued-detection categorization task, participants detected whether an image from one of two target visual categories was present in a display. Our results revealed that categorical discrimination is modulated by behavioral relevance, as measured by the distributed pattern of response across the MD network. Distinctions between categories with different behavioral status (e.g., a target and a nontarget) were significantly discriminated. Category distinctions that were not behaviorally relevant (e.g., between two targets) were not discriminated. Other aspects of the task that were orthogonal to the behavioral decision did not modulate categorical discrimination. In a high visual region, the lateral occipital complex, modulation by behavioral relevance was evident in its posterior subregion but not in the anterior subregion. The results are consistent with the view of the MD system as involved in top-down attentional and cognitive control by selective coding of task-relevant discriminations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Control of cognitive demands fundamentally involves flexible allocation of attentional resources depending on a current behavioral context. Essential to such a mechanism is the ability to select currently relevant information and at the same time filter out information that is irrelevant. In an fMRI study, we measured distributed patterns of activity for objects from different visual categories while manipulating the behavioral relevance of the categorical distinctions. In a network of frontal and parietal cortical regions, the multiple-demand (MD) network, patterns reflected category distinctions that were relevant to behavior. Patterns could not be used to make task-irrelevant category distinctions. These findings demonstrate the ability of the MD network to implement complex goal-directed behavior by focused attention. PMID:26354907

  5. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  6. The Relevance of Visual Sequential Memory to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispin, Lisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Results of three visual sequential memory tests and a group reading test given to 19 elementary students are discussed in terms of task analysis and structuralist approaches to analysis of reading skills. Relation of visual sequential memory to other reading subskills is considered in light of current reasearch. (CMG)

  7. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  8. Visual Information Strategies in Mental Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    This paper examines how visual information strategies may be used to facilitate the development of mental models. Topics covered include: definition of mental models; mental models and visual information; mental modeling concepts; power of modeling, including examples related to physical science, mathematics, writing, and depth of processing;…

  9. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS. 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods.

  10. Testing the idea of privileged awareness of self-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske

    2016-03-01

    Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727020

  11. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  12. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  13. Dualism methodology in geographic information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuepei; Li, Manchun

    2007-06-01

    The core of geographic information visualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic information visualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic information visualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic information visualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic information visualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic information visualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".

  14. JView: an information visualization paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jason A.

    2002-07-01

    The framework for JView, a Java based runtime re-configurable simulation visualizer, was described in two previous publications1. Many augmentations and substitutions have taken place in the JView API, brought about by working closely with customers from various agencies as well using the API on internal projects. However, the core mantra that JView is based upon has made it through these alterations unscathed and with more concrete proof of its utility. JView demystifies the world of 3D graphics programming, allowing users to concentrate solely on the task of visualization instead of concentrating their efforts on the art of complicated 3D graphics. It is a cross platform technology that is engineered to save time, money, and effort while meeting a variety of visualization needs. Its Java implementation, which provides cross-platform functionality while utilizing the OpenGL API, allows for platform dependent hardware acceleration. This paper contains concepts that the JView architecture utilizes as well as a brief introduction to its new 2D engine concepts.

  15. Physician information seeking: improving relevance through research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, L D

    1990-04-01

    Health sciences libraries have considerable potential as resources for both formal continuing professional education, as well as the informal continuing education that results from the professional's efforts to solve problems in daily practice. While there is a growing interest in making the resources of health sciences libraries more accessible to practitioners on a routine, day-to-day basis, there also needs to be more awareness of how, when, where, and why professionals look for information in the context of practical problems. This paper reviews recent research that identifies the context in which physicians seek information and advice from external sources, the information sources that physicians access, and the factors that influence which particular sources are sought. The results indicate that physicians vary in their information needs, preferences, motivations, and strategies for seeking information. This diversity suggests that health sciences libraries, in their efforts to be more accessible, should consider "market research" to determine the needs, preferences, and use patterns of the library's targeted users. Libraries may also benefit from exploring alternative methods of improving access to their resources. PMID:2183904

  16. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  17. Monitoring and visualizing information resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCrickard, D.S.; Rowan, T.H.

    1996-07-01

    The continuous increase in information necessitates monitoring and display techniques that maximize comprehension yet minimize effort. In this paper, we discuss the use of hypertools, confluent zoom and graphical encoding of text as solutions to this problem, and we introduce Irwin and information resource and display tool.

  18. Finding the Critical Facts: Children's Visual Scan Patterns When Solving Story Problems That Contain Irrelevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Joan Littlefield; Rieser, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to understand the processes through which 5th graders discriminate relevant from irrelevant information when solving mathematical story problems. Visual scanning was recorded and coded as directed toward relevant information, irrelevant information, the question, workspace, and elsewhere. Experiment 1 focused on the…

  19. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  20. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AND ACTIONS TO ADDRESS RESTRICTIVE FOREIGN MARITIME... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising...

  1. Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.; Shen, Hongwei; Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner’s sensory system. In real-world interactions, what the child perceives critically depends on his own actions as these actions bring information into and out of the learner’s sensory field. The present analyses indicate how, in the case of a toddler playing with toys, these perception-action loops may simplify the learning environment by selecting relevant information and filtering irrelevant information. This paper reports new findings using a novel method that seeks to describe the visual learning environment from a young child’s point of view and measures the visual information that a child perceives in real-time toy play with a parent. The main results are 1) what the child perceives primarily depends on his own actions but also his social partner’s actions; 2) manual actions, in particular, play a critical role in creating visual experiences in which one object dominates; 3) this selecting and filtering of visual objects through the actions of the child provides more constrained and clean input that seems likely to facilitate cognitive learning processes. These findings have broad implications for how one studies and thinks about human and artificial learning systems. PMID:21031153

  2. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  3. Framework for an Information Visualization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-11

    The Program is a suite of Windows-based software applications and services for ingesting, storing, and analyzing large quantities of disparate inforamtion. The software supports the ingestion and storage of any information that can be represented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. Stored information can be subsequently retrieved via search operations, then "visualized" in multiple ways using a client application that supports a variety of analytical functions. Visualization capabilities include tools for depicting a variety ofmore » relationships that may be present in the information, including geospatial, temporal, topical, categorical, and network relationships.« less

  4. Interactive Information Visualization for Exploratory Analysis of Spatiotemporal Trend Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Yasufumi; Yamada, Takashi

    This paper proposes an interactive information visualization system that supports exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information. A trend generally means a general direction in which a situation is changing / developing. Recent growth of computer and network systems has enabled us to obtain trend information at less cost, and it becomes important how to utilize such information. Exploratory data analysis is one of necessary activities of users to utilize trend information, in which users examine data space from various viewpoints using various views, notice interesting trend, and find interpretation useful for decision making or problem solving. As exploratory data analysis essentially involves trial and error, an interactive information visualization system that supports users' exploratory analysis of trend information should encourage users' trial and error. In order to design such systems, adequate interaction model that covers various actions to data space is necessary. In this paper, the visualization cube is proposed as abstract data model of spatiotemporal trend information, based on which interaction model for exploratory data analysis of spatiotemporal trend information is defined. The visualization cube consists of 4 axes; spatial and temporal axes, statistical data axis, and type-of-views axis. Interactions for generating views are defined as the operations on the visualization cube, which include drill down / up, comparison, spin, and transition. The interactive information visualization system for spatiotemporal trend information is developed based on the concept of visualization cube. Experiment is performed to compare the operating time between users with / without experience of using the system. The result shows the operations of the system based on the proposed interaction model are easy to understand without training. The system was also used in actual classes of an elementary school, of which the result shows the system has enough usability for 5th-grade elementary school children to perform exploratory data analysis.

  5. Ranking Refinement via Relevance Feedback in Geographic Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro-Tello, Esaú; Villaseñor-Pineda, Luis; Montes-Y-Gómez, Manuel

    Recent evaluation results from Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) indicate that current information retrieval methods are effective to retrieve relevant documents for geographic queries, but they have severe difficulties to generate a pertinent ranking of them. Motivated by these results in this paper we present a novel re-ranking method, which employs information obtained through a relevance feedback process to perform a ranking refinement. Performed experiments show that the proposed method allows to improve the generated ranking from a traditional IR machine, as well as results from traditional re-ranking strategies such as query expansion via relevance feedback.

  6. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  7. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  8. Visual information processing: the structure and creation of visual representations.

    PubMed

    Marr, D

    1980-07-01

    For human vision to be explained by a computational theory, the first question is plain: What are the problems that the brain solves when we see? It is argued that vision is the construction of efficient symbolic descriptions from images of the world. An important aspect of vision is therefore the choice of representations for the different kinds of information in a visual scene. An overall framework is suggested for extracting shape information from images, in which the analysis proceeds through three representations: (1) the primal sketch, which makes explicit the intensity changes and local two-dimensional geometry of an image; (2) 2 1/2-D sketch, which is a viewer-centred representation of the deplth, orientation and discontinuities of the visible surfaces; and (3) the 3-D model representation, which allows an object-centred description of the three-dimensional structure and organization of a viewed shape. The critical act in formulating computational theories for process capable of constructing these representations is the discovery of valid constraints on the way the world behaves, that provide sufficient additional information to allow recovery of the desired characteristic. Finally, once a computational theory for a process has been formulated, algorithms for implementing it may be designed, and their performance compared with that of the human visual processor. PMID:6106238

  9. Dynamic Integration of Task-Relevant Visual Features in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The primate visual system consists of multiple hierarchically organized cortical areas, each specialized for processing distinct aspects of the visual scene. For example, color and form are encoded in ventral pathway areas such as V4 and inferior temporal cortex, while motion is preferentially processed in dorsal pathway areas such as the middle temporal area. Such representations often need to be integrated perceptually to solve tasks which depend on multiple features. We tested the hypothesis that the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) integrates disparate task-relevant visual features by recording from LIP neurons in monkeys trained to identify target stimuli composed of conjunctions of color and motion features. We show that LIP neurons exhibit integrative representations of both color and motion features when they are task relevant, and task-dependent shifts of both direction and color tuning. This suggests that LIP plays a role in flexibly integrating task-relevant sensory signals. PMID:25199703

  10. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  11. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  12. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  13. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    PubMed

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend. PMID:26152963

  14. Information visualization; assisting low spatial individuals with information access tasks through the use of visual mediators.

    PubMed

    Stanney, K M; Salvendy, G

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the use of visual mediators to facilitate information access by low spatial individuals. Based on theories of adaptive learning and field-dependence, two human-computer interfaces were developed which were intended to compensate for the inability of low spatial individuals to readily construct visual mental models of a menu system's structure. The two compensatory interfaces included: a 2D visual hierarchy and a linear structure. The information search performance of high and low spatial individuals was compared on the two compensatory interfaces and a third challenge match interface, which challenged individuals to construct a mental model of a hierarchical menu system in order to perform efficiently. The visual mediators were successful in accommodating low spatial individuals, as indicated by the lack of any significant performance differences being detected between the high and low spatial groups on the two compensatory interfaces. High spatial individuals outperformed low spatial individuals only when information search tasks required the use of spatial ability in mentally constructing a model of the organization and structure of embedded task information. The key factor in the accommodation process was the elimination of the need to mentally visualize the structure of embedded task information. These results indicate that visualization techniques can be successfully used to enhance the information search performance of low spatial individuals. PMID:7758446

  15. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    PubMed

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs. PMID:20939745

  16. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  17. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of

  18. Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

    Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

  19. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  20. Visualizing Information: An Overview of This Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbons, William M.; Elser, Arthur G.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of information visualization, the present state of the art, and the possibilities and challenges that lie ahead. Describes how the articles in this special issue (devoted to visualizing information) help explain the principles and practices of information visualization. Challenges technical communicators to expand their view…

  1. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI...

  2. The strategic retention of task-relevant objects in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory (VWM). We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention of task-relevant objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; (b) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; (c) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; (d) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and (e) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement. PMID:22845068

  3. Making sense of personal health information: challenges for information visualization.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Sarah; Blandford, Ann; Potts, Henry W W

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature on information visualization for making sense of personal health information. Based on this review, five application themes were identified: treatment planning, examination of patients' medical records, representation of pedigrees and family history, communication and shared decision making, and life management and health monitoring. While there are recognized design challenges associated with each of these themes, such as how best to represent data visually and integrate qualitative and quantitative information, other challenges and opportunities have received little attention to date. In this article, we highlight, in particular, the opportunities for supporting people in better understanding their own illnesses and making sense of their health conditions in order to manage them more effectively. PMID:23981395

  4. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  5. The Behavioral Relevance of Task Information in Human Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2016-06-01

    Human lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to play a critical role in enabling cognitive flexibility, particularly when performing novel tasks. However, it remains to be established whether LPFC representation of task-relevant information in such situations actually contributes to successful performance. We utilized pattern classification analyses of functional MRI activity to identify novelty-sensitive brain regions as participants rapidly switched between performance of 64 complex tasks, 60 of which were novel. In three of these novelty-sensitive regions-located within distinct areas of left anterior LPFC-trial-evoked activity patterns discriminated correct from error trials. Further, these regions also contained information regarding the task-relevant decision rule, but only for successfully performed trials. This suggests that left anterior LPFC may be particularly important for representing task information that contributes to the cognitive flexibility needed to perform successfully in novel task situations. PMID:25870233

  6. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment. PMID:24429836

  7. Acoustic-tactile rendering of visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.

    2012-03-01

    In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visual information via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.

  8. Bats regulate biosonar based on the availability of visual information.

    PubMed

    Danilovich, Sasha; Krishnan, Anand; Lee, Wu-Jung; Borrisov, Ivailo; Eitan, Ofri; Kosa, Gabor; Moss, Cynthia F; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-01

    The study of inter-sensory integration has focused largely on how different sensory modalities are weighted and combined in perception [1-3]. However, the extent to which information acquired through one sensory modality is modulated by another is yet unknown. We studied this problem in the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus), an animal equipped with two modalities supporting high resolution distal sensing: biosonar and vision [4,5]. Egyptian fruit bats emit ultra-short, broad-band lingual echolocation clicks that enable accurate spatial orientation and landing [5]. They also rely heavily on vision, exhibiting high absolute sensitivity [4]. Here, we examine how visual information, regulated by altering ambient light level, influences biosonar sampling by Egyptian fruit bats. We tracked bats in the field and demonstrated that they routinely echolocate outdoors under a wide range of light levels. In the laboratory, under biologically relevant light levels, bats increased both echolocation click rate and intensity at lower light levels, where visual information was limited. These findings demonstrate how sensory information from one modality (vision) may influence sensory sampling of another (biosonar). Additionally, the bats adjusted biosonar sampling in a task-dependent manner, increasing click rate prior to landing. They did not cease echolocating under light conditions, which leads us to hypothesize that Egyptian fruit bats use echolocation to complement vision for accurate estimation of distance. PMID:26654368

  9. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  10. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line with the 'auditory-visual view' of auditory speech perception, which assumes that auditory speech recognition is optimized by using predictions from previously encoded speaker-specific audio-visual internal models. PMID:25650106

  11. The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of VWM. We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were five principal findings: 1) Strategic retention of task relevant-objects was effective and was dissociable from the current locus of visual attention; 2) strategic retention was implemented by protection from interference rather than by preferential encoding; 3) this prioritization was flexibly transferred to a new object as task demands changed; 4) no-longer-relevant items were efficiently eliminated from VWM; and 5) despite this level of control, attended and fixated objects were consolidated into VWM regardless of task relevance. These results are consistent with a model of VWM control in which each fixated object is automatically encoded into VWM, replacing a portion of the content in VWM. However, task-relevant objects can be selectively protected from replacement. PMID:22845068

  12. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  13. Seeing without knowing: task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and recognition.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Shoval, Roy; Yeshurun, Yaffa

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and knowledge activation to create a state of seeing without knowing-visual awareness of familiar stimuli without recognizing them. We rely on the fact that in order to experience a Kanizsa illusion, participants must be aware of its inducers. While people can indicate the orientation of the illusory rectangle with great ease (signifying that they have consciously experienced the illusion's inducers), almost 30% of them could not report the inducers' color. Thus, people can see, in the sense of phenomenally experiencing, but not know, in the sense of recognizing what the object is or activating appropriate knowledge about it. Experiment 2 tests whether relevance-based selection operates within objects and shows that, contrary to the pattern of results found with features of different objects in our previous studies and replicated in Experiment 1, selection does not occur when both relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. We discuss these findings in relation to the existing theories of consciousness and to attention and inattentional blindness, and the role of cognitive load, object-based attention, and the use of self-reports as measures of awareness. PMID:25716140

  14. Considerations for the Composition of Visual Scene Displays: Potential Contributions of Information from Visual and Cognitive Sciences (Forum Note)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice; Drager, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Aided augmentative and alternative (AAC) interventions have been demonstrated to facilitate a variety of communication outcomes in persons with intellectual disabilities. Most aided AAC systems rely on a visual modality. When the medium for communication is visual, it seems likely that the effectiveness of intervention depends in part on the effectiveness and efficiency with which the information presented in the display can be perceived, identified, and extracted by communicators and their partners. Understanding of visual-cognitive processing – that is, how a user attends, perceives, and makes sense of the visual information on the display – therefore seems critical to designing effective aided AAC interventions. In this Forum Note, we discuss characteristics of one particular type of aided AAC display, that is, Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as they may relate to user visual and cognitive processing. We consider three specific ways in which bodies of knowledge drawn from the visual cognitive sciences may be relevant to the composition of VSDs, with the understanding the direct research with children with complex communication needs is necessary to verify or refute our speculations. PMID:22946989

  15. Evaluating lossiness and fidelity in information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brath, Richard; Banissi, Ebad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an approach to measure visualization fidelity for encoding of data to visual attributes based on the number of unique levels that can be perceived; and a summarization across multiple attributes to compare relative lossiness across visualization alternatives. These metrics can be assessed at design time in order to compare the lossiness of different visualizations to aid in the selection between design alternatives. Examples are provided showing the application of these metrics to two different visualization design scenarios. Limitations and dependencies are noted along with recommendations for other metrics that can be used in conjunction with fidelity and lossiness to gauge effectiveness at design-time.

  16. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) to rare, task-relevant (counted) numerical stimuli was compared with VEPs to rare, task-irrelevant stimuli, both being randomly interspersed within a sequence of tachistoscopically-flashed background numbers. These task-irrelevant stimuli were of two classes: (1) easily recognizable (e.g., simple geometric shapes) and (2) completely novel (i.e., complex, colorful abstract-type drawings which were unrecognizable). It was found that such novel stimuli did, in fact, evoke large P3 waves, but they had different scalp distributions from those which followed the task-relevant stimuli. This indicates that at least two types of late positive P3 waves exist, differing both in brain source and psychological correlates.

  17. Translating Ensemble Weather Forecasts into Probabilistic User-Relevant Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias; Sharman, Robert; Hopson, Thomas; Liu, Yubao; Chapman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Weather-related decisions increasingly rely on probabilistic information as a means of assessing the risk of one potential outcome over another. Ensemble forecasting presents one of the key approaches trying to grasp the uncertainty of weather forecasting. Moreover, in the future decision makers will rely on tools that fully integrate weather information into the decision making process. Through these decision support tools, weather information will be translated into impact information. This presentation will highlight the translation of gridded ensemble weather forecasts into probabilistic user-relevant information. Examples will be discussed that relate to the management of air traffic, noise and pollution dispersion, missile trajectory prediction, water resources and flooding, wind energy production, and road maintenance. The primary take-home message from these examples will be that weather forecasts have to be tailored with a specific user perspective in mind rather than a "one fits all" approach, where a standard forecast product gets thrown over the fence and the user has to figure out what to do with it.

  18. Performance of visual tasks from contour information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Itan, Liron

    2010-08-01

    A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.

  19. Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  20. Gingival Biotype Assessement: Visual Inspection Relevance And Maxillary Versus Mandibular Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Cuny-Houchmand, Madline; Renaudin, Stéphane; Leroul, Mustapha; Planche, Lucie; Guehennec, Laurent Le; Soueidan, Assem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This clinical study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of gingival visual inspection procedures during clinical examination and determining whether differences existed between the maxillary and mandibular gingival biotypes. Materials and Methods: The study included 53 patients and 124 clinicians. The clinicians were asked to assign to each subject, using photographic documents, one of three biotypes: thin-scalloped, thick-scalloped, or thick-flat gingival biotype. A total of 19716 responses were collected for statistical analysis. Results: Identification accuracy of the gingival biotype and the intra-examiner repeatability presented poor highlighting of the limited relevance of visual inspection. In addition, the percent of agreement between classifications based on the global view of both the maxilla and mandible and the classification based on the individual mandibular or maxillary anterior teeth was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the above results, it can be concluded that a simple visual inspection is not effective for the identification of gingival biotype. Furthermore, evidence suggests that a difference of biotype between the maxilla and the mandible in the same patient is conceivable. Therefore, orthodontic clinical examination should incorporate a reproducible method of determining the individualized gingival biotype for each group of teeth that will be moved. PMID:23400554

  1. Presentation of Information on Visual Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This discussion of factors involved in the presentation of text, numeric data, and/or visuals using video display devices describes in some detail the following types of presentation: (1) visual displays, with attention to additive color combination; measurements, including luminance, radiance, brightness, and lightness; and standards, with…

  2. Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

  3. Visual control of navigation in insects and its relevance for robotics.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-08-01

    Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles. PMID:21689925

  4. Informational content of visual field location in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Henson, D B; Chauhan, B C

    1985-06-30

    Information Theory has been applied to produce estimates of how valuable each stimulus location on the Friedmann Visual Field Analyser mk. II is in detecting early glaucomatous visual field defects. The results indicate that stimuli in the superior arcuate region of the visual field and in the inferior nasal quadrant give the maximum amount of information. Stimuli in the extreme superior field (beyond 20 degrees), the inferior temporal quadrant and around the physiological blind spot give the least amount of information. It is suggested that these results can be used to develop computerised techniques for the analysis of visual field data. PMID:4028923

  5. iVisDesigner: Expressive Interactive Design of Information Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Ren, Donghao; Höllerer, Tobias; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2014-12-01

    We present the design, implementation and evaluation of iVisDesigner, a web-based system that enables users to design information visualizations for complex datasets interactively, without the need for textual programming. Our system achieves high interactive expressiveness through conceptual modularity, covering a broad information visualization design space. iVisDesigner supports the interactive design of interactive visualizations, such as provisioning for responsive graph layouts and different types of brushing and linking interactions. We present the system design and implementation, exemplify it through a variety of illustrative visualization designs and discuss its limitations. A performance analysis and an informal user study are presented to evaluate the system. PMID:26356923

  6. A content analysis of visual cancer information: prevalence and use of photographs and illustrations in printed health materials.

    PubMed

    King, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have an increasing interest in visual components of health information and health communication messages. This study contributes to this evolving body of research by providing an account of the visual images and information featured in printed cancer communication materials. Using content analysis, 147 pamphlets and 858 images were examined to determine how frequently images are used in printed materials, what types of images are used, what information is conveyed visually, and whether or not current recommendations for the inclusion of visual content were being followed. Although visual messages were found to be common in printed health materials, existing recommendations about the inclusion of visual content were only partially followed. Results are discussed in terms of how relevant theoretical frameworks in the areas of behavior change and visual persuasion seem to be used in these materials, as well as how more theory-oriented research is necessary in visual messaging efforts. PMID:25061954

  7. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual

  8. On the assessment of visual communication by information theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.

  9. Operator-centric design patterns for information visualization software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zaixian; Guo, Zhenyu; Ward, Matthew O.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.

    2010-01-01

    Design patterns have proven to be a useful means to make the process of designing, developing, and reusing software systems more efficient. In the area of information visualization, researchers have proposed design patterns for different functional components of the visualization pipeline. Since many visualization techniques need to display derived data as well as raw data, the data transformation stage is very important in the pipeline, yet existing design patterns are, in general, not sufficient to implement these data transformation techniques. In this paper, we propose two design patterns, operatorcentric transformation and data modifier, to facilitate the design of data transformations for information visualization systems. The key idea is to use operators to describe the data derivation and introduce data modifiers to represent the derived data. We also show that many interaction techniques can be regarded as operators as defined here, thus these two design patterns could support a wide range of visualization techniques. In addition, we describe a third design pattern, modifier-based visual mapping, that can generate visual abstraction via linking data modifiers to visual attributes. We also present a framework based on these three design patterns that supports coordinated multiple views. Several examples of multivariate visualizations are discussed to show that our design patterns and framework can improve the reusability and extensibility of information visualization systems. Finally, we explain how we have ported an existing visualization tool (XmdvTool) from its old data-centric structure to a new structure based on the above design patterns and framework.

  10. Relevant information retrieval and fusion of anatomic, physiologic, and metabolic neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Nielsen, Jon F.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bluml, Stefan; Seri, Istvan; Nelson, Marvin D.

    2005-04-01

    MRI Neuroimaging provides a rich source of image content including structural (MRI, Diffusion DTI), functional (fMRI, Perfusion ASL), and metabolic (MRS) information. Today MRI capabilities allow to acquire these imaging techniques in one session in most cases. In order to be of diagnostic value, the immense and diverse data needs to be (i) automatically post-processed to extract the relevant information, e.g. 3D brain maps from 4D fMRI, and to be (ii) fused and visualized to correlate the voxel-based findings. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of automatic relevant information retrieval and fusion of MRI, fMRI, DTI, ASL, and MRS data of a pediatric population into a single semantic data representation. By using advanced imaging, we may able to detect a larger spectrum of abnormalities in the neonatal brain. Each imaging application, provides unique information about the physiology (fMRI, ASL), the anatomy (DTI), and the biochemistry (MRS) of the newborn brain in relation to normal development and brain injury. By being able to integrate this technology, we will be able to combine biochemical, physiologic and anatomic information which can provide unique insight about not only the normal development of the brain, but also injury of the neonatal brain.

  11. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

  12. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  13. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

    2001-08-20

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

  14. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Loew, Ellis R.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P.; Smith, W. Leo; Davis, Matthew P.; Stern, Jennifer H.; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Sparks, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440–540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a “shark eye” camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks’ eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology. PMID:27109385

  15. Biofluorescence in Catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Loew, Ellis R; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Akkaynak, Derya; Gaffney, Jean P; Smith, W Leo; Davis, Matthew P; Stern, Jennifer H; Pieribone, Vincent A; Sparks, John S

    2016-01-01

    Biofluorescence has recently been found to be widespread in marine fishes, including sharks. Catsharks, such as the Swell Shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) from the eastern Pacific and the Chain Catshark (Scyliorhinus retifer) from the western Atlantic, are known to exhibit bright green fluorescence. We examined the spectral sensitivity and visual characteristics of these reclusive sharks, while also considering the fluorescent properties of their skin. Spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor cells in these sharks revealed the presence of a single visual pigment in each species. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum exhibited a maximum absorbance of 484 ± 3 nm and an absorbance range at half maximum (λ1/2max) of 440-540 nm, whereas for S. retifer maximum absorbance was 488 ± 3 nm with the same absorbance range. Using the photoreceptor properties derived here, a "shark eye" camera was designed and developed that yielded contrast information on areas where fluorescence is anatomically distributed on the shark, as seen from other sharks' eyes of these two species. Phylogenetic investigations indicate that biofluorescence has evolved at least three times in cartilaginous fishes. The repeated evolution of biofluorescence in elasmobranchs, coupled with a visual adaptation to detect it; and evidence that biofluorescence creates greater luminosity contrast with the surrounding background, highlights the potential importance of biofluorescence in elasmobranch behavior and biology. PMID:27109385

  16. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  17. Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

  18. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  19. Is the auditory sensory memory sensitive to visual information?

    PubMed Central

    Besle, Julien; Fort, Alexandra; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The Mismatch Negativity component of the auditory event-related brain potentials can be used as a probe to study the representation of sounds in Auditory Sensory Memory (ASM). Yet, it has been shown that an auditory MMN can also be elicited by an illusory auditory deviance induced by visual changes. This suggests that some visual information may be encoded in ASM and is accessible to the auditory MMN process. However, it is not known whether visual information influences ASM representation for any audiovisual event or whether this phenomenon is limited to specific domains in which strong audiovisual illusions occur. To highlight this issue, we have compared the topographies of MMNs elicited by non-speech audiovisual stimuli deviating from audiovisual standards on the visual, the auditory or both dimensions. Contrary to what occurs with audiovisual illusions, each unimodal deviants elicited sensory-specific MMNs and the MMN to audiovisual deviants included both sensory components. The visual MMN was however different from a genuine visual MMN obtained in a visual-only control oddbbal paradigm, suggesting that auditory and visual information interacts before the MMN process occurs. Furthermore, the MMN to audiovisual deviants was significantly different from the sum of the two sensory-specific MMNs, showing that the processes of visual and auditory change detection are not completely independent. PMID:16041497

  20. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. Results With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. Discussion If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment. PMID:26943674

  1. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David N; Ekstrand, Kim R; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature. The eligible studies were those which (1) assessed the accuracy of the visual method for detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in primary or permanent teeth, (2) used a reference standard, and (3) reported data about sample size and accuracy of the methods. Aspects related to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study considered its prognosis, 79 studies did not consider a clinically relevant outcome, and only 1 evaluated a patient-centred outcome. Concerning methodological quality, the majority of the studies presented a high risk of bias in sample selection. In conclusion, studies on the accuracy of the visual method for caries detection should consider clinically relevant outcomes besides accuracy; moreover, they should be conducted with higher methodological quality, mainly regarding sample selection. PMID:25571967

  2. Sensory and Cognitive Components of Visual Information Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busey, Thomas A.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of visual information acquisition and visual memory is described that conjoins two models that have been used to describe low-level perceptual and higher level cognitive processes. Six experiments with 21 adult observers generally support the theory, although some weakness is discussed. (SLD)

  3. Task Demands Control Acquisition and Storage of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droll, Jason A.; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Triesch, Jochen; Sullivan, Brian T.

    2005-01-01

    Attention and working memory limitations set strict limits on visual representations, yet researchers have little appreciation of how these limits constrain the acquisition of information in ongoing visually guided behavior. Subjects performed a brick sorting task in a virtual environment. A change was made to 1 of the features of the brick being…

  4. Fitting the Jigsaw of Citation: Information Visualization in Domain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Paul, Ray J.; O'Keefe, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of information visualization in modeling and representing intellectual structures associated with scientific disciplines and visualizes the domain of computer graphics based on bibliographic data from author cocitation patterns. Highlights include author cocitation maps, citation time lines, animation of a high-dimensional…

  5. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  6. Learning Building Layouts with Non-geometric Visual Information: The Effects of Visual Impairment and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visual information (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visual information (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visual information for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (< 50 years) normally sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visual information. PMID:19189732

  7. Learning building layouts with non-geometric visual information: the effects of visual impairment and age.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Amy A; Legge, Gordon E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visual information (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visual information (eg doors, signs, and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. In this study we asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visual information for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants-younger (<50 years of age) normally sighted; older (50-70 years of age) normally sighted; and low-vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18 to 67 years). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (sparse VE); a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (photorealistic VE); a map; and a real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visual information. PMID:19189732

  8. a Repository of Information Visualization Techniques to Support the Design of 3d Virtual City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métral, C.; Ghoula, N.; Silva, V.; Falquet, G.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models are used for different applications such as urban planning, navigation, pedestrian behaviour, historical information, and disaster management. These applications require rich information models that associate urban objects not only with their geometric properties but also with other types of information. When designing such models the choice of visualization techniques is far from trivial because the city objects must be displayed together with additional information, such as historical facts, planning projects, pollutant concentration, noise level, etc. Finding relevant techniques depends on a set of criteria such as the type of information, but also on the tasks that will be performed and the associated context. Furthermore, a technique that is relevant when used in isolation may generate visual incompatibilities when used in conjunction with another one. We have defined a model for the representation of information visualization techniques in 3D city models. We have implemented this model in the form of an ontology and a knowledge base of techniques currently used in 3D city models or 3D GIS. The goal of such an approach is to provide a knowledge repository to support the design of 3D virtual city models in which non-geometric information must be presented. In this paper we describe the model and the ontology of information visualization techniques that we designed. We also show how the associated knowledge base can be used for the selection of visualization techniques depending on different criteria including task and context, and for the detection of visual incompatibilities between techniques when used in the same scene.

  9. Using Language Models to Identify Relevant New Information in Inpatient Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Lee, Janet T.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information. PMID:25954438

  10. Does visual information influence infants’ movement to music?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  11. Visual Information for the Desktop, version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-29

    VZIN integrates visual analytics capabilities into popular desktop tools to aid a user in searching and understanding an information space. VZIN allows users to Drag-Drop-Visualize-Explore-Organize information within tools such as Microsoft Office, Windows Explorer, Excel, and Outlook. VZIN is tailorable to specific client or industry requirements. VZIN follows the desktop metaphors so that advanced analytical capabilities are available with minimal user training.

  12. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ..., including management of the flow of funds among the partners. This RFI is for information and planning... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or... for Information (RFI) seeks to identify and obtain relevant information regarding the...

  13. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  14. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  15. Web-based visualization of Earth observation data and information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chaoyang; Lin, Hui; Wong, Chiu Wang Anthony

    2008-12-01

    The visualization results of multi-dimensional and dynamically spatio-temporal information are diversified by the varying user demands. To realize the sharing of spatio-temporal data, information and knowledge, this paper proposes a technical framework for on-line generation and distribution of the visualization of spatio-temporal information to meet personality need from difference level user; then, describes the key technologies that are involved; final, introduces the implementation and application of the system by taking a marine disaster information system as an example.

  16. Visualization of Information Uncertainty: Progress and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Binh; Streit, Alex; Brown, Ross

    Information uncertainty which is inherent in many real world applications brings more complexity to the visualisation problem. Despite the increasing number of research papers found in the literature, much more work is needed. The aims of this chapter are threefold: (1) to provide a comprehensive analysis of the requirements of visualisation of information uncertainty and their dimensions of complexity; (2) to review and assess current progress; and (3) to discuss remaining research challenges. We focus on four areas: information uncertainty modelling, visualisation techniques, management of information uncertainty modelling, propagation and visualisation, and the uptake of uncertainty visualisation in application domains.

  17. Modes of Visual Recognition and Perceptually Relevant Sketch-based Coding for Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of visual recognition studies is used to define two levels of information requirements. These two levels are related to two primary subdivisions of the spatial frequency domain of images and reflect two distinct different physical properties of arbitrary scenes. In particular, pathologies in recognition due to cerebral dysfunction point to a more complete split into two major types of processing: high spatial frequency edge based recognition vs. low spatial frequency lightness (and color) based recognition. The former is more central and general while the latter is more specific and is necessary for certain special tasks. The two modes of recognition can also be distinguished on the basis of physical scene properties: the highly localized edges associated with reflectance and sharp topographic transitions vs. smooth topographic undulation. The extreme case of heavily abstracted images is pursued to gain an understanding of the minimal information required to support both modes of recognition. Here the intention is to define the semantic core of transmission. This central core of processing can then be fleshed out with additional image information and coding and rendering techniques.

  18. Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

  19. Culturally-Relevant Information Literacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a process for finding, using, evaluating and incorporating information into an individuals' knowledge base. This process has been formalized into the "ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education." The concept of Information Literacy as articulated in the "ACRL Standards" is…

  20. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  1. Covert attention accelerates the rate of visual information processing

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; McElree, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Whenever we open our eyes, we are confronted with an overwhelming amount of visual information. Covert attention allows us to select visual information at a cued location, without eye movements, and to grant such information priority in processing. Covert attention can be voluntarily allocated, to a given location according to goals, or involuntarily allocated, in a reflexive manner, to a cue that appears suddenly in the visual field. Covert attention improves discriminability in a wide variety of visual tasks. An important unresolved issue is whether covert attention can also speed the rate at which information is processed. To address this issue, it is necessary to obtain conjoint measures of the effects of covert attention on discriminability and rate of information processing. We used the response-signal speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) procedure to derive measures of how cueing a target location affects speed and accuracy in a visual search task. Here, we show that covert attention not only improves discriminability but also accelerates the rate of information processing. PMID:11309485

  2. The Visual Uncertainty Paradigm for Controlling Screen-Space Information in Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Aritra

    2012-01-01

    The information visualization pipeline serves as a lossy communication channel for presentation of data on a screen-space of limited resolution. The lossy communication is not just a machine-only phenomenon due to information loss caused by translation of data, but also a reflection of the degree to which the human user can comprehend visual…

  3. Visual attention mitigates information loss in small- and large-scale neural codes

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Thomas C; Saproo, Sameer; Serences, John T

    2015-01-01

    Summary The visual system transforms complex inputs into robust and parsimonious neural codes that efficiently guide behavior. Because neural communication is stochastic, the amount of encoded visual information necessarily decreases with each synapse. This constraint requires processing sensory signals in a manner that protects information about relevant stimuli from degradation. Such selective processing – or selective attention – is implemented via several mechanisms, including neural gain and changes in tuning properties. However, examining each of these effects in isolation obscures their joint impact on the fidelity of stimulus feature representations by large-scale population codes. Instead, large-scale activity patterns can be used to reconstruct representations of relevant and irrelevant stimuli, providing a holistic understanding about how neuron-level modulations collectively impact stimulus encoding. PMID:25769502

  4. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and

  5. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about

  6. The Role of Spatial and Nonspatial Information in Visual Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theeuwes, Jan; Van der Burg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Even though it is undisputed that prior information regarding the location of a target affects visual selection, the issue of whether information regarding nonspatial features, such as color and shape, has similar effects has been a matter of debate since the early 1980s. In the study described in this article, measures derived from signal…

  7. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

  8. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

  9. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

    2001-08-20

    AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

  10. The visual analysis of textual information: Browsing large document sets

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Pennock, K.; Fiegel, T.; Wise, J.; Pottier, M.; Schur, A.; Crow, V.; Lantrip, D.

    1995-05-01

    Visualization tools have been invaluable in the process of scientific discovery by providing researchers with insights gained through graphical tools and techniques. At PNL, the Multidimensional Visualization and Advanced Browsing (MVAB) project is extending visualization technology to the problems of intelligence analysis of textual documents by creating spatial representations of textual information. By representing an entire corpus of documents as points in a coordinate space of two or more dimensions, the tools developed by the MVAB team give the analyst the ability to quickly browse the entire document base and determine relationships among documents and publication patterns not readily discernible through traditional lexical means.

  11. Picturing survival memories: enhanced memory after fitness-relevant processing occurs for verbal and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom; van Bergen, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that processing words according to a survival scenario leads to superior retention relative to control conditions. Here, we examined whether a survival recall advantage could be elicited by using pictures. Furthermore, in Experiment 1, we were interested in whether survival processing also results in improved memory for details. Undergraduates rated the relevance of pictures in a survival, moving, or pleasantness scenario and were subsequently given a surprise free recall test. We found that survival processing yielded superior retention. We also found that distortions occurred more often in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the survival recall effect between pictures and words. A comparable survival recall advantage was found for pictures and words. The present findings support the idea that memory is enhanced by processing information in terms of fitness value, yet at the same time, the present results suggest that this may increase the risk for memory distortions. PMID:19966235

  12. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  13. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction

  14. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  15. The effect of social context on the use of visual information.

    PubMed

    Streuber, Stephan; Knoblich, Günther; Sebanz, Natalie; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    Social context modulates action kinematics. Less is known about whether social context also affects the use of task relevant visual information. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the instruction to play table tennis competitively or cooperatively affected the kind of visual cues necessary for successful table tennis performance. In two experiments, participants played table tennis in a dark room with only the ball, net, and table visible. Visual information about both players' actions was manipulated by means of self-glowing markers. We recorded the number of successful passes for each player individually. The results showed that participants' performance increased when their own body was rendered visible in both the cooperative and the competitive condition. However, social context modulated the importance of different sources of visual information about the other player. In the cooperative condition, seeing the other player's racket had the largest effects on performance increase, whereas in the competitive condition, seeing the other player's body resulted in the largest performance increase. These results suggest that social context selectively modulates the use of visual information about others' actions in social interactions. PMID:21863262

  16. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling. PMID:18585686

  17. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject,...

  18. WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2002-06-09

    WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

  19. Visual and auditory information as determinants of primacy effects.

    PubMed

    Sharps, M J; Price, J L; Bence, V M

    1996-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that auditory and visual information have similar mnemonic properties. The relative influence of verbal, auditory, and visual stimulus materials on the primacy effect in free recall was studied. Significant primacy effects were obtained when either verbal or auditory-input stimuli were presented. However, primacy effects were suppressed when pictorial materials were used, principally because of elevation of recall for midlist and later elements. Instructions to use visual mental imagery at encoding suppressed primacy effects for verbal materials, but not for auditory materials, indicating that although auditory information processing is probably similar to phonological processing within working memory, auditory processing may share cognitive resources with visuospatial processing. Results are shown to be predictable and interpretable within the item-specific/relational information distinction of Hunt and Einstein (e.g., 1981), and within the working-memory theory of Baddeley (e.g., 1986). PMID:8708635

  20. Visualizing Information in the Biological Sciences: Using WebTheme to Visualize Internet Search Results

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, Karen A.; Lembo, Mary Frances

    2003-08-11

    Information visualization is an effective method for displaying large data sets in a pictorial or graphical format. The visualization aids researchers and analysts in understanding data by evaluating the content and grouping documents together around themes and concepts. With the ever-growing amount of information available on the Internet, additional methods are needed to analyze and interpret data. WebTheme allows users to harvest thousands of web pages and automatically organize and visualize their contents. WebTheme is an interactive web-based product that provides a new way to investigate and understand large volumes of HTML text-based information. It has the ability to harvest data from the World Wide Web using search terms and selected search engines or by following URLs chosen by the user. WebTheme enables users to rapidly identify themes and concepts found among thousands of pages of text harvested and provides a suite of tools to further explore and analyze special areas of interest within a data set. WebTheme was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for NASA as a method for generating meaningful, thematic, and interactive visualizations. Through a collaboration with the Laboratory's Information Science and Engineering (IS&E) group, information specialists are providing demonstrations of WebTheme and assisting researchers in analyzing their results. This paper will provide a brief overview of the WebTheme product, and the ways in which the Hanford Technical Library's information specialists are assisting researchers in using this product.

  1. Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bartlett D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Freeman, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial components of a visual scene are processed neurally in a sequence of coarse features followed by fine features. This coarse-to-fine temporal stream was initially considered to be a cortical function, but has recently been demonstrated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that coarse-to-fine processing is present at earlier stages of visual processing in the retinal ganglion cells that supply lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. To compare coarse-to-fine processing in the cat’s visual system, we measured the visual responses of connected neuronal pairs from the retina and LGN, and separate populations of cells from each region. We found that coarse-to-fine processing was clearly present at the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Interestingly, peak and high-spatial-frequency cutoff responses were higher in the LGN than in the retina, indicating that there was a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine information from the retina to the LGN to the visual cortex. The analysis of early visual pathway receptive field characteristics showed that the physiological response interplay between the center and surround regions was consistent with coarse-to-fine features and may provide a primary role in the underlying mechanism. Taken together, the results from this study provided a framework for understanding the emergence and refinement of coarse-to-fine processing in the visual system. PMID:24251425

  2. Multimodal information integration and visualization: optical imaging and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Fred S.; ElBawab, Mazen; Khamene, Ali; Lee, Kijoon; Choe, Regine; Corlu, Alper; Konecky, Soren D.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Sauer, Frank

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a software platform for multimodal integration and visualization of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of breast cancer. The image visualization platform allows multimodality 3D image visualization and manipulation of datasets, such as a variety of 3D rendering technique, and the ability to simultaneously control multiple fields of view. This platform enables quantitative and qualitative analysis of structural and functional diagnostic data, using both conventional & molecular imaging. The functional parameters, together with morphological parameters from MR can be suitably combined and correlated to the absolute diagnosis from histopathology. Fusion of the multimodal datasets will eventually lead to a significant improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection. Fusion may also allow a priori structural information derived from MRI to be incorporated into the reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography images. We will present the early results of image visualization and registration on multimodal breast cancer data, DOT and MRI.

  3. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Chartier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints. PMID:26200767

  4. Corticothalamic interactions in the transfer of visual information.

    PubMed

    Sillito, Adam M; Jones, Helen E

    2002-12-29

    Thalamic function does not stand apart, as a discrete processing step, from the cortical circuitry. The thalamus receives extensive feedback from the cortex and this influences the firing pattern, synchronization and sensory response mode of relay cells. A crucial question concerns the extent to which the feedback simply controls the state and transmission mode of relay cells and the extent to which the feedback participates in the specific processing of sensory information. Using examples from experiments examining the influence of feedback from the visual cortex to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), we argue that thalamic mechanisms are selectively focused by visually driven feedback to optimize the thalamic contribution to segmentation and global integration. This involves effects on both the temporal and spatial parameters characterizing the responses of LGN cells and includes, for example, motion-driven feedback effects from MT (middle temporal visual area) relayed via layer 6 of V1 (primary visual cortex). PMID:12626008

  5. Preferential Reactivation of Motivationally Relevant Information in the Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Lansink, Carien S.; Goltstein, Pieter M.; Lankelma, Jan V.; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous “off-line” reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component. PMID:18562607

  6. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  7. The Strategic Retention of Task-Relevant Objects in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcey-Richard, Ashleigh M.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The serial and spatially extended nature of many real-world visual tasks suggests the need for control over the content of visual working memory (VWM). We examined the management of VWM in a task that required participants to prioritize individual objects for retention during scene viewing. There were 5 principal findings: (a) Strategic retention…

  8. A Total Relevance and Document Interaction Effects Model for the Evaluation of Information Retrieval Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiamiyu, Mutawakilu; Ajiferuke, Isola Y.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model for information retrieval evaluation based on the notion of total relevance, a function derived from the traditional summation of relevance ratings over the documents in a collection. The model makes explicit the perceptual underpinnings of relevance assessments while allowing for consideration of interdocument dependencies. (37

  9. Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. PMID:26504156

  10. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization. PMID:25280165

  11. Rendering Information Literacy Relevant: A Case-Based Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spackman, Andy; Camacho, Leticia

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of case studies in a program of extracurricular library instruction and explain the benefits of case teaching in developing information literacy. The paper presents details of example cases and analyzes surveys to evaluate the impact of case teaching on student satisfaction. (Contains 3 tables.)

  12. The Development of Sensitivity to Causally Relevant Dynamic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…

  13. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  14. Integration of Visual and Verbal Information in Children's Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Edward M.; And Others

    Two experiments, designed to examine the developmental changes in the modification of visual memory by verbal information, are described in this paper. In both experiments, first, third, and fifth grade children and college students were shown slides of short episodes followed by oral questions. Questions either described or did not describe…

  15. Toward an Information Visualization Workspace: Combining Multiple Means of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Steven F.; Chuah, Mei C.; Kerpedjiev, Stephan; Kolojejchick, John A.; Lucas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Presents an information visualization workspace in which users are able to explore data presented in diverse but coordinated formats using related systems called Visage, SAGE, and selective dynamic manipulation (SDM). Discusses four dimensions for analyzing user interfaces that reveal the combination of design approaches needed for visualizations…

  16. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  17. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing

  18. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.

  19. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  20. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

    2009-01-01

    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  1. An Information Architecture To Support the Visualization of Personal Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben; Mushlin, Rich

    1998-01-01

    Proposes an information architecture for personal-history data and describes how the data model can be extended to a runtime model for a compact visualization using graphical timelines. The model groups personal-history events into aggregates that are contained in facets, crosslinks are made, and data attributes are mapped. (Author/LRW)

  2. Speed of Information Processing and the Visually Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Heather; Tobin, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The report provides preliminary findings of a study on the speed of processing visual information by partially sighted children. Findings revealed considerable variation in performance and suggested that some partially AL sighted children may not be able to cope with the test's time demands. (CL)

  3. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

  4. Locational versus Featural Information in Adult Visual Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.

    Research on adult memory for nonverbal representations has found a significant age-related decrement in performance. To investigate age differences in adult locational versus featural information in visual memory, 90 adult women (29 young women with a mean age of 21; 30 middle aged women with a mean age of 43; and 31 older women with a mean age of…

  5. Visual search in depth: The neural correlates of segmenting a display into relevant and irrelevant three-dimensional regions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Allen, Harriet A.; Dent, Kevin; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is facilitated by the ability to selectively attend to relevant parts of the world and to ignore irrelevant regions or features. In visual search tasks, viewers are able to segment displays into relevant and irrelevant items based on a number of factors including the colour, motion, and temporal onset of the target and distractors. Understanding the process by which viewers prioritise relevant parts of a display can provide insights into the effect of top-down control on visual perception. Here, we investigate the behavioural and neural correlates of segmenting a display according to the expected three-dimensional (3D) location of a target. We ask whether this segmentation is based on low-level visual features (e.g. common depth or common surface) or on higher-order representations of 3D regions. Similar response-time benefits and neural activity were obtained when items fell on common surfaces or within depth-defined volumes, and when displays were vertical (such that items shared a common depth/disparity) or were tilted in depth. These similarities indicate that segmenting items according to their 3D location is based on attending to a 3D region, rather than a specific depth or surface. Segmenting the items in depth was mainly associated with increased activation in depth-sensitive parietal regions rather than in depth-sensitive visual regions. We conclude that segmenting items in depth is primarily achieved via higher-order, cue invariant representations rather than through filtering in lower-level perceptual regions. PMID:26220748

  6. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  7. Visual sensory networks and effective information transfer in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-09-01

    Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups. PMID:24028946

  8. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science

  9. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators' use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science…

  10. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138

  11. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

  12. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. PMID:25843936

  13. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  14. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the visual information documentation... AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. Using various visual and audio media, the Air Force VIDOC...

  15. Feedback of visual object information to foveal retinotopic cortex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark A; Baker, Chris I; Op de Beeck, Hans P; Shim, Won Mok; Dang, Sabin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2008-12-01

    The mammalian visual system contains an extensive web of feedback connections projecting from higher cortical areas to lower areas, including primary visual cortex. Although multiple theories have been proposed, the role of these connections in perceptual processing is not understood. We found that the pattern of functional magnetic resonance imaging response in human foveal retinotopic cortex contained information about objects presented in the periphery, far away from the fovea, which has not been predicted by prior theories of feedback. This information was position invariant, correlated with perceptual discrimination accuracy and was found only in foveal, but not peripheral, retinotopic cortex. Our data cannot be explained by differential eye movements, activation from the fixation cross, or spillover activation from peripheral retinotopic cortex or from lateral occipital complex. Instead, our findings indicate that position-invariant object information from higher cortical areas is fed back to foveal retinotopic cortex, enhancing task performance. PMID:18978780

  16. Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Cooper, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

  17. Haptic eyes: mapping visual information in to haptic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, S.; Rudolph, H.; Kumar, D. K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a method of mapping visual data into haptic cues for the blind to support them in navigation. Employing auditory cues alone to support blind navigation may help some extent but too much information to the ear may lead to confusion so important information such as dangers from the obstacles, stairs, potholes, sharp edges etc given through haptic signals not only reduce the over load on the auditory channel but also improves the speed of navigation by enabling quicker reaction. The proposed system for representing visual information intuitively and easily using haptic signals may assist the visually impaired in their navigation. This technique translates the images captured from digital cameras, extracts the required information and converts it into tactile signals. The use of the haptic channel is suggested in order to prevent overload of the auditory system and to use the special qualities of the haptic sense to convey important messages of danger and hazards. This paper presents a tactile display design and discusses the application framework for using these displays for tactile information design experimentation.

  18. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

  19. Curvature and the Visual Perception of Shape: Theory on Information along Object Boundaries and the Minima Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E. Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately,…

  20. Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Hale, Joseph J.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Garnier, Simon; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian crowds can form the substrate of important socially contagious behaviors, including propagation of visual attention, violence, opinions, and emotional state. However, relating individual to collective behavior is often difficult, and quantitative studies have largely used laboratory experimentation. We present two studies in which we tracked the motion and head direction of 3,325 pedestrians in natural crowds to quantify the extent, influence, and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus groups of confederates within a crowd to gaze up to a single point atop of a building. Analysis of passersby shows that visual attention spreads unevenly in space and that the probability of pedestrians adopting this behavior increases as a function of stimulus group size before saturating for larger groups. We develop a model that predicts that this gaze response will lead to the transfer of visual attention between crowd members, but it is not sufficiently strong to produce a tipping point or critical mass of gaze-following that has previously been predicted for crowd dynamics. A second experiment, in which passersby were presented with two stimulus confederates performing suspicious/irregular activity, supports the predictions of our model. This experiment reveals that visual interactions between pedestrians occur primarily within a 2-m range and that gaze-copying, although relatively weak, can facilitate response to relevant stimuli. Although the above aspects of gaze-following response are reproduced robustly between experimental setups, the overall tendency to respond to a stimulus is dependent on spatial features, social context, and sex of the passerby. PMID:22529369

  1. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  2. Information optimization in coupled audio-visual cortical maps.

    PubMed

    Kardar, Mehran; Zee, A

    2002-12-10

    Barn owls hunt in the dark by using cues from both sight and sound to locate their prey. This task is facilitated by topographic maps of the external space formed by neurons (e.g., in the optic tectum) that respond to visual or aural signals from a specific direction. Plasticity of these maps has been studied in owls forced to wear prismatic spectacles that shift their visual field. Adaptive behavior in young owls is accompanied by a compensating shift in the response of (mapped) neurons to auditory signals. We model the receptive fields of such neurons by linear filters that sample correlated audio-visual signals and search for filters that maximize the gathered information while subject to the costs of rewiring neurons. Assuming a higher fidelity of visual information, we find that the corresponding receptive fields are robust and unchanged by artificial shifts. The shape of the aural receptive field, however, is controlled by correlations between sight and sound. In response to prismatic glasses, the aural receptive fields shift in the compensating direction, although their shape is modified due to the costs of rewiring. PMID:12446848

  3. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  4. The display of spatial information and visually guided behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.

  5. Searching the Visual Arts: An Analysis of Online Information Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Darlene; Serban, William

    1981-01-01

    A search for stained glass bibliographic information using DIALINDEX identified 57 DIALOG files from a variety of subject categories and 646 citations as relevant. Files include applied science, biological sciences, chemistry, engineering, environment/pollution, people, business research, and public affairs. Eleven figures illustrate the search…

  6. Visualizing uncertainty for geographical information in the global terrorism database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Josh; Chang, Remco; Butkiewicz, Thomas; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    Presenting information on a geopolitical map can offer powerful insight into a problem by leveraging an individual's innate capacity to discover patterns and to use map-related cues to incorporate pre-existing knowledge. This mode of presentation is not without its flaws, however, as the act of placing information at specific coordinates can imply a false sense of the data's geo-spatial certainty. Traditional uncertainty visualization techniques, such as those that change primitive attributes or employ animation, can create large amounts of clutter or actively distract when visualizing geospatially uncertain events within large datasets. To effectively identify geo-spatial trends within the Global Terrorism Database of the START Center, we have developed a novel usage of squarified treemaps that maintains the strengths of traditional map-viewing but incorporates some measure of data verity.

  7. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

  8. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  9. Relevance Reliability in Cyberspace: Toward Measurement Theory for Internet Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a reliability framework to examine the role that relevance judgments play in quantitative information retrieval (IR) performance measurement with an eye toward issues introduced by Internet IR. Argues that a theoretical basis for reliable measurement is possible if the relevance yardstick is reconsidered in light of recent research and if the…

  10. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations

  11. Visual event related potentials modulated by contextually relevant and irrelevant olfactory primes.

    PubMed

    Sarfarazi, M; Cave, B; Richardson, A; Behan, J; Sedgwick, E M

    1999-04-01

    Visual evoked potentials were recorded from 16 scalp locations on 10 young subjects during presentation of a series of high-quality photographs on a computer screen. The photographs consisted of equal numbers of pictures of fruit (citrus and non-citrus fruits), flowers (roses and other flowers) and objects (e.g. buildings, vehicles, animals etc.). Every picture was different in order to avoid repetition effects. The pictures were presented under four odour conditions: no odour, rose odour, jasmine odour and citrus odour. In order to keep the subjects alert they were asked to make categorizing decisions for the visual stimuli (e.g. flower or fruit). No decision was required concerning the relationship between the visual stimulus and the odour. As expected, the N400 peak was more negative when the picture stimulus did not match the odour. It is hypothesized that the N400 peak can be used as a measure of relatedness of a sensory stimulus to a previous or on-going prime, irrespective of the mode of the stimuli. PMID:10321815

  12. Visual Information Processing: Evaluation of a Training Program for Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; And Others

    Thirty-five second-grade learning disabled children participated in a visual information processing training program designed to teach analysis of visual material into component parts, systematic scanning of visual arrays, pick-up, description, and memory storage of distinctive information, and efficient solution of visual match-to-sample…

  13. A Comparative Study of Differences in Judged Relevance of Abstracts Located by Two Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John

    Differences in judged relevance of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) abstracts identified by two different information systems were investigated. A national semi-private educational service agency which utilizes mechanical searching of the research literature was one information system, while the other was a regional,…

  14. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined

  15. Visualization and Integrated Data Mining of Disparate Information

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Jeffrey D.; Albright, Cory L. ); Calapristi, Augustin J. ); Chen, Guang; Crow, Vernon L. ); Decker, Scott D. ); Groch, Kevin M. ); Havre, Susan L. ); Malard, Joel ); Martin, Tonya J. ); Miller, Nancy E. ); Monroe, Philip J.; Nowell, Lucy T. ); Payne, Deborah A. ); Reyes Spindola, Jorge F. ); Scarberry, Randall E.; Sofia, Heidi J. ); Stillwell, Lisa C.; Thomas, Gregory S. ); Thurston, Sarah J.; Williams, Leigh K. ); Zabriskie, Sean J.; MG Hicks

    2001-05-11

    The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have developed a framework for this integration, including common conceptual data models for multiple data types and linked visualizations that provide an overview of the entire data set, a measure of how each data record is related to every other record, and an assessment of the associations within the data set.

  16. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety-related applications where the user's primary task is something other than looking at the computer interface, such as emergency response, air traffic control, or operating a motor vehicle.

  17. Information Visualization Techniques for Effective Cross-Discipline Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Ward

    2013-04-01

    Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.

  18. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  19. Local versus Global Information Relevance in Website Use: A Case Study with the Information Literacy Portal AlfinEEES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Francisco Javier Garcia; Pinto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A model to explore the relations among local and global relevance-based information behaviour is proposed that is based on objective and subjective measures of the relevance of the Website contents. Method: Global interest for the Website was researched using data on visits, while local use was explored with two surveys on the…

  20. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E.; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on “kept in mind” rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions. PMID:23785341

  1. Trusted and relevant medical knowledge: the promise of information retrieval in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Silfen, Eric Z; Patel, Chintan O

    2006-01-01

    As the world of medicine becomes increasingly digitized, the Web has become a de facto resource for physicians to quickly glean pertinent clinical information to carry out diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. At present, physicians face the dual challenge of judging the relevance of the information and trusting its Web source. This paper proposes a trust-relevance framework for conceptualizing computer-accessed medical information resources, a set of criteria for evaluating these information resources, and descriptions of a sample of available online resources. It also presents a usable framework for evaluating information retrieval innovations and explains the different capabilities of representative information retrieval tools and applications. By demystifying the concepts associated with information resources, search engines, and retrieval tools, and presenting a reasonable view of current opportunities as well as future possibilities, the authors hope to provide guidance so physicians can more rapidly adopt innovative computer-assisted search tools for acquiring information that facilitate patient care decision-making. PMID:17091794

  2. Seeking Information with an Information Visualization System: A Study of Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiangman; Chen, Chaomei; Avery, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the effect of cognitive styles on users' information-seeking task performance using a knowledge domain information visualization system called CiteSpace. Method: Sixteen graduate students participated in a user experiment. Each completed an extended cognitive style analysis wholistic-analytic test (the…

  3. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may request unclassified and classified copies of current Air...

  4. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may request unclassified and classified copies of current Air...

  5. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may request unclassified and classified copies of current Air...

  6. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual information product/material loans. (a) You may request unclassified and classified copies of current Air...

  7. Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

  8. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official requests for visual information... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air...

  9. Information-Driven Active Audio-Visual Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Niclas; Reineking, Thomas; Kluss, Thorsten; Zetzsche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for sensorimotor audio-visual source localization on a mobile robot. We utilize a particle filter for the combination of audio-visual information and for the temporal integration of consecutive measurements. Although the system only measures the current direction of the source, the position of the source can be estimated because the robot is able to move and can therefore obtain measurements from different directions. These actions by the robot successively reduce uncertainty about the source’s position. An information gain mechanism is used for selecting the most informative actions in order to minimize the number of actions required to achieve accurate and precise position estimates in azimuth and distance. We show that this mechanism is an efficient solution to the action selection problem for source localization, and that it is able to produce precise position estimates despite simplified unisensory preprocessing. Because of the robot’s mobility, this approach is suitable for use in complex and cluttered environments. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the system’s performance and discuss possible areas of application. PMID:26327619

  10. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  11. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  12. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents

  13. Public Transport Information System for Visually Impaired and Blind People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Michał; Skomorowski, Marek

    This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.

  14. Information Visualization Using Internet for Activation of Shopping Streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Ippei; Okada, Yousuke; Onogi, Manabu; Niwa, Takahito; Ishii, Naohiro

    This paper attempts to activate a large scale shopping streets (shotengai) using Internet technique. Shotengai is a style of Japanese commercial district street. Recently, decline in shotengai is a serious problem. So, we take up “Osu” which is famous shotengai in Nagoya, Japan. We architect Web visualization system, which has useful usability and findability for Osu shotengai information. We also develop methods for competing for a store owner with another one by their prominency and for attractive design to increase motivation of store owners. The number of users of Osu map is increased rapidly. We hope to apply our instance to the activation of shotengai in Japan.

  15. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator. PMID:26356911

  16. A web-based 3D geological information visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renbo; Jiang, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological information visualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.

  17. Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand. PMID:26937446

  18. Neural pathways conveying novisual information to the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-01-01

    The visual cortex has been traditionally considered as a stimulus-driven, unimodal system with a hierarchical organization. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that the visual cortex responds to non-visual stimuli, especially in individuals with visual deprivation congenitally, indicating the supramodal nature of the functional representation in the visual cortex. To understand the neural substrates of the cross-modal processing of the non-visual signals in the visual cortex, we firstly showed the supramodal nature of the visual cortex. We then reviewed how the nonvisual signals reach the visual cortex. Moreover, we discussed if these non-visual pathways are reshaped by early visual deprivation. Finally, the open question about the nature (stimulus-driven or top-down) of non-visual signals is also discussed. PMID:23840972

  19. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  20. Real time visualization and characterization of platelet deposition under flow onto clinically relevant opaque surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Woolley, Joshua R; Kameneva, Marina V; Antaki, James F; Wagner, William R

    2015-04-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across six opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 s(-1). Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2 O3 , YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (p < 0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  1. Real Time Visualization and Characterization of Platelet Deposition under Flow onto Clinically-Relevant Opaque Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Kameneva, Marina V.; Antaki, James F.; Wagner, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across 6 opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 sec−1. Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2O3, YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (P <0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  2. Energy-Efficient Information Transfer by Visual Pathway Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Julia J.; Jolivet, Renaud; Engl, Elisabeth; Attwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The architecture of computational devices is shaped by their energy consumption. Energetic constraints are used to design silicon-based computers but are poorly understood for neural computation. In the brain, most energy is used to reverse ion influxes generating excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials. Thus, EPSCs should be small to minimize energy use, but not so small as to impair information transmission. We quantified information flow through the retinothalamic synapse in the visual pathway in brain slices, with cortical and inhibitory input to the postsynaptic cell blocked. Altering EPSC size with dynamic clamp, we found that a larger-than-normal EPSC increased information flow through the synapse. Thus, the evolutionarily selected EPSC size does not maximize retinal information flow to the cortex. By assessing the energy used on postsynaptic ion pumping and action potentials, we show that, instead, the EPSC size optimizes the ratio of retinal information transmitted to energy consumed. These data suggest maximization of information transmission per energy used as a synaptic design principle. PMID:26671670

  3. Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  4. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  5. Thinking in Visual Images in the Information Age--The Changing Faces of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gillian

    1988-01-01

    Visual literacy encompasses the ability to generate and make use of visual images to develop or clarify ideas, as a tool both for conveying information and for creative expression. The usefulness of visual thinking in study skills, problem solving, and living in an increasingly visual society is stressed. (Author/JDD)

  6. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  7. From paragraph to graph: Latent semantic analysis for information visualization

    PubMed Central

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at ≈300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 × 107 projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs. PMID:15037748

  8. Modeling of human perception of pictorial visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharko, E.; Bachevskij, Roman S.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the investigation and modeling of human perception of pictorial visual information during landscape interpretation of space and air earth's surface remote images. The conception of iconic sign (element of perceptive clusterization) is taken as a principle. The perception process is modeled from semiotical approach. The division of information into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects is assumed as a basis. Image syntax (construction) is determined according to spatial distribution of image brightness. Image could be described by formal language, consisting of image structural element's alphabet (such as unreduced element, grain, contour, region), range alphabet, which characterizes some hierarchical ranges of structural element's relations and a number of substitution rules. Such image representation describes its syntax in terms of hierarchical typical fragments of image, takes into consideration image construction and relation's structure, corresponding to human perception. Different types of semantics are discussed. The limiters of algorithmic, heuristic, and creative types are considered.

  9. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  10. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  11. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how seriously the presentation is taken. The books are certainly as much works of art (and craft) as they are of science. The author, a Professor of Political Science, Statistics, and Computer Science at Yale University, is also the founder of The Graphics Press. Because no one else would take on what seemed to be such a totally impractical project, he established his own company (sacrificing his garage). The first two volumes have sold more than two hundred thousand copies. The first of the three books, The Visual Display, is the one most likely to be of immediate use to a chemical scientist because it provides more examples (both good and bad ones) than the others of the traditional, two-dimensional graphs that we are likely to use in our work. One cannot help but be intrigued, if not inspired, by the classic depiction by Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) in a single figure of the essential quantities involved in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812-13. In one ingenious plate are shown six variables: the size of the French army as a function of time and position, in both advance and retreat, the movements of the main army and auxiliary troops, and the temperature on various days during the retreat from Moscow. Impressive and informative as this example may be, it pales in comparison to the density of information required to present the number of galaxies in the sky map from the Lick Catalog, also shown in Visual Display, which more typifies the problem of presenting huge data sets collected with computer aid. The second volume of the series, published seven years after the first, is Envisioning Information. With the same aesthetic sensitivity as in the first book, Tufte here concentrates on the presentation of "nouns" rather than numbers. In six chapters and epilogue, he discusses the third dimension as represented in two (as in Guide for Visitors to the Ise Shrine, Japan), the use of color to convey information (as in Oliver Byrne's Euclid), the organization of material for graphics (as in the names on the Vietnam War Memorial), and the use of layering and repetition to emphasize aspects of the data (as in the Hudson and Manhattan railroad manual for train signal lighting). The examples mentioned are only a few of hundreds from various sciences and engineering endeavors, from cultures all over the world and through centuries of time. The examples that Tufte renders are so seductive that the reader is drawn into consideration of data that would not ordinarily be of interest; how many people would you expect to be interested in the geographic distribution of the birthplaces of 10,086 poets of four Chinese dynasties? In Tufte's hands, the data sing to us. Graphics are not just an opportunity for creative and artistic expression. Tufte argues in Visual Explanations that better designed graphs of the data pertinent to the failure at low temperature of the O-ring seals on the Challenger booster might well have altered the fate of the mission and saved the lives of the astronauts. Tufte is by no means the only one making the claim that there was sufficient evidence to justify postponing the launch, but he shows how compelling the data can be, when best presented. Visual Explanations focuses on the presentation of information that has a temporal component. Examples include the visualization in three dimensions and time of the development of a thunderstorm, the explanation of several magic tricks, the hand-drawn graphical log of cosmonaut Georgi Grechko, and notations for the recording of ballet positions. I would think that the designers of textbooks and instructional multimedia materials would find inspiration in this most recent of Tufte's masterworks.

  12. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  13. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  14. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Official requests for visual information productions or materials. 811.3 Section 811.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS 811.3 Official requests for visual...

  15. 32 CFR 811.6 - Visual information product/material loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual information product/material loans. 811.6 Section 811.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.6 Visual...

  16. Differential contribution of visual and auditory information to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of a visual stimulus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Seonjin; Kwon, MinHyuk; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-03-01

    Vision and auditory information are critical for perception and to enhance the ability of an individual to respond accurately to a stimulus. However, it is unknown whether visual and auditory information contribute differentially to identify the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus based on visual and auditory information. In this study, we recruited 9 expert table-tennis players and used table-tennis service as our experimental model. Participants watched recorded services with different levels of visual and auditory information. The goal was to anticipate the direction of the service (left or right) and the rotational motion of service (topspin, sidespin, or cut). We recorded their responses and quantified the following outcomes: (i) directional accuracy and (ii) rotational motion accuracy. The response accuracy was the accurate predictions relative to the total number of trials. The ability of the participants to predict the direction of the service accurately increased with additional visual information but not with auditory information. In contrast, the ability of the participants to predict the rotational motion of the service accurately increased with the addition of auditory information to visual information but not with additional visual information alone. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that visual information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction of the stimulus, whereas additional auditory information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the rotational motion of stimulus. PMID:26836352

  17. Effect of noise in processing of visual information

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information transmission and processing in the nervous system has stochastic nature. Multiple factors contribute to neuronal trial-to-trial variability. Noise and variations are introduced by the processes at the molecular and cellular level (thermal noise, channel current noise, membrane potential variations, biochemical and diffusion noise at synapses etc). The stochastic processes are affected by different physical (temperature, electromagnetic field) and chemical (drugs) factors. The aim of this study was experimental investigation of hypotheses that increase in the noise level in the brain affects processing of visual information. Change in the noise level was introduced by an external factor producing excess noise in the brain. Methods An exposure to 450 MHz low-frequency modulated microwave radiation was applied to generate excess noise. Such exposure has been shown to increase diffusion, alter membrane resting potential, gating variables and intracellular Calcium efflux. Nine healthy volunteers passed the experimental protocol at the lower (without microwave) and the higher (with microwave) noise level. Two photos (visual stimuli) of unfamiliar, young male faces were presented to the subjects, one picture after another. The task was to identify later the photos from a group of six photos and to decide in which order they were presented. Each subject had a total of eight sessions at the lower and eight at the higher noise level. Each session consisted of 50 trials; altogether a subject made 800 trials, 400 at the lower and 400 at the higher noise level. Student t-test was applied for statistical evaluation of the results. Results Correct recognition of both stimuli in the right order was better at the lower noise level. All the subjects under investigation showed higher numbers of right answers in trials at the lower noise level. Average number of correct answers from n=400 trials with microwave exposure was 50.3, without exposure 54.4, difference 7.5%, p<0.002. No difference between results at the lower and the higher noise level was revealed in the case of only partly correct or incorrect answers. Conclusions Our experimental results showed that introduced excess noise reduced significantly ability of the nervous system in correct processing of visual information. PMID:20522266

  18. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  19. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity

  20. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  1. An Experiment in Building Profiles in Information Filtering: The Role of Context of User Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, Luz M.; Mostafa, Javed

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment that investigated how relevance feedback could be used to build and adjust profiles to improve filtering system performance. Explains the use of the SIFTER (Smart Information Filtering Technology for Electronic Resources) filtering system by graduate students and discusses results that established the importance of context…

  2. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older

  3. Relevance Thresholds: A Multi-stage Predictive Method of How Users Evaluate Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greisdorf, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Examines end-user judgment and evaluation behavior during information retrieval (IR) system interactions and extends previous research surrounding relevance as a key construct for representing the value end-users ascribe to items retrieved from IR systems. The self-reporting worksheet is appended. (Author/AEF)

  4. A Methodological Approach To Eliciting Information Relevant to Alcohol Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, K.; And Others

    To attempt to incorporate the perceptions of consumers of alcohol education programs about topic relevance and importance, a modified version of a methodology that extracts, evaluates, and combines information from novices and experts to determine commonly held scripts and schema was used. In the first of two studies, 37 students at Texas…

  5. Virtual-real spatial information visualization registration using affine representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueling; Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    Virtual-real registration in Outdoor Augmented Reality is committed to enhance user's spatial cognition by overlaying virtual geographical objects on real scene. According to analyze fiducial detection registration method in indoor AR, for the purpose of avoiding complex and tedious process of position tracking and camera calibration in traditional registration methods, it puts forward and practices a virtual-real spatial information visualization registration method using affine representations. Based on the observation from Koenderink and van Doorn, Ullman and Basri in 1991 which is given a set of four or more non-coplanar 3D points, the projection of all points in the set can be computed as a linear combination of the projection of just four of the points, it sets up global affine coordinate system in light of world coordinates, camera coordinates and virtual coordinates and extracts four feature points from scene image and calculates the global affine coordinates of key points of virtual objects. Then according to a linear homogeneous coordinates of the four feature point's projection, it calculates projection pixel coordinates of key points of virtual objects. In addition, it proposes an approach to obtain pixel relative depth for hidden surface removal. Finally, by a case study, it verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the registration methods. The method would not only explore a new research direction for Geographical Information Science, but also would provide location-based information and services for outdoor AR.

  6. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Joshua D; Arita, Jason T; Ianni, Julianna D; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-04-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that, when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy, response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. PMID:26669285

  7. Visualization of Information Spaces with VxInsight

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, B.N.; Boyack, K.W.; Davidson, G.S.; Johnson, D.K.

    2000-12-01

    VxInsight provides a visual mechanism for browsing, exploring and retrieving information from a database. The graphical display conveys information about the relationship between objects in several ways and on multiple scales. In this way, individual objects are always observed within a larger context. For example, consider a database consisting of a set of scientific papers. Imagine that the papers have been organized in a two dimensional geometry so that related papers are located close to each other. Now construct a landscape where the altitude reflects the local density of papers. Papers on physics will form a mountain range, and a different range will stand over the biological papers. In between will be research reports from biophysics and other bridging disciplines. Now, imagine exploring these mountains. If we zoom in closer, the physics mountains will resolve into a set of sub-disciplines. Eventually, by zooming in far enough, the individual papers become visible. By pointing and clicking you can learn more about papers of interest or retrieve their full text. Although physical proximity conveys a great deal of information about the relationship between documents, you can also see which papers reference which others, by drawing lines between the citing and cited papers. For even more information, you can choose to highlight papers by a particular researcher or a particular institution, or show the accumulation of papers through time, watching some disciplines explode and other stagnate. VxInsight is a general purpose tool, which enables this kind of interaction with wide variety of relational data: documents, patents, web pages, and financial transactions are just a few examples. The tool allows users to interactively browse, explore and retrieve information from the database in an intuitive way.

  8. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.

  9. Drama advertisements: moderating effects of self-relevance on the relations among empathy, information processing, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; Vercollier, Sarah Drissi; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2003-06-01

    The effects of drama versus lecture format in public service advertisements are studied in a 2 (format) x 2 (malaria vs AIDS) factorial design. Two structural equation models are built (one for each level of self-relevance), showing two distinct patterns. In both low and high self-relevant situations, empathy plays a key role. Under low self-relevance conditions, drama enhances information processing through empathy. Under high self-relevant conditions, the advertisement format has neither significant cognitive or empathetic effects. The information processing generated by the highly relevant topic affects viewers' empathy, which in turn affects the attitude the advertisement and the behavioral intent. As predicted by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the advertisement format enhances the attitudes and information processing mostly under low self-relevant conditions. Under low self-relevant conditions, empathy enhances information processing while under high self-relevance, the converse relation holds. PMID:12841477

  10. Tetrahedral Gray Code for Visualization of Genome Information

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each -mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the -mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG. PMID:24475080

  11. Mosaicing of optical microscope imagery based on visual information.

    PubMed

    Carozza, Ludovico; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Piccinini, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Tools for high-throughput high-content image analysis can simplify and expedite different stages of biological experiments, by processing and combining different information taken at different time and in different areas of the culture. Among the most important in this field, image mosaicing methods provide the researcher with a global view of the biological sample in a unique image. Current approaches rely on known motorized x-y stage offsets and work in batch mode, thus jeopardizing the interaction between the microscopic system and the researcher during the investigation of the cell culture. In this work we present an approach for mosaicing of optical microscope imagery, based on local image registration and exploiting visual information only. To our knowledge, this is the first approach suitable to work on-line with non-motorized microscopes. To assess our method, the quality of resulting mosaics is quantitatively evaluated through on-purpose image metrics. Experimental results show the importance of model selection issues and confirm the soundness of our approach. PMID:22255746

  12. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6–8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of −1.12 ± 1.19 SD, and length z score of −1.05 ± 1.31. The age-appropriate novelty preference was shown by only 12 infants. When age was controlled, longest look duration during familiarization was predicted by weight (sr2 = .16, p = .001) and length (sr2 = .05, p =.058), and mean look duration during test phases was predicted by head circumference (sr2 = .08, p = .018) implying that growth is associated with development of VIP. These data support the validity of VIP as a measure of infant cognitive development that is sensitive to nutritional factors and flexible enough to be adapted to individual cultures. PMID:19684873

  13. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J; Hambidge, K Michael

    2008-03-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 ± 1.19 SD, and length z score of -1.05 ± 1.31. The age-appropriate novelty preference was shown by only 12 infants. When age was controlled, longest look duration during familiarization was predicted by weight (sr(2) = .16, p = .001) and length (sr(2) = .05, p =.058), and mean look duration during test phases was predicted by head circumference (sr(2) = .08, p = .018) implying that growth is associated with development of VIP. These data support the validity of VIP as a measure of infant cognitive development that is sensitive to nutritional factors and flexible enough to be adapted to individual cultures. PMID:19684873

  14. Identifying the information for the visual perception of relative phase.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew D; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2008-04-01

    The production and perception of coordinated rhythmic movement are very specifically structured. For production and perception, 0 degree mean relative phase is stable, 180 degrees is less stable, and no other state is stable without training. It has been hypothesized that perceptual stability characteristics underpin the movement stability characteristics, which has led to the development of a phase-driven oscillator model (e.g., Bingham, 2004a, 2004b). In the present study, a novel perturbation method was used to explore the identity of the perceptual information being used in rhythmic movement tasks. In the three conditions, relative position, relative speed, and frequency (variables motivated by the model) were selectively perturbed. Ten participants performed a judgment task to identify 0 degree or 180 degrees under these perturbation conditions, and 8 participants who had been trained to visually discriminate 90 degrees performed the task with perturbed 90 degrees displays. Discrimination of 0 degree and 180 degrees was unperturbed in 7 out of the 10 participants, but discrimination of 90 degrees was completely disrupted by the position perturbation and was made noisy by the frequency perturbation. We concluded that (1) the information used by most observers to perceive relative phase at 0 degree and 180 degrees was relative direction and (2) becoming an expert perceiver of 90 degrees entails learning a new variable composed of position and speed. PMID:18459257

  15. Modeling information integration in sequential visual decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fiser, Jozsef; Koblinger, Adam; Lengyel, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Current models of human visual decision making based on sequentially provided samples posit that people make their next decision by unconsciously compensating the statistical discrepancy between measures collected in the long past and those collected very recently. While this proposal is compelling, it does not qualify as a rigorous model of human decision making. In addition, recent empirical evidence suggests that human visual decision making not only balances long- and short-term summary statistics of sequences, but in parallel, it also encodes salient features, such as repetitions, and in addition, it relies on a generic assumption of non-discriminative flat prior of events in the environment. In this study, we developed a normative model that captures these characteristics. Specifically, we built a constrained Bayesian ideal observer with a generative model having features as follows. First, data is generated randomly but not necessarily independently depending on its parameter selection. Second, the system has a memory capacity denoted by a small window size = t, and a world representation denoted by a large window size = T, the latter reflecting the observer's belief of the volatility of the world, i.e. the extent to which changes should be represented. Third, events can be described with pi appearance probability, which is not constant in time but changes according to a Markovian update, and it has an initial strong peak at 50%. Fourth, observations are noisy so that the observer can collect only limited amount of information (i) from each sample image. We implemented the above model and training on human data, we determined the optimal parameters for T, t, and inferred the evolving pi for each subject. Our model could capture the behavior of human observers, for example their deviation from binomial distribution based on T,and t, and the negative correlation between recent and past decisions. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325778

  16. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

  17. Testing Visual Information Retrieval Methodologies Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Textual, Icon, Graphical, and "Spring" Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile; Lewis, Michael; Olsen, Kai A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of visual information retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more

  18. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals

  19. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

  20. The human relevance of information on carcinogenic modes of action: overview.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Samuel M; Meek, M E Bette; Klaunig, James E; Patton, Dorothy E; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment policies and practice place increasing reliance on mode of action (MOA) data to inform conclusions about the human relevance of animal tumors. In June 2001, the Risk Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute formed a workgroup to study this issue. The workgroup divided into two subgroups, one developing and testing a "framework" for MOA relevance analysis and the other conducting an in-depth analysis of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activation as the MOA for some animal carcinogens. This special issue of Critical Reviews in Toxicology presents the scientific reports emerging from this activity. These reports serve several purposes. For risk assessors in and out of government, they offer a new human relevance framework (HRF) that complements and extends existing guidance from other organizations. Regarding the specific MOA for peroxisome proliferating chemicals, these reports offer a state-of-the-science review of this important MOA and its role in tumorigenesis in three different tissues (liver, testis, and pancreas). The case studies in these reports present models for using MOA information to evaluate the hazard potential for humans. The cases also illustrate the substantial impact of a complete human relevance analysis, as distinct from an animal MOA analysis alone, on the nature and scope of risk assessment. PMID:14727732

  1. Visual object recognition for mobile tourist information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Fritz, Gerald; Seifert, Christin; Luley, Patrick; Almer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    We describe a mobile vision system that is capable of automated object identification using images captured from a PDA or a camera phone. We present a solution for the enabling technology of outdoors vision based object recognition that will extend state-of-the-art location and context aware services towards object based awareness in urban environments. In the proposed application scenario, tourist pedestrians are equipped with GPS, W-LAN and a camera attached to a PDA or a camera phone. They are interested whether their field of view contains tourist sights that would point to more detailed information. Multimedia type data about related history, the architecture, or other related cultural context of historic or artistic relevance might be explored by a mobile user who is intending to learn within the urban environment. Learning from ambient cues is in this way achieved by pointing the device towards the urban sight, capturing an image, and consequently getting information about the object on site and within the focus of attention, i.e., the users current field of view.

  2. Toward semantic-based retrieval of visual information: a model-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngchoon; Golshani, Forouzan; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2002-07-01

    This paper center around the problem of automated visual content classification. To enable classification based image or visual object retrieval, we propose a new image representation scheme called visual context descriptor (VCD) that is a multidimensional vector in which each element represents the frequency of a unique visual property of an image or a region. VCD utilizes the predetermined quality dimensions (i.e., types of features and quantization level) and semantic model templates mined in priori. Not only observed visual cues, but also contextually relevant visual features are proportionally incorporated in VCD. Contextual relevance of a visual cue to a semantic class is determined by using correlation analysis of ground truth samples. Such co-occurrence analysis of visual cues requires transformation of a real-valued visual feature vector (e.g., color histogram, Gabor texture, etc.,) into a discrete event (e.g., terms in text). Good-feature to track, rule of thirds, iterative k-means clustering and TSVQ are involved in transformation of feature vectors into unified symbolic representations called visual terms. Similarity-based visual cue frequency estimation is also proposed and used for ensuring the correctness of model learning and matching since sparseness of sample data causes the unstable results of frequency estimation of visual cues. The proposed method naturally allows integration of heterogeneous visual or temporal or spatial cues in a single classification or matching framework, and can be easily integrated into a semantic knowledge base such as thesaurus, and ontology. Robust semantic visual model template creation and object based image retrieval are demonstrated based on the proposed content description scheme.

  3. Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel K; Rizzo, Joseph F; Fried, Shelley I

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision. PMID:21593546

  4. Encoding visual information in retinal ganglion cells with prosthetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision.

  5. Predictive plus online visual information optimizes temporal precision in interception.

    PubMed

    de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan

    2015-10-01

    Humans time their interceptive actions with remarkable precision. This daily-life performance is far too good to be explained by reported experimental perceptual estimates of when an object will arrive at the interception location. One option is that people use general principles to reduce variability such as integrating early estimates from predictive mechanisms with late estimates from online vision. Here we explore this possibility by presenting virtual balls that people had to catch and compared 3 conditions: early, late, and full vision of a parabolic path. If people integrate these different estimates, the precision of the timing under full vision should be higher than when only late vision is available. We tested this hypothesis and found a benefit for full vision, but only for those (steeper) trajectories in which early and late estimates are likely based on different cues. Overall, the integration of the different estimates of the impending interceptive event was optimal and can help explain the observed high temporal precision in many daily-life situations. Finally, by revealing the situations in which people do not take into account early predictions and rely on online visual information only we elucidate the theoretical controversy between predictive versus online control of timed actions. PMID:26076178

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Visual Variables for Geographic Information Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlandini, Simone; Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    We propose an empirical, perception-based evaluation approach for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of longstanding cartographic design principles applied to 2D map displays. The approach includes bottom-up visual saliency models that are compared with eye-movement data collected in human-subject experiments on map stimuli embedded in the so-called flicker paradigm. The proposed methods are applied to the assessment of four commonly used visual variables for designing 2D maps: size, color value, color hue, and orientation. The empirical results suggest that the visual variable size is the most efficient (fastest) and most effective (accurate) visual variable to detect change under flicker conditions. The visual variable orientation proved to be the least efficient and effective of the tested visual variables. These empirical results shed new light on the implied ranking of the visual variables that have been proposed over 40 years ago. With the presented approach we hope to provide cartographers, GIScientists and visualization designers a systematic assessment method to develop effective and efficient geovisualization displays.

  7. The influence of athletic experience and kinematic information on skill-relevant affordance perception.

    PubMed

    Weast, Julie A; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Humans can perceive affordances both for themselves and for others, and affordance perception is a function of perceptual-motor experience involved in playing a sport. Two experiments investigated the enhanced affordance perception of athletes. In Experiment 1, basketball players and nonbasketball players provided perceptual reports for sports-relevant (maximum standing-reach and reach-with-jump heights) and non-sports-relevant (maximum sitting height) affordances for self and other. Basketball players were more accurate at perceiving maximum reach-with-jump for another person than were nonbasketball players, but were no better at perceiving maximum reach or sitting heights. Experiment 2 investigated the informational basis for this enhanced perceptual ability of basketball players by evaluating whether kinematics inform perceivers about action-scaled (e.g., force-production dependent), but not body-scaled (i.e., geometrically determined), affordances for others, and whether basketball experience enhances sensitivity to kinematic information. Only basketball players improved at perceiving an action-scaled affordance (maximum reach-with-jump), but not body-scaled affordances (maximum standing-reach and sit) with exposure to kinematic information, suggesting that action-scaled affordances may be specified by kinematic information to which athletes are already attuned by virtue of their sport experience. PMID:21113859

  8. Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

  9. Overview of the MPEG-7 Standard and of Future Challenges for Visual Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salembier, Philippe

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] standard: the Multimedia Content Description Interface. It focuses on visual information description including low-level visual Descriptors and Segment Description Schemes. The paper also discusses some challenges in visual information analysis that will have to be faced in the future to allow efficient MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-based applications.

  10. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html . PMID:26264058

  11. Visual Information Seeking: A Study of Image Queries on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries; the data set consisted of 1,025,908 sequential queries from 211,058 users of EXCITE, a major Internet search service. Provides data on: image queries, image search sessions, and image terms. Discusses implications for the development of models for visual information

  12. A Visualization System Using Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Richard H.; Karadayi, Tarkan; Chen, Zhixiang; Meng, Xiannong; Fowler, Wendy A. Lawrence

    The Visual Analysis System (VAS) was developed to couple emerging successes in data mining with information visualization techniques in order to create a richly interactive environment for information retrieval from the World Wide Web. VAS's retrieval strategy operates by first using a conventional search engine to form a core set of retrieved…

  13. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  14. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  15. 32 CFR 811.3 - Official requests for visual information productions or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS 811.3 Official requests for visual information productions or materials. (a) Send official Air Force... statement of why products are needed on a specific date. (b) Send inquiries about motion picture...

  16. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or...

  17. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or...

  18. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.5 Shipping or...

  19. Adapting relative phase of bimanual isometric force coordination through scaling visual information intermittency.

    PubMed

    Lafe, Charley W; Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M

    2016-06-01

    Visual information plays an adaptive role in the relation between bimanual force coupling and error corrective processes of isometric force control. In the present study, the evolving distribution of the relative phase properties of bimanual isometric force coupling was examined by scaling within a trial the temporal feedback rate of visual intermittency (short to long presentation intervals and vice versa). The force error (RMSE) was reduced, and time-dependent irregularity (SampEn) of the force output was increased with greater amounts of visual information (shorter intermittency). Multi-stable coordination patterns of bimanual isometric force control were differentially shifted toward and away from the intrinsic dynamics by the changing the intermittency of visual information. The distribution of Hilbert transformed relative phase values showed progressively a predominantly anti-phase mode under less intermittent visual information to predominantly an in-phase mode with limited (almost no) visual information. Correlation between the hands showed a continuous reduction, rather than abrupt "transition," with increase in visual information, although no mean negative correlation was realized, despite the tendency towards an anti-phase distribution. Lastly, changes in both the performance outcome and bimanual isometric force coordination occurred at visual feedback rates faster than the minimal visual processing times established from single limb movement and isometric force protocols. PMID:27017544

  20. The Effect of Spatial and Nonspatial Contextual Information on Visual Object Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Mei; Gordon, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has found visual object memory can be stored as part of a larger scene representation rather than independently of scene context. The present study examined how spatial and nonspatial contextual information modulate visual object memory. Two experiments tested participants’ visual memory by using a change detection task in which a target object’s orientation was either the same as it appeared during initial viewing or changed. In addition, we examined the effect of spatial and nonspatial contextual manipulations on change detection performance. The results revealed that visual object representations can be maintained reliably after viewing arrays of objects. Moreover, change detection performance was significantly higher when either spatial or nonspatial contextual information remained the same in the test image. We concluded that while processing complex visual stimuli such as object arrays, visual object memory can be stored as part of a comprehensive scene representation, and both spatial and nonspatial contextual changes modulate visual memory retrieval and comparison. PMID:24910513

  1. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-09-22

    Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  2. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a “sensory recruitment” model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  3. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a "sensory recruitment" model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  4. 75 FR 20843 - Notice of Workshop To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...: Final Rule (73 FR 66964, November 12, 2008). The preamble to the final rule includes detailed... AGENCY Notice of Workshop To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the... entitled, ``Workshop to Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for Review of...

  5. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  6. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  7. Robust Visual Mining of Data with Error Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianyong; Kabán, Ata; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2007-09-01

    Recent results on robust density-based clustering have indicated that the uncertainty associated with the actual measurements can be exploited to locate objects that are atypical for a reason unrelated to measurement errors. In this paper, we develop a constrained robust mixture model, which, in addition, is able to nonlinearly map such data for visual exploration. Our robust visual mining approach aims to combine statistically sound density-based analysis with visual presentation of the density structure, and to provide visual support for the identification and exploration of "genuine" peculiar objects of interest that are not due to the measurement errors. In this model, an exact inference is not possible despite the latent space being discretised, and we resort to employing a structured variational EM. We present results on synthetic data as well as a real application, for visualising peculiar quasars from an astrophysical survey, given photometric measurements with errors.

  8. Investigation of display issues relevant to the presentation of aircraft fault information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.

  9. A framework for human relevance analysis of information on carcinogenic modes of action.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette; Bucher, John R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Vicki; Hill, Richard N; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Longfellow, David G; Pastoor, Timothy; Seed, Jennifer; Patton, Dorothy E

    2003-01-01

    The human relevance framework (HRF) outlines a four-part process, beginning with data on the mode of action (MOA) in laboratory animals, for evaluating the human relevance of animal tumors. Drawing on U.S. EPA and IPCS proposals for animal MOA analysis, the HRF expands those analyses to include a systematic evaluation of comparability, or lack of comparability, between the postulated animal MOA and related information from human data sources. The HRF evolved through a series of case studies representing several different MOAs. HRF analyses produced divergent outcomes, some leading to complete risk assessment and others discontinuing the process, according to the data available from animal and human sources. Two case examples call for complete risk assessments. One is the default: When data are insufficient to confidently postulate a MOA for test animals, the animal tumor data are presumed to be relevant for risk assessment and a complete risk assessment is necessary. The other is the product of a data-based finding that the animal MOA is relevant to humans. For the specific MOA and endpoint combinations studied for this article, full risk assessments are necessary for potentially relevant MOAs involving cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in animals and humans (Case Study 6, chloroform) and formation of urinary-tract calculi (Case Study 7, melamine). In other circumstances, when data-based findings for the chemical and endpoint combination studied indicate that the tumor-related animal MOA is unlikely to have a human counterpart, there is little reason to continue the risk assessment for that combination. Similarly, when qualitative considerations identify MOAs specific to the test species or quantitative considerations indicate that the animal MOA is unlikely to occur in humans, such hazard findings are generally conclusive and further risk assessment is not necessary for the endpoint-MOA combination under study. Case examples include a tumor-related protein specific to test animals (Case Study 3, d-limonene), the tumor consequences of hormone suppression typical of laboratory animals but not humans (Case Study 4, atrazine), and chemical-related enhanced hormone clearance rates in animals relative to humans (Case Study 5, phenobarbital). The human relevance analysis is highly specific for the chemical-MOA-tissue-endpoint combination under analysis in any particular case: different tissues, different endpoints, or alternative MOAs for a given chemical may result in different human relevance findings. By providing a systematic approach to using MOA data, the HRF offers a new tool for the scientific community's overall effort to enhance the predictive power, reliability and transparency of cancer risk assessment. PMID:14727733

  10. Afferent Information for Motor Control: The Role of Visual Information in Different Portions of the Movement.

    PubMed

    Temprado, J. J.; Vieilledent, S.; Proteau, L.

    1996-09-01

    The question addressed in the present study was whether subjects (N = 24) can use visual information about their hand, in the first half of an aiming movement, to ensure optimal directional accuracy of their aiming movements. Four groups of subjects practiced an aiming task in either a complete vision condition, a no-vision condition, or in a condition in which their hand was visible for the first half [initial vision condition (IV)] or the second half of the movement [final vision condition (FV)]. Following 240 trials of acquisition, all subjects were submitted to a transfer test that consisted of 40 trials performed in a no-vision condition. The results indicated that seeing the hand early in movement did not help subjects to optimize either directional or amplitude accuracy. On the other hand, when subjects viewed their hand closer to the target, movements resulted that were as accurate as those performed under a complete vision condition. In transfer, withdrawing vision did not cause any increase in aiming error for the IV or the no-vision conditions. These results replicated those of Carlton (1981) and extended those of Bard and colleagues (Bard, Hay, & Fleury, 1985) in that they indicated that the kinetic visual channel hypothesized by Paillard (1980; Paillard & Amblard, 1985) appeared to be inoperative beyond 40deg of visual angle. PMID:12529210

  11. Information processing in the primate visual system - An integrated systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, David C.; Anderson, Charles H.; Felleman, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The primate visual system contains dozens of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex and several major subcortical structures. These subdivisions are extensively interconnected in a distributed hierarchical network that contains several intertwined processing streams. A number of strategies are used for efficient information processing within this hierarchy. These include linear and nonlinear filtering, passage through information bottlenecks, and coordinated use of multiple types of information. In addition, dynamic regulation of information flow within and between visual areas may provide the computational flexibility needed for the visual system to perform a broad spectrum of tasks accurately and at high resolution.

  12. [Internal reference frame for representation and storage of visual information during standing].

    PubMed

    Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    The participation of different afferent systems in organization of internal reference frame was studied. For this was chosen the task of visual comparison that executed in different experimental conditions: in upright standing, with inclined body or head in frontal plane and availability or non-availability visual information about external environment. Results showed that dominant orientation of referent stimulus (minimal value of mean error and minimal variability of responses) was connected with body position, mainly head position but not with gravity and visual vertical even when visual environment was available. It means that for creating the internal representing of vertical CNS mainly uses proprioceptive information about longitudinal axis of body. PMID:21780677

  13. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cervinka, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Results Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (p<0.001), and more sun protection (p<0.001). Regarding gender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. Conclusions The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits. PMID:23573372

  14. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the forming of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

  15. The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information

  16. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  17. Using Information Visualization to Support Access to Archival Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    As more archival metadata and archival records become available online, providing effective interfaces to those materials is increasingly important to give users access. This article describes five approaches from the hypertext and visualization research communities which can be used to improve such access: (1) navigating hierarchical structures,…

  18. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  19. Seeing pitch: visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Trevor H; Massaro, Dominic W

    2008-04-01

    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers' neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head, and mouth, and this information can be effectively used after a short training session. PMID:18397038

  20. Hippocampus contributes to the maintenance but not the quality of visual information over time

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5) were less likely to remember test stimuli than comparison participants despite a brief maintenance interval (900 msec). However, estimates of memory quality were similar for all groups. Our findings suggest that the hippocampus contributes to brief maintenance of visual information but does not contribute to the quality of that information. PMID:25512572

  1. Information and repetition change children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues.

    PubMed

    Ordqvist, Anna; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Leung, Denise; Fleischer, Håkan; Dahlman, Joakim; Girdler, Sonya; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-02-01

    Gaze cues and direct gaze attract visual attention. However, few studies have explored visual cues in children within realistic contexts. The effect of information and repetitive stimulus presentation has not been thoroughly studied with dynamic stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate how information affects the visual strategies of children measured by the number of fixations on certain areas of interest and their durations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of gaze cues and direct gaze. In two consecutive experiments, children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks were measured by an eye tracker. Gaze cues were only present in Experiment 1.The results showed that repetitive stimulus presentation and information caused children to change their visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues. However, the effect was larger when the gaze cues were not present. These findings in children were similar to those in adults. PMID:23829142

  2. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information. PMID:26113828

  3. Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable

    PubMed Central

    Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045

  4. Using neural networks to understand the information that guides behavior: a case study in visual navigation.

    PubMed

    Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; Baddeley, Bart; Husbands, Philip

    2015-01-01

    To behave in a robust and adaptive way, animals must extract task-relevant sensory information efficiently. One way to understand how they achieve this is to explore regularities within the information animals perceive during natural behavior. In this chapter, we describe how we have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore efficiencies in vision and memory that might underpin visually guided route navigation in complex worlds. Specifically, we use three types of neural network to learn the regularities within a series of views encountered during a single route traversal (the training route), in such a way that the networks output the familiarity of novel views presented to them. The problem of navigation is then reframed in terms of a search for familiar views, that is, views similar to those associated with the route. This approach has two major benefits. First, the ANN provides a compact holistic representation of the data and is thus an efficient way to encode a large set of views. Second, as we do not store the training views, we are not limited in the number of training views we use and the agent does not need to decide which views to learn. PMID:25502385

  5. Learner-Information Interaction: A Macro-Level Framework Characterizing Visual Cognitive Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Visual cognitive tools (VCTs) are external mental aids that maintain and display visual representations (VRs) of information (i.e., structures, objects, concepts, ideas, and problems). VCTs allow learners to operate upon the VRs to perform epistemic (i.e., reasoning and knowledge-based) activities. In VCTs, the mechanism by which learners operate…

  6. Visual Information Seeking: A Study of Image Queries on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Examines visual information needs as expressed in users' Web image queries; the data set consisted of 1,025,908 sequential queries from 211,058 users of EXCITE, a major Internet search service. Provides data on: image queries, image search sessions, and image terms. Discusses implications for the development of models for visual information…

  7. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  8. Shape Recovery: A Visual Method for Evaluation of Information Retrieval Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Steven

    2000-01-01

    The method described permits visual analysis of information retrieval (IR) experiment results in classic control and treatment group protocols. It is an additional analysis technique for the evaluation of IR procedures that may be conducted within the rich terrain of human visual acuity, supported by two well-known statistical measures. (Contains…

  9. Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)

  10. A proposal for preprocessing, reduction, and selection of visual information in airborne flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaertner, K.

    1972-01-01

    A noncritical empirical detail-by-detail transformation of environmental information into flight display by purely physical methods characterizes the textured visual simulation as indiscernibly identical with the real scene. This method uses image storage, readout, image transformation, and graphic display to present a true color visual flight image to the pilot onboard aircraft in a purely electronic manner, employing analog-hybrid techniques.

  11. Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

  12. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  13. Intelligent Visualization of Geo-Information on the Future Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusallek, P.; Jochem, R.; Sons, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Visualization is a key component of the "Observation Web" and will become even more important in the future as geo data becomes more widely accessible. The common statement that "Data that cannot be seen, does not exist" is especially true for non-experts, like most citizens. The Web provides the most interesting platform for making data easily and widely available. However, today's Web is not well suited for the interactive visualization and exploration that is often needed for geo data. Support for 3D data was added only recently and at an extremely low level (WebGL), but even the 2D visualization capabilities of HTML e.g. (images, canvas, SVG) are rather limited, especially regarding interactivity. We have developed XML3D as an extension to HTML-5. It allows for compactly describing 2D and 3D data directly as elements of an HTML-5 document. All graphics elements are part of the Document Object Model (DOM) and can be manipulated via the same set of DOM events and methods that millions of Web developers use on a daily basis. Thus, XML3D makes highly interactive 2D and 3D visualization easily usable, not only for geo data. XML3D is supported by any WebGL-capable browser but we also provide native implementations in Firefox and Chromium. As an example, we show how OpenStreetMap data can be mapped directly to XML3D and visualized interactively in any Web page. We show how this data can be easily augmented with additional data from the Web via a few lines of Javascript. We also show how embedded semantic data (via RDFa) allows for linking the visualization back to the data's origin, thus providing an immersive interface for interacting with and modifying the original data. XML3D is used as key input for standardization within the W3C Community Group on "Declarative 3D for the Web" chaired by the DFKI and has recently been selected as one of the Generic Enabler for the EU Future Internet initiative.

  14. A method for enhancing digital information displayed to computer users with visual refractive errors via spatial and spectral processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Miguel, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    This research pursued the conceptualization, implementation, and verification of a system that enhances digital information displayed on an LCD panel to users with visual refractive errors. The target user groups for this system are individuals who have moderate to severe visual aberrations for which conventional means of compensation, such as glasses or contact lenses, does not improve their vision. This research is based on a priori knowledge of the user's visual aberration, as measured by a wavefront analyzer. With this information it is possible to generate images that, when displayed to this user, will counteract his/her visual aberration. The method described in this dissertation advances the development of techniques for providing such compensation by integrating spatial information in the image as a means to eliminate some of the shortcomings inherent in using display devices such as monitors or LCD panels. Additionally, physiological considerations are discussed and integrated into the method for providing said compensation. In order to provide a realistic sense of the performance of the methods described, they were tested by mathematical simulation in software, as well as by using a single-lens high resolution CCD camera that models an aberrated eye, and finally with human subjects having various forms of visual aberrations. Experiments were conducted on these systems and the data collected from these experiments was evaluated using statistical analysis. The experimental results revealed that the pre-compensation method resulted in a statistically significant improvement in vision for all of the systems. Although significant, the improvement was not as large as expected for the human subject tests. Further analysis suggest that even under the controlled conditions employed for testing with human subjects, the characterization of the eye may be changing. This would require real-time monitoring of relevant variables (e.g. pupil diameter) and continuous adjustment in the pre-compensation process to yield maximum viewing enhancement.

  15. Directing visual attention with spatially informative and spatially noninformative tactile cues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chanon M; Gray, Rob; Spence, Charles; Tan, Hong Z

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the tactile cuing of visual spatial attention using spatially-informative (75% valid) and spatially-noninformative (25% valid) tactile cues. The participants performed a visual change detection task following the presentation of a tactile spatial cue on their back whose location corresponded to one of the four visual quadrants on a computer monitor. The participants were explicitly instructed to use the spatially-informative tactile cues but to ignore the spatially-noninformative cues. In addition to reaction time data, participants' eye-gaze was monitored as a measure of overt visual attention. The results showed that the spatially-informative tactile cues resulted in initial saccades toward the cued visual quadrants, and significantly reduced the visual change detection latencies. When spatially-noninformative tactile cues were used, the participants were largely successful at ignoring them as indicated by a saccade distribution that was independent of the quadrant that was cued, as well as the lack of a significant change in search time as compared to the baseline measure of no tactile cuing. The eye-gaze data revealed that the participants could not always completely ignore the spatially-noninformative tactile cues. Our results suggest that the tactile cuing of visual attention is natural but not automatic when the tactile cue and visual target are not collocated spatially, and that it takes effort to ignore the cues even when they are known to provide no useful information. In addition, our results confirm previous findings that spatially-informative tactile cues are especially effective at directing overt visual attention to locations that are not typically monitored visually, such as the bottom of a computer screen or the rearview mirror in an automobile. PMID:18224305

  16. Introduction to Information Visualization (InfoVis) Techniques for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindiy, Oleg; Litomisky, Krystof; Davidoff, Scott; Dekens, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents insights that conform to numerous system modeling languages/representation standards. The insights are drawn from best practices of Information Visualization as applied to aerospace-based applications.

  17. Crossmodal Statistical Binding of Temporal Information and Stimuli Properties Recalibrates Perception of Visual Apparent Motion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of brain plasticity that pertain to time perception have shown that fast training of temporal discrimination in one modality, for example, the auditory modality, can improve performance of temporal discrimination in another modality, such as the visual modality. We here examined whether the perception of visual Ternus motion could be recalibrated through fast crossmodal statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties binding. We conducted two experiments, composed of three sessions each: pre-test, learning, and post-test. In both the pre-test and the post-test, participants classified the Ternus display as either “element motion” or “group motion.” For the training session in Experiment 1, we constructed two types of temporal structures, in which two consecutively presented sound beeps were dominantly (80%) flanked by one leading visual Ternus frame and by one lagging visual Ternus frame (VAAV) or dominantly inserted by two Ternus visual frames (AVVA). Participants were required to respond which interval (auditory vs. visual) was longer. In Experiment 2, we presented only a single auditory–visual pair but with similar temporal configurations as in Experiment 1, and asked participants to perform an audio–visual temporal order judgment. The results of these two experiments support that statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties can quickly and selectively recalibrate the sensitivity of perceiving visual motion, according to the protocols of the specific bindings. PMID:27065910

  18. Crossmodal Statistical Binding of Temporal Information and Stimuli Properties Recalibrates Perception of Visual Apparent Motion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of brain plasticity that pertain to time perception have shown that fast training of temporal discrimination in one modality, for example, the auditory modality, can improve performance of temporal discrimination in another modality, such as the visual modality. We here examined whether the perception of visual Ternus motion could be recalibrated through fast crossmodal statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties binding. We conducted two experiments, composed of three sessions each: pre-test, learning, and post-test. In both the pre-test and the post-test, participants classified the Ternus display as either "element motion" or "group motion." For the training session in Experiment 1, we constructed two types of temporal structures, in which two consecutively presented sound beeps were dominantly (80%) flanked by one leading visual Ternus frame and by one lagging visual Ternus frame (VAAV) or dominantly inserted by two Ternus visual frames (AVVA). Participants were required to respond which interval (auditory vs. visual) was longer. In Experiment 2, we presented only a single auditory-visual pair but with similar temporal configurations as in Experiment 1, and asked participants to perform an audio-visual temporal order judgment. The results of these two experiments support that statistical binding of temporal information and stimuli properties can quickly and selectively recalibrate the sensitivity of perceiving visual motion, according to the protocols of the specific bindings. PMID:27065910

  19. Enhancing Policymakers Understanding of Disparities: Relevant Data from an Information-Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576

  20. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P.; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and “intelligible constructs” not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving relevant documents when compared with three existing search systems. PMID:25814917

  1. Direct neural pathways convey distinct visual information to Drosophila mushroom bodies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Katrin; Aso, Yoshinori; Hige, Toshihide; Knapek, Stephan; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Friedrich, Anja B; Turner, Glenn C; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that visual and olfactory associative memories of Drosophila share mushroom body (MB) circuits (Vogt et al., 2014). Unlike for odor representation, the MB circuit for visual information has not been characterized. Here, we show that a small subset of MB Kenyon cells (KCs) selectively responds to visual but not olfactory stimulation. The dendrites of these atypical KCs form a ventral accessory calyx (vAC), distinct from the main calyx that receives olfactory input. We identified two types of visual projection neurons (VPNs) directly connecting the optic lobes and the vAC. Strikingly, these VPNs are differentially required for visual memories of color and brightness. The segregation of visual and olfactory domains in the MB allows independent processing of distinct sensory memories and may be a conserved form of sensory representations among insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14009.001 PMID:27083044

  2. The Role of Visual and Nonvisual Information in the Control of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2005-01-01

    During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visual information during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled…

  3. The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…

  4. Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F; Miller, D G; Burns, H J

    1978-01-01

    A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced less accurate responding on both a yes-no and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test. Further, misleading information had a larger impact if introduced just prior to a final test rather than immediately after the initial event. The effects of misleading information cannot be accounted for by a simple demand-characteristics explanation. Overall, the results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event. PMID:621467

  5. A Tag Cloud-Based Visualization for Geo-Referenced Text Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Hua, Y.-X.; Zhao, J.-X.; Wang, L.-N.; Wang, P.

    2013-11-01

    Large amounts of geo-referenced text information such as messages from microblog websites are continuously becoming more popular. In this paper, we introduce a new visualization method based on tag clouds for geo-referenced text information. We process large amounts of geo-referenced text, using several visual metaphors including tag clouds, for the exploration of information on maps, instead of using just conventional cartographic approaches. The results show that this method can be useful for presentation and exploration of such geo-referenced text information.

  6. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  7. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  8. Auditory rhythms are systemically associated with spatial-frequency and density information in visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-08-01

    A variety of perceptual correspondences between auditory and visual features have been reported, but few studies have investigated how rhythm, an auditory feature defined purely by dynamics relevant to speech and music, interacts with visual features. Here, we demonstrate a novel crossmodal association between auditory rhythm and visual clutter. Participants were shown a variety of visual scenes from diverse categories and asked to report the auditory rhythm that perceptually matched each scene by adjusting the rate of amplitude modulation (AM) of a sound. Participants matched each scene to a specific AM rate with surprising consistency. A spatial-frequency analysis showed that scenes with greater contrast energy in midrange spatial frequencies were matched to faster AM rates. Bandpass-filtering the scenes indicated that greater contrast energy in this spatial-frequency range was associated with an abundance of object boundaries and contours, suggesting that participants matched more cluttered scenes to faster AM rates. Consistent with this hypothesis, AM-rate matches were strongly correlated with perceived clutter. Additional results indicated that both AM-rate matches and perceived clutter depend on object-based (cycles per object) rather than retinal (cycles per degree of visual angle) spatial frequency. Taken together, these results suggest a systematic crossmodal association between auditory rhythm, representing density in the temporal domain, and visual clutter, representing object-based density in the spatial domain. This association may allow for the use of auditory rhythm to influence how visual clutter is perceived and attended. PMID:23423817

  9. NOAA's Honua: Visualizations of Complex Environmental Information in Formal and Informal Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.

  10. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  11. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future

  12. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve the... Center, Information Office, 8700 Edgeworth Drive, Capitol Heights, MD 20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction...

  13. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  14. Helping Learners Think More Hopefully about Life after School: The Usefulness of Participatory Visual Strategies to Make Career Education More Contextually Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Suegnet; Wood, Lesley; Neethling, Marinda

    2015-01-01

    Learners living in challenging socio-economic circumstances face limited opportunities for further education and employment. In this context, formal career guidance which merely provides information about specific jobs and how to access them may be of little use. This article explores the usefulness of participatory visual strategies as a…

  15. Thalamic nuclei convey diverse contextual information to layer 1 of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Roth, Morgane M; Dahmen, Johannes C; Muir, Dylan R; Imhof, Fabia; Martini, Francisco J; Hofer, Sonja B

    2016-02-01

    Sensory perception depends on the context in which a stimulus occurs. Prevailing models emphasize cortical feedback as the source of contextual modulation. However, higher order thalamic nuclei, such as the pulvinar, interconnect with many cortical and subcortical areas, suggesting a role for the thalamus in providing sensory and behavioral context. Yet the nature of the signals conveyed to cortex by higher order thalamus remains poorly understood. Here we use axonal calcium imaging to measure information provided to visual cortex by the pulvinar equivalent in mice, the lateral posterior nucleus (LP), as well as the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We found that dLGN conveys retinotopically precise visual signals, while LP provides distributed information from the visual scene. Both LP and dLGN projections carry locomotion signals. However, while dLGN inputs often respond to positive combinations of running and visual flow speed, LP signals discrepancies between self-generated and external visual motion. This higher order thalamic nucleus therefore conveys diverse contextual signals that inform visual cortex about visual scene changes not predicted by the animal's own actions. PMID:26691828

  16. Characterizing the role of disparity information in alleviating visual crowding.

    PubMed

    Astle, Andrew T; McGovern, David P; McGraw, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify a target is reduced by the presence of nearby objects, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. The extent to which crowding impairs our perception is generally governed by the degree of similarity between a target stimulus and its surrounding flankers. Here we investigated the influence of disparity differences between target and flankers on crowding. Orientation discrimination thresholds for a parafoveal target were first measured when the target and flankers were presented at the same depth to establish a flanker separation that induced a significant elevation in threshold for each individual. Flankers were subsequently fixed at this spatial separation while the disparity of the flankers relative to the target was altered. For all participants, thresholds showed a systematic decrease as flanker-target disparity increased. The resulting tuning function was asymmetric: Crowding was lower when the target was perceived to be in front of the flankers rather than behind. A series of control experiments confirmed that these effects were driven by disparity, as opposed to other factors such as flanker-target separation in three-dimensional (3-D) space or monocular positional offsets used to create disparity. When flankers were distributed over a range of crossed and uncrossed disparities, such that the mean was in the plane of the target, there was an equivalent or greater release of crowding compared to when all flankers were presented at the maximum disparity of that range. Overall, our results suggest that depth cues can reduce the effects of visual crowding, and that this reduction is unlikely to be caused by grouping of flankers or positional shifts in the monocular image. PMID:25424981

  17. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions. PMID:25202298

  18. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions. PMID:25202298

  19. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  20. Humans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Knill, David C

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether humans use a target's remembered location to plan reaching movements to targets according to the relative reliabilities of visual and remembered information. Using their index finger, subjects moved a virtual object from one side of a table to the other, and then went back to a target. In some trials, the target shifted unnoticed while the finger made the first movement. We regressed subjects' movement trajectories against the initial and shifted target locations to infer the weights that subjects gave to remembered and visual locations. We measured the reliability of vision and memory by adding conditions in which the target only appeared after subjects made the first movement (vision only) and in which the target was initially present but disappeared during the first movement (memory only). When both visual and remembered information were available, movement trajectories were biased to the remembered target location. The different weights that subjects gave to memory and visual information on average matched the weights predicted by the variance associated with the use of vision and memory alone. This suggests that humans integrate remembered information about object locations with peripheral visual information by taking into account the relative reliability of the two sources of information. PMID:19271894

  1. Distinct Representation and Distribution of Visual Information by Specific Cell Types in Mouse Superficial Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.

    2014-01-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role. PMID:25274823

  2. Assisting the visually impaired to deal with telephone interview jobs using information and commutation technology.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fung-Huei; Yang, Chung-Chieh

    2014-12-01

    This study proposed a new information and commutation technology assisted blind telephone interview (ICT-ABTI) system to help visually impaired people to do telephone interview jobs as normal sighted people and create more diverse employment opportunities for them. The study also used an ABAB design to assess the system with seven visually impaired people. As the results, they can accomplish 3070 effective telephone interviews per month independently. The results also show that working performance of the visually impaired can be improved effectively with appropriate design of operation working flow and accessible software. The visually impaired become productive, lucrative, and self-sufficient by using ICT-ABTI system to do telephone interview jobs. The results were also shared through the APEC Digital Opportunity Center platform to help visually impaired in Philippines, Malaysia and China. PMID:25209925

  3. Efficient application-independent visualization engine for information with complex data structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Frank W.; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chen, C. Y. Roger

    1997-04-01

    A novel layered visualization model is proposed to provide a systematic approach for visualizing and manipulating information with complex structure. A heterogeneous multiple level composite container type concept is introduced to model any arbitrary complex data structure. The necessary visualization and manipulation strategies are also provided within the model. Based on the model, an efficient application-independent visualization engine has been designed and implemented. A type wrapper concept is used to provide a general application interface. Applications can easily interact with the visualization engine by registering application-dependent type wrappers into the engine. THE engine has been sued as the graphical interface to a distributed object-oriented multimedia database management system.

  4. Child Looking Patterns: A Sudden Change in Visual Information Pick-Up at 32 Month of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Karl; And Others

    This study examined infants' change in visual information pick-up, from an infant-like stimulus-locked visual scanning pattern to an adult-like cognitive control of visual information pick-up. Subjects were 21 children between 25 and 42 months of age. Eye movements were videotaped in a preferential looking situation and later analyzed as still…

  5. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  6. Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

  7. The Relative Effectiveness of Varied Visual Testing Formats in Retrieving Information Related to Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jaison; Dwyer, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…

  8. Describing Images: A Case Study of Visual Literacy among Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the development of pedagogical methods for increasing the visual literacy skills of a group of library and information science students. Through a series of three assignments, students were asked to provide descriptive information for a set of historical photographs and record reflections on their…

  9. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies

  10. The Time Course of Visual Information Utilization during Fixations in Reading. Technical Report No. 278.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Harry E.; And Others

    A study investigated at what point during eye fixations visual information is used in furthering the reading process. The study identified two aspects of information processing: registration, in which a light pattern on the retina triggers a pattern of neural activity in the visula cortex; and utilization, in which the registered pattern has an…

  11. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

  12. Visualization of health information with predications extracted using natural language processing and filtered using the UMLS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Trudi; Leroy, Gondy

    2008-01-01

    Increased availability of and reliance on written health information can tax the abilities of unskilled readers. We are developing a system that uses natural language processing to extract phrases, identify medical terms using the UMLS, and visualize the propositions. This system substantially reduces the amount of information a consumer must read, while providing an alternative to traditional prose based text. PMID:18999136

  13. Seeing for Ourselves: Producing Accessible Information for People with Learning Difficulties and Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Visual impairment, although often unidentified, is common in people with learning disabilities. However, despite the high incidence of sight problems, little guidance has been produced on accessible information for this varied "group" of individuals. This paper, which develops the Information for All guidance [Rodgers et al.…

  14. Visual Tracking of an Object with its Motion Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimeno, Atsutoshi; Uchida, Seiichi; Kurazume, Ryo; Taniguchi, Rin-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Tsutomu

    Tracking of a moving robot in surveillance video is an important task for coexistence of human beings with robots. An essential technology to manage coexistence environment of human beings and moving robots is separation and tracking of moving robots. For this task, the moving robot should be separated from other moving objects, i.e., human beings. We assume that the robot provides its additional motion information to the surveillance system to ease the task. The robot can be tracked from the other objects as a moving region being consistent with the additional motion information. For this purpose, we modify a tracking algorithm based on particle filter in order to incorporate the additional motion information. The results of an experiment on real surveillance video sequences have indicated that the proposed framework can separate and track a moving robot under the existence of several walking persons.

  15. Have Maryland local health departments effectively put in place the information technology relevant to emergency preparedness?

    PubMed

    Nguh, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations. PMID:24187746

  16. The effects of lossy compression on diagnostically relevant seizure information in EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system. PMID:23047884

  17. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Ontario, Canada: Producing Relevant and Timely Information for Health Care Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Whicher, Danielle M; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Dhalla, Irfan A; Levin, Leslie; Tunis, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Context: Comparative effectiveness research is increasingly being recognized as a method to link research with the information needs of decision makers. As the United States begins to invest in comparative effectiveness, it would be wise to look at other functioning research networks to understand the infrastructure and funding required to support them. Methods: This case study looks at the comparative effectiveness research network in Ontario, Canada, for which a neutral coordinating committee is responsible for prioritizing topics, assessing evidence, providing recommendations on coverage decisions, and determining pertinent research questions for further evaluation. This committee is supported by the Medical Advisory Secretariat and several large research institutions. This article analyzes the infrastructure and cost needed to support this network and offers recommendations for developing policies and methodologies to support comparative effectiveness research in the United States. Findings: The research network in place in Ontario explicitly links decision making with evidence generation, in a transparent, timely, and efficient way. Funding is provided by the Ontario government through a reliable and stable funding mechanism that helps ensure that the studies it supports are relevant to decision makers. Conclusions: With the recent allocation of funds to support comparative effectiveness research from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the United States should begin to construct an infrastructure that applies these features to make sure that evidence generated from this effort positively affects the quality of health care delivered to patients. PMID:19751283

  18. Visual navigation in insects: coupling of egocentric and geocentric information

    PubMed

    Wehner; Michel; Antonsen

    1996-01-01

    Social hymenopterans such as bees and ants are central-place foragers; they regularly depart from and return to fixed positions in their environment. In returning to the starting point of their foraging excursion or to any other point, they could resort to two fundamentally different ways of navigation by using either egocentric or geocentric systems of reference. In the first case, they would rely on information continuously collected en route (path integration, dead reckoning), i.e. integrate all angles steered and all distances covered into a mean home vector. In the second case, they are expected, at least by some authors, to use a map-based system of navigation, i.e. to obtain positional information by virtue of the spatial position they occupy within a larger environmental framework. In bees and ants, path integration employing a skylight compass is the predominant mechanism of navigation, but geocentred landmark-based information is used as well. This information is obtained while the animal is dead-reckoning and, hence, added to the vector course. For example, the image of the horizon skyline surrounding the nest entrance is retinotopically stored while the animal approaches the goal along its vector course. As shown in desert ants (genus Cataglyphis), there is neither interocular nor intraocular transfer of landmark information. Furthermore, this retinotopically fixed, and hence egocentred, neural snapshot is linked to an external (geocentred) system of reference. In this way, geocentred information might more and more complement and potentially even supersede the egocentred information provided by the path-integration system. In competition experiments, however, Cataglyphis never frees itself of its homeward-bound vector - its safety-line, so to speak - by which it is always linked to home. Vector information can also be transferred to a longer-lasting (higher-order) memory. There is no need to invoke the concept of the mental analogue of a topographic map - a metric map - assembled by the insect navigator. The flexible use of vectors, snapshots and landmark-based routes suffices to interpret the insect's behaviour. The cognitive-map approach in particular, and the representational paradigm in general, are discussed. PMID:9317483

  19. Scientific visualization of Chesapeake Bay water quality data using a geographic information system "movie"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigterink, Paul V.; Bahner, Lowell

    1993-10-01

    This paper examines the use of scientific visualization techniques and a geographic information system (GIS)-based `movie' to examine the Chesapeake Bay water quality data. Following the suggestion of Knapp (1992) and Buttenfield and Ganter (1990), the paper follows the framework of problem identification, data analysis, illustration, and decision making. The images shown in the demonstration are volumetric interpolation model results. The model result files were transferred to a Macintosh II and visualized using a mapping and visualization program. The resulting PICT files are then displayed sequentially by animation software.

  20. Stimulus-response correspondence effect as a function of temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant information processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany

    2016-08-01

    The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap. PMID:26555858

  1. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  2. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  3. Distance Learning in Joint Public Affairs and Visual Information Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Edith E.; Jeffries, Dianne

    An initiative was undertaken to introduce technology-enabled and distance learning to the Defense Information School (DINFOS), Ft. Meade, Maryland. The effort to introduce instructional technology reflected the need to find a creative solution to Armed Forces requests for increased student quotas, reduced pool of military instructors, and an…

  4. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  5. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  6. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  7. Combining physical and semantical navigation in three-dimensional information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Dos Santos, Cristina; Gros, Pascal; Abel, Pierre

    2002-03-01

    The field of information visualization is in permanent expansion and new and innovative ways of visualizing large volumes of abstract data are being developed. The use of virtual metaphoric worlds is one of them, but these visualizations per se are only truly useful if the user is provided a means of exploring the information. A common way of data exploration is navigation. In the case of three-dimensional (3D) information visualization, navigation as a means of information exploration attains even more importance due to the extra exploitable dimension. Nonetheless, navigation in large virtual worlds is still a difficult task and not only for naive users; there is anecdotal evidence that electronic navigation is considered difficult even by the virtual worlds builders. Wayfinding, knowing where to go, is sometimes perceived as the hardest part; other times, it is the locomotion, getting there, that is found difficult. This paper presents a navigation strategy that attempts to solve these problems by combining physical/metaphoric navigation with semantic navigation. We present a framework for navigating large virtual worlds that relies heavily on the use of visual metaphors. The combination of physical and semantic navigation embedded in the metaphor components allows for a powerful data exploration and electronic navigation mechanism.

  8. The distribution of category and location information across object-selective regions in human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Schwarzlose, Rebecca F; Swisher, Jascha D; Dang, Sabin; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2008-03-18

    Since Ungerleider and Mishkin [Underleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. Analysis of Visual Behavior, eds Ingle MA, Goodale MI, Masfield RJW (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA), pp 549-586] proposed separate visual pathways for processing object shape and location, steady progress has been made in characterizing the organization of the two kinds of information in extrastriate visual cortex in humans. However, to date, there has been no broad-based survey of category and location information across all major functionally defined object-selective regions. In this study, we used an fMRI region-of-interest (ROI) approach to identify eight regions characterized by their strong selectivity for particular object categories (faces, scenes, bodies, and objects). Participants viewed four types of stimuli (faces, scenes, bodies, and cars) appearing in each of three different spatial locations (above, below, or at fixation). Analyses based on the mean response and voxelwise patterns of response in each ROI reveal location information in almost all of the known object-selective regions. Furthermore, category and location information can be read out independently of one another such that most regions contain both position-invariant category information and category-invariant position information. Finally, we find substantially more location information in ROIs on the lateral than those on the ventral surface of the brain, even though these regions have equal amounts of category information. Although the presence of both location and category information in most object-selective regions argues against a strict physical separation of processing streams for object shape and location, the ability to extract position-invariant category information and category-invariant position information from the same neural population indicates that form and location information nonetheless remain functionally independent. PMID:18326624

  9. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656

  10. Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display

    PubMed Central

    van Rheede, Joram J.; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

  11. The influence of auditory and visual information on the neuromuscular control of chewing crispy food.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, Andries; Pocztaruk, Rafael L; Frasca, Luis C F; van der Glas, Hilbert W; Abbink, Jan H

    2011-12-01

    The influence of auditory and/or visual information on the neuromuscular control of chewing a crispy food was investigated. Participants chewed biscuits of three different levels of crispness under four experimental conditions: no masking, auditory masking, visual masking, and auditory plus visual masking. The order of the four masking condition blocks was randomized. The sound of chewing was masked by loud sounds on a headphone, and visual masking of the food was achieved by closing the eyes. Mechanical tests were performed on the biscuits to determine their characteristics, yield force, and sound production. Skull vibration, jaw-muscle activity, and jaw movement were measured while the subjects chewed and swallowed the food. Auditory and/or visual masking did not have a significant effect on skull vibration, muscle activity, and number of chewing cycles until swallowing. However, auditory and/or visual masking significantly increased the chewing cycle duration, but only for the participants who started the experiments with auditory and/or visual masking. The other participants were not influenced by masking. The memory of the unmodified stimuli helped these subjects to maintain their habitual chewing rate in later trials. PMID:22112027

  12. Simulating prosthetic vision: Optimizing the information content of a limited visual display.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Joram J; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Visual prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are currently under development. To guide prosthesis research and allow for an accurate prognosis of functional gain, simulating the experience of a retinal prosthesis in healthy individuals is desirable. Current simulation paradigms lack crucial aspects of the prosthetic experience such as realistic head- and eye-position-dependent image presentation. We developed a simulation paradigm that used a head-mounted camera and eye tracker to lock the simulation to the point of fixation. We evaluated visual acuity, object recognition and manipulation, and wayfinding under simulated prosthetic vision. We explored three ways of optimizing the information content of the prosthetic visual image: Full-Field representation (wide visual angle, low sampling frequency), Region of Interest (ROI; narrow visible angle, high sampling frequency), and Fisheye (high sampling frequency in the center, progressively lower resolution toward the edges). Full-Field representation facilitated visual search and navigation, whereas ROI improved visual acuity. The Fisheye representation, designed to incorporate the benefits of both Full-Field representation and ROI, performed similarly to ROI with subjects unable to capitalize on the peripheral data. The observation that different image representation conditions prove advantageous for different tasks should be taken into account in the process of designing and testing new visual prosthesis prototypes. PMID:21191130

  13. How do batters use visual, auditory, and tactile information about the success of a baseball swing?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2009-09-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation between the point of contact and "sweet spot") was compared for no feedback (N), visual alone, auditory alone, and tactile alone. Swings were more accurate for all single-modality combinations as compared to no feedback, and visual produced the greatest accuracy. In Experiment 2, the congruency between visual, tactile, and auditory was varied so that in some trials, the different modalities indicated that the simulated ball contacted the bat at different points. Results indicated that batters combined information but gave more weight to visual. Batting training manuals, which typically only discuss visual cues, should emphasize the importance of auditory and tactile feedback in baseball batting. PMID:19791635

  14. Information Filtering with Submaps for Inertial Aided Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, M.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    This work is concerned with the fusion of inertial measurements (accelerations and angular velocities) with imagery data (feature points extracted in a video stream) in a recursive bundle adjustment framework for indoor position and attitude estimation. Recursive processing is achieved by a combination of local submaps and the Schur complement. The Schur complement is used to reduce the problem size at regular intervals while retaining the information provided by past measurements. Local submaps provide a way to propagate the gauge constraints and thereby to alleviate the detrimental effects of linearization errors in the prior. Though the presented technique is not real-time capable in its current implementation, it can be employed to process arbitrarily long trajectories. The presented system is evaluated by comparing the estimated trajectory of the system with a reference trajectory of a prism attached to the system, which was recorded by a total station.

  15. Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

  16. The activation of segmental and tonal information in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min; Jiang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account. PMID:23400856

  17. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

  18. Person perception informs understanding of cognition during visual search.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Allison A; Watson, Marcus R; Kingstone, Alan; Enns, James T

    2011-08-01

    Does person perception--the impressions we form from watching others--hold clues to the mental states of people engaged in cognitive tasks? We investigated this with a two-phase method: In Phase 1, participants searched on a computer screen (Experiment 1) or in an office (Experiment 2); in Phase 2, other participants rated the searchers' video-recorded behavior. The results showed that blind raters are sensitive to individual differences in search proficiency and search strategy, as well as to environmental factors affecting search difficulty. Also, different behaviors were linked to search success in each setting: Eye movement frequency predicted successful search on a computer screen; head movement frequency predicted search success in an office. In both settings, an active search strategy and positive emotional expressions were linked to search success. These data indicate that person perception informs cognition beyond the scope of performance measures, offering the potential for new measurements of cognition that are both rich and unobtrusive. PMID:21626239

  19. Effects of contextual information and stimulus ambiguity on overt visual sampling behavior.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, T C; König, P

    2015-05-01

    The sampling of our visual environment through saccadic eye movements is an essential function of the brain, allowing us to overcome the limits of peripheral vision. Understanding which parts of a scene attract overt visual attention is subject to intense research, and considerable progress has been made in unraveling the underlying cortical mechanisms. In contrast to spatial aspects, however, relatively little is understood about temporal aspects of overt visual sampling. At every fixation, the oculomotor system faces the decision whether to keep exploring different aspects of an object or scene or whether to remain fixated to allow for in-depth cortical processing - a situation that can be understood in terms of an exploration-exploitation dilemma. To improve our understanding of the factors involved in these decisions, we here investigate how the level of visual information, experimentally manipulated by scene context and stimulus ambiguity, changes the sampling behavior preceding the recognition of centrally presented ambiguous and disambiguated objects. Behaviorally, we find that context, although only presented until the first voluntary saccade, biases the perceptual outcome and significantly reduces reaction times. Importantly, we find that increased information about an object significantly alters its visual exploration, as evident through increased fixation durations and reduced saccade amplitudes. These results demonstrate that the initial sampling of an object, preceding its recognition, is subject to change based on the amount of information available in the system: increased evidence for its identity biases the exploration-exploitation strategy towards in-depth analyses. PMID:25805148

  20. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding. Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be. The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes. The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early. PMID:24098919

  1. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a knowledge and translational continuum, which in turn will reduce the attrition rate and costs of clinical development by identifying poor candidates early. PMID:24098919

  2. Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day. PMID:22810559

  3. [The dependence of motor response time in discrimination task on the type of available visual information].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Levik, Iu S; Lipshits, M I

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of proprioceptive and visual afferentation was studied in motor task for discrimination of weights of falling objects. The availability of visual information decreased the time of motor response but to different extent depending on the kind of this information. The shortening of response time was significantly greater when subject have seen the beginning of real fall that when he simply seen the control LED signaling the release of object by electromagnet. So, subject accomplishes the task of discrimination of light and heavy object more efficiently if he sees the real falling object. This may be due to the capacity of CNS to predict the time of the impact more accurately when subject observe the initial part of real trajectory and not just an abstract visual signal. PMID:23789393

  4. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  5. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  6. The Effect of Delay in the Presentation of Visual Information on Pilot Performance. Final Report, April 1974-July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Fred R.; And Others

    Naval researchers studied the effects of delay in the presentatio of visual information on pilot performance. Simulated carrier landing tasks were performed by subjects using a visual display generated by a computer. In one part of the experiment pilots were asked to "fly" carrier approaches with and without a 0.1 second delay in the visual scene…

  7. The Effect of Delay in the Presentation of Visual Information on Pilot Performance. Final Report, April 1974-July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Fred R.; And Others

    Naval researchers studied the effects of delay in the presentatio of visual information on pilot performance. Simulated carrier landing tasks were performed by subjects using a visual display generated by a computer. In one part of the experiment pilots were asked to "fly" carrier approaches with and without a 0.1 second delay in the visual scene

  8. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed several challenges, including: allocating the emission reduction and economic impacts of local- to state-scale mitigation strategies that are in reality integrated on regional and/or national scales; incorporating changes to the details of the strategies over time; identifying and quantifying key variables; choosing appropriate levels of detail for over 100 strategies within the limited analysis timeframe; integrating individual strategies into a coherent whole; and structuring data presentation to maximize transparency of analysis without confusing or overwhelming decision makers.

  9. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.

  10. Relevant Responding in Pragmatic Language Impairment: The Role of Language Variation in the Information-Soliciting Utterance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Vannesa T.; Eyer, Julia A.; Hardee, W Paul

    2005-01-01

    Responding relevantly to an information-soliciting utterance (ISU) is required of a school-age child many times daily. For the child with pragmatic language difficulties, this may be especially problematic, yet clinicians have had few data to design intervention for improving these skills. This small-scale study looks at the ability of a child…

  11. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience. PMID:24980274

  12. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long-term experience shapes this adaptive process wherein the top-down connections provide selective gating of inputs to both cortical and subcortical structures to enhance neural responses to specific behaviorally-relevant attributes of the stimulus. A theoretical framework for a neural network is proposed involving coordination between local, feedforward, and feedback components that can account for experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representations at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. The ability to record brainstem and cortical pitch relevant responses concurrently may provide a new window to evaluate the online interplay between feedback, feedforward, and local intrinsic components in the hierarchical processing of pitch relevant information. PMID:25838636

  13. Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.

    2005-10-01

    A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.

  14. Shaping a lateralized brain: Asymmetrical light experience modulates access to visual interhemispheric information in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Letzner, Sara; Patzke, Nina; Verhaal, Josine; Manns, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetries result from hemispheric specialization and interhemispheric communication pattern that develop in close gene-environment interactions. To gain a deeper understanding of developmental and functional interrelations, we investigated interhemispheric information exchange in pigeons, which possess a lateralized visual system that develops in response to asymmetrical ontogenetic light stimulation. We monocularly trained pigeons with or without embryonic light experience in color discriminations whereby they learned another pair of colors with each eye. Thereby, information from the ipsilateral eye had to be transferred. Monocular tests confronting the animals with trained and transferred color pairs demonstrated that embryonic light stimulation modulates the balance of asymmetrical handling of transfer information. Stronger embryonic stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly enhanced access to interhemispheric visual information, thereby reversing the right-hemispheric advantage that develops in the absence of embryonic light experience. These data support the critical role of environmental factors in molding a functionally lateralized brain. PMID:24584671

  15. The Effects of Musical Accompaniment on Visual Information Processing within and across Selected Personality Type Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda

    The effects of musical accompaniment on two different visual information processing activities were examined in individuals of differing selected personality types. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form G was administered to classes of University students. From the results, four subgroups, the sensing-thinking, sensing-feeling, intuitive-feeling,…

  16. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  17. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  18. The influence of visual target information on the online control of movements.

    PubMed

    Sarlegna, Fabrice R; Mutha, Pratik K

    2015-05-01

    The continuously changing properties of our environment require constant monitoring of our actions and updating of our motor commands based on the task goals. Such updating relies upon our predictions about the sensory consequences of our movement commands, as well as sensory feedback received during movement execution. Here we focus on how visual information about target location is used to update and guide ongoing actions so that the task goal is successfully achieved. We review several studies that have manipulated vision of the target in a variety of ways, ranging from complete removal of visual target information to changes in visual target properties after movement onset to examine how such changes are accounted for during motor execution. We also examined the specific role of a critical neural structure, the parietal cortex, and argue that a fundamental challenge for the future is to understand how visual information about target location is integrated with other streams of information, during movement execution, to estimate the state of the body and the environment in order to ensure optimal motor performance. PMID:25038472

  19. EM information leakage from display unit and visual inspection for its leakage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Sako, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Display unit emits a small amount of electromagnetic wave. Although it is weak enough to prevent interference with human body, information leaks through it. This paper presents an experiment on exploring the leakage source by visually inspecting the screen images reconstructed from captured electromagnetic waves. Additionally, some countermeasures are investigated to avoid the problem.

  20. The Effects of Relaxation and Visualization on Information Retention in Fifth Grade Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabot, Kathy L.

    This paper examines the effectiveness and feasibility of introducing relaxation and visualization techniques as study skills. Fifth grade science students from Charlottesville, Virginia (N=43) received six 20-minute classes using relaxation to study information on famous scientists. Results of this study indicate that relaxation and visualization…

  1. Forecasting and visualization of wildfires in a 3D geographical information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrillón, M.; Jorge, P. A.; López, I. J.; Macías, A.; Martín, D.; Nebot, R. J.; Sabbagh, I.; Quintana, F. M.; Sánchez, J.; Sánchez, A. J.; Suárez, J. P.; Trujillo, A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a wildfire forecasting application based on a 3D virtual environment and a fire simulation engine. A novel open-source framework is presented for the development of 3D graphics applications over large geographic areas, offering high performance 3D visualization and powerful interaction tools for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) community. The application includes a remote module that allows simultaneous connections of several users for monitoring a real wildfire event. The system is able to make a realistic composition of what is really happening in the area of the wildfire with dynamic 3D objects and location of human and material resources in real time, providing a new perspective to analyze the wildfire information. The user is enabled to simulate and visualize the propagation of a fire on the terrain integrating at the same time spatial information on topography and vegetation types with weather and wind data. The application communicates with a remote web service that is in charge of the simulation task. The user may specify several parameters through a friendly interface before the application sends the information to the remote server responsible of carrying out the wildfire forecasting using the FARSITE simulation model. During the process, the server connects to different external resources to obtain up-to-date meteorological data. The client application implements a realistic 3D visualization of the fire evolution on the landscape. A Level Of Detail (LOD) strategy contributes to improve the performance of the visualization system.

  2. Infographics And Public Policy: Using Data Visualization To Convey Complex Information.

    PubMed

    Otten, Jennifer J; Cheng, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Data visualization combines principles from psychology, usability, graphic design, and statistics to highlight important data in accessible and appealing formats. Doing so helps bridge knowledge producers with knowledge users, who are often inundated with information and increasingly pressed for time. PMID:26526248

  3. How Do Expert Soccer Players Encode Visual Information to Make Decisions in Simulated Game Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

  4. Young Children's Comprehension of Television: The Role of Visual Information and Intonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; Brown, Susan K. McCann; Cohen, David I.

    Several current television series for preschool children convey stories, not through meaningful dialogue, but through visual information and intonational cues embedded within nonsensical dialogue. This study examined young children's ability to construct meaning from such materials. Participating were 135 preschoolers, 3 to 5 years old. Subjects…

  5. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  6. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  7. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    PubMed Central

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this proposal. However, given the infinite capacity of long-term memory, it is unclear whether throwing a representation out of visual working memory really removes its effects on memory entirely. In this paper, we advocate for an approach that examines our ability to erase memory representations from working memory, as well as possible traces that those erased representations leave in long-term memory. PMID:24782798

  8. Alcohol-Related Visual Cues Impede the Ability to Process Auditory Information: Seeing but Not Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Monem, Ramey G.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of visual attention find that drinkers spend more time attending to images of alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral images. It is believed that this attentional bias contributes to the maintenance of alcohol use. However, no research has examined the possibility that this bias of visual attention might actually impede the functioning of other modalities, such as the processing of accompanying auditory stimuli. This study aimed to determine if alcohol-related images engender greater sensory dominance than neutral images, such that processing accompanying information from another modality (audition) would be impeded. Drinkers who had an attentional bias to alcohol-related images performed a multisensory perception task that measured how alcohol-related versus neutral visual images affected their ability to detect and respond to simultaneously presented auditory signals. In accord with the hypothesis, compared with neutral images, the presentation of alcohol-related images impaired the ability to detect and respond to auditory signals. Increased dominance of the visual modality was demonstrated by more bimodal targets being misclassified as visual-only targets in the alcohol target condition compared with that of the neutral. Findings suggest that increased processing of alcohol-related stimuli may impede an individual’s ability to encode and interpret information obtained from other sensory modalities. PMID:26653149

  9. The working memory Ponzo illusion: Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mowei; Xu, Haokui; Zhang, Haihang; Shui, Rende; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jifan

    2015-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary. The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines. This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception. Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages. PMID:25912893

  10. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer. PMID:26298044

  11. Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1989-01-01

    Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

  12. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment. PMID:9849103

  13. The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L.; Fajen, Brett R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

  14. Integration of information and volume visualization for analysis of cell lineage and gene expression during embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedilnik, Andrej; Baumes, Jeffrey; Ibanez, Luis; Megason, Sean; Wylie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic technological advances in the field of genomics have made it possible to sequence the complete genomes of many different organisms. With this overwhelming amount of data at hand, biologists are now confronted with the challenge of understanding the function of the many different elements of the genome. One of the best places to start gaining insight on the mechanisms by which the genome controls an organism is the study of embryogenesis. There are multiple and inter-related layers of information that must be established in order to understand how the genome controls the formation of an organism. One is cell lineage which describes how patterns of cell division give rise to different parts of an organism. Another is gene expression which describes when and where different genes are turned on. Both of these data types can now be acquired using fluorescent laser-scanning (confocal or 2-photon) microscopy of embryos tagged with fluorescent proteins to generate 3D movies of developing embryos. However, analyzing the wealth of resulting images requires tools capable of interactively visualizing several different types of information as well as being scalable to terabytes of data. This paper describes how the combination of existing large data volume visualization and the new Titan information visualization framework of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) can be applied to the problem of studying the cell lineage of an organism. In particular, by linking the visualization of spatial and temporal gene expression data with novel ways of visualizing cell lineage data, users can study how the genome regulates different aspects of embryonic development.

  15. Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

  16. Animating Talk and Texts: Culturally Relevant Teacher Read-Alouds of Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the classroom interactions surrounding teacher read-alouds of nonfiction texts in the classroom of a teacher who strived for cultural relevancy. Participants in this study were one European American teacher and her upper-elementary students who lived in the surrounding working-class neighborhood; all but two students…

  17. Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

    2005-01-01

    In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

  18. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS). FAPIIS is designed to facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from awarding contracts to contractors...

  19. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  20. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    PubMed

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

  1. Visual speech information: a help or hindrance in perceptual processing of dysarthric speech.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Stephanie A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of visual speech information on perceptual processing of neurologically degraded speech. Fifty listeners identified spastic dysarthric speech under both audio (A) and audiovisual (AV) conditions. Condition comparisons revealed that the addition of visual speech information enhanced processing of the neurologically degraded input in terms of (a) acuity (percent phonemes correct) of vowels and consonants and (b) recognition (percent words correct) of predictive and nonpredictive phrases. Listeners exploited stress-based segmentation strategies more readily in AV conditions, suggesting that the perceptual benefit associated with adding visual speech information to the auditory signal-the AV advantage-has both segmental and suprasegmental origins. Results also revealed that the magnitude of the AV advantage can be predicted, to some degree, by the extent to which an individual utilizes syllabic stress cues to inform word recognition in AV conditions. Findings inform the development of a listener-specific model of speech perception that applies to processing of dysarthric speech in everyday communication contexts. PMID:25786958

  2. Design and implementation of information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liushi

    2011-02-01

    Usually in the traditional science and technology information system, the only text and table form are used to manage the data, and the mathematic statistics method is applied to analyze the data. It lacks for the spatial analysis and management of data. Therefore, GIS technology is introduced to visualize and analyze the information data on science and technology industry. Firstly, by using the developed platform-microsoft visual studio 2005 and ArcGIS Engine, the information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS is built up, which implements various functions, such as data storage and management, inquiry, statistics, chart analysis, thematic map representation. It can show the change of science and technology information from the space and time axis intuitively. Then, the data of science and technology in Guangdong province are taken as experimental data and are applied to the system. And by considering the factors of humanities, geography and economics so on, the situation and change tendency of science and technology information of different regions are analyzed and researched, and the corresponding suggestion and method are brought forward in order to provide the auxiliary support for development of science and technology industry in Guangdong province.

  3. What visual information is used for navigation around obstacles in a cluttered environment?

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Tomescu, Sebastian S; Ishac, Milad G A

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine what visual information is used to navigate around barriers in a cluttered terrain. Twelve traffic pylons were arranged randomly in a 4.55 x 3.15 m travel area: there were 20 different arrangements. For each arrangement, individuals (N = 6) were positioned in 1 of 3 locations on the outside border with their eyes closed: on verbal command they were instructed to open their eyes and quickly go to 1 of 2 specified goals (2 vertical posts defining a door) located on one edge of the travel area. The movement of the body was tracked using the OPTOTRAK system, with the IREDS placed on a collar worn by the subjects. Experimental data of travel path chosen were compared with those predicted by models that incorporated different types of visual information to control path trajectory. The 6 models basically use 2 different strategies for route selection: reactive control based on visual input about the obstacle encountered in the line-of-sight travel path (Model # 1) and path planning based on different visual information (Model # 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). The models that involve path planning are grouped into 2 categories: models 2, 3, 4, and 5 need detailed geometrical configuration of the obstacles to plan a route while model 6 plans a route based on identifying and avoiding a cluster of obstacles in the travel path. Two measures were used to compare model performance with the actual travel path: the difference in area between predicted and actual travel path and the number of trials that accurately predicted the number of turns during travel. The results suggest that route selection is not based on reactive control, but does involve path planning. The model that best predicts the travel paths taken by the individuals uses visual information about cluster of obstacles and identification of safe corridors to plan a route. PMID:15523525

  4. A concept-based interactive biomedical image retrieval approach using visualness and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md M.; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term concept refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist user in interactively select a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and search for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a post-processing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval, is validated through experiments on a data set of 450 lung CT images extracted from journal articles from four different collections.

  5. Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki-based visualization dashboards.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design and deployment of Dashiki, a public website where users may collaboratively build visualization dashboards through a combination of a wiki-like syntax and interactive editors. Our goals are to extend existing research on social data analysis into presentation and organization of data from multiple sources, explore new metaphors for these activities, and participate more fully in the web!s information ecology by providing tighter integration with real-time data. To support these goals, our design includes novel and low-barrier mechanisms for editing and layout of dashboard pages and visualizations, connection to data sources, and coordinating interaction between visualizations. In addition to describing these technologies, we provide a preliminary report on the public launch of a prototype based on this design, including a description of the activities of our users derived from observation and interviews. PMID:19834175

  6. Toward an Improved Haptic Zooming Algorithm for Graphical Information Accessed by Individuals Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…

  7. The Contribution of Visual and Vestibular Information to Spatial Orientation by 6- to 14-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…

  8. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  9. Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

  10. Rapid Integration of Tactile and Visual Information by a Newly Sighted Child.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wu, En-De; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Lu-He; Li, Xiaoman; Thorn, Frank; Ostrovsky, Yuri; Qu, Jia

    2016-04-25

    How we learn to interact with and understand our environment for the first time is an age-old philosophical question. Scientists have long sought to understand what is the origin of egocentric spatial localization and the perceptual integration of touch and visual information. It is difficult to study the beginnings of intermodal visual-motor and visual-tactile linkages in early infancy since infants' muscular strength and control cannot accurately guide visual-motor behavior and they do not concentrate well [1-6]. Alternatively, one can examine young children who have a restored congenital sensory modality loss. They are the best infant substitute if they are old enough for good muscle control and young enough to be within the classic critical period for neuroplasticity [7, 8]. Recovery studies after removal of dense congenital cataracts are examples of this, but most are performed on older subjects [9-14]. We report here the results of video-recorded experiments on a congenitally blind child, beginning immediately after surgical restoration of vision. Her remarkably rapid development of accurate reaching and grasping showed that egocentric spatial localization requires neural circuitry needing less than a half hour of spatially informative experience to be calibrated. 32 hr after first sight, she visually recognized an object that she had simultaneously looked at and held, even though she could not use single senses alone (vision to vision; touch to touch) to perform this recognition until the following day. Then she also performed intersensory transfer of tactile object experience to visual object recognition, demonstrating that the two senses are prearranged to immediately become calibrated to one another. PMID:27040777

  11. Visualizing abstract information using motion properties of data-driven infoticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Moere, Andrew; Mieusset, Kuk Hwan; Gross, Markus

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a novel exploratory information visualization technique that allows users to analyze time-varying characteristics of large datasets within immersive virtual reality environments. This metaphor represents data objects as particles, coined infoticles, which are placed inside a three-dimensional scene. Forces correspond to specific data value conditions and influence matching infoticles according to the rules of Newtonian mechanics. In addition, infoticles are driven by a set of local behavior rules that react upon successive data updates, hereby generating distinct emergent motion typologies which are visually interpretable by users. These data patterns can be detected dynamically by observing the spatial transformations of infoticle streams, or statically, by interpreting the shapes of individual pathlines. This visualization method exploits the qualities of immersive virtual reality technology as it combines the characteristics of behavior generation and motion perception with the concepts of spatial awareness and stereoscopic vision. Infoticles are useful in visualizing time-varying characteristics of large, dynamic datasets because of their cognitively distinguishable and interpretative animation properties. The generation and evolution of infoticle patterns are based upon empirically defined grammatical rules. These visualization principles are demonstrated using the access logs of an internal knowledge document management website of a global consultancy company.

  12. Visualizing electrocardiographic information on a patient specific model of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buck, Stijn; Maes, Frederik; Anne, Wim; Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Heidbuchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of atrial tachycardia by radio-frequency ablation is a complex and minimally invasive procedure. In most cases the surgeon uses fluoroscopic imaging to guide catheters into the atria. After recording activation potentials from the electrodes on the catheter, which has to be done for different catheter positions, the physiologist has to fuse both the activation times derived from the potentials with the fluoroscopic images and extract from these a 3D anatomical model of the atrium. This model will provide him with the necessary information to locate the ablation regions. To alleviate the problem of mentally reconstructing these different sources of information, we propose a virtual environment that has the ability to visualize the electrodes information onto a patient specific model of the atria. This 3D atrium surface model is derived from pre-operatively taken MR-images. Within the system this model is visualized in 3 different ways: two views correspond to the 2 fluoroscopes images, which are shown registred in the background while the third one can be freely manipulated by the physiologist. The system allows to annotate measurements onto the 3D model. Since the heart is not a static organ, tools are provided to modify previous annotations interactively. The information contained in the measurements can than be dispersed across the heart after extrapolation and interpolation and subsequently visualized by color coding the surface model. Preliminary clinical evaluation on 30 patients indicates that the combined representation of the activation times and the heart model provides a thorough and more accurate insight into the possible causes and solutions to the tachycardia than would be obtained using solely the fluoroscopes images and mental reconstruction. Unlike other tachycardia visualization software, our approach starts with a patient specific surface model which in itself provides extra insight into the problem. Furthermore it can be used very interactively by the physiologist as a kind of 3D sketchbook where he can enter, delete, ... different measurements, tissue types. Finally, the system can visualize at any stage of the surgery a model containing all information at hand. In this paper we present a system to represent electrocardiographic information that allows the physiologist to mark measurements which can than be visualized on a patient specific atrium model by color coding. First clinical evaluation indicates that this approach offers a considerable amount of added value.

  13. (De)synchronization of advanced visual information and ball flight characteristics constrains emergent information-movement couplings during one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Stone, J A; Maynard, I W; North, J S; Panchuk, D; Davids, K

    2015-02-01

    Advance visual information of a projection action and ball flight information is important for organizing dynamic interceptive actions like catching. However, how the central nervous system (CNS) manages the relationship between advance visual information and emerging ball flight information in regulating behavior is less well understood. Here, we sought to examine the extent that advance visual information to the CNS constrains regulation of catching actions by synchronizing and desynchronizing its relationship with ball trajectory characteristics. Novel technology was used to present video footage of an actor throwing a ball at three different speeds, integrated with information from a real ball projected by a machine set to the three speeds. The technology enabled three synchronized and six desynchronized conditions between advance visual information and subsequent ball flight trajectories. Catching performance, kinematic data from the catching hand and gaze behaviors were recorded. Findings revealed that desynchronization of video images of ball projection shaped emergent catching behaviors. Footage of slower throws, paired with faster ball projection speeds, caused catching performance decrements. Timing in early phases of action was organized by the CNS to match the advance visual information presented. In later phases, like the grasp, ball flight information constraints adapted and regulated behaviors. Gaze behaviors showed increased ball projection speed resulted in participants tracking the ball for a smaller percentage of ball flight. Findings highlighted the role of the two visual systems in perception and action, implicating the importance of coupling advanced visual information and ball flight to regulate emergent movement coordination tendencies during interceptive behaviors. PMID:25362517

  14. A Unified Computational Architecture for Preprocessing Visual Information in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef

    1986-06-01

    The success of autonomous mobile robots depends on the ability to understand continuously changing scenery. Present techniques for analysis of images are not always suitable because in sequential paradigm, computation of visual functions based on absolute values of stimuli is inefficient. Important aspects of visual information are encoded in discontinuities of intensity, hence a representation in terms of relative values seems advantageous. We present the computing architecture of a massively parallel vision module which optimizes the detection of relative intensity changes in space and time. Visual information must remain constant despite variation in ambient light level or velocity of target and robot. Constancy can be achieved by normalizing motion and lightness scales. In both cases, basic computation involves a comparison of the center pixels with the context of surrounding values. Therefore, a similar computing architecture, composed of three functionally-different and hierarchically-arranged layers of overlapping operators, can be used for two integrated parts of the module. The first part maintains high sensitivity to spatial changes by reducing noise and normalizing the lightness scale. The result is used by the second part to maintain high sensitivity to temporal discontinuities and to compute relative motion information. Simulation results show that response of the module is proportional to contrast of the stimulus and remains constant over the whole domain of intensity. It is also proportional to velocity of motion limited to any small portion of the visual field. Uniform motion throughout the visual field results in constant response, independent of velocity. Spatial and temporal intensity changes are enhanced because computationally, the module resembles the behavior of a DOG function.

  15. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  16. How Relevant Are Library and Information Science Curricula outside Their Geographic Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Lawrence Wai-hong; Harvey, Ross; Mills, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate outside…

  17. The Usefulness of Coroners' Data on Suicides for Providing Information Relevant to Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennewith, Olive; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Sutton, Lesley; Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Gunnell, David

    2005-01-01

    Coroners' records are an accessible source of information on suicides. To assess their usefulness in relation to the investigation of specific methods of suicide, we examined coroners records for 492 suicides across 24 jurisdictions in England. Generally data on demographic variables were well recorded. Information on contact with general…

  18. Working Memory Inefficiency: Minimal Information Is Utilized in Visual Recognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Can people make perfect use of task-relevant information in working memory (WM)? Specifically, when questioned about an item in an array that does not happen to be in WM, can participants take into account other items that are in WM, eliminating them as response candidates? To address this question, an ideal-responder model that assumes perfect…

  19. Shewregdb: Database and visualization environment for experimental and predicted regulatory information in Shewanella oneidensis mr-1

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Leuze, Mike; Kora, Guruprasad; Romine, Margaret F.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2009-10-15

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is an important model organism for environmental research as it has an exceptional metabolic and respiratory versatility regulated by a complex regulatory network. We have developed a database to collect experimental and computational data relating to regulation of gene and protein expression and a visualization environment that enables integration of these data types. The regulatory information in the database was collected from the published literature and different Internet resources. It includes predictions of DNA regulator binding sites, sigma factor binding sites, transcription units, operons, promoters, and RNA regulators including non-coding RNAs, riboswitches, and different types of terminators. A visualization environment based on GBrowser was developed for accessing the collected information and for its overlaying with experimental data (experimental results from studies employing microarrays, proteomics, and/or gene mutagenesis) and other genome annotations.

  20. Making sense of competitive intelligence with TIGER: an information visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Barbara E.; Flast, Robert; Gershman, Anatole; Gottsman, Edward J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a joint research project in data visualization between MetLife and the CSTAR group at Andersen Consulting. The goal of the project was to produce a tool for retrieval, display, and analyzing competitive information that would run on conventional PC platforms. As part of the visualization scheme, icon clusters provide a graphical representation of each case's salient features, while 1, 2, or 3 dimensional maps of clusters reveal relationships among the cases. A graphical query facility allows users to specify cluster maps dynamically. In addition, the tool supports an ever-present 'bird's-eye-view' of the information space being analyzed. The tool is particularly valuable for exploring patterns among stories grouped and viewed in the 2 and 3 dimensional views which would be difficult to discern from a hardcopy version.

  1. Small target detection based on human visual system utilizing distance information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linna; An, Wei; Lin, Zaiping; Li, Andong; Ye, Jundu

    2015-10-01

    Small target detection is an importance part of infrared technology. Human visual system properties can improve signal to noise rate and detection rate, etc. In this paper, a small target detection algorithm based on human visual system utilizing distance information is proposed. First, surrounding regions is calculated by weighed sum of each pixel in surrounding regions. The weight is related to distance information between each surrounding pixel and center pixel. Then, the contrast value of center pixel blocks and surrounding regions is calculated. Finally, the contrast value is weighted to the center pixel to get a saliency map. Experiment shows that the proposed has good performance on improving the signal to noise rate and detection rate.

  2. CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources

    PubMed Central

    Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

  3. In the dark: young men's stories of sexual initiation in the absence of relevant sexual health information.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-04-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men's sexuality is not readily available from family, friends, or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were "low risk." Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the Internet, and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

  4. In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

  5. Visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum and comparative information from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  6. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  7. Visual and associated affective processing of face information in schizophrenia: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Perception of facial features is crucial in social life. In past decades, extensive research showed that the ability to perceive facial emotion expression was compromised in schizophrenia patients. Given that face perception involves visual/cognitive and affective processing, the roles of these two processing domains in the compromised face perception in schizophrenia were studied and discussed, but not clearly defined. One particular issue was whether face-specific processing is implicated in this psychiatric disorder. Recent investigations have probed into the components of face perception processes such as visual detection, identity recognition, emotion expression discrimination and working memory conveyed from faces. Recent investigations have further assessed the associations between face processing and basic visual processing and between face processing and social cognitive processing such as Theory of Mind. In this selective review, we discuss the investigative findings relevant to the issues of cognitive and affective association and face-specific processing. We highlight the implications of multiple processing domains and face-specific processes as potential mechanisms underlying compromised face perception in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a need for a domain-specific therapeutic approach to the improvement of face perception in schizophrenia. PMID:27134614

  8. Visualization and exploratory analysis of epidemiologic data using a novel space time information system

    PubMed Central

    AvRuskin, Gillian A; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Meliker, Jaymie R; Slotnick, Melissa J; Kaufmann, Andrew M; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen an expansion in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health research. In this field GIS can be used to detect disease clustering, to analyze access to hospital emergency care, to predict environmental outbreaks, and to estimate exposure to toxic compounds. Despite these advances the inability of GIS to properly handle temporal information is increasingly recognised as a significant constraint. The effective representation and visualization of both spatial and temporal dimensions therefore is expected to significantly enhance our ability to undertake environmental health research using time-referenced geospatial data. Especially for diseases with long latency periods (such as cancer) the ability to represent, quantify and model individual exposure through time is a critical component of risk estimation. In response to this need a STIS a Space Time Information System has been developed to visualize and analyze objects simultaneously through space and time. Results In this paper we present a "first use" of a STIS in a case-control study of the relationship between arsenic exposure and bladder cancer in south eastern Michigan. Individual arsenic exposure is reconstructed by incorporating spatiotemporal data including residential mobility and drinking water habits. The unique contribution of the STIS is its ability to visualize and analyze residential histories over different temporal scales. Participant information is viewed and statistically analyzed using dynamic views in which values of an attribute change through time. These views include tables, graphs (such as histograms and scatterplots), and maps. In addition, these views can be linked and synchronized for complex data exploration using cartographic brushing, statistical brushing, and animation. Conclusion The STIS provides new and powerful ways to visualize and analyze how individual exposure and associated environmental variables change through time. We expect to see innovative space-time methods being utilized in future environmental health research now that the successful "first use" of a STIS in exposure reconstruction has been accomplished. PMID:15533253

  9. Intraoperative multichannel audio-visual information recording and automatic surgical phase and incident detection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Nambu, Kyojiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Identification, analysis, and treatment of potential risk in surgical workflow are the key to decrease medical errors in operating room. For the automatic analysis of recorded surgical information, this study reports multichannel audio visual recording system, and its review and analysis system. Motion in operating room is quantified using video file size without motion tracking. Conversation among surgical staff is quantified using fast Fourier transformation and frequency filter without speech recognition. The results suggested the progression phase of surgical procedure. PMID:21095675

  10. A Study on Attention Guidance to Driver by Subliminal Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

    This paper presents a new warning method for increasing drivers' sensitivity for recognizing hazardous factors in the driving environment. The method is based on a subliminal effect. The results of many experiments performed by three dimensional head-mounted display shows that the response time for detecting a flashing mark tended to decrease when a subliminal mark was shown in advance. Priming effects are observed in subliminal visual information. This paper also proposes a scenario for implementing this method in real vehicles.

  11. Development of a culturally relevant consumer health information website for Harlem, New York.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2014-09-01

    The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. PMID:24740963

  12. Visual tracking with spatio-temporal Dempster-Shafer information fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhongfei; van den Hengel, Anton; Wang, Hanzi

    2013-08-01

    A key problem in visual tracking is how to effectively combine spatio-temporal visual information from throughout a video to accurately estimate the state of an object. We address this problem by incorporating Dempster-Shafer (DS) information fusion into the tracking approach. To implement this fusion task, the entire image sequence is partitioned into spatially and temporally adjacent subsequences. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for object/nonobject classification on each of these subsequences, the outputs of which act as separate data sources. To combine the discriminative information from these classifiers, we further present a spatio-temporal weighted DS (STWDS) scheme. In addition, temporally adjacent sources are likely to share discriminative information on object/nonobject classification. To use such information, an adaptive SVM learning scheme is designed to transfer discriminative information across sources. Finally, the corresponding DS belief function of the STWDS scheme is embedded into a Bayesian tracking model. Experimental results on challenging videos demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracking approach. PMID:23529089

  13. Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

  14. Does tonal information affect the early stages of visual-word processing in Thai?

    PubMed

    Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. In order to investigate the contribution of tone at the orthographic/phonological level during the early stages of word processing in Thai, we conducted a masked priming experiment-using both lexical decision and word naming tasks. For a given target word (e.g., ห้อง/hᴐ:ŋ2/, room), five priming conditions were created: (a) identity (e.g., ห้อง/hᴐ:ŋ2/), (b) same initial consonant, but with a different tone marker (e.g., ห่อง/hᴐ:ŋ1/), (c) different initial consonant, but with the same tone marker (e.g., ศ้อง/sᴐ:ŋ2/), (d) orthographic control (different initial consonant, different tone marker; e.g., ศ่อง/sᴐ:ŋ1/), and (e) same tone homophony, but with a different initial consonant and different tone marker (e.g., ธ่อง/t(h)ᴐ:ŋ2/). Results of the critical comparisons revealed that segmental information (i.e., consonantal information) appears to be more important than tone information (i.e., tone marker) in the early stages of visual-word processing in alphabetic, tonal languages like Thai. Thus, these findings may help constrain models of visual-word recognition and reading in tonal languages. PMID:24456408

  15. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model. PMID:26356891

  16. ApiNATOMY: a novel toolkit for visualizing multiscale anatomy schematics with phenotype-related information.

    PubMed

    de Bono, Bernard; Grenon, Pierre; Sammut, Stephen John

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of biomedical resources carries information that cross references to anatomical structures across multiple scales. To improve the visualization of such resources in their anatomical context, we developed an automated methodology that produces anatomy schematics in a consistent manner,and provides for the overlay of anatomy-related resource information onto the same diagram. This methodology, called ApiNATOMY, draws upon the topology of ontology graphs to automatically lay out treemaps representing body parts as well as semantic metadata linking to such ontologies. More generally, ApiNATOMY treemaps provide an efficient and manageable way to visualize large biomedical ontologies in a meaningful and consistent manner. In the anatomy domain, such treemaps will allow epidemiologists, clinicians, and biomedical scientists to review, and interact with, anatomically aggregated heterogeneous data and model resources. Such an approach supports the visual identification of functional relations between anatomically colocalized resources that may not be immediately amenable to automation by ontology-based inferencing. We also describe the application of ApiNATOMY schematics to integrate, and add value to, human phenotype-related informationresults are found at http://apinatomy.org. The long-term goal for the ApiNATOMY toolkit is to support clinical and scientific graphical user interfaces and dashboards for biomedical resource management and data analytics. PMID:22616108

  17. Automated generation of individually customized visualizations of diagnosis-specific medical information using novel techniques of information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Andrew A.; Meng, Frank; Morioka, Craig A.; Churchill, Bernard M.; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2005-04-01

    Managing pediatric patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) involves regular laboratory, imaging, and physiologic testing. Using input from domain experts and current literature, we identified specific data points from these tests to develop the concept of an electronic disease vector for NGB. An information extraction engine was used to extract the desired data elements from free-text and semi-structured documents retrieved from the patient"s medical record. Finally, a Java-based presentation engine created graphical visualizations of the extracted data. After precision, recall, and timing evaluation, we conclude that these tools may enable clinically useful, automatically generated, and diagnosis-specific visualizations of patient data, potentially improving compliance and ultimately, outcomes.

  18. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  19. Latency of modality-specific reactivation of auditory and visual information during episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Masumoto, Kouhei; Sutani, Kouichi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2015-04-15

    This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the latency of modality-specific reactivation in the visual and auditory cortices during a recognition task to determine the effects of reactivation on episodic memory retrieval. Nine right-handed healthy young adults participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted of a word-encoding phase and two recognition phases. Three encoding conditions were included: encoding words alone (word-only) and encoding words presented with either related pictures (visual) or related sounds (auditory). The recognition task was conducted in the MEG scanner 15 min after the completion of the encoding phase. After the recognition test, a source-recognition task was given, in which participants were required to choose whether each recognition word was not presented or was presented with which information during the encoding phase. Word recognition in the auditory condition was higher than that in the word-only condition. Confidence-of-recognition scores (d') and the source-recognition test showed superior performance in both the visual and the auditory conditions compared with the word-only condition. An equivalent current dipoles analysis of MEG data indicated that higher equivalent current dipole amplitudes in the right fusiform gyrus occurred during the visual condition and in the superior temporal auditory cortices during the auditory condition, both 450-550 ms after onset of the recognition stimuli. Results suggest that reactivation of visual and auditory brain regions during recognition binds language with modality-specific information and that reactivation enhances confidence in one's recognition performance. PMID:25756907

  20. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  1. Influence of Information Sources on Hepatitis B Screening Behavior and Relevant Psychosocial Factors Among Asian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8%), physicians (39.3%), friends (33.8%), TV (31.7%), and the Internet (29.5%). Path analyses—controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection—showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  2. Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

  3. RGB-D SLAM Combining Visual Odometry and Extended Information Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong; Xiong, Naixue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel RGB-D SLAM system based on visual odometry and an extended information filter, which does not require any other sensors or odometry. In contrast to the graph optimization approaches, this is more suitable for online applications. A visual dead reckoning algorithm based on visual residuals is devised, which is used to estimate motion control input. In addition, we use a novel descriptor called binary robust appearance and normals descriptor (BRAND) to extract features from the RGB-D frame and use them as landmarks. Furthermore, considering both the 3D positions and the BRAND descriptors of the landmarks, our observation model avoids explicit data association between the observations and the map by marginalizing the observation likelihood over all possible associations. Experimental validation is provided, which compares the proposed RGB-D SLAM algorithm with just RGB-D visual odometry and a graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm using the publicly-available RGB-D dataset. The results of the experiments demonstrate that our system is quicker than the graph-based RGB-D SLAM algorithm. PMID:26263990

  4. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

  5. Effects of visualizing statistical information - an empirical study on tree diagrams and 2 × 2 tables.

    PubMed

    Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Bruckmaier, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In their research articles, scholars often use 2 × 2 tables or tree diagrams including natural frequencies in order to illustrate Bayesian reasoning situations to their peers. Interestingly, the effect of these visualizations on participants' performance has not been tested empirically so far (apart from explicit training studies). In the present article, we report on an empirical study (3 × 2 × 2 design) in which we systematically vary visualization (no visualization vs. 2 × 2 table vs. tree diagram) and information format (probabilities vs. natural frequencies) for two contexts (medical vs. economical context; not a factor of interest). Each of N = 259 participants (students of age 16-18) had to solve two typical Bayesian reasoning tasks ("mammography problem" and "economics problem"). The hypothesis is that 2 × 2 tables and tree diagrams - especially when natural frequencies are included - can foster insight into the notoriously difficult structure of Bayesian reasoning situations. In contrast to many other visualizations (e.g., icon arrays, Euler diagrams), 2 × 2 tables and tree diagrams have the advantage that they can be constructed easily. The implications of our findings for teaching Bayesian reasoning will be discussed. PMID:26379569

  6. Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information.

    PubMed

    Abel, David L; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-01-01

    Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC). PMID:16095527

  7. Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-01-01

    Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC), ordered (OSC), and functional (FSC). FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC) or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC). PMID:16095527

  8. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and evaluation. PMID:25860626

  9. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  10. Chaining of web services and its application in geographic information integration and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanbin; Wu, Qunyong; Chen, Chongcheng; Chen, Han

    2005-11-01

    The rapid development of web services technology ushers Geographical Information Systems (GISs) into the era of geographic information web services (GIWS), which requires a scalable and extensible GISs model to deliver distributed geographic information and GISs functions integrated as independently-provided, interoperable services in a distributed computing environment. Several distributed services can be dynamically chained as a new service to accomplish a specific task. Such a model of service chaining is one of the most important research topics of next generation GISs. The paper highlights the issues of service chaining, the process of combining several distributed, interoperable GIWS dynamically to construct customized applications, and analyses characters of each pattern. Then, based on pattern of client-coordinated chaining, we design a service chaining which is developed in a J2EE development environment using web services technology, and construct a web services-oriented Geo-spatial data integration and visualization platform in order to integrate multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data using Geography Markup Language (GML) and Geo-spatial data integration technology, and to visualize geographic information using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and JavaScript technology. During the process of design, several GIWS are defined, and functions, interfaces and related methods of these services are discussed in detail. The paper focuses on the method for chaining distributed GIWS, the mechanism for geographic information dissemination and error handling. Finally, forest Geo-spatial Data which have two typical types of data E00 and Shapefile (SHP) was used to test the platform. The result indicates that using service chaining for multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data integration and visualization can efficiently meet customized needs, but further research is needed for better application.

  11. The symbolic atlas of the brain: handling non-visual information associated with neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, K; Claridge, E; Davis, D N

    1996-01-01

    The Symbolic Atlas of the brain is a novel software tool which enables the user to store and access non-visual information associated with the brain anatomy. The atlas is potentially capable of storing any information about neuroanatomical objects. The user can construct a number of atlases, each containing a different kind of information related to functionality, pathology, symptoms and other facts. The Prolog database that underpins the storage of knowledge frames provides scope for nearly unconstrained usage and manipulation of the stored data, including reasoning with and about data and complex querying. The access to the stored information is provided in an intuitive way, through a simple 'click' on an anatomical structure either in a two- or three-dimensional atlas, or on an outline of a structure superimposed on a real image slice. A pilot educational and clinical use of the atlas indicates its great potential, especially in the are of education. PMID:8871894

  12. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured. PMID:23238580

  13. Informative features of local field potential signals in primary visual cortex during natural image stimulation.

    PubMed

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Shushruth, S; Davis, Tyler; Ichida, Jennifer M; House, Paul A; Greger, Bradley; Angelucci, Alessandra; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is of growing importance in neurophysiology as a metric of network activity and as a readout signal for use in brain-machine interfaces. However, there are uncertainties regarding the kind and visual field extent of information carried by LFP signals, as well as the specific features of the LFP signal conveying such information, especially under naturalistic conditions. To address these questions, we recorded LFP responses to natural images in V1 of awake and anesthetized macaques using Utah multielectrode arrays. First, we have shown that it is possible to identify presented natural images from the LFP responses they evoke using trained Gabor wavelet (GW) models. Because GW models were devised to explain the spiking responses of V1 cells, this finding suggests that local spiking activity and LFPs (thought to reflect primarily local synaptic activity) carry similar visual information. Second, models trained on scalar metrics, such as the evoked LFP response range, provide robust image identification, supporting the informative nature of even simple LFP features. Third, image identification is robust only for the first 300 ms following image presentation, and image information is not restricted to any of the spectral bands. This suggests that the short-latency broadband LFP response carries most information during natural scene viewing. Finally, best image identification was achieved by GW models incorporating information at the scale of ? 0.5 in size and trained using four different orientations. This suggests that during natural image viewing, LFPs carry stimulus-specific information at spatial scales corresponding to few orientation columns in macaque V1. PMID:25505104

  14. Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment 1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and semantic information of objects in VSL. PMID:22686848

  15. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  16. Supporting Clinical Cognition: A Human-Centered Approach to a Novel ICU Information Visualization Dashboard

    PubMed Central

    Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Duke, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Advances in intensive care unit bedside displays/interfaces and electronic medical record (EMR) technology have not adequately addressed the topic of visual clarity of patient data/information to further reduce cognitive load during clinical decision-making. We responded to these challenges with a human-centered approach to designing and testing a decision-support tool: MIVA 2.0 (Medical Information Visualization Assistant, v.2). Envisioned as an EMR visualization dashboard to support rapid analysis of real-time clinical data-trends, our primary goal originated from a clinical requirement to reduce cognitive overload. In the study, a convenience sample of 12 participants were recruited, in which quantitative and qualitative measures were used to compare MIVA 2.0 with ICU paper medical-charts, using time-on-task, post-test questionnaires, and interviews. Findings demonstrated a significant difference in speed and accuracy with the use of MIVA 2.0. Qualitative outcomes concurred, with participants acknowledging the potential impact of MIVA 2.0 for reducing cognitive load and enabling more accurate and quicker decision-making. PMID:26958190

  17. Visual Landmark Information Gains Control of the Head Direction Signal at the Lateral Mammillary Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Ryan M.; Peck, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS → LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

  18. Visual landmark information gains control of the head direction signal at the lateral mammillary nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Ryan M; Peck, James R; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-28

    The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS → LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

  19. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  20. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature. PMID:25609478

  1. D Web Visualization of Environmental Information - Integration of Heterogeneous Data Sources when Providing Navigation and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, L.; Řezník, T.

    2015-08-01

    3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.

  2. Development of Visual Diagnostic Expertise in Pathology - An Information-processing Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Naus, Gregory J.; Stewart, Jimmie; Friedman, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify key features contributing to trainees’ development of expertise in microscopic pathology diagnosis, a complex visual task, and to provide new insights to help create computer-based training systems in pathology. Design: Standard methods of information-processing and cognitive science were used to study diagnostic processes (search, perception, reasoning) of 28 novices, intermediates, and experts. Participants examined cases in breast pathology; each case had a previously established gold standard diagnosis. Videotapes correlated the actual visual data examined by participants with their verbal “think-aloud” protocols. Measurements: Investigators measured accuracy, difficulty, certainty, protocol process frequencies, error frequencies, and times to key diagnostic events for each case and subject. Analyses of variance, chi-square tests and post-hoc comparisons were performed with subject as the unit of analysis. Results: Level of expertise corresponded with differences in search, perception, and reasoning components of the tasks. Several discrete steps occur on the path to competence, including development of adequate search strategies, rapid and accurate recognition of anatomic location, acquisition of visual data interpretation skills, and transitory reliance on explicit feature identification. Conclusion: Results provide the basis for an empirical cognitive model of competence for the complex tasks of microscopic pathology diagnosis. Results will inform the development of computer-based pedagogy tools in this domain PMID:12509356

  3. Facilitating the use of online visual feedback: advance information and the inter-trial interval?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Darian T; Manson, Gerome A; Kennedy, Andrew; Tremblay, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Cheng et al. (2008) showed that when goal-directed reaching movements are performed with a 2.5 s inter-trial interval (ITI) under a randomized visual feedback schedule, individuals use online visual information on trial n to perform efficient online corrections on trial n + 1 (i.e., "reminiscence" effect). These results persisted even when participants were given knowledge of the up-coming vision condition. In this study, the ITI was extended to 5 s in an attempt to negate any effects of the preceding trial. Results from this study revealed that trials with vision were always more accurate than trials performed without vision, suggesting that individuals relied significantly on online information. Furthermore, aiming precision improved when participants knew the vision condition before each trial. It is thus suggested that the reminiscence effects are not longer evident with a 5 s ITI, which in turn allows prior knowledge of visual feedback to influence the use of online vision. PMID:23579560

  4. Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

    The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

  5. Supporting Clinical Cognition: A Human-Centered Approach to a Novel ICU Information Visualization Dashboard.

    PubMed

    Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Duke, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Advances in intensive care unit bedside displays/interfaces and electronic medical record (EMR) technology have not adequately addressed the topic of visual clarity of patient data/information to further reduce cognitive load during clinical decision-making. We responded to these challenges with a human-centered approach to designing and testing a decision-support tool: MIVA 2.0 (Medical Information Visualization Assistant, v.2). Envisioned as an EMR visualization dashboard to support rapid analysis of real-time clinical data-trends, our primary goal originated from a clinical requirement to reduce cognitive overload. In the study, a convenience sample of 12 participants were recruited, in which quantitative and qualitative measures were used to compare MIVA 2.0 with ICU paper medical-charts, using time-on-task, post-test questionnaires, and interviews. Findings demonstrated a significant difference in speed and accuracy with the use of MIVA 2.0. Qualitative outcomes concurred, with participants acknowledging the potential impact of MIVA 2.0 for reducing cognitive load and enabling more accurate and quicker decision-making. PMID:26958190

  6. Iowa Flood Information System: Towards Integrated Data Management, Analysis and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview and live demonstration of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.

  7. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way. PMID:25285327

  8. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way. PMID:25285327

  9. Sensory processing patterns predict the integration of information held in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Matthew X; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Kristin E; Ouslis, Natasha E; Barense, Morgan D; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Given the limited resources of visual working memory, multiple items may be remembered as an averaged group or ensemble. As a result, local information may be ill-defined, but these ensemble representations provide accurate diagnostics of the natural world by combining gist information with item-level information held in visual working memory. Some neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by sensory processing profiles that predispose individuals to avoid or seek-out sensory stimulation, fundamentally altering their perceptual experience. Here, we report such processing styles will affect the computation of ensemble statistics in the general population. We identified stable adult sensory processing patterns to demonstrate that individuals with low sensory thresholds who show a greater proclivity to engage in active response strategies to prevent sensory overstimulation are less likely to integrate mean size information across a set of similar items and are therefore more likely to be biased away from the mean size representation of an ensemble display. We therefore propose the study of ensemble processing should extend beyond the statistics of the display, and should also consider the statistics of the observer. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389618

  10. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given. PMID:25894235

  11. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    PubMed

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  12. Global and fine information coded by single neurons in the temporal visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugase, Yasuko; Yamane, Shigeru; Ueno, Shoogo; Kawano, Kenji

    1999-08-01

    When we see a person's face, we can easily recognize their species, individual identity and emotional state. How does the brain represent such complex information? A substantial number of neurons in the macaque temporal cortex respond to faces. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the processing ofcomplex information are not yet clear. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons in the temporal cortex of macaque monkeys while presenting visual stimuli consisting of geometric shapes, and monkey and human faces with various expressions. Information theory was used to investigate how well the neuronal responses could categorize the stimuli. We found that single neurons conveyed two different scales of facial information intheir firing patterns, starting at different latencies. Global information, categorizing stimuli as monkey faces, human faces or shapes, was conveyed in the earliest part of the responses. Fineinformation about identity or expression was conveyed later,beginning on average 51ms after global information. We speculate that global information could be used as a `header' to prepare destination areas for receiving more detailed information.

  13. GIN AUSTRIA. Assuring quality and relevance on Internet-health-informations for patients.

    PubMed

    Göbel, G; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-01-01

    GIN AUSTRIA (Gesundheitsinformationsnetz AUSTRIA) offers patients and consumers reliable medical knowledge about diseases, wellness and disease management in an understandable way and enables them to quick and incessant access to informations about the Austrian health system and Austrian health organizations. To improve the quality of the database and to achieve full customer (patients, citizens) satisfaction a systematic approach for implementing total quality management is also applied. Focusing the attention on understanding and responding to customer needs, systematic and continuous improving of the IS and total involvement of all participants are the three core TQM principles at this project. The second focus of the project is the development and the implementation (prototype) of a medical dictionary or rather medical thesaurus as interface for patients, who are not used to scientific terms and expressions. This interface is based on the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH-Thesaurus (german version). PMID:10724952

  14. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Inga M; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension. PMID:24904069

  15. Spatial information mining and visualization for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo

    2009-10-01

    The subject intersection becomes a hot research topic recently. This paper tried to couple the Bibliometrics and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies for studying on the spatial information mining and visualization from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's literature. All the literatures about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau research were indexed in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The statistical tables about the authors were extracted from the papers by using the method of bibliometrics. The spatial information of the author's countries was linked with the GIS database. The spatial distribution was presented by the format of maps based on the GIS technologies. Comparing with the regular presentation forms of the bibliometrical analysis, the spatial distribution maps can afford more abundant and intuitive senses for the users.

  16. Can visual information encoded in cortical columns be decoded from magnetoencephalography data in humans?

    PubMed

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Ramirez, Fernando Mario; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    It is a principal open question whether noninvasive imaging methods in humans can decode information encoded at a spatial scale as fine as the basic functional unit of cortex: cortical columns. We addressed this question in five magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments by investigating a columnar-level encoded visual feature: contrast edge orientation. We found that MEG signals contained orientation-specific information as early as approximately 50 ms after stimulus onset even when controlling for confounds, such as overrepresentation of particular orientations, stimulus edge interactions, and global form-related signals. Theoretical modeling confirmed the plausibility of this empirical result. An essential consequence of our results is that information encoded in the human brain at the level of cortical columns should in general be accessible by multivariate analysis of electrophysiological signals. PMID:26162550

  17. Individual differences in visual information processing rate and the prediction of performance differences in team sports: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Adam, J J; Wilberg, R B

    1992-06-01

    This study used a backward-masking paradigm to examine individual differences in rate of visual information processing among university basketball, ice hockey and Canadian football players. Displays containing four letters were presented for stimulus durations ranging from 25 to 300 ms. Following stimulus offset, a masking stimulus was presented for 200 ms. The subjects were instructed to write down as many letters as possible from the briefly presented stimulus display on a specially prepared response grid. The results indicated consistent individual differences in rate of visual information processing. More importantly, it was found that rate of visual information processing as indexed by the backward-masking technique, has promising validity for predicting general performance excellence in university ice hockey and basketball players. Individual differences in rate of visual information processing were interpreted as reflecting the operation of attentional factors. PMID:1602528

  18. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  19. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  20. Constructing and Modifying Sequence Statistics for relevent Using informR in 𝖱

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    The informR package greatly simplifies the analysis of complex event histories in 𝖱 by providing user friendly tools to build sufficient statistics for the relevent package. Historically, building sufficient statistics to model event sequences (of the form a→b) using the egocentric generalization of Butts’ (2008) relational event framework for modeling social action has been cumbersome. The informR package simplifies the construction of the complex list of arrays needed by the rem() model fitting for a variety of cases involving egocentric event data, multiple event types, and/or support constraints. This paper introduces these tools using examples from real data extracted from the American Time Use Survey. PMID:26185488