Sample records for relevant visual information

  1. Visual information mining and ranking using graded relevance assessments in satellite image databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian S. Barb; Chi-Ren Shyu

    2010-01-01

    With recent technological advances, the geospatial industry produces digital image data at an astonishing rate. Such large amounts of data need to be analyzed for visual content in a timely fashion. For in-depth analysis of the geospatial there is a need to find efficient methods to process the visual information into actionable knowledge. One of the most promising methods is

  2. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information

  3. Text Visualization using Light and Shadow based on Topic Relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Nishihara; Keita Sato; Wataru Sunayama

    2009-01-01

    There are so many opportunities to transmit text information on the Web. Since texts on the Web are not always written by professional writers, those may not be coherent or may be hard to be comprehended. Therefore, we should take too much time and energy to grasp topic relevance of a text. This paper describes HINATA system that visualizes texts

  4. Visuals for Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This report focuses on the visual component of verbo-visual literacy, a communications concept involving the production, transmission, and perception of verbal and visual images. Five current problem areas in verbal-visual research are introduced and discussed: (1) communication (communication models, media consumption, new media, the information

  5. Multimedia Information Retrieval Chapter 5 Relevance Feedback 5 Relevance Feedback

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    Multimedia Information Retrieval Chapter 5 ­ Relevance Feedback 74 5 Relevance Feedback 5.1 Introduction Relevance feedback is potentially the most important part of the user's interaction with a retrieval engine. After users enter their queries they often use relevance feedback to refine their queries

  6. Multimedia Information Retrieval Chapter 5 --Relevance Feedback 5 Relevance Feedback

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    Multimedia Information Retrieval Chapter 5 -- Relevance Feedback 74 5 Relevance Feedback 5.1 Introduction Relevance feedback is potentially the most important part of the user's interaction with a retrieval engine. After users enter their queries they often use relevance feedback to refine their queries

  7. Text Visualization using Light and Shadow based on Topic Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yoko; Sato, Keita; Sunayama, Wataru

    There are so many opportunities to transmit text information on the Web. Since texts on the Web are not always written by professional writers, those may not be coherent or may be hard to be comprehended. Therefore, we should take too much time and energy to grasp topic relevance of a text. This paper describes HINATA system that visualizes texts using light and shadow based on topic relevance. Topic is defined as a set of words such as nouns contained in a title of a text. The light expresses sentences related to a topic, and the shadow expresses sentences unrelated to a topic. This visualization method efficiently supports users for finding the parts related to a topic, and for grasping relations between sentences of a text and a topic. Experimental results showed that the proposed system could support users for understanding how a text was related to a topic.

  8. Normalized medical information visualization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals. PMID:25991133

  9. Finding Relevant Items: Attentional Guidance Improves Visual Selection Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Sonja; Hild, Isabella; Wiesbeck, Mathey; Zaeh, Michael F.; Schubö, Anna

    In daily life and at work people are confronted with complex information. Especially elderly or disabled users might be overburdened by the amount of information and distracted by irrelevant items. Due to this, they possibly fail to find and select relevant items in visual search. This could be demotivating for the use of media like the internet or could result in an inability to achieve certain job requirements. A method for supporting performance in visual search tasks is the guidance of attention. The present study compares different methods for attentional guidance. Results show a benefit for peripheral exogenous cues realized as luminance changes in comparison to endogenous central cues. Possible applications for the proposed attentional guidance method are discussed.

  10. Visually Effective Information Visualization of Large Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matej Novotny

    2004-01-01

    Recent technology developments produce an increasingly large volume of information. Therefore visualization of these data requires sophisticated and efficient methods that take the amount of data into account. The information of- ten gets lost or hidden in displays of traditional informa- tion visualization techniques. A significant improvement can be achieved using clustering and visual abstraction. The synergetic approach introduced here

  11. Developing calendar visualizers for the information visualizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jock D. Mackinlay; George G. Robertson; Robert DeLine

    1994-01-01

    The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers

  12. Information Retrieval Advances using Relevance Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik W. Selberg

    Relevance Feedback (RF) is a powerful technique whereby a user can instruct an Information Retrieval (IR) system to nd additional relevant documents by providing relevance information on certain documents or query terms. There are several major design decisions that can aect how a RF system can help users. In this paper, I present a brief literature survey covering two emphases

  13. Probabilistic retrieval and visualization of biologically relevant microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, José; Gehlenborg, Nils; Faisal, Ali; Brazma, Alvis; Kaski, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: As ArrayExpress and other repositories of genome-wide experiments are reaching a mature size, it is becoming more meaningful to search for related experiments, given a particular study. We introduce methods that allow for the search to be based upon measurement data, instead of the more customary annotation data. The goal is to retrieve experiments in which the same biological processes are activated. This can be due either to experiments targeting the same biological question, or to as yet unknown relationships. Results: We use a combination of existing and new probabilistic machine learning techniques to extract information about the biological processes differentially activated in each experiment, to retrieve earlier experiments where the same processes are activated and to visualize and interpret the retrieval results. Case studies on a subset of ArrayExpress show that, with a sufficient amount of data, our method indeed finds experiments relevant to particular biological questions. Results can be interpreted in terms of biological processes using the visualization techniques. Availability: The code is available from http://www.cis.hut.fi/projects/mi/software/ismb09. Contact: jose.caldas@tkk.fi PMID:19477980

  14. Informative art: information visualization in everyday environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Erik Holmquist; Tobias Skog

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to advances in display technologies, it will soon be possible to have electronic information displays virtually everywhere. We have developed the concept of Informative Art as a way to integrate information visualization in the everyday human environment. Informative Art combines a dynamically updated information display with the decorative role of visual art, such as posters and paintings. We present

  15. The Relevance of Visual Sequential Memory to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispin, Lisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes technique developed by the Barking Reading Project to judge relevance of visual sequential memory to reading. A study which used this technique to assess the effects of labelling strategy on sequential memory tasks is compared with alternative assessments, and results are discussed in terms of task analysis and structuralist approaches.…

  16. Information VisualizationInformation Visualization Spring 2010

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jing

    earlier Children of a node are laid out in a cylinder "below" the parent Siblings live in one of the 2D categories of tree visualization techniques: Node-link diagram Visible graphical edge from parents to their children 6 children Space-filling #12;4 Node Link DiagramsNode-Link Diagrams 7 Node-Link Diagrams Root

  17. Information visualization for the people

    E-print Network

    Danziger, Michael (Michael J.)

    2008-01-01

    The design of information visualization, defined as the interactive, graphical presentation of data, is on the verge of a significant paradigm shift brought on by the continued maturation of the Information Age. Its ...

  18. Semantics in Visual Information Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Colombo; Alberto Del Bimbo; Pietro Pala

    1999-01-01

    A compositional approach increases the level of representation that can be automatically extracted and used in a visual information retrieval system. Visual information at the perceptual level is aggregated according to a set of rules. These rules reflect the specific context and transform perceptual words into phrases capturing pictorial content at a higher, and closer to the human, semantic level

  19. Relevance model in information retrieval based on information science perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Relevance models in relevance research is the main research issue in information retrieval and information science. Relevance research of information retrieval can be divided into the system-oriented school and the user-oriented schoo1.The evaluation of relevance is closely related to user's experiences, cognitive status and thinking, and includes the interaction of several level. On this basis, a four-dimension model (information resource, representation of user problem time and components) and an interactive model are critically illuminated. A better understanding of the cognitive model, the episode model and the stratified model is of great importance to the interactive model.

  20. Bead: explorations in information visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Chalmers; Paul Chitson

    1992-01-01

    We describe work on the visualization of bibliographic data and, to aid in this task, the application of numerical techniques for multidimensional scaling.Many areas of scientific research involve complex multivariate data. One example of this is Information Retrieval. Document comparisons may be done using a large number of variables. Such conditions do not favour the more well-known methods of visualization

  1. Priming by the variability of visual information.

    PubMed

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-05-27

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This "priming by variance" phenomenon occurred with prime-target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  2. Graph Visualization and Navigation in Information Visualization:A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Herman; Guy Melanccon; M. Scott Marshall

    2000-01-01

    This is a survey on graph visualization and navigation techniques, as used in information visualization. Graphs appear innumerous applications such as web browsing, state--transition diagrams, and data structures. The ability to visualize and tonavigate in these potentially large, abstract graphs is often a crucial part of an application. Information visualization has specificrequirements, which means that this survey approaches the results

  3. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance

  4. Information Visualization Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jing

    techniques: Node-link diagram Visible graphical edge from parents to their children Space-filling 8 Node Visualization E. Kleiberg et. al. InfoVis 2001 14 Different Styles Rectangular: Well suited for displaying://www.hyphy.org/docs/GUIExamples/treepanel.html #12;8 15 A Classical Hierarchical View Position children "below" their common ancestors Layout can

  5. Visual MRI: Merging Information Visualization and non-parametric clustering

    E-print Network

    Castellani, Umberto

    Visual MRI: Merging Information Visualization and non-parametric clustering techniques for MRI data Objective. This paper presents Visual MRI, an innovative tool for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI type of therapy than the chemotherapy-based ones. The advance- ments brought by Visual MRI are two

  6. Filtering and Integrating Visual Information with Motion 1 Filtering and Integrating Visual Information with Motion

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    visualization. Introduction Improvements in computing power, display resolution and graphics and simulation algo. Information and scientific visualization systems are increasingly characterised by complex displays Information with Motion Abstract Visualizing information in user interfaces to complex, large-scale systems

  7. Isolation of Relevant Visual Features from Random Stimuli for Cortical Complex Cells

    E-print Network

    Lau, Brian

    - stitute the basic operations in visual cortical processing. Key words: complex cell; primary visual cortexIsolation of Relevant Visual Features from Random Stimuli for Cortical Complex Cells Jon Touryan,1, Berkeley, California 94720-3200 A crucial step in understanding the function of a neural circuit in visual

  8. Visualizing Information Flow in Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner

    Interactive maps and visualizations of journal citation networks found in this resource enable the analysis of information flow between academic disciplines. The resources that are based on Eigenfactor Metrics, were developed through the collaboration of the Eigenfactor Project and Moritz Stefaner.

  9. The effect of adding relevance information in a relevance feedback environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Buckley; Gerard Salton; James Allan

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding information from relevant documents are examined in the TREC routing envi- ronment. A modified Rocchio relevance feedback approach is used, with a varying number of relevant documents retrieved by an initial SMART search, and a varying number of terms from those relevant documents used to expand the initial query. Recall-precision evaluation reveals that as the amount

  10. Personalized online information search and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongquan; Orthner, Helmuth F; Sell, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of online publications such as the Medline and other sources raises the questions how to get the relevant information efficiently. It is important, for a bench scientist, e.g., to monitor related publications constantly. It is also important, for a clinician, e.g., to access the patient records anywhere and anytime. Although time-consuming, this kind of searching procedure is usually similar and simple. Likely, it involves a search engine and a visualization interface. Different words or combination reflects different research topics. The objective of this study is to automate this tedious procedure by recording those words/terms in a database and online sources, and use the information for an automated search and retrieval. The retrieved information will be available anytime and anywhere through a secure web server. Results We developed such a database that stored searching terms, journals and et al., and implement a piece of software for searching the medical subject heading-indexed sources such as the Medline and other online sources automatically. The returned information were stored locally, as is, on a server and visible through a Web-based interface. The search was performed daily or otherwise scheduled and the users logon to the website anytime without typing any words. The system has potentials to retrieve similarly from non-medical subject heading-indexed literature or a privileged information source such as a clinical information system. The issues such as security, presentation and visualization of the retrieved information were thus addressed. One of the presentation issues such as wireless access was also experimented. A user survey showed that the personalized online searches saved time and increased and relevancy. Handheld devices could also be used to access the stored information but less satisfactory. Conclusion The Web-searching software or similar system has potential to be an efficient tool for both bench scientists and clinicians for their daily information needs. PMID:15766382

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of visual user interfaces for information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Mark Ennis; J. Hu

    2000-01-01

    An integrated visual thesaurus and result browser to support information retrieval was designed using a task model of information searching. The system provided a hierarchical thesaurus with a results cluster display representing similarity between retrieved documents and relevance ranking using a bullseye metaphor. LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) was used as the retrieval engine and to calculate the similarity between documents.

  12. Control information in visual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.

  13. Heuristics for information visualization evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torre Zuk; Lothar Schlesier; Petra Neumann; Mark S. Hancock; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale

    2006-01-01

    Heuristic evaluation is a well known discount evaluation tech- nique in human-computer interaction (HCI) but has not been utilized in information visualization (InfoVis) to the same extent. While several sets of heuristics have been used or proposed for InfoVis, it is not yet known what kind of heuristics are useful for finding general InfoVis problems. We performed a meta-analysis with

  14. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  15. The Relevance of Visual Sequential Memory to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispin, Lisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Results of three visual sequential memory tests and a group reading test given to 19 elementary students are discussed in terms of task analysis and structuralist approaches to analysis of reading skills. Relation of visual sequential memory to other reading subskills is considered in light of current reasearch. (CMG)

  16. Subjective Relevance: Implications on Interface Design for Information Retrieval Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-shing Lee; Yin-Leng Theng; Dion Hoe-lian Goh; Schubert Shou-boon Foo

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Information retrieval (IR) systems are traditionally developed using the objective relevance approach based on the “best match”\\u000a principle assuming that users can specify their needs in queries and that the documents retrieved are relevant to them. This\\u000a paper advocates a subjective relevance (SR) approach to value-add objective relevance and address its limitations by considering\\u000a relevance in terms of users’ needs

  17. New perspective on visual information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidenberger, Horst

    2003-12-01

    Visual information retrieval (VIR) is a research area with more than 300 scientific publications every year. Technological progress lets surveys become out of date within a short duration. This paper intends to shortly describe selected important advances in VIR in recent years and point out promising directions for future research. A software architecture for visual media handling is proposed that allows handling image and video content equally. This allows to integrate both types of media in a singe system. The major advances in feature design are sketched and new methods for semantic enrichment are proposed. Guidelines are formulated for further development of feature extraction methods. The most relevant retrieval processes are described and an interactive method for visual mining is suggested that really puts "the human in the loop". For evaluation, the classic recall- and precision-based approach is discussed as well as a new procedure based on MPEG-7 and statistical data analysis. Finally, an "ideal" architecture for VIR systems is outlined. The selection of VIR topics is subjective and represents the author's point of view. The intention is to provide a short but substantial introduction to the field of VIR.

  18. HERMAN ET AL.: GRAPH VISUALIZATION AND NAVIGATION IN INFORMATION VISUALIZATION 1 Graph Visualization and Navigation in Information

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    ­transition diagrams, and data structures. The ability to visualize and to navigate in these potentially large to information visualization. Information visualization has become a large field and "sub­fields" are beginning: is there an inherent relation among the data elements to be visualized? If the answer to the question is "no", than

  19. Visual information foraging in a focus + context visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card; Mija M. Van Der Wege

    2001-01-01

    Eye tracking studies of the Hyperbolic Tree browser [10] suggest that visual search in focus+context displays is highly affected by information scent (i.e., local cues, such as text summaries, used to assess and navigate toward distal information sources). When users detected a strong information scent, they were able to reach their goal faster with the Hyperbolic Tree browser than with

  20. Mathematically-Relevant Input during Play of a Caregiver with a Visual Impairment and Her Toddler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanne; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Stordy, Caryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated play between two caregivers, one with a visual impairment, and their 15-month-old daughter. The mother has a visual impairment. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences in mathematically-relevant input by comparing the 30-min naturalistic play session conducted separately between the mother-daughter and the…

  1. Visualizing Knowledge and Information: An Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Keller; Sigmar-olaf Tergan

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Visualization has proven to be an effective strategy for supporting users in coping with complexity in knowledge- and information-rich\\u000a scenarios. Up to now, however, information visualization and knowledge visualization have been distinct research areas, which\\u000a have been developed independently of each other. This book aims toward bringing both approaches together and looking for synergies,\\u000a which may be used for fostering

  2. Some informational aspects of visual perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Attneave

    1954-01-01

    This is an attempt to apply the concepts and techniques of information theory to the problems of visual perception. The informational concept of redundancy comes in for a good deal of attention with regard to the understanding of phenomena of visual perception, and a demonstration of its nature in this area is presented. The analysis employed by the author also

  3. Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information\\u000a to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient\\u000a intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment\\u000a and therefore

  4. Effectively Finding Relevant Web Pages from Linkage Information

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Effectively Finding Relevant Web Pages from Linkage Information Jingyu Hou and Yanchun Zhang to find relevant pages for a given Web page (URL). The first algorithm comes from the extended cocitation analysis of the Web pages. It is intuitive and easy to implement. The second one takes advantage of linear

  5. Visualizing Geospatial Information Uncertainty: What We Know and What We Need to Know

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. MacEachren; Anthony Robinson; Susan Hopper; Steven Gardner; Robert Murray; Mark Gahegan; Elisabeth Hetzler

    2005-01-01

    Developing reliable methods for representing and managing information uncertainty remains a persistent and relevant challenge to GIScience. Information uncertainty is an intricate idea, and recent examinations of this concept have generated many perspectives on its representation and visualization, with perspectives emerging from a wide range of disciplines and application contexts. In this paper, we review and assess progress toward visual

  6. Dynamic integration of task-relevant visual features in posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ibos, Guilhem; Freedman, David J

    2014-09-17

    The primate visual system consists of multiple hierarchically organized cortical areas, each specialized for processing distinct aspects of the visual scene. For example, color and form are encoded in ventral pathway areas such as V4 and inferior temporal cortex, while motion is preferentially processed in dorsal pathway areas such as the middle temporal area. Such representations often need to be integrated perceptually to solve tasks that depend on multiple features. We tested the hypothesis that the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) integrates disparate task-relevant visual features by recording from LIP neurons in monkeys trained to identify target stimuli composed of conjunctions of color and motion features. We show that LIP neurons exhibit integrative representations of both color and motion features when they are task relevant and task-dependent shifts of both direction and color tuning. This suggests that LIP plays a role in flexibly integrating task-relevant sensory signals. PMID:25199703

  7. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    PubMed

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend. PMID:26152963

  8. Joshua Gomez INFO 247 Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    Joshua Gomez INFO 247 ­ Information Visualization Final Project Report Visual Directory of Spectrum Licenses Introduction The wireless spectrum is by nature a limited resource, similar to land the wireless industry and license portions of the wireless spectrum to service providers. The mission

  9. Visualizing an information assurance risk taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Lemieux; Barbara Endicott-Popovsky; Karl Eckler; Thomas Dang; Adam Jansen

    2011-01-01

    The researchers explore the intersections between Information Assurance and Risk using visual analysis of text mining operations. The methodological approach involves searching for and extracting for analysis those abstracts and keywords groupings that relate to risk within a defined subset of scientific research journals. This analysis is conducted through a triangulated study incorporating visualizations produced using both Starlight and In-Spire

  10. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  11. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  12. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  13. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  14. Processing of learned information in paradoxical sleep: relevance for memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Hennevin; Bernard Hars; Catherine Maho; Vincent Bloch

    1995-01-01

    After a short review of the post-learning paradoxical sleep (PS) deprivation effects and of the PS changes induced by learning, we present a set of electrophysiological and behavioural experiments showing that: (1) processing of relevant information is possible during PS; (2) new associations can be formed during PS; (3) previously learned information can be reprocessed during PS; and (4) the

  15. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  16. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    PubMed

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs. PMID:20939745

  17. A framework for medical visual information exchange on the web.

    PubMed

    Carro, Silvio Antonio; Scharcanski, Jacob

    2006-04-01

    The web has become such an extensive health information repository in the world that it is increasingly difficult to search for relevant medical information. Most medical information available on the web is not peer reviewed, and is retrieved imprecisely by current web search mechanisms (i.e. based on keywords). This paper presents the MedISeek metadata model that allows one to describe medical visual information (i.e. medical images) of different modalities, including their properties, components, relationships and authorship. The model uses the web architecture and supports the international classification of diseases and related health problems (i.e. ICD-10). An RDF schema (Resource Description Framework (RDF), http://www.w3.org/RDF/.) derived from this metadata model is integrated to each medical image, and specifies the semantics of each property in the image. Thus, relevant information can be extracted directly from the images, and data integrity is better preserved in the web. A prototype, presented here, has been built to validate the metadata model, and the mechanism for medical visual information exchange on the web. Our preliminary experimental results indicate that authorized users of our system have been able to describe, store and retrieve medical images and their associated diagnostic information. PMID:16488771

  18. Information Sharing during Diagnostic Assessments: What Is Relevant for Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St. Pierre, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended…

  19. Combining Relevance Information in a Synchronous Collaborative Information Retrieval Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colum Foley; Alan F. Smeaton; Gareth J. F. Jones

    Traditionally information retrieval (IR) research h as focussed on a single user interaction modality, where a user searches to sati sfy an information need. Recent advances in both web technologies, such as the soci able web of Web 2.0, and computer hardware, such as tabletop interface devices, have enabled multiple users to collaborate on many computer-related tasks. Due to these

  20. Kinesthetic information disambiguates visual motion signals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Knill, David C

    2010-05-25

    Numerous studies have shown that extra-retinal signals can disambiguate motion information created by movements of the eye or head. We report a new form of cross-modal sensory integration in which the kinesthetic information generated by active hand movements essentially captures ambiguous visual motion information. Several previous studies have shown that active movement can bias observers' percepts of bi-stable stimuli; however, these effects seem to be best explained by attentional mechanisms. We show that kinesthetic information can change an otherwise stable perception of motion, providing evidence of genuine fusion between visual and kinesthetic information. The experiments take advantage of the aperture problem, in which the motion of a one-dimensional grating pattern behind an aperture, while geometrically ambiguous, appears to move stably in the grating normal direction. When actively moving the pattern, however, the observer sees the motion to be in the hand movement direction. PMID:20504749

  1. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  2. Category Learning Increases Discriminability of Relevant Object Dimensions in Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Learning to categorize objects can transform how they are perceived, causing relevant perceptual dimensions predictive of object category to become enhanced. For example, an expert mycologist might become attuned to species-specific patterns of spacing between mushroom gills but learn to ignore cap textures attributable to varying environmental conditions. These selective changes in perception can persist beyond the act of categorizing objects and influence our ability to discriminate between them. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we demonstrate that such category-specific perceptual enhancements are associated with changes in the neural discriminability of object representations in visual cortex. Regions within the anterior fusiform gyrus became more sensitive to small variations in shape that were relevant during prior category learning. In addition, extrastriate occipital areas showed heightened sensitivity to small variations in shape that spanned the category boundary. Visual representations in cortex, just like our perception, are sensitive to an object's history of categorization. PMID:22490547

  3. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. PMID:25595505

  4. Slip Prediction Using Visual Information Anelia Angelova

    E-print Network

    Perona, Pietro

    prediction of slip from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobil- ity of a wheeled ground robot while driving. High levels of slip can be observed on certain terrains, which can

  5. An Environment Supporting Visual Information Processing Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni Kaldoudi; Marios Zikos; Stelios C. Orphanoudakis

    1997-01-01

    Visual information processing is a rather mature and r ich field. An impressive amount of image and video processing algorithms are currently available fo r a great variety of applications. There is also a considerable number of software packages, either commer cial products or academic shareware, ranging from dedicated systems aiming at solving very specific problems, to open environments designed

  6. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line with the 'auditory-visual view' of auditory speech perception, which assumes that auditory speech recognition is optimized by using predictions from previously encoded speaker-specific audio-visual internal models. PMID:25650106

  7. An Information Theoretic Model of Saliency and Visual Search

    E-print Network

    observed visual search behavior and additionally is based on some basic well defined principle. It is ourAn Information Theoretic Model of Saliency and Visual Search Neil D.B. Bruce and John K. Tsotsos quantifies visual saliency based on an information theoretic definition is evaluated with respect to visual

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Indexing Visual Information at Multiple Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Jaimes; Shih-Fu Chang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from the literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content - based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of

  9. Teaching with Visualizations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by Bob MacKay, Clark College. What are Visualizations? Visualizations can present massive amounts of information to help scientists identify relevant patterns and processes in nature. Data visualization ...

  10. Perceived visual informativeness (PVI): construct and scale development to assess visual information in printed materials.

    PubMed

    King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A; Carcioppolo, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the visual images used in health communication messages and campaign materials. Even though many studies suggest further investigation of these visual messages and their features, few studies provide specific constructs or assessment tools for evaluating the characteristics of visual messages in health communication contexts. The authors conducted 2 studies to validate a measure of perceived visual informativeness (PVI), a message construct assessing visual messages presenting statistical or indexical information. In Study 1, a 7-item scale was created that demonstrated good internal reliability (? = .91), as well as convergent and divergent validity with related message constructs such as perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived attractiveness. PVI also converged with a preference for visual learning but was unrelated to a person's actual vision ability. In addition, PVI exhibited concurrent validity with a number of important constructs including perceived message effectiveness, decisional satisfaction, and three key public health theory behavior predictors: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy. Study 2 provided more evidence that PVI is an internally reliable measure and demonstrates that PVI is a modifiable message feature that can be tested in future experimental work. PVI provides an initial step to assist in the evaluation and testing of visual messages in campaign and intervention materials promoting informed decision making and behavior change. PMID:24742307

  11. MANAGING THE VISUAL PRIVACY OF INCIDENTAL INFORMATION IN WEB BROWSERS

    E-print Network

    Hawkey, Kirstie

    .............................................................14 2.1.2.1 Online PrivacyMANAGING THE VISUAL PRIVACY OF INCIDENTAL INFORMATION IN WEB BROWSERS by Kirstie Hawkey Submitted: March 29, 2007 AUTHOR: Kirstie Hawkey TITLE: MANAGING THE VISUAL PRIVACY OF INCIDENTAL INFORMATION

  12. Interactive Tree Comparison for Co-located Collaborative Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    Interactive Tree Comparison for Co-located Collaborative Information Visualization Petra Isenberg. Designing technologies to support collaboration around information visualizations poses special challenges and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around

  13. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information...SUMMARY: This Request for Information (RFI) seeks to identify and obtain relevant...components, tissues, cells, and organs. This RFI is intended to inform the Department...

  14. Seeing without knowing: task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and recognition.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Shoval, Roy; Yeshurun, Yaffa

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that task relevance dissociates between visual awareness and knowledge activation to create a state of seeing without knowing-visual awareness of familiar stimuli without recognizing them. We rely on the fact that in order to experience a Kanizsa illusion, participants must be aware of its inducers. While people can indicate the orientation of the illusory rectangle with great ease (signifying that they have consciously experienced the illusion's inducers), almost 30% of them could not report the inducers' color. Thus, people can see, in the sense of phenomenally experiencing, but not know, in the sense of recognizing what the object is or activating appropriate knowledge about it. Experiment 2 tests whether relevance-based selection operates within objects and shows that, contrary to the pattern of results found with features of different objects in our previous studies and replicated in Experiment 1, selection does not occur when both relevant and irrelevant features belong to the same object. We discuss these findings in relation to the existing theories of consciousness and to attention and inattentional blindness, and the role of cognitive load, object-based attention, and the use of self-reports as measures of awareness. PMID:25716140

  15. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. 813.1 ...AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program....

  16. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. 813.1 ...AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program....

  17. 32 CFR 813.1 - Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program. 813.1 ...AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.1 Purpose of the visual information documentation (VIDOC) program....

  18. Perceptual dependencies in information visualization assessed by complex visual search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Van Den Berg; Frans W. Cornelissen; Jos B. T. M. Roerdink

    2008-01-01

    A common approach for visualizing data sets is to map them to images in which distinct data dimensions are mapped to distinct visual features, such as color, size and orientation. Here, we consider visualizations in which different data dimensions should receive equal weight and attention. Many of the end-user tasks performed on these images involve a form of visual search.

  19. Visualizing intelligence information using correlation graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vivek; Gagvani, Nikhil

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new information model to help intelligence analysts in organizing, querying, and visualizing the information present in large volumes of unstructured data sources such as text reports, multi-media, and human discourse. Our primary goal is to create a system that would combine the human pattern recognition abilities of intelligence analysis with the storage and processing capabilities of computers. Our system models the collective mental map of intelligence analysts in the form of the Correlation Graph, a modified graph data structure with objects and events as nodes and subjective probabilistic correlations between them as edges. Objects are entities such as people, places, and things. Events are actions that involve the objects. A taxonomy is also associated with the model to enable intelligence domain specific querying of the data. Graph drawing techniques are used to visualize the information represented by the correlation graph. Through real world examples, we demonstrate that the resulting information model can be used for efficient representation, presentation, and querying to discover novel patterns in the intelligence data via graph visualization techniques.

  20. Proxemics for Information Visualization on Wall-Sized Displays

    E-print Network

    Deussen, Oliver

    of data to amplify cognition. Large high-resolution displays may benefit information visualization: They provide pixels for visualizing very large data sets [2], give abundant Copyright is held by the author, information visualization, large high- resolution displays. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.1. Information

  1. GYMNASTS UTILIZE VISUAL AND AUDITORY INFORMATION FOR BEHAVIOURAL SYNCHRONIZATION IN TRAMPOLINING

    PubMed Central

    Koschnick, J.; Schmidt-Maaß, D.; Vinken, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In synchronized trampolining, two gymnasts perform the same routine at the same time. While trained gymnasts are thought to coordinate their own movements with the movements of another gymnast by detecting relevant movement information, the question arises how visual and auditory information contribute to the emergence of synchronicity between both gymnasts. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the role of visual and auditory information in the emergence of coordinated behaviour in synchronized trampolining. Twenty female gymnasts were asked to synchronize their leaps with the leaps of a model gymnast, while visual and auditory information was manipulated. The results revealed that gymnasts needed more leaps to reach synchronicity when only either auditory (12.9 leaps) or visual information (10.8 leaps) was available, as compared to when both auditory and visual information was available (8.1 leaps). It is concluded that visual and auditory information play significant roles in synchronized trampolining, whilst visual information seems to be the dominant source for emerging behavioural synchronization, and auditory information supports this emergence. PMID:25177101

  2. Visual-Haptic Perception of Compliance: Fusion of Visual and Haptic Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kuschel; Martin Buss; Franziska Freyberger; B. Farber; R. L. Klatzky

    2008-01-01

    Visual-haptic compliance perception demands processing of haptic position and force information as well as visual position information. In this study it was analyzed how different compliances are perceived and how single modality estimates are combined to a visual-haptic percept of compliance. Participants estimated the compliance of a virtual cube displayed by a human system interface. Thereby, psychometric functions were recorded

  3. INSPECT: a dynamic visual query system for geospatial information exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Hahn, James K.; Powell, Alfred M., Jr.; Greene, Geoffrey

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a visual information exploration tool called INSPECT. INSPECT provides geospatial information analysts with an effective way to visually filter multidimensional data and explore the underlying information contained within it. In geospatial intelligence information analyses, it is necessary to query, visualize and understand the data combined with location information. These operations are not simple since they include complex database queries of both spatial and non-spatial data. Moreover, analysts need to repeatedly query and visualize data until they reach a desirable conclusion. Using INSPECT, analysts are able to experimentally query the database avoiding complex database schema and visualize the results in geospatial context with minimal effort. The tools available with INSPECT include see-through lens visualization, relationship visualization, time varying analysis, saved lens-filter sessions, a data reachback capability, and iterative visual exploration.

  4. Relevant information retrieval and fusion of anatomic, physiologic, and metabolic neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Nielsen, Jon F.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Bluml, Stefan; Seri, Istvan; Nelson, Marvin D.

    2005-04-01

    MRI Neuroimaging provides a rich source of image content including structural (MRI, Diffusion DTI), functional (fMRI, Perfusion ASL), and metabolic (MRS) information. Today MRI capabilities allow to acquire these imaging techniques in one session in most cases. In order to be of diagnostic value, the immense and diverse data needs to be (i) automatically post-processed to extract the relevant information, e.g. 3D brain maps from 4D fMRI, and to be (ii) fused and visualized to correlate the voxel-based findings. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of automatic relevant information retrieval and fusion of MRI, fMRI, DTI, ASL, and MRS data of a pediatric population into a single semantic data representation. By using advanced imaging, we may able to detect a larger spectrum of abnormalities in the neonatal brain. Each imaging application, provides unique information about the physiology (fMRI, ASL), the anatomy (DTI), and the biochemistry (MRS) of the newborn brain in relation to normal development and brain injury. By being able to integrate this technology, we will be able to combine biochemical, physiologic and anatomic information which can provide unique insight about not only the normal development of the brain, but also injury of the neonatal brain.

  5. Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

    Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

  6. Sex Differences in Memory for Sexually-Relevant Information

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an attempt to examine potential differences between men and women in memory for sexually relevant information. A total of 77 undergraduate students (31 men, 46 women) read a sexual story and completed memory tasks in response to the story. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that differences would exist between men and women for different types of sexual information and we hoped to understand whether specific variables (sexual experiences, sexual functioning, and reactions to the sexual story) could explain such differences. Men were more likely to remember erotic or explicit details of the story, whereas women were more likely to remember love and emotional bonding details of the story. Additionally, women were more likely to recall information referencing the characters in the story. Results from regression analyses indicated that sexual desire and satisfaction were related to differences in recall and recognition of the love and emotional bonding aspects of the story, and that frequency of sexual intercourse was related to differences in the recall of erotic or explicit details of the story. The significant results obtained in this study correspond to previously established sex differences in memory for sexual information. PMID:17186127

  7. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  8. Casual Information Visualization: Depictions of Data in Everyday Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary Pousman; John T. Stasko; Michael Mateas

    2007-01-01

    Information visualization has often focused on providing deep insight for expert user populations and on techniques for amplifying cognition through complicated interactive visual models. This paper proposes a new subdomain for infovis research that complements the focus on analytic tasks and expert use. Instead of work-related and analytically driven infovis, we propose Casual Information Visualization (or Casual Infovis) as a

  9. Information Visualization: Scope, Techniques and Opportunities for Geovisualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Keim; Christian Panse; Mike Sips

    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining

  10. Redundant visual information enhances group decisions.

    PubMed

    Barr, Shawn; Gold, Jason M

    2014-12-01

    Important perceptual judgments are often made by combining the opinions of several individuals to make a collective decision, such as when teams of physicians make diagnoses based on medical images. Although group-level decisions are generally superior to the decisions made by individuals, it remains unclear whether collective decision making is most effective when information is redundantly provided to all individuals within a group, or when each individual is responsible for only a portion of the total information. Here, we test this idea by having individuals and groups of different sizes make perceptual judgments about the presence of a weak visual signal. We found that groups viewing the entirety of information significantly outperformed groups that viewed limited portions of information, and that this difference in performance could be accounted for by a simple internal noise-averaging model. However, noise averaging alone was insufficient to account for improvements in individual and group-level performance as group size varied. These results indicate that sharing redundant information can enhance the quality of individual perceptual judgments and lead to better group decision making than dividing information across members of a group. PMID:25365569

  11. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David N; Ekstrand, Kim R; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature. The eligible studies were those which (1) assessed the accuracy of the visual method for detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in primary or permanent teeth, (2) used a reference standard, and (3) reported data about sample size and accuracy of the methods. Aspects related to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study considered its prognosis, 79 studies did not consider a clinically relevant outcome, and only 1 evaluated a patient-centred outcome. Concerning methodological quality, the majority of the studies presented a high risk of bias in sample selection. In conclusion, studies on the accuracy of the visual method for caries detection should consider clinically relevant outcomes besides accuracy; moreover, they should be conducted with higher methodological quality, mainly regarding sample selection. PMID:25571967

  12. Inclusion of Relevance Information in the Term Discrimination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biru, Tesfaye; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the effect of including relevance data on the calculation of term discrimination values in bibliographic databases. Algorithms that calculate the ability of index terms to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant documents are described and tested. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between term frequency and…

  13. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  14. Study of Value-Relevance between Chinese Stock Market Investment and Accounting Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ran Liu; Jihui Sun; Lantian Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the value-relevance of the Chinese stock market investment and accounting information is studied from three aspects of the stock price, stock value and stock risk. It is found that, in terms of the value-relevance of the Chinese stock market and accounting information, the accounting information released by listed companies did pass information to the stock market in

  15. Benefits of Information Visualization Systems for Administrative Data Analysts

    E-print Network

    Kobsa, Alfred

    Benefits of Information Visualization Systems for Administrative Data Analysts Victor González benefits that visualization systems provide to their work. These benefits for the most part occurred when discovery processes. We analyze the conditions under which these benefits arose, to inform the design

  16. Feedback of visual object information to foveal retinotopic cortex

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Feedback of visual object information to foveal retinotopic cortex Mark A Williams1,2, Chris I Kanwisher1,5 The mammalian visual system contains an extensive web of feedback connections projecting from by prior theories of feedback. This information was position invariant, correlated with perceptual

  17. 3D Information Visualization for Time Dependent Data on Maps

    E-print Network

    Tominski, Christian

    regions #12;July 6, 2005 3D Information Visualization for Time Dependent Data on Maps 8 Icon Design 3D icons Spiral designs intuitive metaphor for conveying cyclic characteristics Helix ribbon color codes 3D Icons representing time dependency #12;July 6, 2005 3D Information Visualization for Time

  18. VizIR - A framework for visual information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Eidenberger; Christian Breiteneder

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the visual information retrieval project VizIRis presented. The goal of the project is the implementation of an open visual information retrieval (VIR) prototype as basis for further research on major problems of VIR. The motivation behind VizIR is the implementation of an open platform for supporting and facilitating research, teaching, the exchange of research results and research

  19. Visual Information Systems Pr. R. Laurini Introduction to the Course 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    of Visual Information Visual Systems of Information Basic Definitions (1/2) · Computer Graphics · Imagery and documents #12;Visual Information Systems Pr. R. Laurini Introduction to the Course 2 Basic Definitions (2Visual Information Systems Pr. R. Laurini Introduction to the Course 1 Visual Information Systems

  20. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  1. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information...previously published Request For Information (RFI) seeks to provide additional opportunities...tissues, cells, and organs. The original RFI was published in the Federal Register...

  2. Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the corporate sector is aware of information literacy as a new economy skills set and a solution to information overload. Discusses terminology used in the business sector to describe aspects of information literacy and explains the definition of information literacy used by Australian academic libraries. (Author/LRW)

  3. VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION Angeliki and recognition. We use facial information obtained from multiple markers across the face. This information information is conveyed through the human face. In this study, we analyze detailed motion-captured facial

  4. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Fox; Ophir Frieder; Margaret M. Knepper; Eric J. Snowberg

    1999-01-01

    We describe a prototype Information Retrieval system, SENTINEL, under development at Harris Corporation's Information Systems Division. SENTINEL is a fusion of multiple information retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. One of the primary advantages of SENTINEL is its 3-dimenstional visualization capability that i s based fully upon the mathematical representation of information

  5. Visual Information Literacy: Reading a Documentary Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Like a printed text, an architectural blueprint, a mathematical equation, or a musical score, a visual image is its own language. Visual literacy has three components: (1) learning; (2) thinking; and (3) communicating. A "literate" person is able to decipher the basic code and syntax, interpret the signs and symbols, correctly apply terms from an…

  6. Feedback of Client-Relevant Information and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H.; Graham, E. Diane

    1976-01-01

    The literature suggests that how one reacts to feedback is influenced by kind of feedback, conditions under which feedback is presented, and a variety of relevant subject variables. The most frequent design has resulted in acceptance of false feedback by college students leading to derogation of instruments and assessors. (Author/MV)

  7. Predictive knowledge of stimulus relevance does not influence top-down suppression of irrelevant information in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zanto, Theodore P.; Hennigan, Kelly; Östberg, Mattias; Clapp, Wesley C.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortices. Previous research has shown that older adults exhibit a deficit in suppressing task-irrelevant information, the magnitude of which is associated with a decline in working memory performance. However, it remains unclear if a failure to suppress is a reflection of an inability of older adults to rapidly assess the relevance of information upon stimulus presentation when they are not aware of the relevance beforehand. To address this, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy older participants (aged 60–80 years) while they performed two different versions of a selective face/scene working memory task, both with and without prior knowledge as to when relevant and irrelevant stimuli would appear. Each trial contained two faces and two scenes presented sequentially followed by a nine second delay and a probe stimulus. Participants were given the following instructions: remember faces (ignore scenes), remember scenes (ignore faces), remember the xth and yth stimuli (where x and y could be 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th), or passively view all stimuli. Working memory performance remained consistent regardless of task instructions. Enhanced neural activity was observed at posterior electrodes to attended stimuli, while neural responses that reflected the suppression of irrelevant stimuli was absent for both tasks. The lack of significant suppression at early stages of visual processing was revealed by P1 amplitude and N1 latency modulation indices. These results reveal that prior knowledge of stimulus relevance does not modify early neural processing during stimulus encoding and does not improve working memory performance in older adults. These results suggest that the inability to suppress irrelevant information early in the visual processing stream by older adults is related to mechanisms specific to top-down suppression. PMID:19744649

  8. Fitting the Jigsaw of Citation: Information Visualization in Domain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Paul, Ray J.; O'Keefe, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of information visualization in modeling and representing intellectual structures associated with scientific disciplines and visualizes the domain of computer graphics based on bibliographic data from author cocitation patterns. Highlights include author cocitation maps, citation time lines, animation of a high-dimensional…

  9. Low-Level Components of Analytic Activity in Information Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Amar; James Eagan; John T. Stasko

    2005-01-01

    Existing system-level taxonomies of visualization tasks are geared more towards the design of particular representations than the facilitation of user analytic activity. We present a set of ten low-level analysis tasks that largely capture people's activities while employing information visualization tools for understanding data. To help develop these tasks, we collected nearly 200 sample questions from students about how they

  10. Low-level components of analytic activity in information visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Amar; James Eagan; John Stasko

    2005-01-01

    Existing system level taxonomies of visualization tasks are geared more towards the design of particular representations than the facilitation of user analytic activity. We present a set of ten low level analysis tasks that largely capture people's activities while employing information visualization tools for understanding data. To help develop these tasks, we collected nearly 200 sample questions from students about

  11. TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    TaxonTree: Visualizing Biodiversity Information Cynthia Sims Parr1 , Bongshin Lee1, 2 , Dana@wam.umd.edu +1-301-405-7445 ABSTRACT Biodiversity databases have recently become widely available to the public in the biodiversity domain. Users indicated that the system was usable and tree visualization aided

  12. Visual attention mitigates information loss in small- and large-scale neural codes.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Thomas C; Saproo, Sameer; Serences, John T

    2015-04-01

    The visual system transforms complex inputs into robust and parsimonious neural codes that efficiently guide behavior. Because neural communication is stochastic, the amount of encoded visual information necessarily decreases with each synapse. This constraint requires that sensory signals are processed in a manner that protects information about relevant stimuli from degradation. Such selective processing--or selective attention--is implemented via several mechanisms, including neural gain and changes in tuning properties. However, examining each of these effects in isolation obscures their joint impact on the fidelity of stimulus feature representations by large-scale population codes. Instead, large-scale activity patterns can be used to reconstruct representations of relevant and irrelevant stimuli, thereby providing a holistic understanding about how neuron-level modulations collectively impact stimulus encoding. PMID:25769502

  13. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...

  14. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...

  15. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials...20722-3701. (2) Nonproduction VI motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials,...

  16. Does visual information influence infants’ movement to music?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gin; Killough, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are often exposed to music beginning at birth (or even before birth), yet the study of the development of musical abilities during infancy has only recently gained momentum. The goals of the present study were to determine whether young infants (ages four to seven months) spontaneously moved rhythmically in the presence of music, and whether the presence of visual information in addition to music would increase or decrease infants’ movement. While nearly all infants moved in the presence of music, very few infants demonstrated rhythmic movement. Results revealed that, when visual information was present, and particularly when infants appeared to show focused attention toward the visual information, infants moved less than when only auditory information was present. The latter result is in agreement with most studies of sensory dominance in adults in which visual stimuli are dominant over auditory stimuli. PMID:24277976

  17. The effect of ecologically relevant variations in light level on the performance of Mongolian gerbils on two visual tasks.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Magdalena E; Bankieris, Kaitlyn R; Abid, Qura; Kui, Guan Hua; Rodman, Hillary R

    2011-11-01

    Tests of rodent visual capacities are typically performed under standard laboratory illumination. However, light level can have subtle and complex effects on behavior in rodents. We tested Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) - a species that shows individual differences in activity pattern - on visual tasks at three ecologically relevant levels of ambient illuminance: approximating moonlight (1 lx), dawn or dusk (10 lx), and low daylight (100 lx). A jumping task and a grating discrimination quantified depth perception and grating acuity, respectively. Illuminance variations had important effects on behavior. Gerbils jumped faster in lower light on the depth discrimination task, but were also less accurate than in bright light. Daytime activity levels (possibly reflecting variations in activity pattern) mediated these effects, with animals that were awake during a lower proportion of daytime hours exhibiting a trend toward jumping faster with lower light level as compared to more day-active gerbils. Moreover, while illuminance did not affect acuity overall, it interacted with activity levels in a complex way: in both the darkest and lowest light levels, animals that were awake during a greater proportion of daytime hours showed higher acuity levels than animals that were less active during the day. These results indicate that gerbils show behavioral profiles in vision tasks that represent an interaction between visual ability and illuminance-sensitive motivational or emotional actors, perhaps including chronotype. Thus, the most ecologically relevant assessments of the visual performance of rodents will likely be achieved by testing at species-specific preferred light levels. PMID:21906663

  18. Dissociated Mechanisms of Extracting Perceptual Information into Visual Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaifeng Gao; Jie Li; Jun Yin; Mowei Shen; Aldo Rustichini

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe processing mechanisms of visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively explored in the recent decade. However, how the perceptual information is extracted into VWM remains largely unclear. The current study investigated this issue by testing whether the perceptual information was extracted into VWM via an integrated-object manner so that all the irrelevant information would be extracted (object hypothesis), or

  19. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  20. Visual search with animal fear-relevant stimuli: A tale of two procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison M. WatersOttmar; Ottmar V. Lipp; Ranjiv S. Randhawa

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed preferential attentional processing of animal fear-relevant stimuli in two procedures, Search and\\u000a Interference tasks, which have been suggested to reflect on attentional capture due to the fear-relevance of the stimuli presented.\\u000a In the Search task, participants (N = 154) searched fear-relevant (i.e., snakes and spiders) and non fear-relevant (i.e.,\\u000a fish and birds) backgrounds to determine the presence or

  1. Attention and Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    One theory of visual communication maintains three things. It holds that attention is a process for obtaining information, that it is a transaction between the visual and the viewer, and that the success of a visual communication is determined by the amount and relevance of information conveyed. Current research aims at evaluating…

  2. Delivering relevant development information to the rural poor.

    PubMed

    Monu, E D

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) in the Philippines is to help the rural poor use their own sources of information and those of technical advisors to identify and assess rural needs and rationally decide on solutions. IIRR, the development agency, acts as a catalyst to facilitate the establishment of a people's group and to stimulate the development and modification of the support system. In the most recent approach, a field worker meets with village leaders, and eventually with the entire community, to identify problems that the village would like to solve and to discuss project objectives. This Reconstruction Facilitator (RRF) simultaneously collects information on the physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the community. After identifying the poorer village members, problems unique to them are determined based on discussions with this group. The uncomplicated ones are selected to be analyzed and solved with hopes that the group's faith and confidence will grow, thus strengthening the villagers capabilities to undertake more complex issues. Yet problems to this approach occur. IIRR has proposed a revised 10 step strategy that builds on the strengths of its present one. Prior to visiting the village, the RRF should become acquainted with all the available information on the village and the surrounding area, including the physical and socioeconomic characteristics. Then he/she builds rapport with leaders and the community, collects information to supplement data gathered beforehand and to identify the poorer villagers, and packages the information so as to be a useful tool in identifying and solving village problems. After prioritizing problems and linking the group to other information sources, the group agrees upon the appropriate actions, designs and implements a strategy, and monitors and evaluates the process throughout the project. PMID:12315827

  3. Lessons about Visualizing with Informational Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article identifies online lesson plans that can be used to introduce visualizing, a comprehension skill important to both science and literacy learning. Each of the lessons meets NCTE/IRA English language arts standards. The article appears in the free online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which is structured around the seven essential principles of climate science and literacy.

  4. Use of Visual Information for Phonetic Perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quentin Summerfield

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy with which naive listeners can report sentences presented 12 dB below a background of continuous prose was compared with accuracy in four audio visually supplemented conditions. With monochrome displays of the talker showing (i) the face, (ii) the lips and (iii) four points at the centres of the lips and the corners of the mouth, accuracy improved by

  5. Information Visualization Within a Digital Video Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Christel; David Martin

    1998-01-01

    The Informedia Digital Video Library contains over a thousand hours of video, consuming over a terabyte of disk space. This paper summarizes the multimedia abstractions used to represent this video in prior systems and introduces the visualization techniques employed to browse and navigate multiple video documents at once.

  6. Illustrative Visualization Techniques for Hurricane Advisory Information

    E-print Network

    Swan II, J. Edward

    in geographical data analysis that the cartographic community is attempting to solve with new mapping approaches, which provide flexible interfaces for interacting with and understanding the data. These new displays in the realm of geographical visualization (GeoVis) (e.g., Kraak [1]), where cartographic and geographic

  7. The Development of Sensitivity to Causally Relevant Dynamic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines whether kindergarteners, second-graders, fourth-graders, and adults can extract relative weight information from observing collisions and lifting events, and if they can judge whether or not collisions are momentum-conserving. Subjects saw either videotapes of events or sequences of static images; younger children appeared to be…

  8. Time, relevance and interaction modelling for information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Dunlop

    1997-01-01

    The most common method for assessing the worth of an information retrieval (IR) system is through precision and recall graphs. These graphs show how precise an IR engine is when working at fixed levels of recall. This paper introduces number-to-view graphs, a new graphing method based on an early evaluation measure, which supplement precision- recall graphs by plotting the number

  9. Conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Chang, Shih-Fu

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from this literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent content-based retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual and non- visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax and semantics, and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.

  10. GADGET\\/IV: A Taxonomic Approach to Semi-Automatic Design of Information Visualization Applications Using Modular Visualization Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Issei Fujishiro; Rika Furuhata; Yoshihiko Ichikawa; Yuriko Takeshima

    2000-01-01

    Since novice users of visualization systems lack the knowledge and expertise in data visualization, it is a tough task for them to generate efficient and effective visualizations that allow them to comprehend information embedded in the data. Therefore, systems supporting the users to design appropriate visualizations are of great importance. The GADGET system, which has been developed in our previous

  11. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  12. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  13. Information theoretical assessment of visual communication with wavelet coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur

    1995-06-01

    A visual communication channel can be characterized by the efficiency with which it conveys information, and the quality of the images restored from the transmitted data. Efficient data representation requires the use of constraints of the visual communication channel. Our information theoretic analysis combines the design of the wavelet compression algorithm with the design of the visual communication channel. Shannon's communication theory, Wiener's restoration filter, and the critical design factors of image gathering and display are combined to provide metrics for measuring the efficiency of data transmission, and for quantitatively assessing the visual quality of the restored image. These metrics are: a) the mutual information (Eta) between the radiance the radiance field and the restored image, and b) the efficiency of the channel which can be roughly measured by as the ratio (Eta) /H, where H is the average number of bits being used to transmit the data. Huck, et al. (Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993) have shown that channels desinged to maximize (Eta) , also maximize. Our assessment provides a framework for designing channels which provide the highest possible visual quality for a given amount of data under the critical design limitations of the image gathering and display devices. Results show that a trade-off exists between the maximum realizable information of the channel and its efficiency: an increase in one leads to a decrease in the other. The final selection of which of these quantities to maximize is, of course, application dependent.

  14. DUAL PATHWAYS FOR HAPTIC AND VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SPATIAL AND TEXTURE INFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sathian, K.; Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Gibson, Gregory O.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; LaConte, Stephen; Glielmi, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of information flow along a dorsally directed pathway for processing object location and a ventrally directed pathway for processing object identity is well established in the visual and auditory systems, but is less clear in the somatosensory system. We hypothesized that segregation of location vs. identity information in touch would be evident if texture is the relevant property for stimulus identity, given the salience of texture for touch. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the pathways for haptic and visual processing of location and texture are segregated, and the extent of bisensory convergence. Haptic texture-selectivity was found in the parietal operculum and posterior visual cortex bilaterally, and in parts of left inferior frontal cortex. There was bisensory texture-selectivity at some of these sites in posterior visual and left inferior frontal cortex. Connectivity analyses demonstrated, in each modality, flow of information from unisensory non-selective areas to modality-specific texture-selective areas and further to bisensory texture-selective areas. Location-selectivity was mostly bisensory, occurring in dorsal areas, including the frontal eye fields and multiple regions around the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Many of these regions received input from unisensory areas in both modalities. Together with earlier studies, the activation and connectivity analyses of the present study establish that somatosensory processing flows into segregated pathways for location and object identity information. The location-selective somatosensory pathway converges with its visual counterpart in dorsal frontoparietal cortex, while the texture-selective somatosensory pathway runs through the parietal operculum before converging with its visual counterpart in visual and frontal cortex. Both segregation of sensory processing according to object property and multisensory convergence appear to be universal organizing principles. PMID:21575727

  15. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, K. John; Wehner, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Data visualization, as well as data analysis and data analytics, are all an integral part of the scientific process. Collectively, these technologies provide the means to gain insight into data of ever-increasing size and complexity. Over the past two decades, a substantial amount of visualization, analysis, and analytics R&D has focused on the challenges posed by increasing data size and complexity, as well as on the increasing complexity of a rapidly changing computational platform landscape. While some of this research focuses on solely on technologies, such as indexing and searching or novel analysis or visualization algorithms, other R&D projects focus on applying technological advances to specific application problems. Some of the most interesting and productive results occur when these two activities R&D and application are conducted in a collaborative fashion, where application needs drive R&D, and R&D results are immediately applicable to real world problems.

  16. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  17. Learning and prediction of slip from visual information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anelia Angelova; Larry Matthies; Daniel M. Helmick; Pietro Perona

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To

  18. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

  19. CoCoNutTrix: Collaborative Retrofitting for Information Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Isenberg; Anastasia Bezerianos; Nathalie Henry; Jean-Daniel Fekete

    2009-01-01

    Most information visualization systems incorporate little or no spe- cific support for collaboration. Yet, collaboration has been identi- fied as a means to deal with the increasing amount and complex- ity of information available to analysts. Re-implementing existing applications to fully incorporate our current understanding of com- puter supported cooperative work could be exhaustive, time con- suming, and expensive. As

  20. Formality in Sketches and Visual Representation: Some Informal Reflections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan F. Blackwell; Luke Church; Beryl Plimmer; Dave Gray

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ways that sketches function as informal representation tools, especially when used in design contexts. We then consider the tension between this essentially informal practical function of sketches, and two different factors that drive toward formalization. These are 1) the need for a computational interpretation, and 2) the desire to specify visual formalisms as

  1. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

  2. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. PMID:24963138

  3. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  4. College Students and Algebra Story Problems: Strategies for Identifying Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Joan Littlefield

    2006-01-01

    College students' strategies to discriminate relevant from irrelevant information in algebra story problems were identified and compared to strategies used by younger students in previous studies. College students identified numbers relevant for solution (Experiment 1) or provided verbal reports as they computed answers (Experiment 2). Type of…

  5. Neural processing of visual information under interocular suppression: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stein, Timo; Ludwig, Karin; Rothkirch, Marcus; Hesselmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    When dissimilar stimuli are presented to the two eyes, only one stimulus dominates at a time while the other stimulus is invisible due to interocular suppression. When both stimuli are equally potent in competing for awareness, perception alternates spontaneously between the two stimuli, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. However, when one stimulus is much stronger, e.g., due to higher contrast, the weaker stimulus can be suppressed for prolonged periods of time. A technique that has recently become very popular for the investigation of unconscious visual processing is continuous flash suppression (CFS): High-contrast dynamic patterns shown to one eye can render a low-contrast stimulus shown to the other eye invisible for up to minutes. Studies using CFS have produced new insights but also controversies regarding the types of visual information that can be processed unconsciously as well as the neural sites and the relevance of such unconscious processing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in regard to neural processing of interocularly suppressed information. Focusing on recent neuroimaging findings, we discuss whether and to what degree such suppressed visual information is processed at early and more advanced levels of the visual processing hierarchy. We review controversial findings related to the influence of attention on early visual processing under interocular suppression, the putative differential roles of dorsal and ventral areas in unconscious object processing, and evidence suggesting privileged unconscious processing of emotional and other socially relevant information. On a more general note, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues, from practical issues of how unawareness of a stimulus is assessed to the overarching question of what constitutes an adequate operational definition of unawareness. Finally, we propose approaches for future research to resolve current controversies in this exciting research area. PMID:24904469

  6. A Comparative Study of Differences in Judged Relevance of Abstracts Located by Two Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John

    Differences in judged relevance of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) abstracts identified by two different information systems were investigated. A national semi-private educational service agency which utilizes mechanical searching of the research literature was one information system, while the other was a regional,…

  7. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  8. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  9. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.13 Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the...

  10. WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2002-06-09

    WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

  11. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  12. Visual information for judging temporal range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Mowafy, Lyn

    1993-01-01

    Work in our laboratory suggests that pilots can extract temporal range information (i.e., the time to pass a given waypoint) directly from out-the-window motion information. This extraction does not require the use of velocity or distance, but rather operates solely on a 2-D motion cue. In this paper, we present the mathematical derivation of this information, psychophysical evidence of human observers' sensitivity, and possible advantages and limitations of basing vehicle control on this parameter.

  13. Visualization of database structures for information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelise Mark Pejtersen; Grete Lisbjerg Jensen; Henrik Jensen; Steen Weber

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Book House system, which is designed to support children's information retrieval in libraries as part of their education. It is a shareware program available on CD-ROM or floppy disks, and comprises functionality for database searching as well as for classifying and storing book information in the database. The system concept is based on an understanding of

  14. A Model of Object-Based Attention That Guides Active Visual Search to Behaviourally Relevant Locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda J. Lanyon; Susan L. Denham

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a During active visual search for a colour-orientation conjunction target, scan paths tend to be guided to target coloured locations\\u000a (Motter & Belky, 1998). An active vision model, using biased competition, is able to replicate this behaviour. At the cellular\\u000a level, the model replicates spatial and object-based attentional effects over time courses observed in single cell recordings\\u000a in monkeys (Chelazzi et

  15. Running head: MEMORY FOR INFORMATION PAIRED WITH HUMOR 1 Memory for Information Paired with Humorous, Relevant Jokes

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    with Humorous, Relevant Jokes Stav Atir Senior Thesis Yale University #12;Running head: MEMORY FOR INFORMATION that was always nonhumorous, and a joke that was either humorous or nonhumorous and relevant or irrelevant to its paired fact. In a later memory test, recall of pairs (i.e. both fact and joke) was better when the joke

  16. Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bartlett D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Usrey, W. Martin; Freeman, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial components of a visual scene are processed neurally in a sequence of coarse features followed by fine features. This coarse-to-fine temporal stream was initially considered to be a cortical function, but has recently been demonstrated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that coarse-to-fine processing is present at earlier stages of visual processing in the retinal ganglion cells that supply lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. To compare coarse-to-fine processing in the cat’s visual system, we measured the visual responses of connected neuronal pairs from the retina and LGN, and separate populations of cells from each region. We found that coarse-to-fine processing was clearly present at the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Interestingly, peak and high-spatial-frequency cutoff responses were higher in the LGN than in the retina, indicating that there was a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine information from the retina to the LGN to the visual cortex. The analysis of early visual pathway receptive field characteristics showed that the physiological response interplay between the center and surround regions was consistent with coarse-to-fine features and may provide a primary role in the underlying mechanism. Taken together, the results from this study provided a framework for understanding the emergence and refinement of coarse-to-fine processing in the visual system. PMID:24251425

  17. Visualizing the non-visual: spatial analysis and interaction with information from text documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Wise; James J. Thomas; Kelly Pennock; David Lantrip; Marc Pottier; Anne Schur; V. Crow

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to IV that involves spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The application arena is large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, etc. The basic idea is that text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents.

  18. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  19. Time, Relevance and Interaction Modelling for Information Retrieval M. D. Dunlop

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    206 Time, Relevance and Interaction Modelling for Information Retrieval M. D. Dunlop Computing://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~mark/ Abstract The most common method for assessing the worth of an information retrieval (IR) system is through, these graphs and models introduce a new evaluation approach called Expected Search Duration. Introduction

  20. Time, Relevance and Interaction Modelling for Information Retrieval M. D. Dunlop

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    206 Time, Relevance and Interaction Modelling for Information Retrieval M. D. Dunlop Computing://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~mark/ Abstract The most common method for assessing the worth of an information retrieval (IR) system is through of a matching algorithm). This paper introduces a model of evaluation that includes aspects of both interface

  1. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information

    E-print Network

    Queenborough, Simon A.

    be the worst graphic ever to find its way into print." Substance? NO! ONLY 5 NUMBERS!! Colours.. YES 3D effects;BAD graphical displays: #12;3D = no extra information Latest results from only 6 months #12: ink ratio = data-ink total ink used to print graphic = proportion of graphic's ink devoted to the non

  2. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  3. An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

    2006-01-01

    ). The KIV approach is introduced by using a prototype of KIV for IB assessment. The KIV model consists of several toolkits, including an IB Casebase for the Applications of Sustainable Technology (called IB-CAST), a web-oriented information visualization...

  4. 3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    3 Ontology-based Information Visualization: Towards Semantic Web Applications Christiaan Fluit, Marta Sabou and Frank van Harmelen 3.1 Introduction The Semantic Web is an extension of the current yet unheard of. Rather than being merely a vision, the Semantic Web has significant backing from

  5. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    E-print Network

    Perona, Pietro

    a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Journal of Field Robotics 24(3), 205­231 (2007) © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online in Wiley is a measure of the lack of progress of a wheeled ground robot while driving. High levels of slip can

  6. Knowledge Precepts for Design and Evaluation of Information Visualizations

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    T. Stasko, Member, IEEE Abstract--The design and evaluation of most current information the notion of analytic gaps, which represent obstacles faced by visualizations in facilitating higher-level analytic tasks, such as decision-making and learning. We discuss support for bridging these gaps, propose

  7. Lark: Coordinating Co-located Collaboration with Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    for the coordination of data analysis actions over shared large displays. Index Terms--Information visualization, Meta to provide dif- ferent ways of examining and exploring the data. Collaborative data analysis scenarios can the potential to expand the possibilities of desktop-based data analysis en- vironments as large displays allow

  8. Voyagers and Voyeurs: Supporting Asynchronous Collaborative Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Heer, Jeffrey

    . As participants build consensus or make decisions they learn from their peers. Furthermore, some data sets are so emergent patterns of social data analysis, including cycles of observation and hypothesis, and the complementary roles of social navigation and data-driven exploration. Author Keywords Information visualization

  9. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  10. Visual Information Systems Chapter IX: Introduction to Virtual Reality 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Visual Information Systems Chapter IX: Introduction to Virtual Reality 1 Pr. Robert LAURINI Chapter IX Introduction to Virtual Reality Introduction to Virtual Reality · 9.1 ­ Introduction · 9.2 ­ Hardware · 9.3 ­Virtual Worlds · 9.4 ­ Examples of VR Applications · 9.5 ­ Augmented Reality · 9

  11. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    MRI, memory retrieval, mental imagery Abstract Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles-experience, and this process leads to mental imagery within the corresponding modality. Behavioural as well as neuroimagingBrain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information Mikhail Zvyagintsev,1

  12. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

    2009-01-01

    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  13. A scalability study of web-native information visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Johnson; T. J. Jankun-kelly

    2008-01-01

    Several web-native information visualization methods (SVG, HTML5's Canvas, native HTML) are studied to contrast their per- formances at different data scales. Using Java implementations of parallel coordinates and squarified treemaps for comparison, we ex- plore the design space of these web-based technologies in order to determine what design trade-offs are required.

  14. Providing Dynamic Visual Information for Collaborative Tasks: Experiments

    E-print Network

    Balakrishnan, Ravin

    in the real world, such as medical proce- dures or engine repair. In these scenarios, video views and other visual information seem likely to be useful in the ongoing negotiation of shared understanding, or common an appointment in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Toronto. Abhishek Ranjan is a Senior

  15. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucille T. Nowell; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Theodore E. Tanasse

    2001-01-01

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness

  16. Using High-Level Visual Information for Color Constancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joost Van De Weijer; Cordelia Schmid; Jakob J. Verbeek

    2007-01-01

    We propose to use high-level visual information to im- prove illuminant estimation. Several illuminant estimation approaches are applied to compute a set of possible illu- minants. For each of them an illuminant color corrected image is evaluated on the likelihood of its semantic content: is the grass green, the road grey, and the sky blue, in cor- respondence with our

  17. Information Visualization in Climate Research Christian Tominski1

    E-print Network

    Tominski, Christian

    Information Visualization in Climate Research Christian Tominski1 1 University of Rostock Rostock@pik-potsdam.de Thomas Nocke3 3 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Potsdam, Germany nocke@pik-potsdam.de Abstract--Much of the work conducted in climate research involves large and heterogeneous datasets

  18. Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  19. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  20. Visual Information Based Argument Categorization for Semantics of Chinese Verb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HaiPeng Liu; XiaoJie Wang; YiXin Zhong

    \\u000a Recently, language acquisition with aids of multi-modal information have drawn more and more attention. However, semantic\\u000a grounding of verbs has been less concerned due to their complex semantic representation. This paper proposed a novel way to\\u000a combine visual information into semantic representation of Chinese verb. While introducing original representation of two\\u000a constituents, which are verb frame and argument from Frame

  1. Representing Information Collections for Visual Cognition 

    E-print Network

    Koh, Eunyee

    2009-05-15

    in the ResultDistributor: (1) Process Search: add results into the appropriate ResultSlice; (2) Process Result: download and extract media from results in the Result- Slice. Move to the next ResultSlice after it finishes all results in the current slice; (3... or social information service, includ- ing Google, Yahoo, Flickr, or Delicious. combinFormation processes each search by sending the query to the selected engine, obtaining the result set, downloading the result pages, and extracting image and text...

  2. A unified toolkit for information and scientific visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Brian; Baumes, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    We present an expansion of the popular open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to support the ingestion, processing, and display of informatics data. The result is a flexible, component-based pipeline framework for the integration and deployment of algorithms in the scientific and informatics fields. This project, code named "Titan", is one of the first efforts to address the unification of information and scientific visualization in a systematic fashion. The result includes a wide range of informatics-oriented functionality: database access, graph algorithms, graph layouts, views, charts, UI components and more. Further, the data distribution, parallel processing and client/server capabilities of VTK provide an excellent platform for scalable analysis.

  3. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. PMID:25843936

  4. Haptic eyes: mapping visual information in to haptic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, S.; Rudolph, H.; Kumar, D. K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a method of mapping visual data into haptic cues for the blind to support them in navigation. Employing auditory cues alone to support blind navigation may help some extent but too much information to the ear may lead to confusion so important information such as dangers from the obstacles, stairs, potholes, sharp edges etc given through haptic signals not only reduce the over load on the auditory channel but also improves the speed of navigation by enabling quicker reaction. The proposed system for representing visual information intuitively and easily using haptic signals may assist the visually impaired in their navigation. This technique translates the images captured from digital cameras, extracts the required information and converts it into tactile signals. The use of the haptic channel is suggested in order to prevent overload of the auditory system and to use the special qualities of the haptic sense to convey important messages of danger and hazards. This paper presents a tactile display design and discusses the application framework for using these displays for tactile information design experimentation.

  5. Real time visualization and characterization of platelet deposition under flow onto clinically relevant opaque surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Woolley, Joshua R; Kameneva, Marina V; Antaki, James F; Wagner, William R

    2015-04-01

    Although the thrombogenic nature of the surfaces of cardiovascular devices is an important aspect of blood biocompatibility, few studies have examined platelet deposition onto opaque materials used for these devices in real time. This is particularly true for the metallic surfaces used in current ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using hemoglobin depleted red blood cells (RBC ghosts) and long working distance optics to visualize platelet deposition, we sought to perform such an evaluation. Fluorescently labeled platelets mixed with human RBC ghosts were perfused across six opaque materials (a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), silicon carbide (SiC), alumina (Al2O3, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coated Ti6Al4V (MPC-Ti6Al4V), yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YZTP), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA)) for 5 min at wall shear rates of 400 and 1000 s(-1). Ti6Al4V had significantly increased platelet deposition relative to MPC-Ti6Al4V, Al2 O3 , YZTP, and ZTA at both wall shear rates (p < 0.01). For all test surfaces, increasing the wall shear rate produced a trend of decreased platelet adhesion. The described system can be a utilized as a tool for comparative analysis of candidate blood-contacting materials with acute blood contact. PMID:24753320

  6. Why High Performance Visual Data Analytics is both Relevant and Difficult

    E-print Network

    of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents

  7. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense...Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint...

  8. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  9. Image gathering and restoration - Information and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, Judith A.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    A method is investigated for optimizing the end-to-end performance of image gathering and restoration for visual quality. To achieve this objective, one must inevitably confront the problems that the visual quality of restored images depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations and that these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The method adopted in this paper is to optimize image gathering informationally and to restore images interactively to obtain the visually preferred trade-off among fidelity resolution, sharpness, and clarity. The results demonstrate that this method leads to significant improvements in the visual quality obtained by the traditional digital processing methods. These traditional methods allow a significant loss of visual quality to occur because they treat the design of the image-gathering system and the formulation of the image-restoration algorithm as two separate tasks and fail to account for the transformations between the continuous and the discrete representations in image gathering and reconstruction.

  10. The display of spatial information and visually guided behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The basic informational elements of spatial orientation are attitude and position within a coordinate system. The problem that faces aeronautical designers is that a pilot must deal with several coordinate systems, sometimes simultaneously. The display must depict unambiguously not only position and attitude, but also designate the relevant coordinate system. If this is not done accurately, spatial disorientation can occur. The different coordinate systems used in aeronautical tasks and the problems that occur in the display of spatial information are explained.

  11. VIDA (Visual Information Density Adjuster) Allison Woodruff *, James Landay, and Michael Stonebraker

    E-print Network

    Information Density Adjuster), applies a cartographic principle to minimize clutter and sparsity in visual displays of information. Keywords Clutter, constant information density, interactive graphics, information are difficult to address in static displays of information. In the increasingly popular interactive

  12. Searching the Visual Arts: An Analysis of Online Information Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Darlene; Serban, William

    1981-01-01

    A search for stained glass bibliographic information using DIALINDEX identified 57 DIALOG files from a variety of subject categories and 646 citations as relevant. Files include applied science, biological sciences, chemistry, engineering, environment/pollution, people, business research, and public affairs. Eleven figures illustrate the search…

  13. A Framework of Web GIS Based Unified Public Health Information Visualization Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolin Lu

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a The GIS plays a vital role in public health information visualization for public health information management, broadcasting,\\u000a data management, statistical analysis, and decision supporting. This paper described the elementary requirement and the essential\\u000a technology for public health information visualization and proposed a framework of the unified public health information visualization\\u000a platform based on the Web GIS and visualization technology. The

  14. Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

  15. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrievel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Lundquist; Ophir Frieder; David O. Holmes; David A. Grossman

    1999-01-01

    4 Abstract. A scalable, parallel, relational-database driven information retrieval engine is described. To support portability across a wide-range of execution environments, including parallel multicomputers, all algorithms strictly adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy was significantly enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Algorithmic modifications to our earlier prototype resulted in significantly enhanced scalability. Currently our

  16. Translation enhancement: a new relevance feedback method for cross-language information retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daqing He; Dan Wu

    2008-01-01

    As an effective technique for improving retrieval effectiveness, relevance feedback (RF) has been widely studied in both monolingual and cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) settings. The studies of RF in CLIR have been focused on query expansion (QE), in which queries are reformulated before and\\/or after they are translated. However, RF in CLIR actually not only can help select better query

  17. Learning the Relevance of Parking Information in VANETs1 Piotr Szczurek, Bo Xu, Ouri Wolfson

    E-print Network

    Wolfson, Ouri E.

    Learning the Relevance of Parking Information in VANETs1 Piotr Szczurek, Bo Xu, Ouri Wolfson University Miami, FL, U.S.A. rishen@cis.fiu.edu ABSTRACT The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) has been by the communication limitations of a VANET, such as limited transmission range and bandwidth. This imposes a necessity

  18. Hindsight bias after receiving self-relevant health risk information: A motivational perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Britta Renner

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of hindsight bias was explored in the context of self-relevant health risk information. Participants in a community screening estimated their cholesterol level (foresight measure) before receiving positive or negative feedback based on their actual cholesterol level. Hindsight estimations were then assessed twice: once immediately after the feedback, and again several weeks later. While the unexpected positive feedback group

  19. 1. Handbook Overview This handbook covers information relevant to all sites. Site-specific materials are

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    #12;1. Handbook Overview This handbook covers information relevant to all sites. Site-specific materials are shared at orientation. Both students and guardians should read this handbook now and again before departure. Students should take the handbook with them abroad and consult it when necessary. 1

  20. A Methodological Approach To Eliciting Information Relevant to Alcohol Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, K.; And Others

    To attempt to incorporate the perceptions of consumers of alcohol education programs about topic relevance and importance, a modified version of a methodology that extracts, evaluates, and combines information from novices and experts to determine commonly held scripts and schema was used. In the first of two studies, 37 students at Texas…

  1. Case-Relevance Information Investigation: Binding Computer Intelligence to the Current Computer Forensic Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong Ruibin; Mathias Gaertner

    2005-01-01

    Computer Forensics has grown rapidly in recent years. The current computer forensic investigation paradigm is laborious and requires significant expertise on the part of the investigators. This paper proposes a highly automatic and efficient framework to provide the Case-Relevance information, by binding computer intelligence technology to the current computer forensic framework. Computer intelligence is expected to offer more assistance in

  2. Short-term retention of visual information: Evidence in support of feature-based attention as an underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sneve, Markus H; Sreenivasan, Kartik K; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2015-01-01

    Retention of features in visual short-term memory (VSTM) involves maintenance of sensory traces in early visual cortex. However, the mechanism through which this is accomplished is not known. Here, we formulate specific hypotheses derived from studies on feature-based attention to test the prediction that visual cortex is recruited by attentional mechanisms during VSTM of low-level features. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of human visual areas revealed that neural populations coding for task-irrelevant feature information are suppressed during maintenance of detailed spatial frequency memory representations. The narrow spectral extent of this suppression agrees well with known effects of feature-based attention. Additionally, analyses of effective connectivity during maintenance between retinotopic areas in visual cortex show that the observed highlighting of task-relevant parts of the feature spectrum originates in V4, a visual area strongly connected with higher-level control regions and known to convey top-down influence to earlier visual areas during attentional tasks. In line with this property of V4 during attentional operations, we demonstrate that modulations of earlier visual areas during memory maintenance have behavioral consequences, and that these modulations are a result of influences from V4. PMID:25445778

  3. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  4. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using?login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)"?to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  5. TOWARD THE INTRODUCTION OF AUDITORY INFORMATION IN DYNAMIC VISUAL ATTENTION MODELS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    topographic maps of basic visual fea- tures (intensity, color, spatial frequencies, orientations, mo- tionTOWARD THE INTRODUCTION OF AUDITORY INFORMATION IN DYNAMIC VISUAL ATTENTION MODELS Antoine Coutrot ABSTRACT Classical visual attention models only use visual features to predict where observers should look

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of visual information coding in lateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kadohisa, Mikiko; Kusunoki, Makoto; Petrov, Philippe; Sigala, Natasha; Buckley, Mark J; Gaffan, David; Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    Prefrontal neurons code many kinds of behaviourally relevant visual information. In behaving monkeys, we used a cued target detection task to address coding of objects, behavioural categories and spatial locations, examining the temporal evolution of neural activity across dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (encompassing parts of areas 9, 46, 45A and 8A), and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Within each hemisphere there was little evidence for regional specialisation, with neurons in dorsal and ventral regions showing closely similar patterns of selectivity for objects, categories and locations. For a stimulus in either visual field, however, there was a strong and temporally specific difference in response in the two cerebral hemispheres. In the first part of the visual response (50–250 ms from stimulus onset), processing in each hemisphere was largely restricted to contralateral stimuli, with strong responses to such stimuli, and selectivity for both object and category. Later (300–500 ms), responses to ipsilateral stimuli also appeared, many cells now responding more strongly to ipsilateral than to contralateral stimuli, and many showing selectivity for category. Activity on error trials showed that late activity in both hemispheres reflected the animal's final decision. As information is processed towards a behavioural decision, its encoding spreads to encompass large, bilateral regions of prefrontal cortex. PMID:25307044

  7. Two forms of persistence in visual information processing.

    PubMed

    Di Lollo, V; Dixon, P

    1988-11-01

    Iconic memory, which was initially regarded as a unitary phenomenon, has since been subdivided into several components. In the present work we examined the joint effects of two such components (visible persistence and the visual analog representation) on performance in a partial report task. The display consisted of 15 alphabetic characters arranged around the perimeter of an imaginary circle on the face of an oscilloscope. The observer named the character singled out by a bar-probe. Two factors were varied: exposure duration of the array (10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 or 500 ms) and duration of blank period (interstimulus interval, ISI) between the termination of the array and the onset of the probe (0, 50, 100, 150, or 200 ms). Performance was progressively impaired as both exposure duration and ISI were increased. The results were explained in terms of a probabilistic combinatorial model in which the timecourses of visible persistence and of the visual analog representation are regarded as time-locked to the onset and to the end of stimulation, respectively. The impairing effect of exposure duration was attributed to the relatively high spatial demands of the task that could be met optimally by information in visible persistence (which declines as a function of exposure duration), but less adequately by information in the visual analog representation. A second experiment, employing a task with lesser spatial demands, confirmed this interpretation. PMID:2974875

  8. Informal Assessment of Developmental Skills for Visually Handicapped Students. AFB Practice Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swallow, Rose-Marie, Ed.; And Others

    The booklet presents a compilation of informal checklists and inventories to help in assessing the developmental skills of visually handicapped students from birth through senior high school. Part 1, "Informal Assessment of School Age Visually Handicapped Students," covers the following areas: visual functioning; unique academic needs (such as…

  9. Multi-Spectral Face Recognition -Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information

    E-print Network

    is one of the primary activities of the human visual system. Machine recognition of human faces, howeverMulti-Spectral Face Recognition - Fusion of Visual Imagery with Physiological Information Pradeep for face recognition using visual imagery as well as the physiological information extracted from thermal

  10. The Relationship Between Visual Information Processing and Motor Proficiency in Five-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovran, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if five-year-old children displaying high or low ability to process visual information exhibited the same high-low ability in proficiency of motor tasks which were dependent upon visual information for successful completion. The subjects were 40 five-year-old children who were required to pass a visual

  11. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  12. User Relevance Feedback Analysis in Text Information Retrieval: A Rough Set Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailendra Singh; Bhanu Prasad

    2008-01-01

    User relevance feedback plays an important role in the development of efficient and successful business strategies for several\\u000a online domains such as: modeling user preferences for information retrieval, personalized recommender systems, automatic categorization\\u000a of emails, online advertising, online auctions, etc. To achieve success, the business models should have some kind of interactive\\u000a interface to receive user feedback and also a

  13. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  14. Texas A&M Information Technology Audio Visual Surveillance Technology Committee

    E-print Network

    ...............................................................................................................7 General Audio video surveillance technology may be used by Texas A&M University and other SystemTexas A&M Information Technology Audio Visual Surveillance Technology Committee Audio Visual Surveillance Technology Operational Standards Table of Contents General

  15. Eye-Hand Synergy and Intermittent Behaviors during Target-Directed Tracking with Visual and Non-visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Ting; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2012-01-01

    Visual feedback and non-visual information play different roles in tracking of an external target. This study explored the respective roles of the visual and non-visual information in eleven healthy volunteers who coupled the manual cursor to a rhythmically moving target of 0.5 Hz under three sensorimotor conditions: eye-alone tracking (EA), eye-hand tracking with visual feedback of manual outputs (EH tracking), and the same tracking without such feedback (EHM tracking). Tracking error, kinematic variables, and movement intermittency (saccade and speed pulse) were contrasted among tracking conditions. The results showed that EHM tracking exhibited larger pursuit gain, less tracking error, and less movement intermittency for the ocular plant than EA tracking. With the vision of manual cursor, EH tracking achieved superior tracking congruency of the ocular and manual effectors with smaller movement intermittency than EHM tracking, except that the rate precision of manual action was similar for both types of tracking. The present study demonstrated that visibility of manual consequences altered mutual relationships between movement intermittency and tracking error. The speed pulse metrics of manual output were linked to ocular tracking error, and saccade events were time-locked to the positional error of manual tracking during EH tracking. In conclusion, peripheral non-visual information is critical to smooth pursuit characteristics and rate control of rhythmic manual tracking. Visual information adds to eye-hand synchrony, underlying improved amplitude control and elaborate error interpretation during oculo-manual tracking. PMID:23236498

  16. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision. PMID:17109109

  17. Visualizing patient trajectories on wall-mounted boards - information security challenges.

    PubMed

    Faxvaag, Arild; Røstad, Lillian; Tøndel, Inger A; Seim, Andreas R; Toussaint, Pieter J

    2009-01-01

    Since operating room departments are among the costliest resources at a hospital, much attention is devoted to maximize their utilization. Operating room activities are however notoriously hard to plan in advance. This has to do with the unpredictable, problem-solving nature of the work and that the work is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of health personnel, members of which also have commitments outside the operating room department. We assume that operating room teams have the capacity to coordinate themselves and that coordination might be facilitated by visualizing relevant information on wall-mounted boards. To characterize clinical situations that require coordination and re-planning of the teams' work, we have developed a realistic scenario. We analyse and discuss the information security challenges that follow from displaying information on the whereabouts of other teams, actors and patients on wall-mounted boards in the operating rooms. Information security threats could be mitigated by de-identification techniques. Information demands could thereby be met without sacrificing the privacy of those whose information is displayed. PMID:19745404

  18. VisGets: coordinated visualizations for web-based information exploration and discovery.

    PubMed

    Dörk, Marian; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Collins, Christopher; Williamson, Carey

    2008-01-01

    In common Web-based search interfaces, it can be difficult to formulate queries that simultaneously combine temporal, spatial, and topical data filters. We investigate how coordinated visualizations can enhance search and exploration of information on the World Wide Web by easing the formulation of these types of queries. Drawing from visual information seeking and exploratory search, we introduce VisGets--interactive query visualizations of Web-based information that operate with online information within a Web browser. VisGets provide the information seeker with visual overviews of Web resources and offer a way to visually filter the data. Our goal is to facilitate the construction of dynamic search queries that combine filters from more than one data dimension. We present a prototype information exploration system featuring three linked VisGets (temporal, spatial, and topical), and used it to visually explore news items from online RSS feeds. PMID:18988965

  19. Selecting Task-Relevant Sources for Just-in-Time Retrieval Just-in-time" information systems monitor their

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    systems monitor their users' tasks, anticipate task-based information needs, and proactively provide, the burden of nding the right information increases as well. Just- in-time" information systems shield, identi es relevant con- tent areas, and provides area information to the sys- tem. The system

  20. Are There Benefits in Seeing Double? A Study of Collaborative Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Kobsa, Alfred

    to better understand collaborative information visualization. We found that a system that offered fewer that collaboration benefits are from validating results and not from planning and system use. Tools to help translate about data using different information visualization systems, to help inform the design of such systems

  1. PHOTOREALISTIC BUILDING MODELING AND VISUALIZATION IN 3-D GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Shan, Jie

    PHOTOREALISTIC BUILDING MODELING AND VISUALIZATION IN 3-D GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Yonghak: Despite geospatial information systems are widely used in many different fields as a powerful tool in geospatial information system (GIS). Such 3-D photorealistic visualization is able to provide geospatial

  2. Encoding and Retaining Information in the Visuals and Verbals of an Educational Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Patricia; Ehrenfeucht, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that when viewers watching an educational movie are presented simultaneously with information in two media--visual and verbal/auditory--there is no competition for resources; when visual and linguistic information are presented sequentially, the extraction of information is not increased. College students appear to be good dual…

  3. Spatialization Methods: A Cartographic Research Agenda for Non-geographic Information Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Skupin; Sara Irina Fabrikant

    2003-01-01

    Information visualization is an interdisciplinary research area in which cartographic efforts have mostly addressed the handling of geographic information. Some cartographers have recently become involved in attempts to extend geographic principles and cartographic techniques to the visualization of non-geographic information. This paper reports on current progress and future opportunities in this emerging research field commonly known as spatialization. The discussion

  4. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

  5. Information and Knowledge Assisted Analysis and Visualization of Large-Scale Data

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chaoli

    Information and Knowledge Assisted Analysis and Visualization of Large-Scale Data Chaoli Wang Kwan hardware enable faster rendering, achieving interactive visualization of large data must also rely, and indexing of large data for more efficient and effective visualization. Most of the solutions introduced

  6. Full Motion Tracking in Ultrasound Using Image Speckle Information and Visual Servoing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -- Visual servoing, ultrasound, speckle correla- tion, medical robotics. I. INTRODUCTION Over the last control of a medical robot by using visual servoing from ultrasound B-scan images. Rather than relyingFull Motion Tracking in Ultrasound Using Image Speckle Information and Visual Servoing Alexandre

  7. Adult butterflies use their compound eyes to extract visual information from the illuminated environment. Along with

    E-print Network

    by male Heliconius butterflies in choosing mates (Jiggins et al., 2001; Sweeney et al., 2003). Both sexes687 Adult butterflies use their compound eyes to extract visual information from the illuminated of butterflies' visually mediated behavior. It is becoming clear that butterfly visual systems are very diverse

  8. Enhanced Local Processing of Dynamic Visual Information in Autism: Evidence from Speed Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Y.; Norton, D. J.; McBain, R.; Gold, J.; Frazier, J. A.; Coyle, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    An important issue for understanding visual perception in autism concerns whether individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder possess an advantage in processing local visual information, and if so, what is the nature of this advantage. Perception of movement speed is a visual process that relies on computation of local spatiotemporal signals…

  9. Visual anticipatory information modulates multisensory interactions of artificial audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2010-07-01

    The neural activity of speech sound processing (the N1 component of the auditory ERP) can be suppressed if a speech sound is accompanied by concordant lip movements. Here we demonstrate that this audiovisual interaction is neither speech specific nor linked to humanlike actions but can be observed with artificial stimuli if their timing is made predictable. In Experiment 1, a pure tone synchronized with a deformation of a rectangle induced a smaller auditory N1 than auditory-only presentations if the temporal occurrence of this audiovisual event was made predictable by two moving disks that touched the rectangle. Local autoregressive average source estimation indicated that this audiovisual interaction may be related to integrative processing in auditory areas. When the moving disks did not precede the audiovisual stimulus--making the onset unpredictable--there was no N1 reduction. In Experiment 2, the predictability of the leading visual signal was manipulated by introducing a temporal asynchrony between the audiovisual event and the collision of moving disks. Audiovisual events occurred either at the moment, before (too "early"), or after (too "late") the disks collided on the rectangle. When asynchronies varied from trial to trial--rendering the moving disks unreliable temporal predictors of the audiovisual event--the N1 reduction was abolished. These results demonstrate that the N1 suppression is induced by visual information that both precedes and reliably predicts audiovisual onset, without a necessary link to human action-related neural mechanisms. PMID:19583474

  10. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; ?ura?iová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  11. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  12. Studies of visual information processing in schizophrenic children.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, R F; Sherman, T

    1984-02-01

    11 children meeting DSM III criteria for schizophrenia (mean age approximately 12 years), a group of normal children matched in mean mental age to the schizophrenic children, and a group of younger normal children (mean age 6.6 years) were administered a series of visual information-processing tasks in order to isolate core information-processing impairments in childhood onset schizophrenia. In Experiment 1, the schizophrenic children showed impairment relative to the MA-matched normals and performed at the level of the younger normal children on a forced-choice partial-report version of the span-of-apprehension task. Previous research has shown that this task is sensitive to dysfunction in both actively and partially recovered schizophrenic adults as well as a subset of foster children at risk for schizophrenia. Experiment 2 delimited the source of the information-processing impairment in schizophrenic children by ruling out a number of possible causes of impairment and suggesting that schizophrenic children use the same information-acquisition strategies as MA-matched children but less efficiently. Experiment 3 revealed that, consistent with the previous research, the schizophrenic children were comparable with the MA-matched controls on a full-report span-of-apprehension task that placed heavy demands on iconic and short-term memory. Both the schizophrenic and MA-matched normals performed significantly better than the younger normal children. Taken collectively, the results of the three experiments suggest that all groups of children engaged in a serial information-processing strategy while performing on the partial-report version of the span-of-apprehension task. The differential impairment of the schizophrenic children on the partial-report versions but not the full-report version of the span-of-apprehension task seems to reflect inefficiencies in controlled attentional processes that normally develop during middle childhood. PMID:6705626

  13. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other elements. World Wind therefore changed its mission from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating a single program, World Wind is a suite of components that can be selectively used in any number of programs. World Wind technology can be a part of any application, or it can be a window in a web page. Or it can be extended with additional functionalities by application and web developers. World Wind makes it possible to include virtual globe visualization and server technology in support of any objective. The world community can continually benefit from advances made in the technology by NASA in concert with the world community. 3. OPEN SOURCE AND OPEN STANDARDS NASA World Wind is NASA Open Source software. This means that the source code is fully accessible for anyone to freely use, even in association with proprietary technology. Imagery and other data provided by the World Wind servers reside in the public domain, including the data server technology itself. This allows others to deliver their own geospatial data and to provide custom solutions based on users specific needs.

  14. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , we will present some related work on data visualization, our visualization tool and finally, two case studies of data analysis using visualization. This work is developed for the RIDER project (Research is composed by a data mining tool to dig into the large dataset provided by sensors, a model component

  15. How the Nature of Information Affects Binding in Visual Working Memory 

    E-print Network

    Walt, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The question of whether binding information affects the capacity of visual working memory has not been established to date. Different trends in thought have hypothesized different effects for the way information is stored ...

  16. Visualizing the uncertainty of geo-information from Landsat ETM+ imagery by fuzzy reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Wang; Fang Huang; Xiangnan Liu

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty is one important feature of spatial information quality and attracting much more attentions recently. The visualization is an effective way to express the magnitude, pattern and propagation of the uncertainty. In this paper, the visualization method of geospatial information uncertainty in Landsat ETM+ imagery is put forward and described. Firstly, an improved fuzzy reasoning classification method is proposed, and

  17. Medical information visualization conceptual model for patient-physician health communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yair G. Rajwan; George R. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Communication between patients and health care providers may require sharing of data and knowledge that is complex and of high-volume. To support communication of these types of information, visualization techniques and tools can reduce cognitive burden in informed patient-centered health decisions and empower patients in their own care. Designing and implementing effective visualization depend on iterative consideration of cognitive needs

  18. Abstract--Information Retrieval is a process made by a user to obtain relevant information which meets his needs using an

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Retrieval process. Keywords-- information retrieval, user profile, personalized IR, indexing, user reAbstract-- Information Retrieval is a process made by a user to obtain relevant information which meets his needs using an Information Retrieval System (IRS). However the IRS shows some differences

  19. Reconstructions of information in visual spatial working memory degrade with memory load.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2014-09-22

    Working memory (WM) enables the maintenance and manipulation of information relevant to behavioral goals. Variability in WM ability is strongly correlated with IQ [1], and WM function is impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders [2, 3], suggesting that this system is a core component of higher cognition. WM storage is thought to be mediated by patterns of activity in neural populations selective for specific properties (e.g., color, orientation, location, and motion direction) of memoranda [4-13]. Accordingly, many models propose that differences in the amplitude of these population responses should be related to differences in memory performance [14, 15]. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an image reconstruction technique based on a spatial encoding model [16] to visualize and quantify population-level memory representations supported by multivoxel patterns of activation within regions of occipital, parietal and frontal cortex while participants precisely remembered the location(s) of zero, one, or two small stimuli. We successfully reconstructed images containing representations of the remembered-but not forgotten-locations within regions of occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex using delay-period activation patterns. Critically, the amplitude of representations of remembered locations and behavioral performance both decreased with increasing memory load. These results suggest that differences in visual WM performance between memory load conditions are mediated by changes in the fidelity of large-scale population response profiles distributed across multiple areas of human cortex. PMID:25201683

  20. Hindsight bias after receiving self-relevant health risk information: a motivational perspective.

    PubMed

    Renner, Britta

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of hindsight bias was explored in the context of self-relevant health risk information. Participants in a community screening estimated their cholesterol level (foresight measure) before receiving positive or negative feedback based on their actual cholesterol level. Hindsight estimations were then assessed twice: once immediately after the feedback, and again several weeks later. While the unexpected positive feedback group showed no systematic recall bias, hindsight estimations of individuals receiving unexpectedly negative feedback showed a dynamic change over time. Immediately after the feedback, participants' recollection of their expected cholesterol level were shifted towards their actual cholesterol level (hindsight bias). In contrast, several weeks later, foresight estimations were recalled as less accurate than they had been (reversed hindsight bias). These data might reflect a change of the motivational focus from "hot affect" and fear control, which occur immediately after receiving negative feedback, to danger control, which occurs some time after the feedback, as proposed by the dual process model. PMID:14562874

  1. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4?), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  3. Visual Information Shapes the Dynamics of Corticobasal Ganglia Pathways during Response Selection and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Sara; Waldorp, Lourens; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Scholte, H Steven

    2015-07-01

    Action selection often requires the transformation of visual information into motor plans. Preventing premature responses may entail the suppression of visual input and/or of prepared muscle activity. This study examined how the quality of visual information affects frontobasal ganglia (BG) routes associated with response selection and inhibition. Human fMRI data were collected from a stop task with visually degraded or intact face stimuli. During go trials, degraded spatial frequency information reduced the speed of information accumulation and response cautiousness. Effective connectivity analysis of the fMRI data showed action selection to emerge through the classic direct and indirect BG pathways, with inputs deriving form both prefrontal and visual regions. When stimuli were degraded, visual and prefrontal regions processing the stimulus information increased connectivity strengths toward BG, whereas regions evaluating visual scene content or response strategies reduced connectivity toward BG. Response inhibition during stop trials recruited the indirect and hyperdirect BG pathways, with input from visual and prefrontal regions. Importantly, when stimuli were nondegraded and processed fast, the optimal stop model contained additional connections from prefrontal to visual cortex. Individual differences analysis revealed that stronger prefrontal-to-visual connectivity covaried with faster inhibition times. Therefore, prefrontal-to-visual cortex connections appear to suppress the fast flow of visual input for the go task, such that the inhibition process can finish before the selection process. These results indicate response selection and inhibition within the BG to emerge through the interplay of top-down adjustments from prefrontal and bottom-up input from sensory cortex. PMID:25647338

  4. The Impact of Order Incongruence Between a Task-Irrelevant Auditory Sequence and a Task-Relevant Visual Sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Hughes; Dylan M. Jones

    2005-01-01

    A novel effect is reported in which serial recall of visual digits was disrupted to a greater degree by the presence of the same set of digits presented as an irrelevant auditory sequence than by the presence of irrelevant auditory consonants, but only when the order of the irrelevant digits was incongruent with that of the to-be-remembered digits (Experiment 1).

  5. Cartographic Analysis of Avalanche Hazard Maps A Comparison of Relevant Cartographic Factors for the Visualization of the Avalanche Bulletin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Eckerstorfer

    We cartographically analysed the avalanche hazard maps of 26 avalanche warning services. Th e range of the cartographic products reaches from high quality visualizations over simple bitmap-pictures to hazard charts. A survey involving 167 pro- tagonists was conducted. Alpinists indicated that a map with detailed hazard levels for small, well-defi ned areas is indispens- able, while a map with the

  6. The Effectiveness of Verbal Information Provided by Electronic Travel Aids for Visually Impaired Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information

  7. Visual Information Processing in Autistic Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Brian; And Others

    Eight autistic children and young adolescents (mean age 12.9 years) were compared to normal chronological age controls. Ss were required to discriminate briefly presented visual stimuli when they were preceded or followed by a visual noise mask and when they were not. The minimum stimulus exposure duration for criterion identification of unmasked…

  8. Information technology for active perception: Itap Visual communication today

    E-print Network

    www.inb.mu-luebeck.de Same image but different messages. Future car vision by Renault · Visual that is conveyed by an image depends very much on the scan- path, i.e., the sequence of eye move- ments that are used to look at an image. Visual communication systems, however, are based on only the classical image

  9. Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds

    E-print Network

    Couzin, Iain D.

    , and context dependence of socially transmitted visual attention. In our first study, we instructed stimulus features, social context, and sex of the passerby. behavioral contagion | joint visual attention | social can be critical to survival, whether it provides clues to foraging sites (1) or an alert

  10. Multi-modal information processing for visual workload relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, M. W.; Gilson, R. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous performance of two single-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks, one with the left hand and one with the right hand, is discussed. The tracking performed with the left hand was considered the primary task and was performed with a visual display or a quickened kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display. The right-handed tracking was considered the secondary task and was carried out only with a visual display. Although the two primary task displays had afforded equivalent performance in a critical tracking task performed alone, in the dual-task situation the quickened KT primary display resulted in superior secondary visual task performance. Comparisons of various combinations of primary and secondary visual displays in integrated or separated formats indicate that the superiority of the quickened KT display is not simply due to the elimination of visual scanning. Additional testing indicated that quickening per se also is not the immediate cause of the observed KT superiority.

  11. An alternative information web for visually impaired users in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitendra Rajput; Sheetal Agarwal; Arun Kumar; Amit Anil Nanavati

    2008-01-01

    Websites in World Wide Web are primarily meant for visual consumption. Moreover, the wide variety of visual controls available make it harder to interpret the websites with screen readers. This problem of accessing information and services on the web escalates even further for visually impaired in developing regions since most are either semi-literate\\/illiterate or cannot afford computers and high-end phones

  12. IVORY - An Object-Oriented Framework for Physics-Based Information Visualization in Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Sprenger; Markus H. Gross; Daniel Bielser; T. Strasser

    1998-01-01

    We present IVORY, a newly developed, platform-independent framework for physics-based visualization. IVORY is especially designed for information visualization applications and multidi- mensional graph layout. It is fully implemented in Java 1.1 and its architecture features client-server setup, which allows to run the visualization even on thin clients. In addition, VRML 2.0 exports can be viewed by any VRML plugged-in WWW-browser.

  13. Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Seed; Edward W. Carney; Richard A. Corley; Kevin M. Crofton; John M. DeSesso; Paul M. D. Foster; Robert Kavlock; Gary Kimmel; James E. Klaunig; M. E. Meek; R. Julian Preston; William Slikker; Sonia Tabacova; Gary M. Williams; Jeanette Wiltse; R. Thomas Zoeller; Penelope Fenner-Crisp; Dorothy E. Patton

    2005-01-01

    A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information

  14. User perspectives on relevance criteria: A comparison among relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant judgments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L. Maglaughlin; Diane H. Sonnenwald

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the use of criteria to assess rel- evant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 docu- ment representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant, partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed

  15. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information. PMID:26113828

  16. Standard operating procedure for audio visual recording of informed consent: an initiative to facilitate regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Parikh, P M; Prabhash, K; Govind, K B; Digumarti, R; Pandit, S; Banerjee, I; Biyani, R; Deshmukh, A; Doval, D; Bhattacharyya, G S; Gupta, S

    2014-01-01

    The office of the Drugs Controller General (India) vide order dated 19 th November 2013 has made audio visual (AV) recording of the informed consent mandatory for the conduct of all clinical trials in India. We therefore developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) to ensure that this is performed in compliance with the regulatory requirements, internationally accepted ethical standards and that the recording is stored as well as archived in an appropriate manner. The SOP was developed keeping in mind all relevant orders, regulations, laws and guidelines and have been made available online. Since, we are faced with unique legal and regulatory requirements that are unprecedented globally, this SOP will allow the AV recording of the informed consent to be performed, archived and retrieved to demonstrate ethical, legal and regulatory compliance. We also compared this to the draft guidelines for AV recording dated 9 th January 2014 developed by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization. Our future efforts will include regular testing, feedback and update of the SOP. PMID:25104190

  17. Using neural networks to understand the information that guides behavior: a case study in visual navigation.

    PubMed

    Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul; Baddeley, Bart; Husbands, Philip

    2015-01-01

    To behave in a robust and adaptive way, animals must extract task-relevant sensory information efficiently. One way to understand how they achieve this is to explore regularities within the information animals perceive during natural behavior. In this chapter, we describe how we have used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to explore efficiencies in vision and memory that might underpin visually guided route navigation in complex worlds. Specifically, we use three types of neural network to learn the regularities within a series of views encountered during a single route traversal (the training route), in such a way that the networks output the familiarity of novel views presented to them. The problem of navigation is then reframed in terms of a search for familiar views, that is, views similar to those associated with the route. This approach has two major benefits. First, the ANN provides a compact holistic representation of the data and is thus an efficient way to encode a large set of views. Second, as we do not store the training views, we are not limited in the number of training views we use and the agent does not need to decide which views to learn. PMID:25502385

  18. Visualization of anatomical information in near-infrared imaging for robotic urological surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiusius R. Savarimuthu; Brian Minnillo; Russell H. Taylor; Hiep Nguyen; Rajesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Commercial telerobotic surgery systems for soft tissue surgery are generally limited to visual imaging, though it is possible to simultaneously view picture-in-picture visualiza- tion of another workstation. However, it is not easy to correlate such information with the primary endoscopic view since it may not relate to the surface visible in the visual endoscopic images. As critical surfaces as well

  19. End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    End-User Visual Design of Web-Based Interactive Applications Making Use of Geographical Information (called WIND - Web INteraction Design) that focuses on both designers' creativity and model executability Environment providing designers with visual functionality. Keywords: Interaction Design, Semantic Web

  20. A Framework for Visual Information Analysis Petra Neumann, Anthony Tang, Sheelagh Carpendale

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    users engage with informa- tion visualizations in their analysis process. With the rapid growth in size accomplished by a team. However, there exist relatively few models that describe the visual analysis process present an observational study where we explored the information analysis process of groups

  1. Learner-Information Interaction: A Macro-Level Framework Characterizing Visual Cognitive Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Visual cognitive tools (VCTs) are external mental aids that maintain and display visual representations (VRs) of information (i.e., structures, objects, concepts, ideas, and problems). VCTs allow learners to operate upon the VRs to perform epistemic (i.e., reasoning and knowledge-based) activities. In VCTs, the mechanism by which learners operate…

  2. Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New results.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New of the values. Our study is devoted to the evaluation of the quantitative visualization of these signals of the signals. This work describes an experiment conducted with human observers in order to evaluate three

  3. The Significance of Visual Information Processing in Reading: Insights from Hemianopic Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Zihl, Josef

    2008-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive review of research into hemianopic dyslexia since Mauthner's original description of 1881. We offer an explanation of the reading impairment in patients with unilateral homonymous visual field disorders and clarify its functional and anatomical bases. The major focus of our review is on visual information

  4. ADAPTIVE WINDOWING FOR OPTIMAL VISUALIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES BASED ON NORMALIZED INFORMATION DISTANCE

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhou

    ADAPTIVE WINDOWING FOR OPTIMAL VISUALIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES BASED ON NORMALIZED INFORMATION of windowing operators for optimal visualization of high dynamic range (HDR) medical images, where predefined- lated methods in the field of medical image processing. Medical images are typically captured

  5. A Knowledge Task-Based Framework for Design and Evaluation of Information Visualizations

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    30332-0280 ABSTRACT The design and evaluation of most current information visualization systems descend variable across users, data sets, and domains. In this paper, we discuss the notion of analytic gaps, which represent obstacles faced by visualizations in facilitating higher-level analytic tasks, such as decision

  6. Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through a Longitudinal Field Study

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    1 Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through of Technology ABSTRACT While intelligence analysis has been a primary target domain for visual analytics system community's understanding of the work processes and practices of intelligence analysts is not deep enough

  7. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

  8. Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system.

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    1 Energetic and informational masking effects in an audio-visual speech recognition system. Jon Barker and Xu Shao Abstract The paper presents a robust audio-visual speech recognition technique called on a small vocabulary simultaneous speech recognition task in conditions that promote two contrasting types

  9. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  10. Haptic Discrimination of Force Direction and the Influence of Visual Information

    E-print Network

    Salisbury, Kenneth

    directions. Such data are needed in designing haptic rendering algorithms where force direction, as well, psychophysics, haptic rendering, haptic and visual interaction F. Barbagli and K. Salisbury were supportedHaptic Discrimination of Force Direction and the Influence of Visual Information FEDERICO BARBAGLI

  11. Testing user interaction with a prototype visualization-based information retrieval system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry Koshman

    2005-01-01

    The VIBE (Visual Information Browsing Environment) prototype system, which was developed at Molde Col- lege in Norway in conjunction with researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, allows users to evaluate docu- ments from a retrieved set that is graphically repre- sented as geometric icons within one screen display. While the formal modeling behind VIBE and other infor- mation visualization retrieval

  12. Hippocampus Contributes to the Maintenance but Not the Quality of Visual Information over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has recently been implicated in the brief representation of visual information, but its specific role is not well understood. We investigated this role using a paradigm that distinguishes quantity and quality of visual memory as described in a previous study. We found that amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage (N = 5)…

  13. Routine conventional karyotyping of lymphoma staging bone marrow samples does not contribute clinically relevant information.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Valentina; Pulluqi, Olja; Abramson, Jeremy S; Dal Cin, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow (BM) evaluation is an important part of lymphoma staging, which guides patient management. Although positive staging marrow is defined as morphologically identifiable disease, such samples often also include flow cytometric analysis and conventional karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis is a labor-intensive and costly procedure and its utility in this setting is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed pathological reports of 526 staging marrow specimens in which conventional karyotyping had been performed. All samples originated from a single institution from patients with previously untreated Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas presenting in an extramedullary site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal abnormalities in only eight marrow samples (1.5%), all of which were positive for lymphoma by morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry showed a small clonal lymphoid population in three of the 443 morphologically negative marrow samples (0.7%). Conventional karyotyping is rarely positive in lymphoma staging marrow samples and, in our cohort, the BM karyotype did not contribute clinically relevant information in the vast majority of cases. Our findings suggest that karyotyping should not be performed routinely on BM samples taken to stage previously diagnosed extramedullary lymphomas unless there is pathological evidence of BM involvement by lymphoma. Am. J. Hematol. 90:529-533, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25776302

  14. LKL Seminar, 14/11/2005 Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Mirkin, Boris

    popular example of a visual based conclusion: John Snow's outbreak of a cholera case 1854 Soho John Snow (1813-1858), 1857 Myth: 1. Outbreak of cholera in Soho London, August-September 1854, killed seven

  15. Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Detailed Motion Capture (MOCAP) facial data Low dimensional facial representations Decorrelated markers, PCA, Fisher criterion Dynamically model articulation using visemes Improvement in recognition

  16. LINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY

    E-print Network

    Ware, Colin

    LINKING AUDIO AND VISUAL INFORMATION WHILE NAVIGATING IN A VIRTUAL REALITY KIOSK DISPLAY BY BRIANA .............................................................. 10 1.6 Virtual Museum Environments................................................................................................. 12 1.6.2 Augmented Reality

  17. Introduction to Information Visualization (InfoVis) Techniques for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindiy, Oleg; Litomisky, Krystof; Davidoff, Scott; Dekens, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents insights that conform to numerous system modeling languages/representation standards. The insights are drawn from best practices of Information Visualization as applied to aerospace-based applications.

  18. Study on the Visualization Elements of Web Information Services: Focused on Researcher Network and Graphic Chart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanmin Jung; Mikyoung Lee; Pyung Kim; DoWan Kim

    2011-01-01

    To provide information efficiently to users with web service, we study information visualization techniques, especially focused on researcher network and graphic chart. In the viewpoint of data set and level of functionality, we analyze the following four academic information services; Authoratory, Researchgate, Biomedexperts, and Academic.research. We analyze researcher network and graphic chart of each service and then propose evaluation criteria

  19. The Role of Visual and Nonvisual Information in the Control of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2005-01-01

    During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visual information during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled…

  20. H. Reiterer, G. Muler, T. M. Mann 1 A visual information seeking system for Web search

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    of user interface for Web retrieval that supports the user in the information seeking process by providing In this paper we present the conception and the evaluation of a visual information seeking system for the Web paradigm of information retrieval systems for Web search simply presenting a long list of results (Zamir

  1. The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shneiderman

    1996-01-01

    A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the Visual Information-Seeking Mantra: Overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. This paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data

  2. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-10-15

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the formation of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed an increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

  3. Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William

    2009-02-01

    Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visual information produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visual information retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently, visual retrieval alone does not achieve the performance necessary for real-world clinical applications. Most of the common visual retrieval techniques have a MAP (Mean Average Precision) of around 2-3%, which is much lower than that achieved using textual retrieval (MAP=29%). Advanced machine learning techniques, together with good training data, have been shown to improve the performance of visual retrieval systems in the past. Multimodal retrieval (basing retrieval on both visual and textual information) can achieve better results than purely visual, but only when carefully applied. In many cases, multimodal retrieval systems performed even worse than purely textual retrieval systems. On the other hand, some multimodal retrieval systems demonstrated significantly increased early precision, which has been shown to be a desirable behavior in real-world systems.

  4. Relevance of Electronic Health Information to Doctors in the Developing World: Results of the Ptolemy Project’s Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsteen R. Burton; Andrew Howard; Massey Beveridge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons’ clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at

  5. A Tag Cloud-Based Visualization for Geo-Referenced Text Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Hua, Y.-X.; Zhao, J.-X.; Wang, L.-N.; Wang, P.

    2013-11-01

    Large amounts of geo-referenced text information such as messages from microblog websites are continuously becoming more popular. In this paper, we introduce a new visualization method based on tag clouds for geo-referenced text information. We process large amounts of geo-referenced text, using several visual metaphors including tag clouds, for the exploration of information on maps, instead of using just conventional cartographic approaches. The results show that this method can be useful for presentation and exploration of such geo-referenced text information.

  6. Effects of multiplicative power law neural noise in visual information processing.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jos M

    2011-04-01

    The human visual system is intrinsically noisy. The benefits of internal noise as part of visual code are controversial. Here the information-theoretic properties of multiplicative (i.e. signal-dependent) neural noise are investigated. A quasi-linear communication channel model is presented. The model shows that multiplicative power law neural noise promotes the minimum information transfer after efficient coding. It is demonstrated that Weber's law and the human contrast sensitivity function arise on the basis of minimum transfer of information and power law neural noise. The implications of minimum information transfer in self-organized neural networks and weakly coupled neurons are discussed. PMID:21222525

  7. Using Visual Analytics and Information Visualization to Investigate In-Car Communication Processes

    E-print Network

    enormously. A large number of advanced functions, such as ACC (adaptive cruise control), rear seat contain a wide spectrum of functionality, which is im- plemented by many interconnected electronic control visualization, navigation and data reduction techniques. Our research goal is to find novel and adapt existing

  8. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long-term experience shapes this adaptive process wherein the top-down connections provide selective gating of inputs to both cortical and subcortical structures to enhance neural responses to specific behaviorally-relevant attributes of the stimulus. A theoretical framework for a neural network is proposed involving coordination between local, feedforward, and feedback components that can account for experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representations at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. The ability to record brainstem and cortical pitch relevant responses concurrently may provide a new window to evaluate the online interplay between feedback, feedforward, and local intrinsic components in the hierarchical processing of pitch relevant information. PMID:25838636

  9. Methods study for the relocation of visual information in central scotoma cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Gautier, Vincent

    2005-03-01

    In this study we test the benefit on the reading performance of different ways to relocating the visual information present under the scotoma. The relocation (or unmasking) allows to compensate the loss of information and avoid the patient developing driving strategies not adapted for the reading. Eight healthy subjects were tested on a reading task, on each a central scotoma of various sizes was simulated. We then evaluate the reading speed (words/min) during three visual information relocation methods: all masked information is relocated - on both side of scotoma, - on the right of scotoma, - and only essentials letters for the word recognition too on the right of scotoma. We compare these reading speeds versus the pathological condition, ie without relocating visual information. Our results show that unmasking strategy improve the reading speed when all the visual information is unmask to the right of scotoma, this only for large scotoma. Taking account the word morphology, the perception of only certain letters outside the scotoma can be sufficient to improve the reading speed. A deepening of reading processes in the presence of a scotoma will then allows a new perspective for visual information unmasking. Multidisciplinary competences brought by engineers, ophtalmologists, linguists, clinicians would allow to optimize the reading benefit brought by the unmasking.

  10. Information Visualization in Co-located Collaborative Environments Petra Isenberg

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    , and ideas. Visualizations are often the center of collaborative data analysis. Imagine a team of medical to solve collaborative data analysis tasks. (a) Collaboration around a single user desktop. (b) Collaboration around a large hori- zontal display. Figure 1: Different types of collaboration setups around

  11. Tactons: Structured Tactile Messages for Non-Visual Information Display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Brewster; Lorna M. Brown

    2004-01-01

    Tactile displays are now becoming available in a form that can be easily used in a user interface. This paper describes a new form of tactile output. , or tactile icons, are structured, abstract messages that can be used to communicate messages non-visually. A range of different parameters can be used for Tacton construction including: frequency, amplitude and duration of

  12. Information Visualization by Boris Mirkin, Birkbeck University of London

    E-print Network

    Mirkin, Boris

    example of a visual based conclusion: John Snow's outbreak of a cholera case 1854 Soho John Snow (1813-1858), 1857 Myth: 1. Outbreak of cholera in Soho London, August-September 1854, killed seven hundred people #12;11 Soho map at present Golden Square John Snow's map: Exceptions: Work-house (No cholera) - had

  13. The Impact of Visualizations in Promoting Informed Natural Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation was conducted in order to understand the ways in which scientific visualizations can influence the decision process of non-scientists. A wide variety of classical and novel methods were used in order to capture and analyze the decision process. Data were collected from non-scientists through role-play interviews…

  14. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M E van Dillen; G. J. Hiddink; M. A. Koelen; C de Graaf; C M J van Woerkum; SME van Dillen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.Design: Based on qualitative studies, a quantitative questionnaire was developed and administered in face-to-face interviews.Subjects: The study population consisted of Dutch

  15. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hogan

    2009-01-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required:

  16. Visualization support for risk-informed decision making when planning and managing software developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Menzies, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Key decisions are made in the early stages of planning and management of software developments. The information basis for these decisions is often a mix of analogy with past developments, and the best judgments of domain experts. Visualization of this information can support to such decision making by clarifying the status of the information and yielding insights into the ramifications of that information vis-a-vis decision alternatives.

  17. Cultural Differences in Allocation of Attention in Visual Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Boduroglu, Aysecan; Shah, Priti; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when processing visual scenes, Westerners attend to salient objects and East Asians attend to the relationships between focal objects and background elements. It is possible that cross-cultural differences in attentional allocation contribute to these earlier findings. In this article, the authors investigate cultural differences in attentional allocation in two experiments, using a visual change detection paradigm. They demonstrate that East Asians are better than Americans at detecting color changes when a layout of a set of colored blocks is expanded to cover a wider region and worse when it is shrunk. East Asians are also slower than Americans are at detecting changes in the center of the screen. The data suggest that East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans. The authors consider potential factors that may contribute to the development of such attention allocation differences. PMID:20234851

  18. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  19. An Exploratory Study of Visual Information Analysis Petra Isenberg Anthony Tang Sheelagh Carpendale

    E-print Network

    Isenberg, Petra

    to deconstruct and understand this vi- sual information analysis process for the purpose of design, heuristic analysis process. We re- port on an exploratory study of individuals, pairs, and triples engaged with existing mod- els of the information analysis process suggests that informa- tion visualization tools may

  20. JN-00184-2003 1 Visuomotor sensitivity to visual information about surface orientation

    E-print Network

    Kersten, Dan

    JN-00184-2003 1 Visuomotor sensitivity to visual information about surface orientation David C. University of Minnesota Running Head: Visuomotor sensitivity to surface orientation Correspondence to: David information about those attributes to guide motor behavior [Goodale and Milner 1992, Milner and Goodale 1995

  1. BIOBIBLIOMETRICS : INFORMATION RETRIEVAL AND VISUALIZATION FROM CO-OCCURRENCES OF GENE NAMES IN MEDLINE ABSTRACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. STAPLEY; G. BENOIT

    2000-01-01

    Successful information retrieval from biomedical literature databases is becoming increasingly difficult. We have developed a prototype system for retrieving and visualizing information from literature and genomic databases using gene names. The premise of our work is that, if two genes have a related biological function, the co-occurrence of two gene names (or aliases of those genes) within the biomedical literature

  2. Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display

    E-print Network

    Ware, Colin

    1 Linking Audio And Visual Information While Navigating In A Virtual Reality Kiosk Display Abstract-- 3D interactive virtual reality museum exhibits should be easy to use, entertaining and informative and implemented in a museum exhibit. Index Terms-- multimedia, virtual reality, educational software, kiosk I

  3. Designing a Metadata-Driven Visual Information Browser for Federal Statistics

    E-print Network

    Shneiderman, Ben

    task for anyone not thoroughly familiar with the federal statistical system. Search tools help information seekers take the first step in their search for federal statistics by providing an index of linksDesigning a Metadata-Driven Visual Information Browser for Federal Statistics Bill Kules and Ben

  4. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

  5. Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yu; Linda B. Smith; Hongwei Shen; Alfredo F. Pereira; Thomas Smith

    2009-01-01

    An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the learner's sensory system.

  6. Studying Software Evolution Information by Visualizing the Change History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Van Rysselberghe; Serge Demeyer

    2004-01-01

    Before re-engineering a large and complex software system, it is wise to study its change history in order to identify the most valuable and problematic parts. Unfortunately, typical change histories contain thousands of entries, therefore the challenge is to discover those changes which are relevant for both the current and future situations of our product and process. We demonstrate how

  7. Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex®?

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Pelz, Jeff B.; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Arndt, Mary Ellen; Seewagen, Rosemarie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined visual information processing and learning in classrooms including both deaf and hearing students. Of particular interest were the effects on deaf students’ learning of live (three-dimensional) versus video-recorded (two-dimensional) sign language interpreting and the visual attention strategies of more and less experienced deaf signers exposed to simultaneous, multiple sources of visual information. Results from three experiments consistently indicated no differences in learning between three-dimensional and two-dimensional presentations among hearing or deaf students. Analyses of students’ allocation of visual attention and the influence of various demographic and experimental variables suggested considerable flexibility in deaf students’ receptive communication skills. Nevertheless, the findings also revealed a robust advantage in learning in favor of hearing students. PMID:16628250

  8. Integration of Auditory and Visual Communication Information in the Primate Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Diltz, Mark D.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual stimuli is crucial for recognizing objects, communicating effectively, and navigating through our complex world. Although the frontal lobes are involved in memory, communication, and language, there has been no evidence that the integration of communication information occurs at the single-cell level in the frontal lobes. Here, we show that neurons in the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) integrate audiovisual communication stimuli. The multisensory interactions included both enhancement and suppression of a predominantly auditory or a predominantly visual response, although multisensory suppression was the more common mode of response. The multisensory neurons were distributed across the VLPFC and within previously identified unimodal auditory and visual regions (O’Scalaidhe et al., 1997; Romanski and Goldman-Rakic, 2002). Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that single prefrontal neurons integrate communication information from the auditory and visual domains, suggesting that these neurons are an important node in the cortical network responsible for communication. PMID:17065454

  9. Visual Processing of Geographic and Environmental Information in the Basque Country: Two Basque Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Segura; Aitor Moreno; Igor García; Naiara Aginako; Mikel Labayen; Jorge Posada; Jose Antonio Aranda; Rubén García De Andoin

    The Basque Meteorology Agency is conducting an initiative to improve the collection, management and analysis of weather information\\u000a from a large array of sensing devices. This chapter presents works carried out in this context proposing the application of\\u000a 3D geographical visualization and image processing for the monitoring of meteorological phenomena. The tools described allow\\u000a users to analyze visually the state

  10. Anaglyph stereo visualization by the use of a single image and depth information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Matsuura; N. Fujisawa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an anaglyph stereo visualization is studied by the use of a single image and depth information. The present\\u000a technique allows the stereo visualization of the target image without binocular camera, which has been used for generating\\u000a the standard anaglyphs. Three test cases are shown in this work, which covers the generation of monochrome anaglyph from given\\u000a geometrical

  11. Connecting time-oriented data and information to a coherent interactive visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Bade; Stefan Schlechtweg; Silvia Miksch

    2004-01-01

    In modern intensive care units (ICUs), the medical staff has to monitor a huge amount of high-dimensional and time-oriented data, which needs to be visualized user- and task-specifically to ease diagnosis and treatment planning. Available visual representations, like diagrams or charts neglect the implicit information as well as a-priory or associated knowledge about the data and its meaning (for example,

  12. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    PubMed

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

  13. A right visual field advantage for visual processing of manipulable objects

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    . It is unknown how lateralization of motor-relevant information in left-hemisphere dorsal stream regions may of organization of the primate visual system contribute to determining the cortical organization of object knowledge. The first cortical stage of visual processing in the primate brain processes information from

  14. Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

    2005-01-01

    In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

  15. Access to Attitude-Relevant Information in Memory as a Determinant of Attitude-Behavior Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallgren, Carl A.; Wood, Wendy

    Recent reserach has attempted to determine systematically how attitudes influence behavior. This research examined whether access to attitude-relevant beliefs and prior experiences would mediate the relation between attitudes and behavior. Subjects were 49 college students with a mean age of 27 who did not live with their parents or in…

  16. Transformational Teaching in the Information Age: Making Why and How We Teach Relevant to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosebrough, Thomas R.; Leverett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Yes, it's true that today's students have tons of distractions that take their attention away from the hard work of learning. That's why it's more important than ever to establish a teaching relationship with students that makes academic learning relevant to their lives. Here's a book that explains how to do that by changing teaching practices…

  17. 76 FR 44337 - Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...comments received without change in the electronic docket, including any personal information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chia Chang, NIOSH, telephone (202) 245-0625, NORAmiddecade@cdc.gov. Dated: July 13, 2011. John Howard,...

  18. Feature Selection Based on Mutual Information: Criteria of Max-Dependency, Max-Relevance, and Min-Redundancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanchuan Peng; Fuhui Long; Chris H. Q. Ding

    2005-01-01

    Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature

  19. The distribution of category and location information across object-selective regions in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzlose, Rebecca F.; Swisher, Jascha D.; Dang, Sabin; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Since Ungerleider and Mishkin [Underleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. Analysis of Visual Behavior, eds Ingle MA, Goodale MI, Masfield RJW (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA), pp 549–586] proposed separate visual pathways for processing object shape and location, steady progress has been made in characterizing the organization of the two kinds of information in extrastriate visual cortex in humans. However, to date, there has been no broad-based survey of category and location information across all major functionally defined object-selective regions. In this study, we used an fMRI region-of-interest (ROI) approach to identify eight regions characterized by their strong selectivity for particular object categories (faces, scenes, bodies, and objects). Participants viewed four types of stimuli (faces, scenes, bodies, and cars) appearing in each of three different spatial locations (above, below, or at fixation). Analyses based on the mean response and voxelwise patterns of response in each ROI reveal location information in almost all of the known object-selective regions. Furthermore, category and location information can be read out independently of one another such that most regions contain both position-invariant category information and category-invariant position information. Finally, we find substantially more location information in ROIs on the lateral than those on the ventral surface of the brain, even though these regions have equal amounts of category information. Although the presence of both location and category information in most object-selective regions argues against a strict physical separation of processing streams for object shape and location, the ability to extract position-invariant category information and category-invariant position information from the same neural population indicates that form and location information nonetheless remain functionally independent. PMID:18326624

  20. Visualizing the uncertainty of geo-information from Landsat ETM+ imagery by fuzzy reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Huang, Fang; Liu, Xiangnan

    2007-06-01

    Uncertainty is one important feature of spatial information quality and attracting much more attentions recently. The visualization is an effective way to express the magnitude, pattern and propagation of the uncertainty. In this paper, the visualization method of geospatial information uncertainty in Landsat ETM+ imagery is put forward and described. Firstly, an improved fuzzy reasoning classification method is proposed, and farmland and grassland information are extracted from the ETM+ imagery respectively based on the algorithm. Then the uncertainty of the classification is analyzed, measured and visualized supported by GIS. The uncertainty can be expressed and visualized by different spatial distribution range of cropland and grassland when adjusting their membership values setting. The uncertainty threshold supplies a visual cognition for data users to know the data quality better and make full use of the data more correctly. At the same time, aiming at the overlay areas with similar membership values, other ancillary information can help to improve the classification accuracy and conquer the difficulties in distinguishing cropland from grassland in Landsat ETM+.

  1. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  2. The Effect of Delay in the Presentation of Visual Information on Pilot Performance. Final Report, April 1974-July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Fred R.; And Others

    Naval researchers studied the effects of delay in the presentatio of visual information on pilot performance. Simulated carrier landing tasks were performed by subjects using a visual display generated by a computer. In one part of the experiment pilots were asked to "fly" carrier approaches with and without a 0.1 second delay in the visual scene…

  3. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656

  4. Towards the next generation user interface: the VIU model using a universe paradigm and the globe metaphor for enterprise information visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Hsu

    1994-01-01

    The next generation user interface for information systems, and indeed for all significant computer environments, will feature model-assisted visualization as its definitive element. This visualization goes beyond the straightforward drawing and rendering of imagery for physically visual objects or phenomena and extends to creating visual interpretation of logical subjects, such as enterprise information, using information and decision models and other

  5. Informative 3D Visualization of Multiple Protein Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Lai; Warren Kaplan; W. Bret Church; Raymond K. Wong

    2004-01-01

    With the continued growth of three dimensional structural information databases comes a corresponding increase in interest in this data for the study of new sequences and an ever-increasing incentive to improve automatic structure annotation methods. We examined various methods of presenting structural information in 3D, focussing on means of identifying regions of interest and the display of related structures. Using

  6. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  7. Visual emotion recognition using compact facial representations and viseme information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angeliki Metallinou; Carlos Busso; Sungbok Lee; Shrikanth Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion expression is an essential part of human interaction. Rich emotional information is conveyed through the human face. In this study, we analyze detailed motion-captured facial information of ten speakers of both genders during emotional speech. We derive compact facial representations using methods motivated by Principal Component Analysis and speaker face normalization. Moreover, we model emotional facial movements by conditioning

  8. In the Dark: Young Men’s Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the effectiveness of abstinence only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on sexual health/behavior. Findings indicate that information related to gay men’s sexuality is not readily available from family, friends or schools. At initiation of anal intercourse, respondents generally had limited information about HIV and STIs. In some cases, this resulted in the perception that activities such as unprotected sex were “low risk”. Many mentioned they first learned about anal sex during their sexual debut, describing painful and/or unpleasant experiences. Some relied on older/more experienced partners, the internet and pornography for information. Findings are discussed in relation to how providers can help YMSM build solid foundations of sexual education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:19574587

  9. Audio-Visual Speech Modeling for Continuous Speech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Dupont; Juergen Luettin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a speech recognition system that uses both acoustic and visual speech information to improve recognition performance in noisy environments. The system consists of three components: a visual module; an acoustic module; and a sensor fusion module. The visual module locates and tracks the lip movements of a given speaker and extracts relevant speech features. This task is

  10. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

  11. Guidance of visual attention by semantic information in real-world scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wick, Farahnaz Ahmed; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on attentional guidance in real-world scenes has focused on object recognition within the context of a scene. This approach has been valuable for determining some factors that drive the allocation of visual attention and determine visual selection. This article provides a review of experimental work on how different components of context, especially semantic information, affect attentional deployment. We review work from the areas of object recognition, scene perception, and visual search, highlighting recent studies examining semantic structure in real-world scenes. A better understanding on how humans parse scene representations will not only improve current models of visual attention but also advance next-generation computer vision systems and human-computer interfaces. PMID:24567724

  12. Audio visual information fusion for human activity analysis

    E-print Network

    Thagadur Shivappa, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    has the same sensitivity to camera calibration mentionedcameras to obtain the 3-D co-ordinates of object pixels. This sensitivitycameras which are used to track the speakers and provide accurate location information. The sensitivity

  13. How Relevant Are Library and Information Science Curricula outside Their Geographic Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Lawrence Wai-hong; Harvey, Ross; Mills, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian library and information science (LIS) courses are popular outside Australia, and Australia is a popular study destination for students in the region. This paper takes a comparative approach to attempt to determine whether ALIA (the Australian Library and Information Association)'s core curriculum for LIS education is appropriate outside…

  14. The Usefulness of Coroners' Data on Suicides for Providing Information Relevant to Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennewith, Olive; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Sutton, Lesley; Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Gunnell, David

    2005-01-01

    Coroners' records are an accessible source of information on suicides. To assess their usefulness in relation to the investigation of specific methods of suicide, we examined coroners records for 492 suicides across 24 jurisdictions in England. Generally data on demographic variables were well recorded. Information on contact with general…

  15. MUTUAL INFORMATION RELEVANCE NETWORKS: FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC CLUSTERING USING PAIRWISE ENTROPY MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. BUTTE; I. S. KOHANE

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of methodologies are available to find functional genomic clusters in RNA expression data. We describe a technique that computes comprehensive pair-wise mutual information for all genes in such a data set. An association with a high mutual information means that one gene is non-randomly associated with another; we hypothesize this means the two are related biologically. By picking

  16. Visually navigating the RMS Titanic with SLAM information filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Eustice; Hanumant Singh; John J. Leonard; Matthew Walter; Robert Ballard

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-based large-area simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm that respects the constraints of low-overlap imagery typical of underwater vehicles while exploiting the information associated with the inertial sensors that are routinely available on such platforms. We present a novel strategy for ef?ciently accessing and maintaining consistent covariance bounds within a SLAM information ?lter, greatly increasing the

  17. Concordance of psychiatric symptom ratings between a subject and informant, relevancy to post-mortem research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P M; Bernardo, C G; Cruz, D A; Ketchum, N S; Michalek, J E

    2013-01-01

    Investigators are interested in determining whether lifetime behavioral traits and specific mood states experienced close to death affect brain gene and protein expression as assessed in post-mortem human brains. Major obstacles to conducting this type of research are the uncertain reliability of the post-mortem psychiatric diagnoses and clinical information because of the retrospective nature of the information. In this study, we addressed the concordance of clinical information obtained through an informant compared with information obtained through a clinician interview of the subject. To test this, we measured both lifetime and within the week psychiatric symptoms of subjects (n=20) and an informant, their next-of-kin (n=20) who were asked identical questions. We found Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV axis 1 diagnoses by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview proportion of positive agreement for major depression was 0.97, bipolar disorder was 0.81, whereas proportion of negative agreement was 0.97 for schizophrenia. Symptom scale intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval were: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms=0.59 (0.23, 0.81), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale=0.58 (0.19, 0.81), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale=0.44 (0.03, 0.72), Young Mania Rating Scale=0.61 (0.30, 0.82), Barratt Impulsiveness Score=0.36 (-0.11, 0.70) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire=0.48 (-0.15, 0.83). We show that DSM-IV diagnoses; lifetime impulsivity severity, childhood trauma score and symptom scores were significantly consistent between the subjects and their informants. These data suggest, with some limitations, that both retrospective and informant obtained information can provide useful clinical information in post-mortem research. PMID:23321811

  18. Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day. PMID:22810559

  19. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  20. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience. PMID:24980274

  1. Distance Learning in Joint Public Affairs and Visual Information Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Edith E.; Jeffries, Dianne

    An initiative was undertaken to introduce technology-enabled and distance learning to the Defense Information School (DINFOS), Ft. Meade, Maryland. The effort to introduce instructional technology reflected the need to find a creative solution to Armed Forces requests for increased student quotas, reduced pool of military instructors, and an…

  2. Studies of Visual Information Processing in Schizophrenic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Robert F.; Sherman, Tracy

    1984-01-01

    Results of three experiments suggest that groups of schizophrenic, younger normal, and older normal children used a serial information-processing strategy while performing on a partial report version of a span of apprehension task. Impairment of schizophrenic children on the partial report versions seemed to reflect inefficiencies in the…

  3. Information Search: The Intersection of Visual and Semantic Space

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Mike

    and Michael D. Byrne Rice University Department of Psychology 6100 S. Main Street, MS-25, Houston, TX 77005 USA +1 713 348 4856 {tambo, byrne}@rice.edu Abstract In the context of an information search task pages). Intuition would say that a large, red headline that is a link and has a high degree

  4. Geo-referenced Information Visualization on Mobile Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Pombinho de Matos; Ana Paula Afonso; Maria Beatriz Carmo

    The number of mobile devices and associated services has recently been growing considerably. This growth has been changing the way people access information. The technological advances of mobile devices offer new op- portunities to areas where geographic data has an important role. PDA, mobile phones and other portable de- vices are increasingly beginning to have location awareness via GPS devices.

  5. Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Marc Ernst, Max-Planck fr biol. Kybernetik

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    Combining Sensory Information to Improve Visualization Organizer Marc Ernst, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Panelists Martin Banks, University of California, Berkeley Felix Wichmann, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Laurence Maloney, New York University Heinrich Bülthoff, Max-Planck für biol. Kybernetik Abstract

  6. Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter X: ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial 1

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Visual Information Systems Pr. Robert Laurini Chapter X: ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial 1 Chapter X ORACLE Locator and ORACLE Spatial Acknowledgement: Albert Godfrind, Oracle X ­ ORACLE Locator queries and analyses · 10.5 ­ Geo Raster · 10.6 ­ Network modeling · 10.7 ­ MapViewer · 10.8 ­ Oracle

  7. A Prototype to Extract and Visualize Information from Car Accident Reports in Swedish

    E-print Network

    Nugues, Pierre

    A Prototype to Extract and Visualize Information from Car Accident Reports in Swedish Per Andersson #12;#12;Abstract Per Andersson, Lunds Tekniska Högskola Text-to-scene conversion of car accident reports This Master's Thesis is part of the CarSim (Dupuy et al. 2001) project that analyzes text reports

  8. Visual event detection using orientation histograms with feature point trajectory information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hon-Keat Pong; Ping Xue; Qi Tian

    2009-01-01

    Visual event detection in video streams allows easier access to, and better organization of large media collections. This paper presents an event detection framework with a novel feature that incorporates flow, appearance and trajectory information jointly. While previous event detection methods have been designed for understanding human behaviours where the camera is either static or with minimal motion, a more

  9. Forecasting and visualization of wildfires in a 3D geographical information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrillón, M.; Jorge, P. A.; López, I. J.; Macías, A.; Martín, D.; Nebot, R. J.; Sabbagh, I.; Quintana, F. M.; Sánchez, J.; Sánchez, A. J.; Suárez, J. P.; Trujillo, A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a wildfire forecasting application based on a 3D virtual environment and a fire simulation engine. A novel open-source framework is presented for the development of 3D graphics applications over large geographic areas, offering high performance 3D visualization and powerful interaction tools for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) community. The application includes a remote module that allows simultaneous connections of several users for monitoring a real wildfire event. The system is able to make a realistic composition of what is really happening in the area of the wildfire with dynamic 3D objects and location of human and material resources in real time, providing a new perspective to analyze the wildfire information. The user is enabled to simulate and visualize the propagation of a fire on the terrain integrating at the same time spatial information on topography and vegetation types with weather and wind data. The application communicates with a remote web service that is in charge of the simulation task. The user may specify several parameters through a friendly interface before the application sends the information to the remote server responsible of carrying out the wildfire forecasting using the FARSITE simulation model. During the process, the server connects to different external resources to obtain up-to-date meteorological data. The client application implements a realistic 3D visualization of the fire evolution on the landscape. A Level Of Detail (LOD) strategy contributes to improve the performance of the visualization system.

  10. Synaptic transfer of dynamic motion information between identified neurons in the visual system of the blowfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-K. Warzecha; R. Kurtz; M. Egelhaaf

    2003-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is usually studied in vitro with electrical stimulation replacing the natural input of the system. In contrast, we analyzed in vivo transfer of visual motion information from graded-potential presynaptic to spiking postsynaptic neurons in the fly. Motion in the null direction leads to hyperpolarization of the presynaptic neuron but does not much influence the postsynaptic cell, because its

  11. Fusing Visual and Clinical Information for Lung Tissue Classification in HRCT Data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and patients may not require surgical lung biopsy when the clinical and radiographic (HRCT) impressionFusing Visual and Clinical Information for Lung Tissue Classification in HRCT Data Adrien patients affected with an interstitial lung disease (ILD) are automatically classified into five classes

  12. PHOTOREALISTIC BUILDING MODELING AND VISUALIZATION IN 3-D GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonghak Song; Jie Shan

    Despite geospatial information systems are widely used in many different fields as a powerful tool for spatial analysis and decision- making, their capabilities to handle realistic 3-D urban environment are very limited. The objective of this work is to integrate the recent developments in 3-D modeling and visualization into GIS to enhance its 3-D capabilities. To achieve a photorealistic view,

  13. 2011 Taiwanese-Japanese Workshop on Information Visualization and Graph Drawing

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Shigeo

    2011 Taiwanese-Japanese Workshop on Information Visualization and Graph Drawing Date and Time: Graph drawing addresses the issue of constructing geometric representations of graphs in a way to gain an important role in revealing the structure of a graph. A drawing with a high degree of symmetry often allows

  14. ORTHOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS AND VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING* Daisy L. Hung+ and Ovid J. L. Tzeng+

    E-print Network

    such comparisons of reading behaviors across different orthographies suggest that human visual information of children. This coincidence may imply that different cognitive processes are required for achieving reading behavior seems to be immune to orthographic variations. Further analyses of segmentation in script as well

  15. Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter Pilots

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    Improving Aviation Safety with Information Visualization: Airflow Hazard Display for Helicopter-Chair Professor Ruzena Bajcsy Professor Paul Wright Fall 2004 #12;Abstract Improving Aviation Safety advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft- based sensors that can gather

  16. Previews and Overviews in Digital Libraries: Designing Surrogates to Support Visual Information Seeking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Greene; Gary Marchionini; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman; AB STRACT

    1999-01-01

    To aid designers of digital library interfaces and web sites in creating comprehensible, predictable and controllableenvironments for their users, we define and discuss the benefits of previews and overviews as visual informationrepresentations. Previews and overviews are graphic or textual representations of information abstracted from primaryinformation objects. They serve as surrogates for those objects. When utilized properly, previews and overviews allow

  17. Age Trends in Visual Exploration of Social and Nonsocial Information in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elison, Jed T.; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing…

  18. Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information.

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Klas Arne Ihme Cross-Modal Integration of Audio-Visual Information. An EEG Study PICS Publications of Cognitive Science #12;Bachelor's Thesis Cognitive Science undergraduate programme Cross-modal integration of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück Submitted September 2007 #12;Cross-modal integration of audio

  19. Young Children's Comprehension of Television: The Role of Visual Information and Intonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; Brown, Susan K. McCann; Cohen, David I.

    Several current television series for preschool children convey stories, not through meaningful dialogue, but through visual information and intonational cues embedded within nonsensical dialogue. This study examined young children's ability to construct meaning from such materials. Participating were 135 preschoolers, 3 to 5 years old. Subjects…

  20. How Do Expert Soccer Players Encode Visual Information to Make Decisions in Simulated Game Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplu, Gerald; Ripoll, Hubert; Mavromatis, Sebastien; Baratgin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what visual information expert soccer players encode when they are asked to make a decision. We used a repetition-priming paradigm to test the hypothesis that experts encode a soccer pattern's structure independently of the players' physical characteristics (i.e., posture and morphology). The participants…

  1. A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing W. Stechele*), L. Alvado Crcel**), S. Herrmann*), J. Lidn Simn**)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing W. Stechele*), L. Alvado Cárcel**), SEngine, a coprocessor for visual information processing. In this paper, the architectural design of Address are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG- 7

  2. Effects of informed consent for individual genome sequencing on relevant knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Facio, Flavia M.; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Brooks, Stephanie; Eidem, Haley; Linn, Amy; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.45, 31.10 for postgraduate education and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared to less than college degree) and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic whites compared to other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9 to 7.7, p<0.0001) and sequencing benefits knowledge subscale (7.0 to 7.5, p<0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge, and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. PMID:22694298

  3. Effects of informed consent for individual genome sequencing on relevant knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G

    2012-11-01

    Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p < 0.0001) and sequencing benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. PMID:22694298

  4. INFOBITS: A Visual Basic program for calculating information theoretic statistics from behavior sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Dunham; M. Sherba; P. Rutherford

    1996-01-01

    We describe a Visual Basic add-in macro program for Microsoft Excel 5 and 7 (and later versions) that calculates basic, first-order,\\u000a information theoretic statistics from matrices based on behavior sequences, such as those from animal or human interaction\\u000a studies. Information theoretic statistics measure association between behavioral events in bits, a unit that is independent\\u000a of the particular system under study.

  5. User-Centered Evaluation of Arizona BioPathway: An Information Extraction, Integration, and Visualization System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin D. Quiñones; Hua Su; Byron Marshall; Shauna Eggers; Hsinchun Chen

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in biomedical research has made automated information extraction, knowledge integration, and visualization increasingly important and critically needed. The Arizona BioPathway (ABP) system extracts and displays biological regulatory pathway information from the abstracts of journal articles. This study uses relations extracted from more than 200 PubMed abstracts presented in a tabular and graphical user interface with built-in search and

  6. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  7. The working memory Ponzo illusion: Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mowei; Xu, Haokui; Zhang, Haihang; Shui, Rende; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jifan

    2015-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary. The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines. This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception. Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages. PMID:25912893

  8. The biomechanics of walking shape the use of visual information during locomotion over complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    Matthis, Jonathan Samir; Barton, Sean L.; Fajen, Brett R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how visual information is used to control stepping during locomotion over terrain that demands precision in the placement of the feet. More specifically, we sought to determine the point in the gait cycle at which visual information about a target is no longer needed to guide accurate foot placement. Subjects walked along a path while stepping as accurately as possible on a series of small, irregularly spaced target footholds. In various conditions, each of the targets became invisible either during the step to the target or during the step to the previous target. We found that making targets invisible after toe off of the step to the target had little to no effect on stepping accuracy. However, when targets disappeared during the step to the previous target, foot placement became less accurate and more variable. The findings suggest that visual information about a target is used prior to initiation of the step to that target but is not needed to continuously guide the foot throughout the swing phase. We propose that this style of control is rooted in the biomechanics of walking, which facilitates an energetically efficient strategy in which visual information is primarily used to initialize the mechanical state of the body leading into a ballistic movement toward the target foothold. Taken together with previous studies, the findings suggest the availability of visual information about the terrain near a particular step is most essential during the latter half of the preceding step, which constitutes a critical control phase in the bipedal gait cycle. PMID:25788704

  9. A rule engine for relevance assessment in a contextualized information delivery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beibei Hu; Jan Hidders; Philipp Cimiano

    2011-01-01

    In order to support police officers in their daily activities, we have designed a rule-based system which can deliver contextualized information to police officers, thus supporting decision making. In particular, we present a framework that has been designed on the basis of requirements elicited in a previous study, focusing on the rule language and the engine that essentially defines and

  10. The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

  11. Sensor Relevance Establishment Problem in SharedInformation Gathering Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tauseef Gulrez; Manolya Kavakli

    2007-01-01

    In a city area network hundreds of video cameras, infrared and laser sensors are deployed for online monitoring of physical phenomenon over a geographical area. This is a popular application of sensor networks. Next generation intelligent sensing systems and networks are divided into two categories, an always-on mode -where every sensor information is piped to a base station (for resolution

  12. Combining the Evidence of Different Relevance Feedback Methods for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Ho

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information-retrieval effectiveness focuses on the use of multiple query or document representations, or multiple retrieval techniques, and combining the retrieval results (also known as data fusion). Experimental results with the SMART System (developed at Harvard and Cornell Universities for over 38 years) indicate combining…

  13. Is fair value accounting information relevant and reliable? Evidence from capital market research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne R. Landsman

    2007-01-01

    In financial reporting, US and international accounting standard-setters have issued several disclosure and measurement and recognition standards for financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant capital market literature that examines the usefulness of fair value accounting information to investors. In conducting my review, I highlight findings that are of interest not just to academic researchers,

  14. Young Children's Use of Video as a Source of Socially Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Saylor, Megan M.; Archer, Allison H.

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research clearly shows that toddlers have difficulty learning from video, the basis for their difficulty is unknown. In the 2 current experiments, the effect of social feedback on 2-year-olds' use of information from video was assessed. Children who were told "face to face" where to find a hidden toy typically found it, but children…

  15. Octopus vulgaris uses visual information to determine the location of its arm.

    PubMed

    Gutnick, Tamar; Byrne, Ruth A; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Octopuses are intelligent, soft-bodied animals with keen senses that perform reliably in a variety of visual and tactile learning tasks. However, researchers have found them disappointing in that they consistently fail in operant tasks that require them to combine central nervous system reward information with visual and peripheral knowledge of the location of their arms. Wells claimed that in order to filter and integrate an abundance of multisensory inputs that might inform the animal of the position of a single arm, octopuses would need an exceptional computing mechanism, and "There is no evidence that such a system exists in Octopus, or in any other soft bodied animal." Recent electrophysiological experiments, which found no clear somatotopic organization in the higher motor centers, support this claim. We developed a three-choice maze that required an octopus to use a single arm to reach a visually marked goal compartment. Using this operant task, we show for the first time that Octopus vulgaris is capable of guiding a single arm in a complex movement to a location. Thus, we claim that octopuses can combine peripheral arm location information with visual input to control goal-directed complex movements. PMID:21396818

  16. Improving impact assessment. Increasing the relevance and utilization of scientific and technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.L.; Enk, G.A.; Hornick, W.F.; Jordan, J.J.; Perreault, P.

    1984-01-01

    As Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) become increasingly important in the policymaking process, it is vital that they be as complete and accurate as possible. The authors of this volume consider ways in which the development and evaluation of scientific and technical information for EIS can be improved. Addressing key legal, social, political, and ecological issues, they explore ways to facilitate communication between researchers and policymakers, evaluate the need for an Environmental Impact Assessment Network, and review case-study applications of new approaches.

  17. Sensory compensation and the detection of predators: the interaction between chemical and visual information.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, E J; Abrahams, M V

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that environmental conditions may affect whether fishes do or do not respond to the presence of chemical alarm cues in water. We present a simple model which suggests that the combination of risk of predation and information from other sources will determine when fishes should react to these chemical cues. We tested this model with a laboratory experiment which manipulated the risk of predation by altering the animals (hungry or well fed), or their environment (presence or absence of cover). We also altered the availability of visual information by manipulating the water clarity. Consistent with our model, fishes were most likely to react to chemical alarm cues in the absence of visual information and when the perceived risk of predation was high. The manipulation of either parameter was able to extinguish this response. PMID:10787160

  18. Design and implementation of information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liushi

    2011-02-01

    Usually in the traditional science and technology information system, the only text and table form are used to manage the data, and the mathematic statistics method is applied to analyze the data. It lacks for the spatial analysis and management of data. Therefore, GIS technology is introduced to visualize and analyze the information data on science and technology industry. Firstly, by using the developed platform-microsoft visual studio 2005 and ArcGIS Engine, the information visualization system on science and technology industry based on GIS is built up, which implements various functions, such as data storage and management, inquiry, statistics, chart analysis, thematic map representation. It can show the change of science and technology information from the space and time axis intuitively. Then, the data of science and technology in Guangdong province are taken as experimental data and are applied to the system. And by considering the factors of humanities, geography and economics so on, the situation and change tendency of science and technology information of different regions are analyzed and researched, and the corresponding suggestion and method are brought forward in order to provide the auxiliary support for development of science and technology industry in Guangdong province.

  19. Constructing and Modifying Sequence Statistics for relevent Using informR in 𝖱

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    The informR package greatly simplifies the analysis of complex event histories in 𝖱 by providing user friendly tools to build sufficient statistics for the relevent package. Historically, building sufficient statistics to model event sequences (of the form a?b) using the egocentric generalization of Butts’ (2008) relational event framework for modeling social action has been cumbersome. The informR package simplifies the construction of the complex list of arrays needed by the rem() model fitting for a variety of cases involving egocentric event data, multiple event types, and/or support constraints. This paper introduces these tools using examples from real data extracted from the American Time Use Survey. PMID:26185488

  20. Using deformable templates to infer visual speech dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus E. Hennecke; K. Venkatesh Prasad; David G. Stork

    1994-01-01

    The visual image of a talker provides information complementary to the acoustic speech waveform, and enables improved recognition accuracy, especially in environments corrupted by high acoustic noise or multiple talkers. Because most of the phonologically relevant visual information is from the mouth and lips, it is important to infer accurately and robustly their dynamics; moreover it is desirable to extract

  1. Visualization Rhetoric: Framing Effects in Narrative Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Hullman; Nicholas Diakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that \\

  2. Static and dynamic visual information about the size and passability of an aperture

    PubMed Central

    Fath, Aaron J.; Fajen, Brett R.

    2012-01-01

    The role of static, eyeheight-scaled information in perceiving the passability of and guiding locomotion through apertures is well established. However, eyeheight-scaled information is not the only source of visual information about size and passability. In this study, we tested the sufficiency of two other sources of information, both of which are available only to moving observers (i.e., are dynamic) and specify aperture size in intrinsic, body-scaled units. The experiment was conducted in an immersive virtual environment that was monocularly viewed through a head-mounted display. Subjects walked through narrow openings between obstacles, rotating their shoulders as necessary, while head and shoulder position were tracked. The task was performed in three virtual environments that differed in terms of the availability of eyeheight-scaled information and the two dynamic sources of information. Analyses focused on the timing and amplitude of shoulder rotation as subjects walked through apertures, as well as walking speed and the number of collisions. Subjects successfully timed and appropriately scaled the amplitude of shoulder rotation to fit through apertures in all three conditions. These findings suggest that visual information other than eyeheight-scaled information can be used to guide locomotion through apertures. PMID:22132505

  3. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Lisa R.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being “tuned” for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while the information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. PMID:24140820

  4. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. PMID:24140820

  5. Enriching Knowledge Domain Visualizations: Analysis of a Record Linkage and Information Fusion Approach to Citation Data

    PubMed Central

    Synnestvedt, Marie B.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a study of the use of data preparation for data mining methodology to prepare biomedical citation data for visualization. Deterministic record linkage models were compared with probabilistic record linkage in a situation for which the truth is known through the use of gold standard or truth datasets. The linkages are evaluated on data from the Web of Science (WOS) and Medline citation databases. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall performance of record linkage models were empirically compared with ROC analysis. Data quality and visualization metrics are presented for datasets prepared with and without probabilistic record linkage and information fusion of Medline abstracts and MESH terms into WOS citation records. The major contributions of this work are to specifically develop a novel model of record linkage for biomedical citation databases, with the objective of improving and enriching biomedical knowledge domain visualizations. PMID:18693929

  6. The physiologically relevant information regarding systemic blood pressure encoded in the carotid sinus baroreceptor discharge pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, J O; Morgenstern, J; Samodelov, L

    1977-01-01

    1. The objective was to find out what kind of informatioon regarding systemic blood pressure is transduced by baroreceptors in vivo and how this information is coded in the receptor discharge. 2. Carotid sinus pressure, e.c.g., and receptor action potentials were recorded for fifty-two single fibre carotid sinus receptors found in twenty decerebrated unanaesthetized cats. 3. The inflation and gradual deflation of an intraaortic catheter tip balloon manipulated the blood pressure in the carotid sinus in a way as to define the full in vivo stimulus-response curve for each receptor. 4. Correlation coefficients were computed between stimulus and response variables for several points on the response curve of each receptor and for every possible combination of stimulus and response variables defined. 5. Stimulus variables were (a) systolic, (b) diastolic,, (c) mean, (d) pulse pressures and (e) peak positive dP/dt. Response variables were (a) average discharge rat, (b) peak instantaneous frequency, and (c) average burst frequency. 6. For every fibre in the sample only the correlations between systolic, diastolic and mean pressures vs. average discharge rate were consistently high and positive. All other correlations were numerically low and/or negative. 7. It was concluded that in vivo baroreceptors signal mainly pressure level (systolic, diastolic or mean) as opposed to pulse pressure or dP/dt, and that the average discharge rate is their best index of information content. PMID:881647

  7. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given. PMID:25894235

  8. Display optimization for visual information processing of continuous tone imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachtenauer, Jon C.

    2002-07-01

    The display is a key element in the softcopy image chain. If the display is not optimized, information is lost. Studies seeking to assess the effects of bandwidth compression and image enhancement will reach false conclusions unless the display system is optimized. Although standards exist for the display of text and symbology, no such standards exist for continuous tone imagery. To help remedy this situation, a series of studies were conducted to help define guidelines for the effective display of continuous tone imagery, with emphasis on surveillance and reconnaissance imagery. Imagery of various types (visible, IR, multispectral, SAR) was displayed on cathode ray tube (CRT) and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) that varied in luminance and spatial resolution performance. Over a series of eight studies, trained imagery analysts provided National Imagery Interpretability Ratings (NIIRS) and Briggs target ratings (a measure of minimum discriminable target size as a function of contrast) to assess the impact of display variations. From these studies, recommendations were derived for display pixel density, contrast modulation, and luminance measures including dynamic rang, ambient light level, color temperature, and perceptual linearization. This paper defines the display performance measures used, performance measurement procedures, and presents guidelines for display optimization. Results of studies supporting the guidelines are summarized. Use of the guidelines is recommended in any study involving softcopy display of continuous tone imagery.

  9. A Novel Approach to Gathering and Acting on Relevant Clinical Information: SCAMPs

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Rahul H.; Farias, Michael; Friedman, Kevin G.; Graham, Dionne; Fulton, David R.; Newburger, Jane W.; Colan, Steven; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The current tools to adequately inform the process of improving health-care delivery consist primarily of retrospective studies, prospective trials, and clinical practice guidelines. We propose a novel and systematic approach that bridges the gap of our current tools to affect change, provides an infrastructure to improve health-care delivery, and identifies unnecessary resource utilization. The objective of this special article is to introduce the rationale and methods for this endeavor entitled “Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans” (SCAMPs). SCAMPs take a relatively heterogeneous patient population and through a process of iterative analysis and modification of standardized assessment and management algorithms, SCAMPs allow the intrinsic biologic variability in a patient population to emerge and be understood. SCAMPs can be used to complement our currently available tools in order to result in incremental and sustained improvement in health-care delivery. PMID:20653701

  10. GIN AUSTRIA. Assuring quality and relevance on Internet-health-informations for patients.

    PubMed

    Göbel, G; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-01-01

    GIN AUSTRIA (Gesundheitsinformationsnetz AUSTRIA) offers patients and consumers reliable medical knowledge about diseases, wellness and disease management in an understandable way and enables them to quick and incessant access to informations about the Austrian health system and Austrian health organizations. To improve the quality of the database and to achieve full customer (patients, citizens) satisfaction a systematic approach for implementing total quality management is also applied. Focusing the attention on understanding and responding to customer needs, systematic and continuous improving of the IS and total involvement of all participants are the three core TQM principles at this project. The second focus of the project is the development and the implementation (prototype) of a medical dictionary or rather medical thesaurus as interface for patients, who are not used to scientific terms and expressions. This interface is based on the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH-Thesaurus (german version). PMID:10724952

  11. Working Memory Inefficiency: Minimal Information Is Utilized in Visual Recognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Can people make perfect use of task-relevant information in working memory (WM)? Specifically, when questioned about an item in an array that does not happen to be in WM, can participants take into account other items that are in WM, eliminating them as response candidates? To address this question, an ideal-responder model that assumes perfect…

  12. Using heterogeneous annotation and visual information for the benchmarking of image retrieval systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Clough, Paul; Hersh, William; Deselaers, Thomas; Lehmann, Thomas M.; Janvier, Bruno; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    Many image retrieval systems, and the evaluation methodologies of these systems, make use of either visual or textual information only. Only few combine textual and visual features for retrieval and evaluation. If text is used, it is often relies upon having a standardised and complete annotation schema for the entire collection. This, in combination with high-level semantic queries, makes visual/textual combinations almost useless as the information need can often be solved using just textual features. In reality, many collections do have some form of annotation but this is often heterogeneous and incomplete. Web-based image repositories such as FlickR even allow collective, as well as multilingual annotation of multimedia objects. This article describes an image retrieval evaluation campaign called ImageCLEF. Unlike previous evaluations, we offer a range of realistic tasks and image collections in which combining text and visual features is likely to obtain the best results. In particular, we offer a medical retrieval task which models exactly the situation of heterogenous annotation by combining four collections with annotations of varying quality, structure, extent and language. Two collections have an annotation per case and not per image, which is normal in the medical domain, making it difficult to relate parts of the accompanying text to corresponding images. This is also typical of image retrieval from the web in which adjacent text does not always describe an image. The ImageCLEF benchmark shows the need for realistic and standardised datasets, search tasks and ground truths for visual information retrieval evaluation.

  13. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  14. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice. PMID:23215863

  15. Oculo-manual coordination control: respective role of visual and non-visual information in ocular tracking of self-moved targets.

    PubMed

    Vercher, J L; Quaccia, D; Gauthier, G M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the role of visual and non-visual information in the control of smooth pursuit movements during tracking of a self-moved target. Previous works have shown that self-moved target tracking is characterised by shorter smooth pursuit latency and higher maximal velocity than eye-alone tracking. In fact, when a subject tracks a visual target controlled by his own arm, eye movement and arm movement are closely synchronised. In the present study, we showed that, in a condition where the direction of motion of a self-moved visual target was opposite to that of the arm (same amplitude, same velocity, but opposite direction of movement), the resulting smooth pursuit eye movements occurred with low latency, and continued for about 140 ms in the direction of the arm movement rather than in the direction of the actual visual target movement. After 140 ms, the eye movement direction reversed through a combination of smooth pursuit and saccades. Subsequently, while arm and visual target still moved in opposite directions, smooth pursuit occurred in pace with the visual target motion. Subjects were also submitted to a series of 60 tracking trials, for which the arm-to-target motion relationship was systematically reversed. Under these conditions subjects were able to initiate early smooth pursuit in the actual direction of the visual target. Overall, these results confirm that non-visual information produced by the arm motor system can trigger and control smooth pursuit. They also demonstrate the plasticity of the neuronal network handling eye-arm coordination control. PMID:7789438

  16. Visually complex foveal words increase the amount of parafoveal information acquired.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of foveal load (i.e., processing difficulty of currently fixated words) on parafoveal information processing. Contrary to the commonly accepted view that high foveal load leads to reduced parafoveal processing efficiency, results of the present study showed that increasing foveal visual (but not linguistic) processing load actually increased the amount of parafoveal information acquired, presumably due to the fact that longer fixation duration on the pretarget word provided more time for parafoveal processing of the target word. It is therefore proposed in the present study that foveal linguistic processing load is not the only factor that determines parafoveal processing; preview time (afforded by foveal word visual processing load) may jointly influence parafoveal processing. PMID:25911574

  17. Examination of visual information as a mediator of external focus benefits.

    PubMed

    Land, William M; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Ward, Paul; Marquardt, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Attunement to visual information has been suggested to mediate the performance advantage associated with adopting an external focus of attention (e.g., Al-Abood, Bennett, Moreno Hernandez, Ashford, & Davids, 2002; Magill, 1998). We tested this hypothesis by examining the extent to which online visual information underpins the external focus advantage. The study examined skilled golfers on a putting task under one of three attentional focus conditions: control (no instructions), irrelevant (tone counting), and external (movement effect focus), with either full or occluded vision. In addition to task performance, the effect of attentional focus and vision on between-trial movement variability was examined. We found a significant advantage for an external focus of attention in the absence of vision. The results of the movement variability analysis further indicated that external focus was not mediated by the online use of vision. We discuss these findings in the context of traditional cognitive perspectives to external focus effects. PMID:23798588

  18. Active recognition enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems are dynamic. They must process a wide range of natural signals that facilitate adaptive behaviors in a manner that depends on an organism's constantly changing goals. A full understanding of the sensory physiology that underlies adaptive natural behaviors must therefore account for the activity of sensory systems in light of these behavioral goals. Here we present a novel technique that combines in vivo electrophysiological recording from awake, freely moving songbirds with operant conditioning techniques that allow control over birds' recognition of conspecific song, a widespread natural behavior in songbirds. We show that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium (CM), an avian analog of mammalian auditory cortex, in European starlings. Compared with awake, passive listening, active engagement of subjects in an auditory recognition task results in neurons responding to fewer song stimuli and a decrease in the trial-to-trial variability in their driven firing rates. Mean firing rates also change during active recognition, but not uniformly. Relative to nonengaged listening, active recognition causes increases in the driven firing rates in some neurons, decreases in other neurons, and stimulus-specific changes in other neurons. These changes lead to both an increase in stimulus selectivity and an increase in the information conveyed by the neurons about the animals' behavioral task. This study demonstrates the behavioral dependence of neural responses in the avian auditory forebrain and introduces the starling as a model for real-time monitoring of task-related neural processing of complex auditory objects. PMID:23303858

  19. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-08-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant.

  20. Teaching Object Oriented Geographic Information Systems (GIS) using Visual Basic: Spreadsheet Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Boasson

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to teaching Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in a business school context where most students have little background knowledge on GIS, geo-statistics, and cartography. This approach involves the use of ordinary spreadsheets along with Visual Basic programming to create a home-grown GIS program that has the fea- tures of a dynamic mapping with time-varying animations

  1. Contribution of visual and proprioceptive information to the precision of reaching movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Monaco; Gregory Króliczak; Derek J. Quinlan; Patrizia Fattori; Claudio Galletti; Melvyn A. Goodale; Jody C. Culham

    2010-01-01

    Ren et al. (J Neurophysiol 96:1464–1477, 2006) found that saccades to visual targets became less accurate when somatosensory information about hand location was added,\\u000a suggesting that saccades rely mainly on vision. We conducted two kinematic experiments to examine whether or not reaching\\u000a movements would also show such strong reliance on vision. In Experiment 1, subjects used their dominant right hand

  2. Reliance on Visual and Verbal Information across Ontological Kinds: What Do Children Know about Animals and Machines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Karen E.; Sera, Maria D.

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' and adults' relative reliance on visual and verbal information in identification of animals and machines. Findings include both children and adults can use either visual or verbal cues in categorization, and a stricter definition is used in identifying animals. Results suggest that a perceptual to conceptual…

  3. Cross-Modal Transfer of Information between the Tactile and the Visual Representations in the Human Brain: A Positron Emission

    E-print Network

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    Cross-Modal Transfer of Information between the Tactile and the Visual Representations in the Human involved in tactile­visual cross-modal transfer of shape. Eight young male volunteers went through three representation of the objects alone and those involved in cross-modal transfer of the shapes of the objects

  4. Automated generation of individually customized visualizations of diagnosis-specific medical information using novel techniques of information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Andrew A.; Meng, Frank; Morioka, Craig A.; Churchill, Bernard M.; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2005-04-01

    Managing pediatric patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) involves regular laboratory, imaging, and physiologic testing. Using input from domain experts and current literature, we identified specific data points from these tests to develop the concept of an electronic disease vector for NGB. An information extraction engine was used to extract the desired data elements from free-text and semi-structured documents retrieved from the patient"s medical record. Finally, a Java-based presentation engine created graphical visualizations of the extracted data. After precision, recall, and timing evaluation, we conclude that these tools may enable clinically useful, automatically generated, and diagnosis-specific visualizations of patient data, potentially improving compliance and ultimately, outcomes.

  5. Visual search deficits in Parkinson's disease are attenuated by bottom-up target salience and top-down information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd S. Horowitz; Won Yung Choi; Jon C. Horvitz; Lucien J. Côté; Jennifer A. Mangels

    2006-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a degenerative disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopamine system, exhibit deficits in selecting task-relevant stimuli in the presence of irrelevant stimuli, such as in visual search tasks. However, results from previous studies suggest that these deficits may vary as a function of whether selection must rely primarily on the “bottom-up” salience of the target relative

  6. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2013-07-22

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

  7. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues. PMID:23698013

  8. Age Trends in Visual Exploration of Social and Nonsocial Information in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Elison, Jed T; Sasson, Noah J; Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Dichter, Gabriel; Bodfish, James W

    2012-04-01

    Because previous studies of attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been restricted in age range examined, little is known about how these processes develop over the course of childhood. In this study we examined cross-sectional age effects on patterns of visual attention to social and nonsocial information in 43 typically developing children and 51 children with ASD ranging in age from 2 to 18. Results indicated a sharp increase in visual exploration with age and a decrease in perseverative and detail-focused attention for both groups of children. However, increased age was associated with greater increases in visual exploration for typically developing children than for those children with ASD. The developmental differences were most pronounced for attention to certain nonsocial stimuli as children with ASD demonstrated a disproportionate attentional bias for these stimuli from very early in life. Disproportionate visual attention to certain nonsocial objects relative to social stimuli in ASD spanned from early to late childhood, and thus may represent both an early and a persistent characteristic of the disorder. PMID:22639682

  9. Internal reference frames for representation and storage of visual information: the role of gravity.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J; Lipshits, M; Zaoui, M; Berthoz, A; Gurfinkel, V

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of visual mechanisms suggests that the CNS represents image information with respect to preferred horizontal and vertical axes, as shown by a phenomenon known as the "oblique effect". In the current study we used this effect to evaluate the influence of gravity on the representation and storage of visual orientation information. Subjects performed a psychophysical task in which a visually-presented stimulus line was aligned with the remembered orientation of a reference stimulus line presented moments before. The experiments were made on 5 cosmonauts during orbital space flight and additionally on 13 subjects in conditions of normal gravity with a tilting chair. Data were analyzed with respect to response variability and timing. On earth, these measurements for this task show a distinct preference for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli when the body and gravitational axes were aligned. This preference was markedly decreased or disappeared when the body axis was tilted with respect to gravity; this effect was not connected with ocular counter-rolling nor could we find a preference of any other intermediate axis between the gravity and body aligned axes. On the other hand, the preference for vertical and horizontal axes was maintained for tests performed in microgravity over the course of a 6 month flight, starting from flight day 6. We concluded that subjects normally process visual orientation information in a multi-modal reference frame that combines both proprioceptive and gravitational cues when both are available, but that a proprioceptive reference frame is sufficient for this task in the absence of gravity after a short period of adaptation. Some of the results from this study have been previously published in a preliminary report. Grant numbers: 99-04-48450. PMID:11669099

  10. A Scalability Study of Web-Native Information Visualization Donald W. Johnson T.J. Jankun-Kelly

    E-print Network

    Jankun-Kelly, T. J.

    -Kelly Mississippi State University ABSTRACT Several web-native information visualization methods (SVG, HTML5's-dimensional raster graphics (HTML5's Canvas [15]), and 3- dimensional modeling (VRML and its successor X3D [24

  11. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  12. Survey respondents were asked what information on the CDM website they--as CDM students --found most relevant. Out of 257 respondents, the top four response

    E-print Network

    Miller, Craig

    CDM Survey Results Survey respondents were asked what information on the CDM website they-- as CDM students --found most relevant. Out of 257 respondents, the top four response categories were Course was mentioned 122 times. The category Course Information also included responses that mentioned the words "class

  13. Normativeness, Relevance, and Temporality in Specifying and Reasoning about Information Security and Assurance: Can We have a Formal Logic System as a Unified Logical Basis? (Position Paper)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingde Cheng

    This position paper points out the 'NRT problem' in specifying and reasoning about information security and assurance: Although it is necessary to deal with normative, relevance, and temporal notions explicitly and soundly in specifying and reasoning about information security and assurance, until now there is no formal logic system can be used as a unified logical basis for the purpose.

  14. Application of Information Visualization Techniques in Representing Patients' Temporal Personal History Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Shahrul Azman; Yaakob, Suraya; Shahar, Suzana

    The anthropometries and nutrients records of patients are usually vast in quantity, complex and exhibit temporal features. Therefore, the information acceptance among users will become blur and give cognitive burden if such data is not displayed using effective techniques. The aim of this study is to apply, use and evaluate Information Visualization (IV) techniques for displaying the Personal History Data (PHD) of patients for dietitians during counseling sessions. Since PHD values change consistently with the counseling session, our implementation mainly focused on quantitative temporal data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure and blood glucose readings. This data is mapped into orientation circle type of visual representation, whereas data about medicinal and supplement intake are mapped into timeline segment which is based on the thickness of lines as well as the colors. A usability testing has been conducted among dietitians at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, UKM. The result of the testing has shown that the use of visual representations capable of summarising complex data which ease the dietitian task of checking the PHD.

  15. Visual information processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 14-16, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (editor); Juday, Richard D. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on visual information processing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aliasing as noise, satellite image processing using a hammering neural network, edge-detetion method using visual perception, adaptive vector median filters, design of a reading test for low-vision image warping, spatial transformation architectures, automatic image-enhancement method, redundancy reduction in image coding, lossless gray-scale image compression by predictive GDF, information efficiency in visual communication, optimizing JPEG quantization matrices for different applications, use of forward error correction to maintain image fidelity, effect of peanoscanning on image compression. Also discussed are: computer vision for autonomous robotics in space, optical processor for zero-crossing edge detection, fractal-based image edge detection, simulation of the neon spreading effect by bandpass filtering, wavelet transform (WT) on parallel SIMD architectures, nonseparable 2D wavelet image representation, adaptive image halftoning based on WT, wavelet analysis of global warming, use of the WT for signal detection, perfect reconstruction two-channel rational filter banks, N-wavelet coding for pattern classification, simulation of image of natural objects, number-theoretic coding for iconic systems.

  16. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  17. Development of Visual Diagnostic Expertise in Pathology - An Information-processing Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Naus, Gregory J.; Stewart, Jimmie; Friedman, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify key features contributing to trainees’ development of expertise in microscopic pathology diagnosis, a complex visual task, and to provide new insights to help create computer-based training systems in pathology. Design: Standard methods of information-processing and cognitive science were used to study diagnostic processes (search, perception, reasoning) of 28 novices, intermediates, and experts. Participants examined cases in breast pathology; each case had a previously established gold standard diagnosis. Videotapes correlated the actual visual data examined by participants with their verbal “think-aloud” protocols. Measurements: Investigators measured accuracy, difficulty, certainty, protocol process frequencies, error frequencies, and times to key diagnostic events for each case and subject. Analyses of variance, chi-square tests and post-hoc comparisons were performed with subject as the unit of analysis. Results: Level of expertise corresponded with differences in search, perception, and reasoning components of the tasks. Several discrete steps occur on the path to competence, including development of adequate search strategies, rapid and accurate recognition of anatomic location, acquisition of visual data interpretation skills, and transitory reliance on explicit feature identification. Conclusion: Results provide the basis for an empirical cognitive model of competence for the complex tasks of microscopic pathology diagnosis. Results will inform the development of computer-based pedagogy tools in this domain PMID:12509356

  18. Mondrian: An Agile Information Visualization Framework In Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Software Visualization (SoftVis 2006)

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    of Lugano, Switzerland Abstract Data visualization is the process of representing data as pictures to support reasoning about the underlying data. For the interpretation to be as easy as possible, we need to be as close as possible to the original data. As most visualization tools have an internal meta- model, which

  19. Selecting category specific visual information: Top-down and bottom-up control of object based attention.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The ability to select, within the complexity of sensory input, the information most relevant for our purposes is influenced by both internal settings (i.e., top-down control) and salient features of external stimuli (i.e., bottom-up control). We here investigated using fMRI the neural underpinning of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, as well as their effects on extrastriate areas processing visual stimuli in a category-selective fashion. We presented photos of bodies or buildings embedded into frequency-matched visual noise to the subjects. Stimulus saliency changed gradually due to an altered degree to which photos stood-out in relation to the surrounding noise (hence generating stronger bottom-up control signals). Top-down settings were manipulated via instruction: participants were asked to attend one stimulus category (i.e., "is there a body?" or "is there a building?"). Highly salient stimuli that were inconsistent with participants' attentional top-down template activated the inferior frontal junction and dorsal parietal regions bilaterally. Stimuli consistent with participants' current attentional set additionally activated insular cortex and the parietal operculum. Furthermore, the extrastriate body area (EBA) exhibited increased neural activity when attention was directed to bodies. However, the latter effect was found only when stimuli were presented at intermediate saliency levels, thus suggesting a top-down modulation of this region only in the presence of weak bottom-up signals. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal regions in integrating bottom-up and top-down attentional control signals. PMID:25735196

  20. Flow visualization as a basic tool to investigate the dynamics and topology of jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Grinstein; Upul Obeysekare; Gopal Patnaik

    1992-01-01

    We address relevant issues and difficulties involved in the practical implementation of flow visualization techniques based on database generated in numerical simulations of unsteady square jets. Instantaneous visualizations provide basic information on the topological features of the flow, while animation of these visualizations gives an insight into the detailed dynamics of formation, development and interaction of the coherent structures controlling

  1. A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Visually Prototyping Pervasive Computing Applications Zo´e Drey1 environment into a visual pro- gramming language. A taxonomy describes the relevant entities of a given to taxonomical information. We have implemented a visual environment to develop taxonomies and orchestration

  2. Visual Search in Typically Developing Toddlers and Toddlers with Fragile X or Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerif, Gaia; Cornish, Kim; Wilding, John; Driver, Jon; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Visual selective attention is the ability to attend to relevant visual information and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Little is known about its typical and atypical development in early childhood. Experiment 1 investigates typically developing toddlers' visual search for multiple targets on a touch-screen. Time to hit a target, distance between…

  3. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way. PMID:25285327

  4. Putting Security in Context: Visual Correlation of Network Activity with Real-World Information

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Scherrer, Chad; Zabriskie, Sean J.

    2008-06-04

    To effectively identify and respond to cyber threats, computer security analysts must understand the scale, motivation, methods, source, and target of an attack. Central to developing this situational awareness is the analyst’s world knowledge that puts these attributes in context. What known exploits or new vulnerabilities might an anomalous traffic pattern suggest? What organizational, social, or geopolitical events help forecast or explain attacks and anomalies? Few visualization tools support creating, maintaining, and applying this knowledge of the threat landscape. Through a series of formative workshops with practicing security analysts, we have developed a visualization approach inspired by the human process of contextualization; this system, called NUANCE, creates evolving behavioral models of network actors at organizational and regional levels, continuously monitors external textual information sources for themes that indicate security threats, and automatically determines if behavior indicative of those threats is present on a network.

  5. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way. PMID:25285327

  6. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices. PMID:25339872

  7. Event-related brain potential correlates of the processing of novel visual and auditory information in autism.

    PubMed

    Courchesne, E; Lincoln, A J; Kilman, B A; Galambos, R

    1985-03-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by visual and auditory stimuli were recorded from nonretarded individuals with autism (ages 13-25 years) and age-matched normal controls. In "no-task" conditions, subjects simply looked at or listened to these stimuli; only one difference was found between subject groups. Several ERP differences between groups were found in "task" conditions; subjects pressed a button at the occurrence of target stimuli intermixed with unexpected, novel stimuli and also with expected, nonnovel stimuli. Visual ERP abnormalities in the autistic group differed from auditory abnormalities. Results suggest that (1) nonretarded autistic individuals may have a limited capacity to process novel information--they are neither hypersensitive to novel information nor misperceive it as nonnovel and insignificant; (2) classification of simple visual information may be less impaired than auditory; and (3) with one exception, visual and auditory ERP abnormalities do not seem to reflect maturational delay. PMID:3980430

  8. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  9. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual, but not acoustic information to find hidden food items

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but only little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins’ ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task’s contingencies. PMID:19236142

  10. A Dedicated Binding Mechanism for the Visual Control of Movement

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Franklin, David W.; Zatka-Haas, Peter; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Summary The human motor system is remarkably proficient in the online control of visually guided movements, adjusting to changes in the visual scene within 100 ms [1–3]. This is achieved through a set of highly automatic processes [4] translating visual information into representations suitable for motor control [5, 6]. For this to be accomplished, visual information pertaining to target and hand need to be identified and linked to the appropriate internal representations during the movement. Meanwhile, other visual information must be filtered out, which is especially demanding in visually cluttered natural environments. If selection of relevant sensory information for online control was achieved by visual attention, its limited capacity [7] would substantially constrain the efficiency of visuomotor feedback control. Here we demonstrate that both exogenously and endogenously cued attention facilitate the processing of visual target information [8], but not of visual hand information. Moreover, distracting visual information is more efficiently filtered out during the extraction of hand compared to target information. Our results therefore suggest the existence of a dedicated visuomotor binding mechanism that links the hand representation in visual and motor systems. PMID:24631246

  11. A dedicated binding mechanism for the visual control of movement.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Franklin, David W; Zatka-Haas, Peter; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-03-31

    The human motor system is remarkably proficient in the online control of visually guided movements, adjusting to changes in the visual scene within 100 ms [1-3]. This is achieved through a set of highly automatic processes [4] translating visual information into representations suitable for motor control [5, 6]. For this to be accomplished, visual information pertaining to target and hand need to be identified and linked to the appropriate internal representations during the movement. Meanwhile, other visual information must be filtered out, which is especially demanding in visually cluttered natural environments. If selection of relevant sensory information for online control was achieved by visual attention, its limited capacity [7] would substantially constrain the efficiency of visuomotor feedback control. Here we demonstrate that both exogenously and endogenously cued attention facilitate the processing of visual target information [8], but not of visual hand information. Moreover, distracting visual information is more efficiently filtered out during the extraction of hand compared to target information. Our results therefore suggest the existence of a dedicated visuomotor binding mechanism that links the hand representation in visual and motor systems. PMID:24631246

  12. Fast stochastic Wiener filter for superresolution image restoration with information theoretic visual quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr H.; Li, Jiang; Karim, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Super-resolution (SR) refers to reconstructing a single high resolution (HR) image from a set of subsampled, blurred and noisy low resolution (LR) images. The reconstructed image suffers from degradations such as blur, aliasing, photo-detector noise and registration and fusion error. Wiener filter can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we introduce a new fast stochasticWiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. Our derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. We incorporate a new parameter that accounts for LR images registration and fusion errors. Also, we speeded up the performance of the filter by constraining it to work on small patches of the images. Beside this, we introduce two figures of merits: information rate and maximum realizable fidelity, which can be used to assess the visual quality of the resultant images. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the derived Wiener filter that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain can reduce aliasing, blurring, and noise and result in a sharper reconstructed image. Also, Quantitative assessment using the proposed figures coincides with the visual qualitative assessment. Finally, we evaluate our filter against other SR techniques and its results were very competitive.

  13. Downscaling Satellite-based Passive Microwave Observations Using the Principle of Relevant Information and Auxiliary High Resolution Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, K.; Judge, J.; Principe, J.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrometeorological models simulate the atmospheric and hydrological processes at scales of 1- 10 km that are significantly influenced by the local and regional availability of soil moisture. Microwave observations at frequencies < 10 GHz are highly sensitive to changes in near-surface moisture and have been widely used to retrieve soil moisture information. While satellite-based active microwave observations are available at spatial resolutions of hundreds of meters, with temporal resolutions of several weeks, passive observations are obtained only at tens of kilometers with temporal resolutions of sub daily to 2-3 days. The European Space Agency-Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA-SMOS) and the near-future NASA-Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions will provide unprecedented passive microwave observations of brightness temperatures (TB) at the L-band frequency of 1.4 GHz. These products will be available at spatial resolutions of about 40-50 km and need to be downscaled to 1 km to merge them with models for data assimilation and to study the effects of land surface heterogeneity such as dynamic vegetation conditions. Very few studies have directly downscaled coarse-resolution TB observations to match model scales. Since downscaling is an ill-posed problem, additional information is required at the fine scales and some studies have leveraged auxiliary high-resolution remote sensing (RS) products in downscaling TB. Most of the above studies involve a) physical models that are computationally intensive when extended to global scales, or b) multi-scale algorithms that impose hierarchical models on TB assuming spatial homogeneity, or c) statistical algorithms that are based on second-order statistics such as variances and correlations. These approaches are therefore sub-optimal when applied to the real data or extended to regional/global scales. Optimal downscaling requires computationally-efficient algorithms that retain information from higher-order moments, especially under heterogeneous land surface conditions. Novel transformation functions leveraging physical relationships and recent advances in signal processing techniques can be used to transform information from high-resolution RS products into TB. In this study, a downscaling methodology was developed using the Principle of Relevant Information (PRI) to downscale observations of TB from 50 km to 200 m using observations of land surface temperature, leaf area index, and land cover at 200 m. The PRI provides a hierarchical decomposition of image data that is optimal in terms of the transfer of information across scales and is therefore a better alternative to methods that use second-order statistics only. Non-parametric probability density functions and Bayes' rule was used to transform information from the RS products into TB. An Observing System Simulation Experiment was developed under heterogeneous and dynamic vegetation conditions to generate synthetic observations at 200m to evaluate the downscaling methodology and the transformation functions.

  14. From Highly Relevant to Not Relevant: Examining Different Regions of Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Greisdorf, Howard; Bateman, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of user-relevance judgments in information retrieval focuses on findings from four separate studies of relevance judgments by 55 users conducting their initial online search on a particular information problem. Highlights include a theoretical framework, models of relevance, and implications for information-retrieval system design and…

  15. Working Memory Inefficiency: Minimal Information is Utilized in Visual Recognition Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Can people make perfect use of task-relevant information in working memory (WM)? Specifically, when questioned about an item in an array that does not happen to be in WM, can participants take into account other items that are in WM, eliminating them as response candidates? To address this question, an ideal-responder model that assumes perfect use of items in a capacity-limited WM was tested against a minimal-responder model that assumes use of only information about the queried item. Three different WM tasks were adopted: change detection, identity recognition, and location recognition. The change-detection task produced benchmark WM results. The two novel tasks showed that only the minimal responder model provided convergence with this benchmark. This finding was replicable even when the change-detection task was replaced by a feature-switch detection task. Thus, it appears that people do not make full use of information in WM. PMID:23421509

  16. Perceptions of document relevance.

    PubMed

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  17. MedioVis Visual Information Seeking in Digital Libraries Mathias Heilig, Mischa Demarmels, Werner A. Knig, Jens Gerken, Sebastian Rexhausen,

    E-print Network

    Reiterer, Harald

    .lastname}@uni-konstanz.de ABSTRACT MedioVis is a visual information seeking system that aims to support users' natural seeking.2 [Information Interfaces and presentation]: User Interfaces - Graphical user interfaces, Interaction styles years ago and still undergoes iterative development and evaluation cycles. To gain continuous end-user

  18. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.

  19. Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

  20. How visual timing and form information affect speech and non-speech processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Auditory speech processing is facilitated when the talker's face/head movements are seen. This effect is typically explained in terms of visual speech providing form and/or timing information. We determined the effect of both types of information on a speech/non-speech task (non-speech stimuli were spectrally rotated speech). All stimuli were presented paired with the talker's static or moving face. Two types of moving face stimuli were used: full-face versions (both spoken form and timing information available) and modified face versions (only timing information provided by peri-oral motion available). The results showed that the peri-oral timing information facilitated response time for speech and non-speech stimuli compared to a static face. An additional facilitatory effect was found for full-face versions compared to the timing condition; this effect only occurred for speech stimuli. We propose the timing effect was due to cross-modal phase resetting; the form effect to cross-modal priming. PMID:25190328

  1. Semantic-driven context-aware visual information indexing and retrieval: Applied in the film post-production domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atta Badii; Meng Zhu; Chattun Lallah; Michael Crouch

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of visual content is inaccessible until effective and efficient indexing and retrieval of such data is achieved. In this paper, we introduce the dream system, which is a knowledge-assisted semantic-driven context-aware visual information retrieval system applied in the film post production domain. We mainly focus on the automatic labelling and topic map related aspects of the framework.

  2. Availability Issues in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301

  3. Police interviews with suspected child sex offenders: does use of empathy and question type influence the amount of investigation relevant information obtained?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Oxburgh; James Ost; Julie Cherryman

    2010-01-01

    Using transcripts of 26 real-life interviews with suspected child sex offenders from England, this study examined the use of empathy and the impact of question type on the amount of investigation relevant information (IRI) obtained. There were no significant differences in the amount of IRI obtained in the interviews as a function of the use of empathy by police officers.

  4. Three-dimensional computer visualization of field screening information: Examples and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Oliver Springs, TN (United States); Hammons, W. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The first step in conducting environmental investigations is the development of a conceptual model of the area to be investigated, including the probable distribution of contaminants. Sampling locations are based on this conceptual model. Field screening techniques allow the investigator to confirm or revise the conceptual model as the investigation is being conducted and provides the investigator with real-time information about groundwater contamination at discrete depth intervals. This information enhances accurate well screen placement and optimization of subsequent well locations. The obvious benefits of field screening are reducing the time and cost associated with field investigations and defining the nature and extent of contamination in one field effort. Groundwater field screening techniques also provide a profusion of information that is essential in interpreting contaminant fate and transport, selecting remedial alternatives, and designing remediation systems. This paper will give an overview of the screened hollow-stem auger field screening technique and its application in conducting groundwater investigations at a major National Priorities List (NPL) site. The three-dimensional visualization of the field screening information collected will be discussed and applications of the three-dimensional modeling will be presented to discuss the points mentioned above. Future applications of three-dimensional modeling will be examined.

  5. Viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Objects are not represented individually in visual working memory (VWM), but in relation to the contextual information provided by other memorized objects. We studied whether the contextual information provided by the spatial configuration of all memorized objects is viewpoint-dependent. We ran two experiments asking participants to detect changes in locations between memory and probe for one object highlighted in the probe image. We manipulated the changes in viewpoint between memory and probe (Exp. 1: 0°, 30°, 60°; Exp. 2: 0°, 60°), as well as the spatial configuration visible in the probe image (Exp. 1: full configuration, partial configuration; Exp. 2: full configuration, no configuration). Location change detection was higher with the full spatial configuration than with the partial configuration or with no spatial configuration at viewpoint changes of 0°, thus replicating previous findings on the nonindependent representations of individual objects in VWM. Most importantly, the effect of spatial configurations decreased with increasing viewpoint changes, suggesting a viewpoint-dependent representation of contextual information in VWM. We discuss these findings within the context of this special issue, in particular whether research performed within the slots-versus-resources debate and research on the effects of contextual information might focus on two different storage systems within VWM. PMID:24470259

  6. A Geographic Information System framework for the dataset visualization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufean, Md Abu

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), collecting data from sensor nodes and analyzing them is a challenging task. A Geographic Information System (GIS) could be a better way to analyze, manage, and represent the dataset collected by sensor nodes. Motivated by these considerations, we proposed a system to visualize the WSN dataset in real time using a software implementation of the GIS framework called ArcGIS. In this research, we have implemented our proposed system where a couple of sensor nodes has been deployed to collect Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and water pH value continuously from the John Gray Center pond of Lamar University. To keep track of each sensor node we have accumulated their precise location, sensing time, and corresponding data in our lab. After analyzing couple of data storing technique, we have decided to use PostGIS (a geospatial database) to store data and developed an ArcGIS centric application. Finally, with the help of that application, a web map was designed combining all different data source layers for end users where all the technical details have been encapsulated behind a base map. This web map has been hosted in a web server so that users sitting in any location can easily access and visualize desired data with a real time update. This research work has been supported by National Science Foundation under Grants CNS-0922888 and CNS-1427838.

  7. Technique for using a geometry and visualization system to monitor and manipulate information in other codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to allow the Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS), a geometry and visualization system, to be used as a dynamic real-time geometry monitor, manipulator, and interrogator for other codes. This technique involves the direct connection of AGPS with one or more external codes through the use of Unix pipes. AGPS has several commands that control communication with the external program. The external program uses several special subroutines that allow simple, direct communication with AGPS. The external program creates AGPS command lines and transmits the line over the pipes or communicates on a subroutine level. AGPS executes the commands, displays graphics/geometry information, and transmits the required solutions back to the external program. The basic ideas discussed in this paper could easily be implemented in other graphics/geometry systems currently in use or under development.

  8. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  9. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system, and a precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; Knapp, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.

  10. Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D. The latter is the interactive LA3D software of the SCEC EIT intern team, which will be demonstrated at this session.

  11. Visual homing in the absence of feature-based landmark information.

    PubMed

    Gillner, Sabine; Weiss, Anja M; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2008-10-01

    Despite that fact that landmarks play a prominent role in human navigation, experimental evidence on how landmarks are selected and defined by human navigators remains elusive. Indeed, the concept of a 'landmark' is itself not entirely clear. In everyday language, the term landmark refers to salient, distinguishable, and usually nameable objects, rendering the problem of landmark recognition a special case of the general object recognition problem. In contrast, in the insect and robot literature, this notion of landmarks is often replaced by the "local position information" [e.g., Trullier, O., Wiener, S., Berthoz, A., & Meyer, J.-A. (1997). Biologically based artificial navigation systems: Review and prospects. Progress in Neurobiology, 51, 483-544], referring to the entire set of sensor readings obtained at one location. This set may then serve as a characteristic of the particular location. Honey bees have been shown to base place recognition and homing on a snapshot-like memory of the place's visual environment, not on the distances to recognized objects [Cartwright, B., & Collett, T. (1983). Landmark learning in bees. Experiments and models. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 151, 521-543]. A number of theoretical models of snapshot-based homing [e.g., Franz, M., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H. A., Bülthoff, H. H. (1998). Where did I take that snapshot? Scene-based homing by image matching. Biological Cybernetics, 79, 191-202; Vardy, A., & Möller, R. (2005). Biologically plausible visual homing methods based on optical flow techniques. Connection Science, 17, 47-89] predict that the accuracy of snapshot-based homing should depend on image contrast. For rodent hippocampal place fields, models have been developed using additional image information such as three-dimensional depth and allocentric orientations (e.g., room axes) and are thus less sensitive to image contrast and noise [e.g. Barry, C., Lever, C., Hayman, R., Hartley, T., Burton, S., O'Keefe, J., et al. (2006). The boundary vector cell model of place cell firing and spatial memory. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17, 71-79]. Here, we study human visual homing in a virtual environment void of objects and readily detected image features. The environment was a circular room with a homogenous colour gradient covering the wall and uniform floor and ceiling. Subjects were able to approach remembered places. Accuracy decreased with colour gradient modulation and room size, in qualitative agreement with the snapshot model but not with other models of place recognition. We conclude that human memory for places can make use of a snapshot algorithm. PMID:18804202

  12. Collaborative visualization for military planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Timothy; Butler, Sean

    2001-07-01

    So that a military commander has precise command, control, and planning information available for a given mission, information must be tailored for a particular area of operation, for a specific level of command, and for a specific time period. The commander must be able to quickly understand the information, query related information, and analyze the information in collaboration with others to plan and control a military operation. To provide such tailored information, we envision an environment in which customized agents traverse a diverse, distributed, frequently changing information space to identify relevant data. Once aware of the data, visual interfaces facilitate understanding and navigation. Geographically separated users manipulate a customized view to access a common information framework in which they can interactively collaborate with other users. We propose an architecture for achieving this vision that is well suited to implementation with Jini networking technologies. As a first step toward achieving this architecture we have developed a collaborative visualization framework that enables multiple distributed users to interact using shared visual interface components while simultaneously communicating via a text-based chat window. Our framework provides communications management and messaging support and well-defined Java class interfaces for integrating visualization components. Initial results indicate significant benefits for application development through reuse and extensibility. We achieved interactive performance and synchronized collaboration using JavaSpaces as the underlying distributed technology.

  13. The visual categories for letters and words reside outside any informationally encapsulated perceptual system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Bowers

    1999-01-01

    Abstract According to Pylysyn, the early visual system is able to categorize perceptual inputs into shape classes based on visual similarity criteria, and it is suggested that written words may be categorized within early vision. This speculation is contradicted by the fact that visually unrelated exemplars of a given letter (e.g., a\\/A) or word (e.g., read\\/READ) map onto common,visual categories.

  14. Artifacts of the Presence Era: Using Information Visualization to Create an Evocative Souvenir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda B. Viégas; Ethan Perry; Ethan Howe; Judith S. Donath

    2004-01-01

    We present Artifacts of the Presence Era, a digital installation that uses a geological metaphor to visualize the events in a physical space over time. The piece captures video and audio from a museum and constructs an impressionistic visualization of the evolving history in the space. Instead of creating a visualization tool for data analysis, we chose to produce a

  15. Mixed Methods Analysis and Information Visualization: Graphical Display for Effective Communication of Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Dickinson, Wendy B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce various graphical methods that can be used to represent data in mixed research. First, we present a broad taxonomy of visual representation. Next, we use this taxonomy to provide an overview of visual techniques for quantitative data display and qualitative data display. Then, we propose what we call "crossover" visual

  16. Visualizing User Communities and Usage Trends of Digital Libraries Based on User Tracking Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seonho Kim; Subodh Lele; Sreeram Ramalingam; Edward A. Fox

    2006-01-01

    We describe VUDM, our Visual User-model Data Mining tool, and its application to data logged regarding interactions of 1,200 users of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD). The goals of VUDM are to visualize social networks, patrons' distributions, and usage trends of NDLTD. The distinctive approach of this research is that we focus on analysis and visualization

  17. Privacy Statement The University will collect, manage, use and disclose personal information in accordance with relevant legislation. The

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    of your enrolment and academic achievements, communicate with you, assist you if you have a disability the relevant authority if there are reasonable grounds to be concerned about your welfare or safety and social security, in accordance with their directives. The University is not permitted to accept your

  18. Method for Examination and Documentation of Basic Information and Metadata from Published Reports Relevant to the Study of Stormwater Runoff Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dionne, Shannon G.; Granato, Gregory E.; Tana, Cameron K.

    1999-01-01

    A readily accessible archive of information that is valid, current, and technically defensible is needed to make informed highway-planning, design, and management decisions. The National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS) is a cataloging and assessment of the documentation of information relevant to highway-runoff water quality available in published reports. The report review process is based on the NDAMS review sheet, which was designed by the USGS with input from the FHWA, State transportation agencies, and the regulatory community. The report-review process is designed to determine the technical merit of the existing literature in terms of current requirements for data documentation, data quality, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and technical issues that may affect the use of historical data. To facilitate the review process, the NDAMS review sheet is divided into 12 sections: (1) administrative review information, (2) investigation and report information, (3) temporal information, (4) location information (5) water-quality-monitoring information, (6) sample-handling methods, (7) constituent information, (8) sampling focus and matrix, (9) flow monitoring methods, (10) field QA/QC, (11) laboratory, and (12) uncertainty/error analysis. This report describes the NDAMS report reviews and metadata documentation methods and provides an overview of the approach and of the quality-assurance and quality-control program used to implement the review process. Detailed information, including a glossary of relevant terms, a copy of the report-review sheets, and reportreview instructions are completely documented in a series of three appendixes included with this report. Therefore the reviews are repeatable and the methods can be used by transportation research organizations to catalog new reports as they are published.

  19. A werd is not quite a word: On the role of sublexical phonological information in visual lexical decision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Martensen; Ton Dijkstra; Eric Maris

    2005-01-01

    To establish the relative contribution of phonological and orthographic information to visual word recognition, we varied the instruction how to respond to the pseudohomophones in a Dutch lexical decision task. One participant group was asked to base their word\\/nonword decisions on spelling and therefore reject pseudohomophones together with the nonhomophonic nonwords; the other group had to base their decisions on

  20. Developmental Change in Young Children's Use of Haptic Information in a Visual Task: The Role of Hand Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers who explore objects haptically often fail to recognize those objects in subsequent visual tests. This suggests that children may represent qualitatively different information in vision and haptics and/or that children's haptic perception may be poor. In this study, 72 children (2 1/2-5 years of age) and 20 adults explored unfamiliar…

  1. Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runeson, Sverker; Andersson, Isabell E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three nonspecificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback, but several participants defied the…

  2. Auditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis ----Contrastive Focus in French and Japanese

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Auditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis ---- Contrastive are combined for the perception of speech segments and recent studies have shown that this is also the case and audition for the perception of speech segments however seems to be less important in Japanese. This study

  3. Real-time haptic rendering of slowly deformable bodies based on two dimensional visual information for telemanipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungsik Kim; Youngjin Kim; Jung Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time haptic rendering technique for deformable objects based on visual information about the intervention between a tool and a real object in a remote place. A user can feel the artificial reaction force through a haptic device in real-time when a slave system exerts manipulation tasks on a deformable object. Models of the deformable object and

  4. The development of an algorithmic model for object recognition from visual and sound information — Based on neuro-fuzzy logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahnaz Shahbazova; Manfred Grauer; Musa Suleymanov

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of recognizing the visual and sound information by constructing a virtual environment, which allows to qualitatively simplify the system and to carry out of experiments, and to create an algorithmic model of pattern recognition comparable to human capabilities. Our research is aimed at obtaining an algorithmic model that can extract from the surrounding world \\

  5. Akay, A.E., Ertek, G., Bykzkan, G. "Analyzing the solutions of DEA through information visualization and data mining techniques: SmartDEA framework". "Expert Systems with

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Akçay, A.E., Ertek, G., Büyüközkan, G. "Analyzing the solutions of DEA through information visualization and data mining techniques: SmartDEA framework". "Expert Systems with Applications". 39, pp. 7763 of DEA through information visualization and data mining techniques: SmartDEA framework Alp Eren Akçayaa

  6. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  7. Assessing the potential information content of multicomponent visual signals: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P

    2015-03-01

    Careful investigation of the form of animal signals can offer novel insights into their function. Here, we deconstruct the face patterns of a tribe of primates, the guenons (Cercopithecini), and examine the information that is potentially available in the perceptual dimensions of their multicomponent displays. Using standardized colour-calibrated images of guenon faces, we measure variation in appearance both within and between species. Overall face pattern was quantified using the computer vision 'eigenface' technique, and eyebrow and nose-spot focal traits were described using computational image segmentation and shape analysis. Discriminant function analyses established whether these perceptual dimensions could be used to reliably classify species identity, individual identity, age and sex, and, if so, identify the dimensions that carry this information. Across the 12 species studied, we found that both overall face pattern and focal trait differences could be used to categorize species and individuals reliably, whereas correct classification of age category and sex was not possible. This pattern makes sense, as guenons often form mixed-species groups in which familiar conspecifics develop complex differentiated social relationships but where the presence of heterospecifics creates hybridization risk. Our approach should be broadly applicable to the investigation of visual signal function across the animal kingdom. PMID:25652832

  8. Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°-2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%-34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

  9. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    PubMed Central

    Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks—salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location—can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing. PMID:25309374

  10. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin; Boeddeker, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks-salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location-can play an important role in guiding the animal's homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee's visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee's visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing. PMID:25309374

  11. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines. PMID:25537955

  12. Predictive information in spike trains from the blowfly and monkey visual systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Seth Daniel

    1998-12-01

    One of the principal goals of the study of neural computation is to understand how the phenomenology of the brain arises from an assemblage of computational subunits called neurons. An aspect of this problem is that of relating, where possible, signals recorded from individual neurons, called spike trains, to concurrently recorded stimuli or behavioral responses. In this dissertation, we introduce time-domain analogs of real-space renormalization procedures for this purpose. For these procedures, block variable transformations are selected to preserve the information that blocks have about their neighbors and, for comparison, to preserve information that blocks have about stimuli or responses. We propose that, as a spike train is iteratively coarse-grained, information about stimuli or responses, that is available within the spike train on successively longer time scales, may be extracted. To test this idea, we apply it to the analysis of spike trains recorded from a motion-sensitive neuron in the visual system of a blowfly (Calliphora erythrocephela ) and to spike trains recorded from a pattern-selective neuron in the inferior temporal cortex of a monkey (Macaca mulatto) trained to report the exclusive perception of any one of several images. We find that the temporal correlations in the activity of these neurons can be used to identify features of the spike train that provide real-time information about stimuli or reports. Additionally, in the case of the monkey, we find that for periods when the monkey views static ambiguous stimuli, we are able to extract a statistically significant amount of information about the monkey's report from the spike train, supporting the claim that the activity of this neuron reflects internal perceptual state as opposed to strictly retinal stimulation. Finally, we generalize our renormalization procedure for application to three-dimensional Ising spin systems. We find that, for a ferromagnet and antiferromagnet this yields a majority rule and staggered majority rule, respectively, whereas, for a spin glass, the information a given block has about its neighbors is, for coupling distributions of interest, too large to be captured by a single block spin.

  13. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  14. Performance of visual search tasks from various types of contour information.

    PubMed

    Itan, Liron; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2013-03-01

    A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide-field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks, such as visual search, mobility, and orientation. The sufficiency of image contours for performing everyday visual tasks is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. This research aims is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items, such as cutlery, housewares, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from mere detection (when the object is not necessarily identified). Some nonconventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal-vision subjects by superposing contours of the wide field of the scene over a narrow field (see-through) background. From the results, it appears that about 85% success is obtained for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed. Pilot experiments with video simulations are reported at the end of the paper. PMID:23456115

  15. [Pathways for the transmission of visual information in the protocerebrum of the drone fly Eristalis tenax].

    PubMed

    Pichka, V E

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made on the structure of neuropiles and visual pathoways in the brain of the fly E. tenax L. (Diptera, Syrphidae). The retina is projected on laminar structures in the visual ganglia only; other protocerebrum neuropiles lack this projection. All the comissures connecting contralateral visual ganglia, consist of several hundreds of fibers, whereas the binocular zone of both eyes includes more than 4,000 ommatidia. Neither the visual ganglia, nor other protocerebrum neuropiles may serve as a substrate for topographic imposition of projections of the corresponding parts in both retines. The mechanism of binocular interaction in insects presumably differs from that in mammals (primates, carnovores). PMID:1020555

  16. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new ideas. This presentation will provide an update of the recent enhancements of the NEIS architecture and visualization capabilities, challenges faced, as well as ongoing research activities related to this project.

  17. Obtaining health care in another European Union Member State: how easy is it to find relevant information?

    PubMed

    Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. PMID:25096256

  18. The effects of increasing target prevalence on information processing during visual search.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hayward J; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R; Thaibsyah, Michael; Donnelly, Nick

    2015-04-01

    The proportion of trials on which a target is presented (referred to as the target prevalence) during visual search influences the probability that the target will be detected. As prevalence increases, participants become biased toward reporting that the target is present. This bias results in an increase in detection rates for the target, coupled with an increased likelihood of making a false alarm. Previous work has demonstrated that, as prevalence increases, participants spend an increasing period of time searching on target-absent trials. The goal of the present study was to determine the information processing during the additional time spent searching on target-absent trials as prevalence increased. We recorded participants' eye movement behavior as they were engaged in low-prevalence (25% target-present trials), medium-prevalence (50%), or high-prevalence (75%) search. Increased prevalence primarily influenced search by increasing the time spent examining objects in the display, rather than by increasing the proportion of objects examined in each display. In addition, the additional time spent examining objects in high-prevalence target-absent trials was the result of revisiting objects. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to current models of search as well as ongoing efforts to alleviate the prevalence effect. PMID:25023956

  19. Stereoscopic visualization of laparoscope image using depth information from 3D model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Wang, Yen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Jen; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is indispensable from the current surgical procedures. It uses an endoscope system of camera and light source, and surgical instruments which pass through the small incisions on the abdomen of the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Conventional laparoscope (endoscope) systems produce 2D colored video images which do not provide surgeons an actual depth perception of the scene. In this work, the problem was formulated as synthesizing a stereo image of the monocular (conventional) laparoscope image by incorporating into them the depth information from a 3D CT model. Various algorithms of the computer vision including the algorithms for the feature detection, matching and tracking in the video frames, and for the reconstruction of 3D shape from shading in the 2D laparoscope image were combined for making the system. The current method was applied to the laparoscope video at the rate of up to 5 frames per second to visualize its stereo video. A correlation was investigated between the depth maps calculated with our method with those from the shape from shading algorithm. The correlation coefficients between the depth maps were within the range of 0.70-0.95 (P<0.05). A t-test was used for the statistical analysis. PMID:24444752

  20. Social learning of predators in the dark: understanding the role of visual, chemical and mechanical information

    PubMed Central

    Manassa, R. P.; McCormick, M. I.; Chivers, D. P.; Ferrari, M. C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of prey to observe and learn to recognize potential predators from the behaviour of nearby individuals can dramatically increase survival and, not surprisingly, is widespread across animal taxa. A range of sensory modalities are available for this learning, with visual and chemical cues being well-established modes of transmission in aquatic systems. The use of other sensory cues in mediating social learning in fishes, including mechano-sensory cues, remains unexplored. Here, we examine the role of different sensory cues in social learning of predator recognition, using juvenile damselfish (Amphiprion percula). Specifically, we show that a predator-naive observer can socially learn to recognize a novel predator when paired with a predator-experienced conspecific in total darkness. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that when threatened, individuals release chemical cues (known as disturbance cues) into the water. These cues induce an anti-predator response in nearby individuals; however, they do not facilitate learnt recognition of the predator. As such, another sensory modality, probably mechano-sensory in origin, is responsible for information transfer in the dark. This study highlights the diversity of sensory cues used by coral reef fishes in a social learning context. PMID:23804616

  1. Visualizing Music

    E-print Network

    Haggerty, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    A process of experientially deriving visual information from music is described. The author describes her methodology behind the translation of a music composition to a computer animation. The methodology described could be adapted and applied...

  2. Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speed sensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimal multivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noises corrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors' outputs are so dangerous that their negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of the car. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our full attention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noises on the car's electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. The experimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the relevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensor design techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today's cars need.

  3. Visually-guided Attention Enhances Target Identification in a Complex Auditory Scene

    E-print Network

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    Visually-guided Attention Enhances Target Identification in a Complex Auditory Scene VIRGINIA BEST difficult, which can lead to disruptions in the identification of behaviorally relevant targets. This study in a complex acoustic mixture. Impor- tantly, the visual cues provided no information about the target content

  4. Area activation: a computational model of saccadic selectivity in visual search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Pomplun; Eyal M. Reingold; Jiye Shen

    2003-01-01

    The Area Activation Model (Pomplun, Reingold, Shen, & Williams, 2000) is a computational model predicting the statistical distribution of saccadic endpoints in visual search tasks. Its basic assumption is that saccades in visual search tend to foveate display areas that provide a maximum amount of task- relevant information for processing during the subsequent fixation. In the present study, a counterintuitive

  5. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  6. Decoding of visual information from human brain activity: A review of fMRI and EEG studies.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Raheel; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Dass, Sarat C; Abdullah, Jafri M; Reza, Faruque; Abdul Karim, Ahmad Helmy

    2015-06-01

    Brain is the command center for the body and contains a lot of information which can be extracted by using different non-invasive techniques. Electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are the most common neuroimaging techniques to elicit brain behavior. By using these techniques different activity patterns can be measured within the brain to decode the content of mental processes especially the visual and auditory content. This paper discusses the models and imaging techniques used in visual decoding to investigate the different conditions of brain along with recent advancements in brain decoding. This paper concludes that it's not possible to extract all the information from the brain, however careful experimentation, interpretation and powerful statistical tools can be used with the neuroimaging techniques for better results. PMID:25939499

  7. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1-6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  8. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  9. Role of Information Relevance, Source Credibility, and Decisional Consequence on Attitude Change, and the Verbal Attitude-Overt Behavior Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edeani, David O.

    A serious problem in the area of attitude research is the low relationship between verbal attitude and supposedly related overt behavior. A study tested a model derived from M. Deutsch's proposition on persuasive communication stating that for communication to be effective in a conflict situation, it must convey to the information receiver the…

  10. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  11. Determination of the Consistency of Relevance Judgments and the Reliability of Search Strategies Among Information Specialists for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The ability of various Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) information specialists to prepare search strategies for document retrieval was studied by providing ten typical search request statements to seven information specialists. Each specialist prepared search strategies independently. Significant variations occurred among the…

  12. Relevance feedback revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Harman

    1992-01-01

    Researchers have found relevance feedback to be effective in interactive information retrieval, although few formal user experiments have been made. In order to run a user experiment on a large document collection, experiments were performed at NIST to complete some of the missing links found in using the probabilistic retrieval model. These experiments, using the Cranfield 1400 collection, showed the

  13. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Visual Information Processing of Non-Social Stimuli in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maekawa, Toshihiko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Inada, Naoko; Oribe, Naoya; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…

  14. Libraries for the Blind in the Information Age: Guidelines for Development. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 86

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Rosemary, Ed.; Skold, Beatrice Christensen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Visually impaired people have the same information needs as sighted people. Just as sighted people might read a newspaper, listen to a CD or download electronic information from the Internet, visually impaired people also want access to relevant information in their chosen accessible format. Developing an efficient library service for…

  15. Visual attention at the tip of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Soeizi, Matin; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2015-01-01

    The brain shifts attention by selectively modulating sensory information about relevant environmental features. It has been shown that eye, head, trunk and limb position can bias spatial attention. This leads to the interesting question: Does the brain only recruit bodily information that is explicitly related to orienting behaviour to direct attention, or more generally? We tested whether tongue position, which does not explicitly functionally relate to orienting behaviour, biases attention in a visual search task. Thirty-six participants completed three visual search trial blocks of increased difficulty each consisting of three tongue positions for 50 trials. Response times and error rates were used to assess whether tongue position modulates visual attention. Results show that sensorimotor information from the tongue modulates attention in a difficult visual search task: faster responses to visual search targets presented ipsilateral with the tongue; slower responses when contralateral. In line with cognition being generally embodied, the tongue plays a surprising role in directing attention. PMID:26034566

  16. Visual attention at the tip of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Soeizi, Matin; DeSouza, Joseph F. X.

    2015-01-01

    The brain shifts attention by selectively modulating sensory information about relevant environmental features. It has been shown that eye, head, trunk and limb position can bias spatial attention. This leads to the interesting question: Does the brain only recruit bodily information that is explicitly related to orienting behaviour to direct attention, or more generally? We tested whether tongue position, which does not explicitly functionally relate to orienting behaviour, biases attention in a visual search task. Thirty-six participants completed three visual search trial blocks of increased difficulty each consisting of three tongue positions for 50 trials. Response times and error rates were used to assess whether tongue position modulates visual attention. Results show that sensorimotor information from the tongue modulates attention in a difficult visual search task: faster responses to visual search targets presented ipsilateral with the tongue; slower responses when contralateral. In line with cognition being generally embodied, the tongue plays a surprising role in directing attention.

  17. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics. PMID:21788672

  18. An OSSE Platform for Terrestrial Hydrology using the NASA Land Information System (LIS): Initial Results from SMAP-relevant OSSEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K. W.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation is a key tool for the cost effective planning and execution of NASA missions. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) can help to demonstrate and quantify the impact of remotely sensed observations on terrestrial hydrologic science and societal objectives (e.g., minimizing impacts of droughts and floods). Importantly, they are also critical for understanding and mitigating mission risk. Here, the science and technology underlying a new mission simulation and evaluation platform under development are presented. The platform will be built upon the NASA Land Information System (LIS), an advanced multi-scale land surface modeling system, and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), which provides tools for evaluating LIS outputs using a wide range of metrics. The platform integrates components of LIS' advanced data processing subsystems (e.g., data assimilation, optimization, and uncertainty estimation) and coupled model systems (e.g., land surface -atmospheric radiative transfer, land surface-weather forecasting, and land surface-application models). The design advances the state-of-the-art in OSSE development by incorporating "value-of-information" and other concepts from decision and information theory that have long dealt with similar questions, and by anticipating a more robust set of questions than the "classic" OSSE that focuses on data assimilation. In addition, the platform is being designed to conduct OSSEs useful at each stage of mission planning, from the time of mission concept formulation to after launch, and therefore targets current (e.g., TRMM, EOS-Aqua, GRACE, Aquarius) and future (e.g., SMAP, GPM, GRACE Follow-on, GRACE-II) missions. In the talk, results from soil moisture observation system simulation experiments designed for SMAP mission will be presented.

  19. Multi-camera VSLAM: from former information losses to self-calibration Abstract--Visual SLAM is, in recent years, a very active

    E-print Network

    Solà, Joan

    of visual sensing (bearings-only, infinity range and rich appearance information) have their impact at SRI International, 333 Ravenswood ave, Menlo Park, 94025 CA, USA. Email: sola@ai.sri.com. This work

  20. A Comparison of Children’s and Adults’ Retrieval Performances and Affective Reactions When Using a Conventional Interface and an Information Visualization Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Large; Jamshid Beheshti

    \\u000a Reports on an exploratory study of the performance and affective responses of children compared with adults when using a conventional\\u000a tree structured interface and an information visualization interface to identify subject terms embedded in a hierarchical\\u000a subject taxonomy. It is part of a larger project to investigate the efficacy of information visualization as a means to enhance\\u000a web-based subject taxonomies.