Science.gov

Sample records for reliability organizations theory

  1. Organization Theory as Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Thomas B.

    The theory that organizations are ideological inventions of the human mind is discussed. Organizational science is described as an ideology which is based upon social concepts and experiences. The main justification for organizational theory is that it attempts to answer why we behave as we do in social organizations. Ways in which ideas and…

  2. Creating High Reliability in Health Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Pronovost, Peter J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Goeschel, Christine A; Needham, Dale M; Sexton, J Bryan; Thompson, David A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Marsteller, Jill A; Makary, Martin A; Hunt, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper was to present a comprehensive approach to help health care organizations reliably deliver effective interventions. Context Reliability in healthcare translates into using valid rate-based measures. Yet high reliability organizations have proven that the context in which care is delivered, called organizational culture, also has important influences on patient safety. Model for Improvement Our model to improve reliability, which also includes interventions to improve culture, focuses on valid rate-based measures. This model includes (1) identifying evidence-based interventions that improve the outcome, (2) selecting interventions with the most impact on outcomes and converting to behaviors, (3) developing measures to evaluate reliability, (4) measuring baseline performance, and (5) ensuring patients receive the evidence-based interventions. The comprehensive unit-based safety program (CUSP) is used to improve culture and guide organizations in learning from mistakes that are important, but cannot be measured as rates. Conclusions We present how this model was used in over 100 intensive care units in Michigan to improve culture and eliminate catheter-related blood stream infections—both were accomplished. Our model differs from existing models in that it incorporates efforts to improve a vital component for system redesign—culture, it targets 3 important groups—senior leaders, team leaders, and front line staff, and facilitates change management—engage, educate, execute, and evaluate for planned interventions. PMID:16898981

  3. High Reliability Organizations in Education. Noteworthy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, James H.; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Schaffer, Eugene; Stringfield, Sam; Reynolds, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this monograph assert that by assisting school systems to more closely resemble "high reliability" organizations (HROs) that already exist in other industries and benchmarking against top-performing education systems from around the globe, America's school systems can transform themselves from compliance-driven bureaucracies to…

  4. 78 FR 38851 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire... Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. The... 20426, Telephone: (202) 502-6840. Michael Gandolfo (Technical Information), Office of...

  5. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Cors, W K

    1997-02-01

    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  6. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric Reliability... CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.3 Electric Reliability Organization certification. (a)...

  7. Microbial community modeling using reliability theory.

    PubMed

    Zilles, Julie L; Rodríguez, Luis F; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Kent, Angela D

    2016-08-01

    Linking microbial community composition with the corresponding ecosystem functions remains challenging. Because microbial communities can differ in their functional responses, this knowledge gap limits ecosystem assessment, design and management. To develop models that explicitly incorporate microbial populations and guide efforts to characterize their functional differences, we propose a novel approach derived from reliability engineering. This reliability modeling approach is illustrated here using a microbial ecology dataset from denitrifying bioreactors. Reliability modeling is well-suited for analyzing the stability of complex networks composed of many microbial populations. It could also be applied to evaluate the redundancy within a particular biochemical pathway in a microbial community. Reliability modeling allows characterization of the system's resilience and identification of failure-prone functional groups or biochemical steps, which can then be targeted for monitoring or enhancement. The reliability engineering approach provides a new perspective for unraveling the interactions between microbial community diversity, functional redundancy and ecosystem services, as well as practical tools for the design and management of engineered ecosystems. PMID:26882268

  8. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  9. Design of high reliability organizations in health care

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J S; Rudolph, J W

    2006-01-01

    To improve safety performance, many healthcare organizations have sought to emulate high reliability organizations from industries such as nuclear power, chemical processing, and military operations. We outline high reliability design principles for healthcare organizations including both the formal structures and the informal practices that complement those structures. A stage model of organizational structures and practices, moving from local autonomy to formal controls to open inquiry to deep self‐understanding, is used to illustrate typical challenges and design possibilities at each stage. We suggest how organizations can use the concepts and examples presented to increase their capacity to self‐design for safety and reliability. PMID:17142607

  10. 75 FR 80391 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., NOPR, Docket No. RM10-15-000, 75 FR 71613 (Nov. 24, 2010), 133 FERC ] 61,151, at P 65 (2010... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of... (Commission) proposes to approve the North American Electric Reliability Corporation's (NERC)...

  11. Studying Reliability of Open Ended Mathematics Items According to the Classical Test Theory and Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Nese; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the Classical test theory and generalizability theory were used for determination to reliability of scores obtained from measurement tool of mathematics success. 24 open-ended mathematics question of the TIMSS-1999 was applied to 203 students in 2007-spring semester. Internal consistency of scores was found as 0.92. For…

  12. Applicability of Complex Organization Theory to Small Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolch, Norman A.; Heffernan, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research literature and describes a study concerning the applicability of complex organization theory to small organizations. Finds that organizational-structural properties can be measured in small organizations; complex organization theory can be used to better understand small organizations; and certain measurement techniques used in…

  13. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  14. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster-Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  15. Reliability between nurse managers: the key to the high-reliability organization.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2006-01-01

    Flawless execution rests in the hands of nurse managers. No one can work alone in health care any more. We are interdependent and know that the best outcomes happen when practices are organized around collegial supportive structures rather than autonomous competitive units. We are only as strong as our weakest link. If all managers see the big picture and look beyond their units for what is right for the common good, we will achieve high-reliability organizations in health care. In turn health care organizations will become very safe places to operate. Shared governance structures for nurse managers are the perfect vehicle to develop collaborative organizations and flawless execution, and to adopt high-reliability organization principles. PMID:17131622

  16. Teamwork as an Essential Component of High-Reliability Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David P; Day, Rachel; Salas, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly becoming dynamic and unstable. This evolution has given rise to greater reliance on teams and increased complexity in terms of team composition, skills required, and degree of risk involved. High-reliability organizations (HROs) are those that exist in such hazardous environments where the consequences of errors are high, but the occurrence of error is extremely low. In this article, we argue that teamwork is an essential component of achieving high reliability particularly in health care organizations. We describe the fundamental characteristics of teams, review strategies in team training, demonstrate the criticality of teamwork in HROs and finally, identify specific challenges the health care community must address to improve teamwork and enhance reliability. PMID:16898980

  17. Teamwork as an essential component of high-reliability organizations.

    PubMed

    Baker, David P; Day, Rachel; Salas, Eduardo

    2006-08-01

    Organizations are increasingly becoming dynamic and unstable. This evolution has given rise to greater reliance on teams and increased complexity in terms of team composition, skills required, and degree of risk involved. High-reliability organizations (HROs) are those that exist in such hazardous environments where the consequences of errors are high, but the occurrence of error is extremely low. In this article, we argue that teamwork is an essential component of achieving high reliability particularly in health care organizations. We describe the fundamental characteristics of teams, review strategies in team training, demonstrate the criticality of teamwork in HROs and finally, identify specific challenges the health care community must address to improve teamwork and enhance reliability. PMID:16898980

  18. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... published in the Federal Register of Friday, June 28, 2013 (78 FR 38851). The proposed regulations would...,'' respectively, and the Total is changed from ``$535,500'' to ``$518,220.'' In FR Doc. 2013-15433 appearing on... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To...

  19. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  20. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Reliability Organization certification. 39.3 Section 39.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric...

  1. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric Reliability Organization certification. 39.3 Section 39.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric...

  2. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric Reliability Organization certification. 39.3 Section 39.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric...

  3. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric Reliability Organization certification. 39.3 Section 39.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric...

  4. Evaluating reliability and resolution of ensemble forecasts using information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Steven; van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble forecasts are increasingly popular for the communication of uncertainty towards the public and decision makers. Ideally, an ensemble forecast reflects both the uncertainty and the information in a forecast, which means that the spread in the ensemble should accurately represent the true uncertainty. For ensembles to be useful, they should be probabilistic, as probability is the language to precisely describe an incomplete state of knowledge, that is typical for forecasts. Information theory provides the ideal tools to deal with uncertainty and information in forecasts. Essential to the use and development of models and forecasts are ways to evaluate their quality. Without a proper definition of what is good, it is impossible to improve forecasts. In contrast to forecast value, which is user dependent, forecast quality, which is defined as the correspondence between forecasts and observations, can be objectively defined, given the question that is asked. The evaluation of forecast quality is known as forecast verification. Numerous techniques for forecast verification have been developed over the past decades. The Brier score (BS) and the derived Ranked Probability Score (RPS) are among the most widely used scores for measuring forecast quality. Both of these scores can be split into three additive components: uncertainty, reliability and resolution. While the first component, uncertainty, just depends on the inherent variability in the forecasted event, the latter two measure different aspects of the quality of forecasts themselves. Resolution measures the difference between the conditional probabilities and the marginal probabilities of occurrence. The third component, reliability, measures the conditional bias in the probability estimates, hence unreliability would be a better name. In this work, we argue that information theory should be adopted as the correct framework for measuring quality of probabilistic ensemble forecasts. We use the information

  5. A Postmodern Theory of Knowledge Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a postmodern theory regarding knowledge organizations as active constructions of a perceived conception of particular discourse communities in the company, organization or knowledge fields for which the knowledge organization is intended. In this view, the interpretive process in knowledge organization and the culture and social context…

  6. Putting "Organizations" into an Organization Theory Course: A Hybrid CAO Model for Teaching Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, David R.; Venkatachary, Ranga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of an instructor's multiyear redesign of a course on organization theory into what is called a hybrid Classroom-as-Organization model. It is suggested that this new course design served to apprentice students to function in quasi-real organizational structures. The authors further argue…

  7. Theory of reliable systems. [reliability analysis and on-line fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Research is reported in the program to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations, and to develop techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability. Reliability analysis, and on-line fault diagnosis are discussed.

  8. Comparison of Reliability Measures under Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Liu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Reliability of test scores is one of the most pervasive psychometric concepts in measurement. Reliability coefficients based on a unifactor model for continuous indicators include maximal reliability rho and an unweighted sum score-based omega, among many others. With increasing popularity of item response theory, a parallel reliability measure pi…

  9. Theory of reliable systems. [systems analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis and design of reliable systems are discussed. The attributes of system reliability studied are fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability. Objectives of the study include: to determine properties of system structure that are conducive to a particular attribute; to determine methods for obtaining reliable realizations of a given system; and to determine how properties of system behavior relate to the complexity of fault tolerant realizations. A list of 34 references is included.

  10. A Holistic Equilibrium Theory of Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baiyin; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a holistic equilibrium theory of organizational development (OD). The theory states that there are three driving forces in organizational change and development--rationality, reality, and liberty. OD can be viewed as a planned process of change in an organization so as to establish equilibrium among these three interacting…

  11. Human Resource Management, Computers, and Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, G. David

    In an attempt to provide a framework for research and theory building in public management information systems (PMIS), state officials responsible for computing in personnel operations were surveyed. The data were applied to hypotheses arising from a recent model by Bozeman and Bretschneider, attempting to relate organization theory to management…

  12. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  13. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  14. Reliability theory for diffusion processes on interconnected networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorramzadeh, Yasamin; Youssef, Mina; Eubank, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We present the concept of network reliability as a framework to study diffusion dynamics in interdependent networks. We illustrate how different outcomes of diffusion processes, such as cascading failure, can be studied by estimating the reliability polynomial under different reliability rules. As an example, we investigate the effect of structural properties on diffusion dynamics for a few different topologies of two coupled networks. We evaluate the effect of varying the probability of failure propagating along the edges, both within a single network as well as between the networks. We exhibit the sensitivity of interdependent network reliability and connectivity to edge failures in each topology. Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.

  15. A PERSPECTIVE ON RELIABILITY: PROBABILITY THEORY AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. BOOKER; N. D. SINGPURWALLA

    2001-05-01

    Reliability assessment in the coming era is inclined to be characterized by a difficult dilemma. On the one hand units and systems will be required to be ultra reliable; on the other hand, it may not be possible to subject them to a full-scale testing. A case in point occurs where testing is limited is one-of-a-kind complex systems, such as space exploration vehicles or where severe testing constraints are imposed such as full scale testing of strategic nuclear weapons prohibited by test ban treaties and international agreements. Decision makers also require reliability assessments for problems with terabytes of data, such as from complex simulations of system performance. Quantitative measures of reliability and their associated uncertainties will remain integral to system monitoring and tactical decision making. The challenge is to derive these defensible measures in light of these dilemmas. Because reliability is usually defined as a probability that the system performs to its required specification, probability enters into the heart of these dilemmas, both philosophically and practically. This paper provides an overview of the several interpretations of probability as they relate to reliability and to the uncertainties involved. The philosophical issues pertain to the interpretation and the quantification of reliability. For example, how must we interpret a number like 10{sup {minus}9}, for the failure rate of an airplane flight or an electrical power plant? Such numbers are common, particularly in the context of safety. Does it mean one failure in 10{sup 9} identical, or almost identical, trials? Are identical trials physically possible, let alone the fact that 10{sup 9} trials can take generations to perform? How can we make precise the notion of almost identical trials? If the trials are truly identical, then all of them must produce the same outcome and so the reliability must be either one or zero. However tautologies, like certainty and impossibility, can

  16. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with the Commission for approval any proposed Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Rule change. A Regional Entity shall submit a Regional Entity Rule or Rule change to the Electric Reliability Organization... or upon complaint, may propose a change to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or...

  17. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ..., 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Preambles 1986-1990 ] 30,783 (1987). \\23\\ 18 CFR 380...) proposed interpretation of Reliability Standard, TOP-001-1, Requirement R8. DATES: Comments are due June 27... Requirement R8 in Commission-approved NERC Reliability Standard TOP-001-1 -- Reliability Responsibilities...

  18. Test Theories, Educational Priorities and Reliability of Public Examinations in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Black, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Much has already been written on the controversies surrounding the use of different test theories in educational assessment. Other authors have noted the prevalence of classical test theory over item response theory in practice. This Special Issue draws together articles based upon work conducted on the Reliability Programme for England's…

  19. Understanding organic photovoltaic cells: Electrode, nanostructure, reliability, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Su

    My Ph.D. research has focused on alternative renewable energy using organic semiconductors. During my study, first, I have established reliable characterization methods of organic photovoltaic devices. More specifically, less than 5% variation of power conversion efficiency of fabricated organic blend photovoltaic cells (OBPC) was achieved after optimization. The reproducibility of organic photovoltaic cell performance is one of the essential issues that must be clarified before beginning serious investigations of the application of creative and challenging ideas. Second, the relationships between fill factor (FF) and process variables have been demonstrated with series and shunt resistance, and this provided a chance to understand the electrical device behavior. In the blend layer, series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) were varied by controlling the morphology of the blend layer, the regioregularity of the conjugated polymer, and the thickness of the blend layer. At the interface between the cathode including PEDOT:PSS and the blend layer, cathode conductivity was controlled by varying the structure of the cathode or adding an additive. Third, we thoroughly examined possible characterization mistakes in OPVC. One significant characterization mistake is observed when the crossbar electrode geometry of OPVC using PEDOT:PSS was fabricated and characterized with illumination which is larger than the actual device area. The hypothesis to explain this overestimation was excess photo-current generated from the cell region outside the overlapped electrode area, where PEDOT:PSS plays as anode and this was clearly supported with investigations. Finally, I incorporated a creative idea, which enhances the exciton dissociation efficiency by increasing the interface area between donor and acceptor to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells. To achieve this, nanoimprint lithography was applied for interface area increase. To clarify the

  20. The Progress of Theory in Knowledge Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiraglia, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a background on theory in knowledge organization, which has moved from an epistemic stance of pragmatism and rationalism (based on observation of the construction of retrieval tools), to empiricism (based on the results of empirical research). Discusses historicism, external validity, classification, user-interface design, and…

  1. Using Metaphors to Teach Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Tom D.

    2007-01-01

    Metaphors were used to teach systems thinking and to clarify concepts of organizational theory in an introductory MBA management course. Gareth Morgan's metaphors of organization were read by students and applied as frames to analyze a business case. In addition, personal metaphors were written by individual students in order to describe the…

  2. The Fail-Safe Schools Challenge: Leadership Possibilities from High Reliability Organizations. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, G. Thomas; Crawford, Lindy; Marshall, Laura Huber; Coulter, Gail A.

    2005-01-01

    As public policies increasingly hold schools responsible for preventing school failure, experiences of other organizations that must operate with high reliability may be helpful. This article builds on previous studies of high reliability organizations to inquire how their strategies might inform efforts to improve reliability in loosely coupled…

  3. The Fail-Safe Schools Challenge: Leadership Possibilities From High Reliability Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, G.; Crawford, Lindy; Marshall, Laura; Coulter, Gail

    2005-01-01

    As public policies increasingly hold schools responsible for preventing school failure, experiences of other organizations that must operate with high reliability may be helpful. This article builds on previous studies of high reliability organizations to inquire how their strategies might inform efforts to improve reliability in loosely coupled…

  4. Reliability of the Optimized Perturbation Theory for scalar fields at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Farias, R. L.; Teixeira, D. L. Jr.; Ramos, R. O.

    2013-03-25

    The thermodynamics of a massless scalar field with a quartic interaction is studied up to third order in the Optimized Perturbation Theory (OPT) method. A comparison with other nonperturbative approaches is performed such that the reliability of OPT is accessed.

  5. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Reliability Standard, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 23222 (Apr. 26, 2011), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,674... No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Preambles 1986-1990 ] 30,783 (1987). \\24... of Reliability Standard, TOP-001-1, Requirement R8, which pertains to the restoration of real...

  6. Bi-Factor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Modeling for Subscores Estimation, Reliability, and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md Desa, Zairul Nor Deana

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating and improving subscore reliability. In this study, the multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) and the bi-factor model were combined to estimate subscores, to obtain subscores reliability, and subscores classification. Both the compensatory and partially compensatory MIRT…

  7. Electronic-Structure Theory of Organic Semiconductors: Charge-Transport Parameters and Metal/Organic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Zhu, Lingyun; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2013-07-01

    We focus this review on the theoretical description, at the density functional theory level, of two key processes that are common to electronic devices based on organic semiconductors (such as organic light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and solar cells), namely charge transport and charge injection from electrodes. By using representative examples of current interest, our main goal is to introduce some of the reliable theoretical methodologies that can best depict these processes. We first discuss the evaluation of the microscopic parameters that determine charge-carrier transport in organic molecular crystals, i.e., electronic couplings and electron-vibration couplings. We then examine the electronic structure at interfaces between an organic layer and a metal or conducting oxide electrode, with an emphasis on the work-function modifications induced by the organic layer and on the interfacial energy-level alignments.

  8. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  9. 76 FR 23171 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Standards, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 80391 (Dec. 22, 2010), 133 FERC ] 61,234, at P 27 (2010... Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits, Order No. 748, 76 FR, 16240 (Mar. 23, 2011), 134 FERC ] 61,213 (2011... monitoring), Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 71613 (Nov. 24, 2010), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,665, at...

  10. 78 FR 803 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. The Commission finds that the... North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability... Procedure, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 77 FR 39857 (July 5, 2012) 139 FERC ] 61,247 (2012) (NOPR)....

  11. 77 FR 39857 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure AGENCY: Federal Energy...

  12. 78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure; Final...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of Procedure AGENCY: Federal Energy...

  13. Mathematic Modeling of Complex Hydraulic Machinery Systems When Evaluating Reliability Using Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Shipovalov, A. N.; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-04-01

    The main technological equipment of pipeline transport of hydrocarbons are hydraulic machines. During transportation of oil mainly used of centrifugal pumps, designed to work in the “pumping station-pipeline” system. Composition of a standard pumping station consists of several pumps, complex hydraulic piping. The authors have developed a set of models and algorithms for calculating system reliability of pumps. It is based on the theory of reliability. As an example, considered one of the estimation methods with the application of graph theory.

  14. Reliability analysis of the objective structured clinical examination using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. A total of 278 fifth-year medical students were assessed with an 18-station OSCE in a summative end-of-career final examination. There were four exam versions. G-theory with a crossover random effects design was used to identify the main sources of variance. Examiners, standardized patients, and cases were considered as a single facet of analysis. Results The exam was applied to 278 medical students. The OSCE had a generalizability coefficient of 0.93. The major components of variance were stations, students, and residual error. The sites and the versions of the tests had minimum variance. Conclusions Our study achieved a G coefficient similar to that found in other reports, which is acceptable for summative tests. G-theory allows the estimation of the magnitude of multiple sources of error and helps decision makers to determine the number of stations, test versions, and examiners needed to obtain reliable measurements. PMID:27543188

  15. Some Characteristics of One Type of High Reliability Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Karlene H.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to define organizational processes necessary to operate safely technologically complex organizations. Identifies nuclear powered aircraft carriers as examples of potentially hazardous organizations with histories of excellent operations. Discusses how carriers deal with components of risk and antecedents to catastrophe cited by Perrow and…

  16. Using chemical organization theory for model checking

    PubMed Central

    Kaleta, Christoph; Richter, Stephan; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing number and complexity of biomodels makes automatic procedures for checking the models' properties and quality necessary. Approaches like elementary mode analysis, flux balance analysis, deficiency analysis and chemical organization theory (OT) require only the stoichiometric structure of the reaction network for derivation of valuable information. In formalisms like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), however, information about the stoichiometric coefficients required for an analysis of chemical organizations can be hidden in kinetic laws. Results: First, we introduce an algorithm that uncovers stoichiometric information that might be hidden in the kinetic laws of a reaction network. This allows us to apply OT to SBML models using modifiers. Second, using the new algorithm, we performed a large-scale analysis of the 185 models contained in the manually curated BioModels Database. We found that for 41 models (22%) the set of organizations changes when modifiers are considered correctly. We discuss one of these models in detail (BIOMD149, a combined model of the ERK- and Wnt-signaling pathways), whose set of organizations drastically changes when modifiers are considered. Third, we found inconsistencies in 5 models (3%) and identified their characteristics. Compared with flux-based methods, OT is able to identify those species and reactions more accurately [in 26 cases (14%)] that can be present in a long-term simulation of the model. We conclude that our approach is a valuable tool that helps to improve the consistency of biomodels and their repositories. Availability: All data and a JAVA applet to check SBML-models is available from http://www.minet.uni-jena.de/csb/prj/ot/tools Contact: dittrich@minet.uni-jena.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19468053

  17. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  18. Two Prophecy Formulas for Assessing the Reliability of Item Response Theory-Based Ability Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Oshima, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Two new prophecy formulas for estimating item response theory (IRT)-based reliability of a shortened or lengthened test are proposed. Some of the relationships between the two formulas, one of which is identical to the well-known Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, are examined and illustrated. The major assumptions underlying these formulas are…

  19. Estimating Reliability of School-Level Scores Using Multilevel and Generalizability Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Min-Jeong; Lee, Guemin; Hwang, Jeong-Won; Kang, Sang-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of estimating the reliability of school-level scores using generalizability theory and multilevel models. Two approaches, "student within schools" and "students within schools and subject areas," were conceptualized and implemented in this study. Four methods resulting from the combination…

  20. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Environmental Policy Act, Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific... for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the Commission-certified...

  1. 77 FR 59745 - Delegation of Authority Regarding Electric Reliability Organization's Budget, Delegation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 30,783 (1987). \\14\\ 18 CFR 380.4(a)(1). V... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 375 Delegation of Authority Regarding Electric Reliability... responsibilities for specific Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) filings. In particular, this Final...

  2. Organization Theory and Its Application to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geering, Adrian D.

    This paper surveys the field of organization theory and its application to adult education agencies. The paper first defines organization theory (the study of the structure and functioning of organizations and the behavior of groups and individuals within them), and discusses its historical development. It then presents four emerging trends of…

  3. 76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System, Order No. 743, 75 FR 72910 (Nov. 26, 2010), 133 FERC ] 61,150... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Order on...

  4. Influencing Organizations to Promote Health: Applying Stakeholder Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more…

  5. Building New Bridges: Linking Organization Theory with Other Educational Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Owens, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper provides an example of how organization theory can be linked with other literatures in a complementary and productive manner. Establishing a bridge between the organization theory and learning environment literatures, the authors seek to provide an example of how such literature-bridging can enrich our understanding of the…

  6. In search of principles for a Theory of Organisms.

    PubMed

    Longo, Giuseppe; Montevil, Mael; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Lacking an operational theory to explain the organization and behaviour of matter in unicellular and multicellular organisms hinders progress in biology. Such a theory should address life cycles from ontogenesis to death. This theory would complement the theory of evolution that addresses phylogenesis, and would posit theoretical extensions to accepted physical principles and default states in order to grasp the living state of matter and define proper biological observables. Thus, we favour adopting the default state implicit in Darwin's theory, namely, cell proliferation with variation plus motility, and a framing principle, namely, life phenomena manifest themselves as non-identical iterations of morphogenetic processes. From this perspective, organisms become a consequence of the inherent variability generated by proliferation, motility and self-organization. Morphogenesis would then be the result of the default state plus physical constraints, like gravity, and those present in living organisms, like muscular tension. PMID:26648040

  7. Sensor Reliability Evaluation Scheme for Target Classification Using Belief Function Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Luo, Yupin; Zhou, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    In the target classification based on belief function theory, sensor reliability evaluation has two basic issues: reasonable dissimilarity measure among evidences, and adaptive combination of static and dynamic discounting. One solution to the two issues has been proposed here. Firstly, an improved dissimilarity measure based on dualistic exponential function has been designed. We assess the static reliability from a training set by the local decision of each sensor and the dissimilarity measure among evidences. The dynamic reliability factors are obtained from each test target using the dissimilarity measure between the output information of each sensor and the consensus. Secondly, an adaptive combination method of static and dynamic discounting has been introduced. We adopt Parzen-window to estimate the matching degree of current performance and static performance for the sensor. Through fuzzy theory, the fusion system can realize self-learning and self-adapting with the sensor performance changing. Experiments conducted on real databases demonstrate that our proposed scheme performs better in target classification under different target conditions compared with other methods. PMID:24351632

  8. Generalizability theory reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement in universal screening.

    PubMed

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A; Mercer, Sterett H; Thomas, Erin L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African American students, 17% Hispanic students, 8% Asian students, and 3% of students identified as 2 or more races. Of the sample, 8% were English Language Learners and 6% were students receiving special education. Three WE-CBM probes were administered for 7 min each at 3 time points across 1 year. Writing samples were scored for commonly used WE-CBM metrics (e.g., correct minus incorrect word sequences; CIWS). Results suggest that nearly half the variance in WE-CBM is related to unsystematic error and that conventional screening procedures (i.e., the use of one 3-min sample) do not yield scores with adequate reliability for relative or absolute decisions about student performance. In most grades, three 3-min writing samples (or 2 longer duration samples) were required for adequate reliability for relative decisions, and three 7-min writing samples would not yield adequate reliability for relative decisions about within-year student growth. Implications and recommendations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322656

  9. [Reliability theory based on quality risk network analysis for Chinese medicine injection].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Kang, Li-Yuan; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2014-08-01

    A new risk analysis method based upon reliability theory was introduced in this paper for the quality risk management of Chinese medicine injection manufacturing plants. The risk events including both cause and effect ones were derived in the framework as nodes with a Bayesian network analysis approach. It thus transforms the risk analysis results from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) into a Bayesian network platform. With its structure and parameters determined, the network can be used to evaluate the system reliability quantitatively with probabilistic analytical appraoches. Using network analysis tools such as GeNie and AgenaRisk, we are able to find the nodes that are most critical to influence the system reliability. The importance of each node to the system can be quantitatively evaluated by calculating the effect of the node on the overall risk, and minimization plan can be determined accordingly to reduce their influences and improve the system reliability. Using the Shengmai injection manufacturing plant of SZYY Ltd as a user case, we analyzed the quality risk with both static FMEA analysis and dynamic Bayesian Network analysis. The potential risk factors for the quality of Shengmai injection manufacturing were identified with the network analysis platform. Quality assurance actions were further defined to reduce the risk and improve the product quality. PMID:25509315

  10. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  11. 18 CFR 39.4 - Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization. 39.4 Section 39.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT RULES...

  12. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    PubMed

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology. PMID:24806799

  13. Research on High Reliability Organizations: Implications for School Effects Research, Policy, and Educational Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam

    Current theorizing in education, as in industry, is largely devoted to explaining trial-and-error, failure-tolerant, low-reliability organizations. This article examines changing societal demands on education and argues that effective responses to those demands require new and different organizational structures. Schools must abandon industrial…

  14. 75 FR 72909 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 14097 (Mar... Electric System, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 14097 (Mar. 24, 2010), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,654... the NOPR in this Final Rule, as described below. \\26\\ See 75 FR 14097 (Mar. 24, 2010). \\27\\ A list...

  15. 18 CFR 39.4 - Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization. 39.4 Section 39.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT RULES...

  16. Using the Reliability Theory for Assessing the Decision Confidence Probability for Comparative Life Cycle Assessments.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrène; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2016-03-01

    Comparative decision making process is widely used to identify which option (system, product, service, etc.) has smaller environmental footprints and for providing recommendations that help stakeholders take future decisions. However, the uncertainty problem complicates the comparison and the decision making. Probability-based decision support in LCA is a way to help stakeholders in their decision-making process. It calculates the decision confidence probability which expresses the probability of a option to have a smaller environmental impact than the one of another option. Here we apply the reliability theory to approximate the decision confidence probability. We compare the traditional Monte Carlo method with a reliability method called FORM method. The Monte Carlo method needs high computational time to calculate the decision confidence probability. The FORM method enables us to approximate the decision confidence probability with fewer simulations than the Monte Carlo method by approximating the response surface. Moreover, the FORM method calculates the associated importance factors that correspond to a sensitivity analysis in relation to the probability. The importance factors allow stakeholders to determine which factors influence their decision. Our results clearly show that the reliability method provides additional useful information to stakeholders as well as it reduces the computational time. PMID:26815724

  17. Organizations and Social Systems: Organization Theory's Neglected Mandate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Robert N.; Barley, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    The social-systems perspective in organizational theory faded because the increasing complexity of social relations hindered determination of an appropriate unit of analysis. Also, the business-school environment in which organizational research occurred discouraged examination of broad social questions, promoted a particular approach to science,…

  18. Influencing organizations to promote health: applying stakeholder theory.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-04-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making. PMID:25829111

  19. General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, Newman S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…

  20. Selecting Organization Development Theory from an HRD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynham, Susan A.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Noggle, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    As is true for human resource development (HRD), the field of organization development (OD) draws from numerous disciplines to inform its theory base. However, the identification and selection of theory to inform improved practice remains a challenge and begs the question of what can be used to inform and guide one in the identification and…

  1. Do Advance Organizers Facilitate Learning? A Review of Subsumption Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneany, John E.

    1990-01-01

    A review of four studies conducted by Ausubel raises serious doubts about the efficacy of advance organizers under a variety of circumstances. In addition, this review questions the adequacy of definitions for two central notions of subsumption theory (discriminability and advance organizer). (IAH)

  2. Teaching Organization Theory and Practice: An Experiential and Reflective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Mark; Turkiewicz, Rita M.; Holdaway, Britt A.; Bill, Jacqueline S.; Goodman, Jessica; Bonner, Aisha; Daly, Stacey; Cohen, Michael D.; Lorenz, Cassandra; Wilson, Paul R.; Rusk, James

    2009-01-01

    The organization is often the overlooked level in social work's ecological perspective. However, organizational realities exert a profound influence on human development and well-being as well as the nature and quality of social work practice. This article describes a model of teaching organization theory and practice which requires master's…

  3. Enhance the lifetime and bias stress reliability in organic vertical transistor by UV/Ozone treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Chang, Ming-Yu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Chao, Yu-Chiang

    In this paper, we use UV/Ozone treatment to improve the lifetime and bias stress reliability of organic transistor with vertical channel. Even if vertical organic transistor exhibits better bias stress reliability than organic field effect transistor (OFET) due to bulk conduction mechanism, poor lifetime performance is still a challenge. Adding octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to treat the vertical channel can reduce the trapping state and hence improve the bias stress ability. However, off-current is much higher after 6 days and lifetime performance is degraded. On the other hand, after 4000-s on-state bias stress, stable output current and on/off current ratio are demonstrated by using UV/Ozone to treat vertical channels. Threshold voltage shift is only -0.02 V which is much smaller than OFET with the same organic semiconductor material. Furthermore, the output current is also an order enhanced. Nevertheless, unlike device with OTS treatment, no obvious degradation is observed for UV/Ozone treated devices even after 170 days. With UV/Ozone treatment, the output current, bias stress reliability and lifetime were all improved. It makes vertical transistor become a promising device for the further application in display technology and flexible electronics.

  4. Thought analysis on self-organization theories of MHD plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Sato, Tetsuya

    1992-08-01

    A thought analysis on the self-organization theories of dissipative MHD plasmas is presented to lead to three groups of theories that lead to the same relaxed state of del x B = lambda(B), in order to find an essential physical picture embedded in the self-organization phenomena due to nonlinear and dissipative processes. The self-organized relaxed state due to the dissipation by the Ohm loss is shown to be formulated generally as the state such that yields the minimum dissipation rate of global auto- and/or cross-correlations between two quantities in j, B, and A for their own instantaneous values of the global correlations.

  5. Cliophysics: Socio-Political Reliability Theory, Polity Duration and African Political (In)stabilities

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of historical sociological processes have recently gained attention among theoreticians in the effort of providing a solid theoretical understanding of the behaviors and regularities present in socio-political dynamics. Here we present a reliability theory of polity processes with emphases on individual political dynamics of African countries. We found that the structural properties of polity failure rates successfully capture the risk of political vulnerability and instabilities in which , , , and of the countries with monotonically increasing, unimodal, U-shaped and monotonically decreasing polity failure rates, respectively, have high level of state fragility indices. The quasi-U-shape relationship between average polity duration and regime types corroborates historical precedents and explains the stability of the autocracies and democracies. PMID:21206911

  6. Reliability and validity of the Leuven Perceptual Organization Screening Test (L-POST).

    PubMed

    Vancleef, Kathleen; Acke, Elia; Torfs, Katrien; Demeyere, Nele; Lafosse, Christophe; Humphreys, Glyn; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological tests of visual perception mostly assess high-level processes like object recognition. Object recognition, however, relies on distinct mid-level processes of perceptual organization that are only implicitly tested in classical tests. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the existing instruments are limited. To fill this gap, the Leuven perceptual organization screening test (L-POST) was developed, in which a wide range of mid-level phenomena are measured in 15 subtests. In this study, we evaluated reliability and validity of the L-POST. Performance on the test is evaluated relative to a norm sample of more than 1,500 healthy control participants. Cronbach's alpha of the norm sample and test-retest correlations for 20 patients provide evidence for adequate reliability of L-POST performance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the test was assessed in 40 brain-damaged patients, whose performance on the L-POST was compared with standard clinical tests of visual perception and other measures of cognitive function. The L-POST showed high sensitivity to visual dysfunction and decreased performance was specific to visual problems. In conclusion, the L-POST is a reliable and valid screening test for perceptual organization. It offers a useful online tool for researchers and clinicians to get a broader overview of the mid-level processes that are preserved or disrupted in a given patient. PMID:25042381

  7. Measuring theory of mind across middle childhood: Reliability and validity of the Silent Films and Strange Stories tasks.

    PubMed

    Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growth of research on the development of children's ability to reason about others' mental states (or "theory of mind") beyond the narrow confines of the preschool period. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a task battery composed of items from Happé's Strange Stories task and Devine and Hughes' Silent Film task. A sample of 460 ethnically and socially diverse children (211 boys) between 7 and 13years of age completed the task battery at two time points separated by 1month. The Strange Stories and Silent Film tasks were strongly correlated even when verbal ability and narrative comprehension were taken into account, and all items loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. The theory-of-mind latent factor provided reliable estimates of performance across a wide range of theory-of-mind ability and showed no evidence of differential item functioning across gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The theory-of-mind latent factor also exhibited strong 1-month test-retest reliability, and this stability did not vary as a function of child characteristics. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Strange Stories and Silent Film task battery as a measure of individual differences in theory of mind suitable for use across middle childhood. We consider the methodological and conceptual implications of these findings for research on theory of mind beyond the preschool years. PMID:26255713

  8. A win for HROs. Employing high-reliability organization characteristics in EMS.

    PubMed

    Heightman, A J

    2013-06-01

    Was I insubordinate, arrogant or disrespectful? You may feel that I was. But in reality, I was educated to a level that could have been validated and should have been respected by command. I was, in fact, practicing a key aspect of HRO. I was stopping an obvious dangerous condition before it could harm or kill emergency responders. My IC colleague knew it from the facts presented and, in fact, joked with me about my "subtle sarcasm" and moved the perimeter to the recommended half-mile distance. Did I win, or did a proactive HRO win? Actually, HRO won and potentially saved 30 lives. I simply presented the hazards of CFC inhalation. A high-reliability organization must not rely on only one source of data when detailed information on a hazard isn't immediately available, or if it isn't very informative during an emergency decision-making process. Read "EMS & High Reliability Organizing: Achieving safety & reliability in the dynamic, high-risk environment and practice its important principles," pp. 60-63. It's really common sense, not rocket science, and may save you, your crews or others in your community. PMID:24159720

  9. A modelling approach to find stable and reliable soil organic carbon values for further regionalization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönecke, Eric; Franko, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon (SOC) might be the most important components to describe soil fertility of agricultural used soils. It is sensitive to temporal and spatial changes due to varying weather conditions, uneven crops and soil management practices and still struggles with providing reliable delineation of spatial variability. Soil organic carbon, furthermore, is an essential initial parameter for dynamic modelling, understanding e.g. carbon and nitrogen processes. Alas it requires cost and time intensive field and laboratory work to attain and using this information. The objective of this study is to assess an approach that reduces efforts of laboratory and field analyses by using method to find stable initial soil organic carbon values for further soil process modelling and regionalization on field scale. The demand of strategies, technics and tools to improve reliable soil organic carbon high resolution maps and additionally reducing cost constraints is hence still facing an increasing attention of scientific research. Although, it is nowadays a widely used practice, combining effective sampling schemes with geophysical sensing techniques, to describe within-field variability of soil organic carbon, it is still challenging large uncertainties, even at field scale in both, science and agriculture. Therefore, an analytical and modelling approach might facilitate and improve this strategy on small and large field scale. This study will show a method, how to find reliable steady state values of soil organic carbon at particular points, using the approved soil process model CANDY (Franko et al. 1995). It is focusing on an iterative algorithm of adjusting the key driving components: soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information, for which we quantified the input and the losses of soil carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs, decomposition, leaching). Furthermore, this approach can be combined with geophysical

  10. Dependence Assessment in Human Reliability Analysis Using Evidence Theory and AHP.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyan; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Xu, Peida; Deng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Dependence assessment among human errors in human reliability analysis (HRA) is an important issue. Many of the dependence assessment methods in HRA rely heavily on the expert's opinion, thus are subjective and may sometimes cause inconsistency. In this article, we propose a computational model based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DSET) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to handle dependence in HRA. First, dependence influencing factors among human tasks are identified and the weights of the factors are determined by experts using the AHP method. Second, judgment on each factor is given by the analyst referring to anchors and linguistic labels. Third, the judgments are represented as basic belief assignments (BBAs) and are integrated into a fused BBA by weighted average combination in DSET. Finally, the CHEP is calculated based on the fused BBA. The proposed model can deal with ambiguity and the degree of confidence in the judgments, and is able to reduce the subjectivity and improve the consistency in the evaluation process. PMID:25847228

  11. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

  12. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    PubMed

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management. PMID:16566496

  13. Layered and segmented system organization (LASSO) for highly reliable inventory monitoring systems (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I.; Abhold, M. E.; Chiaro, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Trilateral Initiative is preparing for International Atomic Energy Agency (LUiA) verification of excess fissile material released itom the defense programs of the United States and the Russian Federation. Following acceptance of the material using an Attribute Verification System, the IAEA will depend on an Inventory Monitoring System to maintain Continuity of Knowledge of the large inventory of thousands of items. Recovery fiom a total loss of Continuity of Knowledge in such a large storage facility would involve an extremely costly inventory re-verification This paper presents the framework for a Layered and Segmented System Organization that is the basis for a highly reliable IMS with protection-in-depth.

  14. Entity Model Based Quality Management: A First Step Towards High Reliability Organization Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, S.; Radestock, Chr.; Bohle, D. K. H.

    2010-09-01

    A management system built upon a generic entity model is presented as an approach towards management systems for High Reliability Organizations(HRO). The entity model is derived from the Ground Systems and Operations standard of the European Cooperation for Space Standardization(ECSS). DLR has launched a first application of the model in its Applied Remote Sensing Cluster, especially for the Center for Satellite based Crisis Information. It is proposed that a management system built upon the entity model systematically enhances a significant number of HRO characteristics.

  15. The Validity and Reliability of Concept Mapping as an Alternative Science Assessment when Item Response Theory Is Used for Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    Problems of validity and reliability of concept mapping are addressed by using item-response theory (IRT) models for scoring. In this study, the overall structure of students' concept maps are defined by the number of links, the number of hierarchies, the number of cross-links, and the number of examples. The study was conducted with 92 students…

  16. A Critique of Raju and Oshima's Prophecy Formulas for Assessing the Reliability of Item Response Theory-Based Ability Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Raju and Oshima (2005) proposed two prophecy formulas based on item response theory in order to predict the reliability of ability estimates for a test after change in its length. The first prophecy formula is equivalent to the classical Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. The second prophecy formula is misleading because of an underlying false…

  17. The [Alpha] and the [Omega] of Congeneric Test Theory: An Extension of Reliability and Internal Consistency to Heterogeneous Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucke, Joseph F.

    2005-01-01

    Psychometric theory focuses primarily on tests that are homogeneous, measuring only one attribute of a psychosocial entity. However, the complexity of psychosocial behavior often requires tests that are heterogeneous, measuring more than one attribute. In this presentation, reliability and internal consistency are extended to heterogeneous tests…

  18. The Development of the Functional Literacy Experience Scale Based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) and Validity-Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özenç, Emine Gül; Dogan, M. Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to perform a validity-reliability test by developing the Functional Literacy Experience Scale based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) for primary education students. The study group includes 209 fifth grade students at Sabri Taskin Primary School in the Kartal District of Istanbul, Turkey during the 2010-2011 academic year.…

  19. Organic unity theory: the mind-body problem revisited.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this essay is to delineate the conceptual framework for psychiatry as an integrated and integrative science that unites the mental and the physical. Four basic philosophical perspectives concerning the relationship between mind and body are introduced. The biopsychosocial model, at this time the preeminent model in medical science that addresses this relationship, is examined and found to be flawed. Mental-physical identity theory is presented as the most valid philosophical approach to understanding the relationship between mind and body. Organic unity theory is then proposed as a synthesis of the biopsychosocial model and mental-physical identity theory in which the difficulties of the biopsychosocial model are resolved. Finally, some implications of organic unity theory for psychiatry are considered. 1) The conventional dichotomy between physical (organic) and mental (functional) is linguistic/conceptual rather than inherent in nature, and all events and processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatic manifestation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders are simultaneously biological and psychological. 2) Neuroscience requires new conceptual models to comprehend the integrated and emergent physiological processes to which psychological phenomena correspond. 3) Introspective awareness provides data that are valid for scientific inquiry and is the most direct method of knowing psychophysical events. 4) Energy currently being expended in disputes between biological and psychological psychiatry would be more productively invested in attempting to formulate the conditions under which each approach is maximally effective. PMID:2018155

  20. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ziatabar Ahmadi, Seyyede Zohreh; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Theory of mind (ToM) or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children. Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface), Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library) databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks) for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric characteristics

  1. Utilizing Generalizability Theory to Investigate the Reliability of the Grades Assigned to Undergraduate Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugiu, Mihaiela R.; Gugiu, Paul C.; Baldus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational researchers have long espoused the virtues of writing with regard to student cognitive skills. However, research on the reliability of the grades assigned to written papers reveals a high degree of contradiction, with some researchers concluding that the grades assigned are very reliable whereas others suggesting that they…

  2. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  3. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  4. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.

    PubMed

    Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  5. Portable SERS-enabled micropipettes for microarea sampling and reliably quantitative detection of surface organic residues.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xinwei; Chen, Yong; Wan, Liang; Huang, Weihua; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2015-09-15

    We report the first microsampling device for reliably quantitative, label-free and separation-free detection of multicomponents of surface organic residues (SORs) by means of a quality controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-enabled micropipette. The micropipette is comprised of a drawn glass capillary with a tiny orifice (∼50 μm) at the distal tip, where the specially designed nanorattles (NRs) are compactly coated on the inner wall surface. SERS signals of 4-mercapto benzoic acid (MBA) anchored inside the internal gap of NRs could be used to evaluate and control the quality of micropipettes and, therefore, allow us to overcome the limitations of a reliably quantitative SERS assay using traditional substrates without an internal standard. By dropping a trace extraction agent on targeting SORs located on a narrow surface, the capillary and SERS functionalities of these micropipettes allow on-site microsampling via capillary action and subsequent multiplex distinction/detection due to their molecularly narrow Raman peaks. For example, 8 nM thiram (TMTD), 8 nM malachite green (MG), and 1.5 μM (400 ppb) methyl parathion (MPT) on pepper and cucumber peels have been simultaneously detected in a wide detection range. The portable SERS-enabled device could potentially be facilely incorporated with liquid-liquid or solid phase micro-extracting devices for a broader range of applications in rapid and field analysis of food/public/environment security related SORs. PMID:26274894

  6. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Los Alamos National Lab.; Smith, Darryl L.; Los Alamos National Lab.

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solutionmore » using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.« less

  7. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.

  8. Polyanthraquinone as a Reliable Organic Electrode for Stable and Fast Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiping; Qian, Yumin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Tang, Duihai; Xu, Terrence; Otani, Minoru; Zhan, Hui; Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Donghai

    2015-11-16

    In spite of recent progress, there is still a lack of reliable organic electrodes for Li storage with high comprehensive performance, especially in terms of long-term cycling stability. Herein, we report an ideal polymer electrode based on anthraquinone, namely, polyanthraquinone (PAQ), or specifically, poly(1,4-anthraquinone) (P14AQ) and poly(1,5-anthraquinone) (P15AQ). As a lithium-storage cathode, P14AQ showed exceptional performance, including reversible capacity almost equal to the theoretical value (260 mA h g(-1); >257 mA h g(-1) for AQ), a very small voltage gap between the charge and discharge curves (2.18-2.14=0.04 V), stable cycling performance (99.4% capacity retention after 1000 cycles), and fast-discharge/charge ability (release of 69% of the low-rate capacity or 64% of the energy in just 2 min). Exploration of the structure-performance relationship between P14AQ and related materials also provided us with deeper understanding for the design of organic electrodes. PMID:26411505

  9. Theory of hydrogen migration in organic-inorganic halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-10-12

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently been proven to be remarkably efficient. However, they exhibit hysteresis in their current-voltage curves, and their stability in the presence of water is problematic. Both issues are possibly related to a diffusion of defects in the perovskite material. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of an important defect in hybrid perovskites-interstitial hydrogen. We show that differently charged defects occupy different crystal sites, which may allow for ionization-enhanced defect migration following the Bourgoin-Corbett mechanism. Our analysis highlights the structural flexibility of organic-inorganic perovskites: successive iodide displacements, combined with hydrogen bonding, enable proton diffusion with low migration barriers. These findings indicate that hydrogen defects can be mobile and thus highly relevant for the performance of perovskite solar cells. PMID:26073061

  10. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  11. Generalizability Theory Analysis of CBM Maze Reliability in Third- through Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Blaze, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing use of CBM Maze in universal screening and research, little information is available regarding the number of CBM Maze probes needed for reliable decisions. The current study extends existing research on the technical adequacy of CBM Maze by investigating the number of probes and assessment durations (1-3 min) needed for reliable…

  12. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli. PMID:23966710

  13. Reliable thermal processing of organic perovskite films deposited on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Alex; Manspeaker, Chris; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Alex Zakhidov Team

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising semiconducting material to serve as an electron transport layer (ETL) for solar cell devices based on organo-halide lead perovskites. ZnO ETL for perovskite photovoltaics has a combination of attractive electronic and optical properties: i) the electron affinity of ZnO is well aligned with valence band edge of the CH3NH3PbI3, ii) electron mobility of ZnO is >1 cm2/(Vs), which is a few orders of magnitude higher than that of TiO2 (another popular choice of ETL for perovskite photovoltaic devices), and iii) ZnO has a large of band gap of 3.3 eV, which ensures optical transparency and large barrier for the hole injection. Moreover, ZnO nanostructures can be printed on flexible substrates at room temperatures in cost effective manner. However, it was recently found that organic perovskites deposited on ZnO are unstable and readily decompose at >90°C. In this work, we further investigate the mechanism of decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 film deposited on ZnO and reveal the role of the solvent in the film during the annealing process. We also develop a restricted volume solvent annealing (RVSA) process for post annealing of the perovskite film on ZnO without decomposition. We demonstrate that RVSA enables reliable perovskite solar cell fabrication.

  14. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  15. Understanding Schools as High-Reliability Organizations: An Exploratory Examination of Teachers' and School Leaders' Perceptions of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Juli A.; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Reece, Anne; Carlson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research on high-reliability organizations, this interviewbased qualitative case study employs four characteristics of such organizations as a lens for analyzing the operations of one very successful K-5 public school. Results suggest that the school had processes similar to those characteristic of high-reliability organizations: a…

  16. What range of trait levels can the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure reliably? An item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been noted that inventories measuring traits that originated in a psychopathological paradigm can often reliably measure only a very narrow range of trait levels that are near and above clinical cutoffs. Much recent work has, however, suggested that autism spectrum disorder traits are on a continuum of severity that extends well into the nonclinical range. This implies a need for inventories that can capture individual differences in autistic traits from very high levels all the way to the opposite end of the continuum. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed based on a closely related rationale, but there has, to date, been no direct test of the range of trait levels that the AQ can reliably measure. To assess this, we fit a bifactor item response theory model to the AQ. Results suggested that AQ measures moderately low to moderately high levels of a general autistic trait with good measurement precision. The reliable range of measurement was significantly improved by scoring the instrument using its 4-point response scale, rather than dichotomizing responses. These results support the use of the AQ in nonclinical samples, but suggest that items measuring very low and very high levels of autistic traits would be beneficial additions to the inventory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302097

  17. Reliable Energy Level Alignment at Physisorbed Molecule–Metal Interfaces from Density Functional Theory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A key quantity for molecule–metal interfaces is the energy level alignment of molecular electronic states with the metallic Fermi level. We develop and apply an efficient theoretical method, based on density functional theory (DFT) that can yield quantitatively accurate energy level alignment information for physisorbed metal–molecule interfaces. The method builds on the “DFT+Σ” approach, grounded in many-body perturbation theory, which introduces an approximate electron self-energy that corrects the level alignment obtained from conventional DFT for missing exchange and correlation effects associated with the gas-phase molecule and substrate polarization. Here, we extend the DFT+Σ approach in two important ways: first, we employ optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functionals to compute the gas-phase term, rather than rely on GW or total energy differences as in prior work; second, we use a nonclassical DFT-determined image-charge plane of the metallic surface to compute the substrate polarization term, rather than the classical DFT-derived image plane used previously. We validate this new approach by a detailed comparison with experimental and theoretical reference data for several prototypical molecule–metal interfaces, where excellent agreement with experiment is achieved: benzene on graphite (0001), and 1,4-benzenediamine, Cu-phthalocyanine, and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride on Au(111). In particular, we show that the method correctly captures level alignment trends across chemical systems and that it retains its accuracy even for molecules for which conventional DFT suffers from severe self-interaction errors. PMID:25741626

  18. General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.

    PubMed

    Denenberg, V H

    1980-01-01

    Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition. PMID:7356045

  19. Theory manual for FAROW version 1.1: A numerical analysis of the Fatigue And Reliability Of Wind turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    WUBTERSTEUBMSTEVEB R.; VEERS,PAUL S.

    2000-01-01

    Because the fatigue lifetime of wind turbine components depends on several factors that are highly variable, a numerical analysis tool called FAROW has been created to cast the problem of component fatigue life in a probabilistic framework. The probabilistic analysis is accomplished using methods of structural reliability (FORM/SORM). While the workings of the FAROW software package are defined in the user's manual, this theory manual outlines the mathematical basis. A deterministic solution for the time to failure is made possible by assuming analytical forms for the basic inputs of wind speed, stress response, and material resistance. Each parameter of the assumed forms for the inputs can be defined to be a random variable. The analytical framework is described and the solution for time to failure is derived.

  20. A theory for the arrangement of sensory organs in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huifeng; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Roman, Gregg W; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2010-03-01

    We study the arrangements of recurved bristles on the anterior wing margin of wild-type and mutant Drosophila. The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. At puparium formation, concentrations of proteins are nearly identical in all cells of the anterior wing and each cell has the potential for neural fate. In wild-type flies, the action of regulatory networks drives the initial state to one where a bristle grows out of every fifth cell. Recent experiments have shown that the frequency of recurved bristles can be made to change by adjusting the mean concentrations of the zinc-finger transcription factor Senseless and the micro-RNA miR-9a. Specifically, mutant flies with reduced levels of miR-9a exhibit ectopic bristles, and those with lower levels of both miR-9a and Senseless show regular organization of recurved bristles, but with a lower periodicity of 4. We argue that these characteristics can be explained assuming an underlying Turing-type bifurcation whereby a periodic pattern spontaneously emerges from a uniform background. However, bristle patterns occur in a discrete array of cells, and are not mediated by diffusion. We argue that intracellular actions of transmembrane proteins such as Delta and Notch can play a role of diffusion in destabilizing the homogeneous state. In contrast to diffusion, intercellular actions can be activating or inhibiting; further, there can be lateral cross-species interactions. We introduce a phenomenological model to study bristle arrangements and make several model-independent predictions that can be tested in experiments. In our theory, miRNA-9a is one of the components of the underlying network and has no special regulatory role. The loss of periodicity in its absence is due to the transfer of the system to a bistable state. PMID:20370287

  1. A theory for the arrangement of sensory organs in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huifeng; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Roman, Gregg W.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2010-03-01

    We study the arrangements of recurved bristles on the anterior wing margin of wild-type and mutant Drosophila. The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. At puparium formation, concentrations of proteins are nearly identical in all cells of the anterior wing and each cell has the potential for neural fate. In wild-type flies, the action of regulatory networks drives the initial state to one where a bristle grows out of every fifth cell. Recent experiments have shown that the frequency of recurved bristles can be made to change by adjusting the mean concentrations of the zinc-finger transcription factor Senseless and the micro-RNA miR-9a. Specifically, mutant flies with reduced levels of miR-9a exhibit ectopic bristles, and those with lower levels of both miR-9a and Senseless show regular organization of recurved bristles, but with a lower periodicity of 4. We argue that these characteristics can be explained assuming an underlying Turing-type bifurcation whereby a periodic pattern spontaneously emerges from a uniform background. However, bristle patterns occur in a discrete array of cells, and are not mediated by diffusion. We argue that intracellular actions of transmembrane proteins such as Delta and Notch can play a role of diffusion in destabilizing the homogeneous state. In contrast to diffusion, intercellular actions can be activating or inhibiting; further, there can be lateral cross-species interactions. We introduce a phenomenological model to study bristle arrangements and make several model-independent predictions that can be tested in experiments. In our theory, miRNA-9a is one of the components of the underlying network and has no special regulatory role. The loss of periodicity in its absence is due to the transfer of the system to a bistable state.

  2. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  3. Organization Theory and Memory for Prose: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmerlik, Susan M.

    1978-01-01

    Organization theory emphasizes groupings of items on the basis of a variety of characteristics, and the role of the learner as an active processor or encoder of information. Research on organization theory as it is applied to memory and recall of prose is reviewed here. (BW)

  4. Aligning the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experience with Professional Work: The Centrality of Reliable and Meaningful Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Suydam, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional organic chemistry lab courses do not adequately help students to develop the professional skills required for creative, independent work. The overarching goal of the new organic chemistry lab series at Seattle University is to teach undergraduates to think, perform, and behave more like professional scientists. The conversion of…

  5. Toward a Broader Theory of Administration: A Defense of the Artistic Perspective on Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Thomas R.

    1982-01-01

    Modern administrative theory has evolved from social science models and experiments. Such theory has not adequately accounted for the individual in the organization. Future theory development should reflect both the scientific and artistic dimensions of inquiry and should move toward the integration of concepts from the arts and the sciences.…

  6. Left-right organizer flow dynamics: how much cilia activity reliably yields laterality?

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Pedro; Ferreira, Rita R; Guerrero, Adán; Pintado, Petra; Tavares, Bárbara; Amaro, Joana; Smith, Andrew A; Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas; Smith, David J; Lopes, Susana S

    2014-06-23

    Internal organs are asymmetrically positioned inside the body. Embryonic motile cilia play an essential role in this process by generating a directional fluid flow inside the vertebrate left-right organizer. Detailed characterization of how fluid flow dynamics modulates laterality is lacking. We used zebrafish genetics to experimentally generate a range of flow dynamics. By following the development of each embryo, we show that fluid flow in the left-right organizer is asymmetric and provides a good predictor of organ laterality. This was tested in mosaic organizers composed of motile and immotile cilia generated by dnah7 knockdowns. In parallel, we used simulations of fluid dynamics to analyze our experimental data. These revealed that fluid flow generated by 30 or more cilia predicts 90% situs solitus, similar to experimental observations. We conclude that cilia number, dorsal anterior motile cilia clustering, and left flow are critical to situs solitus via robust asymmetric charon expression. PMID:24930722

  7. Optimizing Reliability of Digital Inclinometer and Flexicurve Ruler Measures of Spine Curvatures in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis of the Spine: An Illustration of the Use of Generalizability Theory

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Norma J.; Bennett, Lisa; Bonnyman, Alison M.; Stratford, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    The study illustrates the application of generalizability theory (G-theory) to identify measurement protocols that optimize reliability of two clinical methods for assessing spine curvatures in women with osteoporosis. Triplicate measures of spine curvatures were acquired for 9 postmenopausal women with spine osteoporosis by two raters during a single visit using a digital inclinometer and a flexicurve ruler. G-coefficients were estimated using a G-study, and a measurement protocol that optimized inter-rater and inter-trial reliability was identified using follow-up decision studies. The G-theory provides reliability estimates for measurement devices which can be generalized to different clinical contexts and/or measurement designs. PMID:22482067

  8. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  9. An examination of maintenance activities in liquid metal reactor facilities: An analysis by the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Knee, H E; Manning, J J; Manneschmidt, J F; Setoguchi, K

    1987-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO database contains information on a population of more than 21,000 components and approximately 1300 event records. Total experience is approaching 1.2 billion component operating hours. Although data gathering for CREDO concentrates on event (failure) information, the work reported here focuses on the maintenance information contained in CREDO and the development of maintenance critical items lists. That is, components are ranked in prioritized lists from worse to best performers from a maintenance standpoint.

  10. Density-functional theory with screened van der Waals interactions for the modeling of hybrid inorganic-organic systems.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Victor G; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic-organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their interface geometry. Here we show that the inclusion of the many-body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. This is achieved by the combination of dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+ van der Waals approach) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009)], with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory for the nonlocal Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method yields geometries in remarkable agreement (≈0.1 Å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C(24)O(6)H(8), PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces. Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces. PMID:22540809

  11. Implications of Complexity and Chaos Theories for Organizations that Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 Hubert Saint-Onge and Smith published an article ("The evolutionary organization: avoiding a Titanic fate", in The Learning Organization, Vol. 3 No. 4), based on their experience at the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC). It was established at CIBC that change could be successfully facilitated through blended application of theory…

  12. Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory to Assess the Effect of Content Stratification on the Reliability of a Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lisa A.; Clauser, Brian E.; Swanson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, demand for performance assessments has continued to grow. However, performance assessments are notorious for lower reliability, and in particular, low reliability resulting from task specificity. Since reliability analyses typically treat the performance tasks as randomly sampled from an infinite universe of tasks, these estimates…

  13. The Design Organization Test: Further Demonstration of Reliability and Validity as a Brief Measure of Visuospatial Ability

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.; Gogel, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90–.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76–.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible. PMID:25265311

  14. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible. PMID:25265311

  15. Reliable measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of organic and inorganic materials between 260 K and 460 K

    SciTech Connect

    Beretta, D.; Lanzani, G.; Bruno, P.; Caironi, M.

    2015-07-15

    A new experimental setup for reliable measurement of the in-plane Seebeck coefficient of organic and inorganic thin films and bulk materials is reported. The system is based on the “Quasi-Static” approach and can measure the thermopower in the range of temperature between 260 K and 460 K. The system has been tested on a pure nickel bulk sample and on a thin film of commercially available PEDOT:PSS deposited by spin coating on glass. Repeatability within 1.5% for the nickel sample is demonstrated, while accuracy in the measurement of both organic and inorganic samples is guaranteed by time interpolation of data and by operating with a temperature difference over the sample of less than 1 K.

  16. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  17. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 1. Technical Report #1216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Park, Jasmine, Bitnara; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest/and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easy CBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due…

  18. Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, Andrea B.; Warrick, Louise H.

    2008-05-01

    Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

  19. Cracking Silent Codes: Critical Race Theory and Education Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Celina

    2007-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) has moved beyond legal scholarship to critique the ways in which "colorblind" laws and policies perpetuate existing racial inequalities in education policy. While criticisms of CRT have focused on the pessimism and lack of remedies presented, CRT scholars have begun to address issues of praxis. Specifically, communities…

  20. Can the second order multireference perturbation theory be considered a reliable tool to study mixed-valence compounds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Helal, Wissam; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry; Malrieu, Jean-Paul; Maynau, Daniel; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of the calculation of the electronic structure of mixed-valence compounds is addressed in the frame of multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Using a simple mixed-valence compound (the 5,5' (4H,4H')-spirobi[ciclopenta[c]pyrrole] 2,2',6,6' tetrahydro cation), and the n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and CASPT2 approaches, it is shown that the ground state (GS) energy curve presents an unphysical "well" for nuclear coordinates close to the symmetric case, where a maximum is expected. For NEVPT, the correct shape of the energy curve is retrieved by applying the MPRT at the (computationally expensive) third order. This behavior is rationalized using a simple model (the ionized GS of two weakly interacting identical systems, each neutral system being described by two electrons in two orbitals), showing that the unphysical well is due to the canonical orbital energies which at the symmetric (delocalized) conformation lead to a sudden modification of the denominators in the perturbation expansion. In this model, the bias introduced in the second order correction to the energy is almost entirely removed going to the third order. With the results of the model in mind, one can predict that all MRPT methods in which the zero order Hamiltonian is based on canonical orbital energies are prone to present unreasonable energy profiles close to the symmetric situation. However, the model allows a strategy to be devised which can give a correct behavior even at the second order, by simply averaging the orbital energies of the two charge-localized electronic states. Such a strategy is adopted in a NEVPT2 scheme obtaining a good agreement with the third order results based on the canonical orbital energies. The answer to the question reported in the title (is this theoretical approach a reliable tool for a correct description of these systems?) is therefore positive, but care must be exercised, either in defining the orbital energies

  1. The contribution of organization theory to nursing health services research.

    PubMed

    Mick, Stephen S; Mark, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    We review nursing and health services research on health care organizations over the period 1950 through 2004 to reveal the contribution of nursing to this field. Notwithstanding this rich tradition and the unique perspective of nursing researchers grounded in patient care production processes, the following gaps in nursing research remain: (1) the lack of theoretical frameworks about organizational factors relating to internal work processes; (2) the need for sophisticated methodologies to guide empirical investigations; (3) the difficulty in understanding how organizations adapt models for patient care delivery in response to market forces; (4) the paucity of attention to the impact of new technologies on the organization of patient care work processes. Given nurses' deep understanding of the inner workings of health care facilities, we hope to see an increasing number of research programs that tackle these deficiencies. PMID:16360704

  2. [Phenomenological theory of the recuperative period of the living organism].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Sazonov, S V

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological nonlinear model, describing a reconstruction of the living organism after strong loading have been proposed. This model is describing a restitution dynamics of the organism functional state to the initial state, including a supercompensation stage. In a simplest (one-component) case this model is overdamping Duffing oscillator. It is shown that the mutation phenomena may be described as the phase transition within the framework of Landau-Khalatnikov approach. A generalized many-component nonlinear reconstruction model is proposed. PMID:9172700

  3. Reliability of equivalent sphere model in blood-forming organ dose estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.L.; Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.

    1990-04-01

    The radiation dose equivalents to blood-forming organs (BFO's) of the astronauts at the Martian surface due to major solar flare events are calculated using the detailed body geometry of Langley and Billings. The solar flare spectra of February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 events are employed instead of the idealized Webber form. The detailed geometry results are compared with those based on the 5-cm sphere model which was used often in the past to approximate BFO dose or dose equivalent. Larger discrepancies are found for the later two events possibly due to the lower numbers of highly penetrating protons. It is concluded that the 5-cm sphere model is not suitable for quantitative use in connection with future NASA deep-space, long-duration mission shield design studies.

  4. Reliability of equivalent sphere model in blood-forming organ dose estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation dose equivalents to blood-forming organs (BFO's) of the astronauts at the Martian surface due to major solar flare events are calculated using the detailed body geometry of Langley and Billings. The solar flare spectra of February 1956, November 1960, and August 1972 events are employed instead of the idealized Webber form. The detailed geometry results are compared with those based on the 5-cm sphere model which was used often in the past to approximate BFO dose or dose equivalent. Larger discrepancies are found for the later two events possibly due to the lower numbers of highly penetrating protons. It is concluded that the 5-cm sphere model is not suitable for quantitative use in connection with future NASA deep-space, long-duration mission shield design studies.

  5. Applying Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Theory of Organizations to School Governance: A French Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    This paper applies Geert Hofstede's cross-cultural theory of organizational structure and behavior to school administration, examining the governance structure of the French public school system to determine how accurately it predicts the form of that educational organization. The first section of the paper presents Hofstede's theory and his…

  6. Economic and Political Theories of Organization: The Case of Human Rights INGOs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Arthur W.

    This paper reviews research on international nongovernmental organizations dealing with human rights (INGOs), and interprets this research in light of the overlap of the fields of organizational theory (including group theory) and human rights. The purpose is to contribute toward a useful exchange between social scientists who seek to explain…

  7. Development of an Axiomatic Theory of Organization/Environment Interaction: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganey, Rodney F.

    The goal of this paper was to develop a theory of organization/environment interaction by examining the impact of perceived environmental uncertainty on organizational processes and on organizational goal attainment. It examines theories from the organizational environment literature and derives corollaries that are empirically tested using a data…

  8. A Theory of Electronic Propinquity: Mediated Communication in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korzenny, Felipe

    This paper proposes a theoretical approach to mediated communication in organizations. It is argued that the man/machine interface in mediated human communication is better dealt with when a comprehensive theoretical approach is used than when separate communication devices are tested as they appear in the market, such as video-teleconferencing.…

  9. Increasing Reliability of Direct Observation Measurement Approaches in Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders Research Using Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Prykanowski, Debra; Hirn, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of direct observation outcomes ensures the results are consistent, dependable, and trustworthy. Typically, reliability of direct observation measurement approaches is assessed using interobserver agreement (IOA) and the calculation of observer agreement (e.g., percentage of agreement). However, IOA does not address intraobserver…

  10. Push-Pull Receptive Field Organization and Synaptic Depression: Mechanisms for Reliably Encoding Naturalistic Stimuli in V1

    PubMed Central

    Kremkow, Jens; Perrinet, Laurent U.; Monier, Cyril; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Aertsen, Ad; Frégnac, Yves; Masson, Guillaume S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are known for responding vigorously but with high variability to classical stimuli such as drifting bars or gratings. By contrast, natural scenes are encoded more efficiently by sparse and temporal precise spiking responses. We used a conductance-based model of the visual system in higher mammals to investigate how two specific features of the thalamo-cortical pathway, namely push-pull receptive field organization and fast synaptic depression, can contribute to this contextual reshaping of V1 responses. By comparing cortical dynamics evoked respectively by natural vs. artificial stimuli in a comprehensive parametric space analysis, we demonstrate that the reliability and sparseness of the spiking responses during natural vision is not a mere consequence of the increased bandwidth in the sensory input spectrum. Rather, it results from the combined impacts of fast synaptic depression and push-pull inhibition, the later acting for natural scenes as a form of “effective” feed-forward inhibition as demonstrated in other sensory systems. Thus, the combination of feedforward-like inhibition with fast thalamo-cortical synaptic depression by simple cells receiving a direct structured input from thalamus composes a generic computational mechanism for generating a sparse and reliable encoding of natural sensory events. PMID:27242445

  11. Push-Pull Receptive Field Organization and Synaptic Depression: Mechanisms for Reliably Encoding Naturalistic Stimuli in V1.

    PubMed

    Kremkow, Jens; Perrinet, Laurent U; Monier, Cyril; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Aertsen, Ad; Frégnac, Yves; Masson, Guillaume S

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are known for responding vigorously but with high variability to classical stimuli such as drifting bars or gratings. By contrast, natural scenes are encoded more efficiently by sparse and temporal precise spiking responses. We used a conductance-based model of the visual system in higher mammals to investigate how two specific features of the thalamo-cortical pathway, namely push-pull receptive field organization and fast synaptic depression, can contribute to this contextual reshaping of V1 responses. By comparing cortical dynamics evoked respectively by natural vs. artificial stimuli in a comprehensive parametric space analysis, we demonstrate that the reliability and sparseness of the spiking responses during natural vision is not a mere consequence of the increased bandwidth in the sensory input spectrum. Rather, it results from the combined impacts of fast synaptic depression and push-pull inhibition, the later acting for natural scenes as a form of "effective" feed-forward inhibition as demonstrated in other sensory systems. Thus, the combination of feedforward-like inhibition with fast thalamo-cortical synaptic depression by simple cells receiving a direct structured input from thalamus composes a generic computational mechanism for generating a sparse and reliable encoding of natural sensory events. PMID:27242445

  12. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Passage Reading Fluency Assessments: Grade 4. Technical Report #1219

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  13. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 5. Technical Report #1220

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  14. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 2. Technical Report #1217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheg-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest an alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from the convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to…

  15. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. PMID:26284830

  16. Reliable Prediction with Tuned Range-Separated Functionals of the Singlet-Triplet Gap in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; Zhong, Cheng; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-11

    The thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism has recently attracted significant interest in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). TADF relies on the presence of a very small energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states. Here, we demonstrate that time-dependent density functional theory in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation can be very successful in calculations of the lowest singlet and triplet excitation energies and the corresponding singlet-triplet gap when using nonempirically tuned range-separated functionals. Such functionals provide very good estimates in a series of 17 molecules used in TADF-based OLED devices with mean absolute deviations of 0.15 eV for the vertical singlet excitation energies and 0.09 eV [0.07 eV] for the adiabatic [vertical] singlet-triplet energy gaps as well as low relative errors and high correlation coefficients compared to the corresponding experimental values. They significantly outperform conventional functionals, a feature which is rationalized on the basis of the amount of exact-exchange included and the delocalization error. The present work provides a reliable theoretical tool for the prediction and development of novel TADF-based materials with low singlet-triplet energetic splittings. PMID:26574466

  17. Targeting helicase-dependent amplification products with an electrochemical genosensor for reliable and sensitive screening of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, J Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2015-08-18

    Cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their use in food and feed is constantly expanding; thus, the question of informing consumers about their presence in food has proven of significant interest. The development of sensitive, rapid, robust, and reliable methods for the detection of GMOs is crucial for proper food labeling. In response, we have experimentally characterized the helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) and sequence-specific detection of a transgene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter (CaMV35S), inserted into most transgenic plants. HDA is one of the simplest approaches for DNA amplification, emulating the bacterial replication machinery, and resembling PCR but under isothermal conditions. However, it usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, which is due to the accumulation of spurious amplification products. To improve the selectivity of HDA, which makes the detection of amplification products more reliable, we have developed an electrochemical platform targeting the central sequence of HDA copies of the transgene. A binary monolayer architecture is built onto a thin gold film where, upon the formation of perfect nucleic acid duplexes with the amplification products, these are enzyme-labeled and electrochemically transduced. The resulting combined system increases genosensor detectability up to 10(6)-fold, allowing Yes/No detection of GMOs with a limit of detection of ∼30 copies of the CaMV35S genomic DNA. A set of general utility rules in the design of genosensors for detection of HDA amplicons, which may assist in the development of point-of-care tests, is also included. The method provides a versatile tool for detecting nucleic acids with extremely low abundance not only for food safety control but also in the diagnostics and environmental control areas. PMID:26198403

  18. A predictive theory of charge separation in organic photovoltaics interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, Alessandro; Liu, Tao; Caruso, Domenico; Cheung, David L.; McMahon, David P.

    2012-09-01

    The key process in organic photovoltaics cells is the separation of an exciton, close to the donor/acceptor interface into a free hole (in the donor) and a free electron (in the acceptor). In an efficient solar cell, the majority of absorbed photons generate such hole-electron pairs but it is not clear why such a charge separation process is so efficient in some blends (for example in the blend formed by poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a C60 derivative (PCBM)) and how can one design better OPV materials. The electronic and geometric structure of the prototypical polymer:fullerene interface (P3HT:PCBM) is investigated theoretically using a combination of classical and quantum simulation methods. It is shown that the electronic structure of P3HT in contact with PCBM is significantly altered compared to bulk P3HT. Due to the additional free volume of the interface, P3HT chains close to PCBM are more disordered and, consequently, they are characterized by an increased band gap. Excitons and holes are therefore repelled by the interface. This provides a possible explanation of the low recombination efficiency and supports the direct formation of "quasi-free" charge separated species at the interface. This idea is further explored here by using a more general system-independent model Hamiltonian. The long range exciton dissociation rate is computed as a function of the exciton distance from the interface and the average dissociation distance is evaluated by comparing this rate with the exciton migration rate with a kinetic model. The phenomenological model shows that also in a generic interface the direct formation if quasi-free charges is extremely likely.

  19. Derivations and Comparisons of Three Groups ofSelf-Organization Theories for Magnetohydrodynamic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Sato, Tetsuya

    1994-04-01

    A theoretical investigation on self-organization theories ofdissipative MHD plasmas is presented to derive three groups oftheories that lead to the same relaxed state of ∇ × B=λ B, in order to find more essential physicalpicture embedded in self-organization phenomena due to nonlinear anddissipative processes. Comparisons among all of the theories treatedand derived here suggest that a theory standing upon spectrumspreadings and selective dissipations of eigenmodes for thedissipative operator -∇ ×η j and leading toself-organized relaxed states of ∇ ×ηj=α B/2 with the minimum dissipation rate is the most agreeable to various results obtained by experiments and by 3-D MHD simulations reported so far.

  20. Towards a Theory of Variation in the Organization of the Word Reading System

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.

    2015-01-01

    The strategy underlying most computational models of word reading is to specify the organization of the reading system—its architecture and the processes and representations it employs—and to demonstrate that this organization would give rise to the behavior observed in word reading tasks. This approach fails to adequately address the variation in reading behavior observed across and within linguistic communities. Only computational models that incorporate learning can fully account for variation in organization. However, even extant learning models (e.g., the triangle model) must be extended if they are to fully account for variation in organization. The challenges associated with extending theories in this way are discussed. PMID:26997862

  1. A review of carrier thermoelectric-transport theory in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2016-07-20

    Carrier thermoelectric-transport theory has recently become of growing interest and numerous thermoelectric-transport models have been proposed for organic semiconductors, due to pressing current issues involving energy production and the environment. The purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical description of the thermoelectric Seebeck effect in organic semiconductors. Special attention is devoted to the carrier concentration, temperature, polaron effect and dipole effect dependence of the Seebeck effect and its relationship to hopping transport theory. Furthermore, various theoretical methods are used to discuss carrier thermoelectric transport. Finally, an outlook of the remaining challenges ahead for future theoretical research is provided. PMID:27386952

  2. Application of fuzzy set and Dempster-Shafer theory to organic geochemistry interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C. S.; Isaksen, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    An application of fuzzy sets and Dempster Shafter Theory (DST) in modeling the interpretational process of organic geochemistry data for predicting the level of maturities of oil and source rock samples is presented. This was accomplished by (1) representing linguistic imprecision and imprecision associated with experience by a fuzzy set theory, (2) capturing the probabilistic nature of imperfect evidences by a DST, and (3) combining multiple evidences by utilizing John Yen's generalized Dempster-Shafter Theory (GDST), which allows DST to deal with fuzzy information. The current prototype provides collective beliefs on the predicted levels of maturity by combining multiple evidences through GDST's rule of combination.

  3. Egalitarian and maximin theories of justice: directed donation of organs for transplant.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1998-08-01

    It is common to interpret Rawls's maximin theory of justice as egalitarian. Compared to utilitarian theories, this may be true. However, in special cases practices that distribute resources so as to benefit the worst off actually increase the inequality between the worst off and some who are better off. In these cases the Rawlsian maximin parts company with what is here called true egalitarianism. A policy question requiring a distinction between maximin and "true egalitarian" allocations has arisen in the arena of organ transplantation. This case is examined here as a venue for differentiating maximin and true egalitarian theories. Directed donation is the name given to donations of organs restricted to a particular social group. For example, the family of a member of the Ku Klux Klan donated his organs on the provision that they go only to members of the Caucasian race. While such donations appear to be discriminatory, if certain plausible assumptions are made, they satisfy the maximin criterion. They selectively advantage the recipient of the organs without harming anyone (assuming the organs would otherwise go unused). Moreover, everyone who is lower on the waiting list (who, thereby, could be considered worse off) is advantaged by moving up on the waiting list. This paper examines how maximin and more truly egalitarian theories handle this case arguing that, to the extent that directed donation is unethical, the best account of that conclusion is that an egalitarian principle of justice is to be preferred to the maximin. PMID:9892035

  4. Customer-organization relationships: development and test of a theory of extended identities.

    PubMed

    Bagozzi, Richard P; Bergami, Massimo; Marzocchi, Gian Luca; Morandin, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of personal, relational, and collective identities that links organizations and consumers. Four targets of identity are studied: small friendship groups of aficionados of Ducati motorcycles, virtual communities centered on Ducatis, the Ducati brand, and Ducati the company. The interplay amongst the identities is shown to order affective, cognitive, and evaluative reactions toward each target. Hypotheses are tested on a sample of 210 Ducati aficionados, and implications of these multiple, extended identities for organizations are examined. PMID:21766998

  5. Applications of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory Indices to Organic Chemistry Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Pérez, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical reactivity indices based on the conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool for the semiquantitative study of organic reactivity. A large number of reactivity indices have been proposed in the literature. Herein, global quantities like the electronic chemical potential μ, the electrophilicity ω and the nucleophilicity N indices, and local condensed indices like the electrophilic P k + and nucleophilic P k - Parr functions, as the most relevant indices for the study of organic reactivity, are discussed. PMID:27294896

  6. An Investigation of the Advance Organizer Theory as an Effective Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Agnes

    This paper advocates for the improvement of presentational methods of teaching and expository learning, based on David Ausubel's theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching. This approach to teaching enables teachers to convey large amounts of information as meaningfully and efficiently as…

  7. How Youth Get Engaged: Grounded-Theory Research on Motivational Development in Organized Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were…

  8. Examining Agency Theory in Training & Development: Understanding Self-Interest Behaviors in the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Akdere, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Agency theory has been discussed widely in the business and management literature. However, to date there has been no investigation about its utility and implications for problems in training & development. Whereas organizations are still struggling to develop and implement effective training programs, there is little emphasis on the self-interest…

  9. New type of time-series sediment trap for the reliable collection of inorganic and organic trace chemical substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremling, K.; Lentz, U.; Zeitzschel, B.; Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Duinker, J. C.

    1996-12-01

    The new sediment trap has a 0.5 m2 aperture, a funnel slope of 34° and is capable of collecting 21 samples at programmed intervals (1 min-1 year) during deployment in the deep ocean. The trap has been designed to allow reliable data on trace inorganic and organic components (such as trace elements, n-alkanes, PCBs, PAHs, amino/fatty acids) in addition to the standard biogeochemical variables in the collected particles. Due to the exclusive use of synthetic (such as fiberglass, PVC, PTFE, or POM-Delrin®) and highly resistant metallic materials contamination problems have been eliminated for these species. Blank values determined in several tests in the open ocean were as low as 1% or even less of the amounts present in trap material, even at low particulate loadings. Another major aim was the elimination of loss of dissolved components from the sample cups into seawater. Microbial and chemical processes modify the collected particles, thereby mobilizing originally particulate species into solution. It is thus essential to avoid greater losses of dissolved species through diffusion into the surrounding seawater after collection. This was achieved by means of an especially designed sealing mechanism. Tests with tracer substances during field studies proved that losses of dissolved components from supernatants during one year of deployment are as low as 10%. Additionally, the relationship between flow characteristics around the traps and their excursions from the vertical position in a bottom-tethered array was studied during a one-year deployment in the North Atlantic.

  10. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their geometry, with van der Waals (vdW) interactions playing an essential role for the latter. Here we show that the inclusion of the many--body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. Specifically, dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+vdW approach) [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)], is combined with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory [PRB 13, 2270 (1976)] for the non--local Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method (DFT+vdW^surf ) includes both image-plane and interface polarization effects. We show that DFT+vdW^surf yields geometries in remarkable agreement ( 0.1 å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3,4,9,10--perylene--tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24H8O6, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111). Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  11. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic-organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their interface geometry. Here we show that the inclusion of the many-body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. This is achieved by the combination of dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+ van der Waals approach) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.073005], with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory for the nonlocal Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method yields geometries in remarkable agreement (≈0.1Å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24O6H8, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces. Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  12. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning.…

  13. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning. There…

  14. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  15. Estimation of reliability and dynamic property for polymeric material at high strain rate using SHPB technique and probability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Ouk Sub; Kim, Hong Min; Choi, Hye Bin

    2008-11-01

    A modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique with aluminum pressure bars and a pulse shaper technique to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen materials such as hot temperature degraded POM (Poly Oxy Methylene) and PP (Poly Propylene). The more distinguishable experimental signals were obtained to evaluate the more accurate dynamic deformation behavior of materials under a high strain rate loading condition. A pulse shaping technique is introduced to reduce the non-equilibrium on the dynamic material response by modulation of the incident wave during a short period of test. This increases the rise time of the incident pulse in the SHPB experiment. For the dynamic stress strain curve obtained from SHPB experiment, the Johnson-Cook model is applied as a constitutive equation. The applicability of this constitutive equation is verified by using the probabilistic reliability estimation method. Two reliability methodologies such as the FORM and the SORM have been proposed. The limit state function(LSF) includes the Johnson-Cook model and applied stresses. The LSF in this study allows more statistical flexibility on the yield stress than a paper published before. It is found that the failure probability estimated by using the SORM is more reliable than those of the FORM/ It is also noted that the failure probability increases with increase of the applied stress. Moreover, it is also found that the parameters of Johnson-Cook model such as A and n, and the applied stress are found to affect the failure probability more severely than the other random variables according to the sensitivity analysis.

  16. [Business organization theory: its potential use in the organization of the operating room].

    PubMed

    Bartz, H-J

    2005-07-01

    The paradigm of patient care in the German health system is changing. The introduction of German Diagnosis Related Groups (G-DRGs), a diagnosis-related coding system, has made process-oriented thinking increasingly important. The treatment process is viewed and managed as a whole from the admission to the discharge of the patient. The interfaces of departments and sectors are diminished. A main objective of these measures is to render patient care more cost efficient. Within the hospital, the operating room (OR) is the most expensive factor accounting for 25 - 50 % of the costs of a surgical patient and is also a bottleneck in the surgical patient care. Therefore, controlling of the perioperative treatment process is getting more and more important. Here, the business organisation theory can be a very useful tool. Especially the concepts of process organisation and process management can be applied to hospitals. Process-oriented thinking uncovers and solves typical organisational problems. Competences, responsibilities and tasks are reorganised by process orientation and the enterprise is gradually transformed to a process-oriented system. Process management includes objective-oriented controlling of the value chain of an enterprise with regard to quality, time, costs and customer satisfaction. The quality of the process is continuously improved using process-management techniques. The main advantage of process management is consistent customer orientation. Customer orientation means to be aware of the customer's needs at any time during the daily routine. The performance is therefore always directed towards current market requirements. This paper presents the basics of business organisation theory and to point out its potential use in the organisation of the OR. PMID:16001317

  17. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  18. Self-organization theories and environmental management: The case of South Moresby, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Alex G. S.; Slocombe, D. Scott

    1988-07-01

    This article presents a new approach to the analysis and management of large-scale societal problems with complex ecological, economic, and social dimensions. The approach is based on the theory of self-organizing systems—complex, open, far-from-equilibrium systems with nonlinear dynamics. A brief overview and comparison of different self-organization theories (synergetics, self-organization theory, hypercycles, and autopoiesis) is presented in order to isolate the key characteristics of such systems. The approach is used to develop an analysis of the landuse controversy in the South Moresby area of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Critical variables are identified for each subsystem and classified by spatial and temporal scale, and discussed in terms of information content and internal/external origin. Eradication of sea otters, introduction of black-tailed deer, impacts of large-scale clearcut logging, sustainability of the coastal forest industry, and changing relations between native peoples and governments are discussed in detail to illustrate the system dynamics of the South Moresby “sociobiophysical” system. Finally, implications of the self-organizing sociobiophysical system view for regional analysis and management are identified.

  19. Assessment of the ΔSCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ΔSCF method for computing low-lying HOMO→LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ΔSCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ΔSCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ΔSCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.

  20. Integrating self-organization theory into an advanced course on morphogenesis at Moscow State University.

    PubMed

    Beloussov, Lev V

    2003-01-01

    A lecture course on morphogenesis for fourth-year Moscow State University Specialist Diploma students specializing in embryology is described. The main goal of the course is to give the students an extensive theoretical background based on the tenets of the modern theory of Self-Organization and to show them how important this theory is for the proper understanding of developmental events. The corresponding mathematics are bound as tightly as possible to the actual morphogenetic processes. All of the lectures take the format of an active dialogue between the students and a tutor. PMID:12705667

  1. Highly stable amorphous silicon thin film transistors and integration approaches for reliable organic light emitting diode displays on clear plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekmatshoar, Bahman

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are currently in widespread production for integration with liquid crystals as driver devices. Liquid crystal displays are driven in AC with very low duty cycles and therefore fairly insensitive to the TFT threshold voltage rise which is well-known in a-Si:H devices. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a future technology choice for flexible displays with several advantages over liquid crystals. In contrast to liquid crystal displays, however, OLEDs are driven in DC and thus far more demanding in terms of the TFT stability requirements. Therefore the conventional thinking has been that a-Si:H TFTs are too unstable for driving OLEDs and the more expensive poly-Si or alternative TFT technologies are required. This thesis defies the conventional thinking by demonstrating that the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms in a-Si:H TFTs may be used to enhance the drive current half-life of a-Si:H TFTs from lower than a month to over 1000 years by modifying the growth conditions of the channel and the gate dielectric. Such high lifetimes suggest that the improved a-Si:H TFTs may qualify for driving OLEDs in commercial products. Taking advantage of industry-standard growth techniques, the improved a-Si:H TFTs offer a low barrier for industry insertion, in stark contrast with alternative technologies which require new infrastructure development. Further support for the practical advantages of a-Si:H TFTs for driving OLEDs is provided by a universal lifetime comparison framework proposed in this work, showing that the lifetime of the improved a-Si:H TFTs is well above those of other TFT technologies reported in the literature. Manufacturing of electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates is highly desirable for reducing the weight of the finished products as well as increasing their ruggedness. In addition, the flexibility of the substrate allows manufacturing bendable, foldable or rollable

  2. Content-oriented Approach to Organization of Theories and Its Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguch, Riichiro

    In spite of the fact that the relation between theory and practice is a foundation of scientific and technological development, the trend of increasing the gap between theory and practice accelerates in these years. The gap embraces a risk of distrust of science and technology. Ontological engineering as the content-oriented research is expected to contribute to the resolution of the gap. This paper presents the feasibility of organization of theoretical knowledge on ontological engineering and new-generation intelligent systems based on it through an application of ontological engineering in the area of learning/instruction support. This area also has the problem of the gap between theory and practice, and its resolution is strongly required. So far we proposed OMNIBUS ontology, which is a comprehensive ontology that covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, which is a theory-aware and standard-compliant authoring system for making learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS ontology. We believe the theory-awareness and standard-compliance bridge the gap between theory and practice because it links theories to practical use of standard technologies and enables practitioners to easily enjoy theoretical support while using standard technologies in practice. The following goals are set in order to achieve it; computers (1) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on the organization of them, (2) utilize the understanding for helping authors' learning/instructional scenario making and (3) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of standard technologies. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to the achievement of these three goals. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study address high-level technical challenges from the viewpoint of the current state of the art in the research area

  3. Assessing governance theory and practice in health-care organizations: a survey of UK hospices.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Naomi; Benson, Lawrence; Boyd, Alan; Girling, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    This paper sets out a theoretical framework for analyzing board governance, and describes an empirical study of corporate governance practices in a subset of non-profit organizations (hospices in the UK). It examines how practices in hospice governance compare with what is known about effective board working. We found that key strengths of hospice boards included a strong focus on the mission and the finances of the organizations, and common weaknesses included a lack of involvement in strategic matters and a lack of confidence, and some nervousness about challenging the organization on the quality of clinical care. Finally, the paper offers suggestions for theoretical development particularly in relation to board governance in non-profit organizations. It develops an engagement theory for boards which comprises a triadic proposition of high challenge, high support and strong grip. PMID:22673698

  4. The Advancement of Family Therapy Theory Based on the Science of Self-Organizing Complex Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey-Kemper, Valerie Ann

    1995-01-01

    Problem. The purpose of this study was to review the literature which presents the latest advancements in the field of family therapy theory. Since such advancement has relied on the scientific developments in the study of autopoietic self-organizing complex systems, then the review began with an historical overview of the development of these natural scientific concepts. The study then examined how the latest scientific concepts have been integrated with family therapy practice. The document is built on the theory that individuals are living, complex, self-organizing, autopoietic systems. When individual systems interact with other individual systems (such as in family interaction, or in interaction between therapist and client), then a third system emerges, which is the relationship. It is through interaction in the relationship that transformation of an individual system can occur. Method. The historical antecedents of the field of family therapy were outlined. It was demonstrated, via literature review, that the field of family therapy has traditionally paralleled developments in the hard sciences. Further, it was demonstrated via literature review that the newest understandings of the development of individuals, family systems, and therapeutic systems also parallel recent natural science developments, namely those developments based on the science of self-organizing complex systems. Outcome. The results of the study are twofold. First, the study articulates an expanded theory of the therapist, individual, and family as autopoietic self-organizing complex systems. Second, the study provides an expanded hypothesis which concerns recommendations for future research which will further advance the latest theories of family therapy. More precisely, the expanded hypothesis suggests that qualitative research, rather than quantitative research, is the method of choice for studying the effectiveness of phenomenological therapy.

  5. Artificial organisms as tools for the development of psychological theory: Tolman's lesson.

    PubMed

    Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela

    2007-12-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions. PMID:17665237

  6. Insights into the organization of biochemical regulatory networks using graph theory analyses.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2009-02-27

    Graph theory has been a valuable mathematical modeling tool to gain insights into the topological organization of biochemical networks. There are two types of insights that may be obtained by graph theory analyses. The first provides an overview of the global organization of biochemical networks; the second uses prior knowledge to place results from multivariate experiments, such as microarray data sets, in the context of known pathways and networks to infer regulation. Using graph analyses, biochemical networks are found to be scale-free and small-world, indicating that these networks contain hubs, which are proteins that interact with many other molecules. These hubs may interact with many different types of proteins at the same time and location or at different times and locations, resulting in diverse biological responses. Groups of components in networks are organized in recurring patterns termed network motifs such as feedback and feed-forward loops. Graph analysis revealed that negative feedback loops are less common and are present mostly in proximity to the membrane, whereas positive feedback loops are highly nested in an architecture that promotes dynamical stability. Cell signaling networks have multiple pathways from some input receptors and few from others. Such topology is reminiscent of a classification system. Signaling networks display a bow-tie structure indicative of funneling information from extracellular signals and then dispatching information from a few specific central intracellular signaling nexuses. These insights show that graph theory is a valuable tool for gaining an understanding of global regulatory features of biochemical networks. PMID:18940806

  7. Universal carrier thermoelectric-transport model based on percolation theory in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Recent measurements conducted over a large range of temperature and carrier density have found that the Seebeck coefficient exhibits an approaching disorder-free transport feature in high-mobility conjugated polymers [D. Venkateshvaran et al., Nature 515, 384 (2014), 10.1038/nature13854]. It is difficult for the current Seebeck coefficient model to interpret the feature of the charge transport approaching disorder-free transport. We present a general analytical model to describe the Seebeck effect for organic semiconductors based on the hopping transport and percolation theory. The proposed model can well explain the Seebeck feature of the polymers with approaching disorder-free transport, as well as that of the organic semiconductors with the general disorder. The simulated results imply that the Seebeck coefficient in the organic semiconductors would happen to transfer from temperature dependence to temperature independence with the decrease of the energetic disorder.

  8. Validation and test-retest reliability of a health measure, health as ability of acting, based on the welfare theory of health.

    PubMed

    Snellman, Ingrid; Jonsson, Bosse; Wikblad, Karin

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a validation and assess the test-retest reliability of the health questionnaire based on Nordenfelt's Welfare Theory of Health (WTH). The study used a questionnaire on health together with the Short Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, and 490 pupils at colleges for adult education participated. The results of the study are in accordance with Nordenfelt's WTH. Three hypotheses were stated, and the first was confirmed: People who were satisfied with life rated higher levels than those who were dissatisfied with life concerning both mental and physical health, measured with the SF-12. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed: People with high education were more often satisfied with life than those with low education, but they were not healthier. The third hypothesis, that women are unhealthy more often than men, was not confirmed. The questionnaire on health showed acceptable stability. PMID:21930655

  9. Human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

  10. The Mosaic Theory Revisited: Common Molecular Mechanisms Coordinating Diverse Organ and Cellular Events in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, Dr. Irvine Page proposed the Mosaic Theory of hypertension, which states that many factors, including genetics, environment, adaptive, neural, mechanical and hormonal perturbations interdigitate to raise blood pressure. In the past two decades, it has become clear that common molecular and cellular events in various organs underlie many features of the Mosaic Theory. Two of these are the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. These factors increase neuronal firing in specific brain centers, increase sympathetic outflow, alter vascular tone and morphology and promote sodium retention in the kidney. Moreover, factors such as genetics and environment contribute to oxidant generation and inflammation. Other common cellular signals, including calcium signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress are similarly perturbed in different cells in hypertension and contribute to components of Dr. Page’s theory. Thus, Dr. Page’s Mosaic Theory formed a framework for future studies of molecular and cellular signals in the context of hypertension, and has greatly aided our understanding of this complex disease. PMID:23321405

  11. Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A

    2009-04-01

    The field of worksite health promotion has moved toward the development and testing of comprehensive programs that target health behaviors with interventions operating at multiple levels of influence. Yet, observational and process evaluation studies indicate that such programs are challenging for worksites to implement effectively. Research has identified several organizational factors that promote or inhibit effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. The model is adapted from theory and research on the implementation of complex innovations in manufacturing, education and health care settings. The article uses the Working Well Trial to illustrate the model's theoretical constructs. Although the article focuses on comprehensive worksite health promotion programs, the conceptual model may also apply to other types of complex health promotion programs. An organization-level theory of the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs. PMID:18469319

  12. Are the Somatic Mutation and Tissue Organization Field Theories of Carcinogenesis Incompatible?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two drastically different approaches to understanding the forces driving carcinogenesis have crystallized through years of research. These are the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue organization field theory (TOFT). The essence of SMT is that cancer is derived from a single somatic cell that has successively accumulated multiple DNA mutations, and that those mutations occur on genes which control cell proliferation and cell cycle. Thus, according to SMT, neoplastic lesions are the results of DNA-level events. Conversely, according to TOFT, carcinogenesis is primarily a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture thus disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and compromising genomic integrity. Hence, in TOFT the DNA mutations are the effect, and not the cause, of the tissue-level events. Cardinal importance of successful resolution of the TOFT versus SMT controversy dwells in the fact that, according to SMT, cancer is a unidirectional and mostly irreversible disease; whereas, according to TOFT, it is curable and reversible. In this paper, our goal is to outline a plausible scenario in which TOFT and SMT can be reconciled using the framework and concepts of the self-organized criticality (SOC), the principle proven to be extremely fruitful in a wide range of disciplines pertaining to natural phenomena, to biological communities, to large-scale social developments, to technological networks, and to many other subjects of research. PMID:24324325

  13. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, C. Kyle; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    The different cohesive forces that bond organic (i.e. excitonic) and inorganic semiconductors lead to widely disparate dielectric constants, charge mobilities, and other fundamental optoelectronic properties that make junctions between these materials interesting for numerous practical applications. Yet, there are no detailed theories addressing charge and energy transport across interfaces between these hybrid systems. Here, we develop a comprehensive physical model describing charge transport and photocurrent generation based on first-principles charge and excited state dynamics at the organic/inorganic heterojunction. We consider interfaces that are trap-free, as well as those with an exponential distribution of trap states. We find that the hybrid charge-transfer state resulting from photon absorption near the junction that subsequently migrates to the heterointerface is often unstable at room temperature, leading to its rapid dissociation into free charges that are collected at the device contacts. In the companion Paper II [A. Panda et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 045303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045303], we apply our theories to understanding the optical and electronic properties of archetype organic/inorganic heterojunction diodes. Our analysis provides insights for developing high performance optoelectronic devices whose properties are otherwise inaccessible to either conventional excitonic or inorganic semiconductor junctions.

  14. Are the somatic mutation and tissue organization field theories of carcinogenesis incompatible?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two drastically different approaches to understanding the forces driving carcinogenesis have crystallized through years of research. These are the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue organization field theory (TOFT). The essence of SMT is that cancer is derived from a single somatic cell that has successively accumulated multiple DNA mutations, and that those mutations occur on genes which control cell proliferation and cell cycle. Thus, according to SMT, neoplastic lesions are the results of DNA-level events. Conversely, according to TOFT, carcinogenesis is primarily a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture thus disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and compromising genomic integrity. Hence, in TOFT the DNA mutations are the effect, and not the cause, of the tissue-level events. Cardinal importance of successful resolution of the TOFT versus SMT controversy dwells in the fact that, according to SMT, cancer is a unidirectional and mostly irreversible disease; whereas, according to TOFT, it is curable and reversible. In this paper, our goal is to outline a plausible scenario in which TOFT and SMT can be reconciled using the framework and concepts of the self-organized criticality (SOC), the principle proven to be extremely fruitful in a wide range of disciplines pertaining to natural phenomena, to biological communities, to large-scale social developments, to technological networks, and to many other subjects of research. PMID:24324325

  15. African American Organ Donor Registration: A Mixed Methods Design using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    DuBay, Derek A.; Ivankova, Nataliya; Herby, Ivan; Wynn, Theresa A.; Kohler, Connie; Berry, Beverly; Foushee, Herman; Carson, April; Redden, David T.; Holt, Cheryl; Siminoff, Laura; Fouad, Mona; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context A large racial disparity exists in organ donation. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with becoming a registered organ donor in among African Americans in Alabama. Methods The study utilized a concurrent mixed methods design guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior to analyze African American’s decisions to become a registered organ donor using both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) methods. Results The sample consisted of 22 registered organ donors (ROD) and 65 non-registered participants (NRP) from six focus groups completed in urban (n=3) and rural (n=3) areas. Participants emphasized the importance of the autonomy to make one’s own organ donation decision and have this decision honored posthumously. One novel barrier to becoming a ROD was the perception that organs from African Americans were often unusable due to high prevalence of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Another novel theme discussed as an advantage to becoming a ROD was the subsequent motivation to take responsibility for one’s health. Family and friends were the most common groups of persons identified as approving and disapproving of the decision to become a ROD. The most common facilitator to becoming a ROD was information, while fear and the lack of information were the most common barriers. In contrast, religious beliefs, mistrust and social justice themes were infrequently referenced as barriers to becoming a ROD. Discussion Findings from this study may be useful for prioritizing organ donation community-based educational interventions in campaigns to increase donor registration. PMID:25193729

  16. Demonstration for novel self-organization theory by three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hosaka, Yasuo; Liang, Jia-Ling

    1993-03-01

    It is demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations for resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with both 'spatially nonuniform resistivity eta' and 'uniform eta' that the attractor of the dissipative structure in the resistive MHD plasmas is given by del x (eta)j) = (alpha/2)B which is derived from a self-organization theory based on the minimum dissipation rate profile. It is shown by the simulations that the attractor is reduced to del x B = (lambda)B in the special case with the 'uniform eta' and no pressure gradient.

  17. Enhanced Breakdown Reliability and Spatial Uniformity of Atomic Layer Deposited High-k Gate Dielectrics on Graphene via Organic Seeding Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwan, Vinod; Jariwala, Deep; Filippone, Stephen; Karmel, Hunter; Johns, James; Alaboson, Justice; Marks, Tobin; Lauhon, Lincoln; Hersam, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-thin high- κ top-gate dielectrics are essential for high-speed graphene-based nanoelectronic circuits. Motivated by the need for high reliability and spatial uniformity, we report here the first statistical analysis of the breakdown characteristics of dielectrics grown on graphene. Based on these measurements, a rational approach is devised that simultaneously optimizes the gate capacitance and the key parameters of large-area uniformity and dielectric strength. In particular, vertically heterogeneous oxide stacks grown via atomic-layer deposition (ALD) seeded by a molecularly thin perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic monolayer result in improved reliability (Weibull shape parameter β > 25) compared to the control dielectric directly grown on graphene without PTCDA (β < 1). The optimized sample also showed a large breakdown strength (Weibull scale parameter, EBD > 7 MV/cm) that is comparable to that of the control dielectric grown on Si substrates.

  18. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  19. In search of a reliable technique for the determination of the biological stability of the organic matter in the mechanical-biological treated waste.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Raquel; d'Imporzano, Giuliana; Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni; Adani, Fabrizio

    2009-03-15

    The biological stability determines the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed. In this work, a massive estimation of indices suitable for the measurement of biological stability of the organic matter content in solid waste samples has been carried out. Samples from different stages in a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant treating municipal solid wastes (MSW) were selected as examples of different stages of organic matter stability in waste biological treatment. Aerobic indices based on respiration techniques properly reflected the process of organic matter biodegradation. Static and dynamic respirometry showed similar values in terms of aerobic biological activity (expressed as oxygen uptake rate, OUR), whereas cumulative oxygen consumption was a reliable method to express the biological stability of organic matter in solid samples. Methods based on OUR and cumulative oxygen consumption were positively correlated. Anaerobic methods based on biogas production (BP) tests also reflected well the degree of biological stability, although significant differences were found in solid and liquid BP assays. A significant correlation was found between cumulative oxygen consumption and ultimate biogas production. The results obtained in this study can be a basis for the quantitative measurement of the efficiency in the stabilization of organic matter in waste treatment plants, including MBT plants, anaerobic digestion of MSW and composting plants. PMID:18606494

  20. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortorella, Sara; Mastropasqua Talamo, Maurizio; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed.

  1. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Sara; Talamo, Maurizio Mastropasqua; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-24

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. PMID:26808717

  2. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  3. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  4. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (Von) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔVon) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of Von at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔVon of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  5. Using Ontological Engineering to Organize Learning/Instructional Theories and Build a Theory-Aware Authoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements of an innovative eight-year research program first introduced in Mizoguchi and Bourdeau (2000), which was aimed at building a theory-aware authoring system by using ontological engineering. To date, we have proposed OMNIBUS, an ontology that comprehensively covers different learning/instructional theories and…

  6. Investigation of Multiconfigurational Short-Range Density Functional Theory for Electronic Excitations in Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Mickaël; Hedegård, Erik D; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2016-05-10

    Computational methods that can accurately and effectively predict all types of electronic excitations for any molecular system are missing in the toolbox of the computational chemist. Although various Kohn-Sham density-functional methods (KS-DFT) fulfill this aim in some cases, they become inadequate when the molecule has near-degeneracies and/or low-lying double-excited states. To address these issues we have recently proposed multiconfiguration short-range density-functional theory-MC-srDFT-as a new tool in the toolbox. While initial applications for systems with multireference character and double excitations have been promising, it is nevertheless important that the accuracy of MC-srDFT is at least comparable to the best KS-DFT methods also for organic molecules that are typically of single-reference character. In this paper we therefore systematically investigate the performance of MC-srDFT for a selected benchmark set of electronic excitations of organic molecules, covering the most common types of organic chromophores. This investigation confirms the expectation that the MC-srDFT method is accurate for a broad range of excitations and comparable to accurate wave function methods such as CASPT2, NEVPT2, and the coupled cluster based CC2 and CC3. PMID:27058733

  7. Precise segmentation of multiple organs in CT volumes using learning-based approach and information theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zheng, Yefeng; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhang, Jingdan; Kohlberger, Timo; Tietjen, Christian; Boettger, Thomas; Duncan, James S; Zhou, S Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method by incorporating information theory into the learning-based approach for automatic and accurate pelvic organ segmentation (including the prostate, bladder and rectum). We target 3D CT volumes that are generated using different scanning protocols (e.g., contrast and non-contrast, with and without implant in the prostate, various resolution and position), and the volumes come from largely diverse sources (e.g., diseased in different organs). Three key ingredients are combined to solve this challenging segmentation problem. First, marginal space learning (MSL) is applied to efficiently and effectively localize the multiple organs in the largely diverse CT volumes. Second, learning techniques, steerable features, are applied for robust boundary detection. This enables handling of highly heterogeneous texture pattern. Third, a novel information theoretic scheme is incorporated into the boundary inference process. The incorporation of the Jensen-Shannon divergence further drives the mesh to the best fit of the image, thus improves the segmentation performance. The proposed approach is tested on a challenging dataset containing 188 volumes from diverse sources. Our approach not only produces excellent segmentation accuracy, but also runs about eighty times faster than previous state-of-the-art solutions. The proposed method can be applied to CT images to provide visual guidance to physicians during the computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided radiotherapy to treat cancers in pelvic region. PMID:23286081

  8. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file...

  9. 18 CFR 39.11 - Reliability reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability reports. 39... RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.11 Reliability reports. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall...

  10. Investigating the self-organization of debris flows: theory, modelling, and empirical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Elverfeldt, Kirsten; Keiler, Margreth; Elmenreich, Wilfried; Fehárvári, István; Zhevzhyk, Sergii

    2014-05-01

    Here we present the conceptual framework of an interdisciplinary project on the theory, empirics, and modelling of the self-organisation mechanisms within debris flows. Despite the fact that debris flows are causing severe damages in mountainous regions such as the Alps, the process behaviour of debris flows is still not well understood. This is mainly due to the process dynamics of debris flows: Erosion and material entrainment are essential for their destructive power, and because of this destructiveness it is nearly impossible to measure and observe these mechanisms in action. Hence, the interactions between channel bed and debris flow remain largely unknown whilst this knowledge is crucial for the understanding of debris flow behaviour. Furthermore, while these internal parameter interactions are changing during an event, they are at the same time governing the temporal and spatial evolution of a given event. This project aims at answering some of these unknowns by means of bringing theory, empirical work, and modelling of debris flows together. It especially aims at explaining why process types are switching along the flow path during an event, e.g. the change from a debris flow to a hyperconcentrated flow and back. A second focus is the question of why debris flows sometimes exhibit strong erosion and sediment mobilisation during an event and at other times they do not. A promising theoretical framework for the analysis of these observations is that of self-organizing systems, and especially Haken's theory of synergetics. Synergetics is an interdisciplinary theory of open systems that are characterized by many individual, yet interacting parts, resulting in spatio-temporal structures. We hypothesize that debris flows can successfully be analysed within this theoretical framework. In order to test this hypothesis, an innovative modelling approach is chosen in combination with detailed field work. In self-organising systems the interactions of the system

  11. Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

    2006-01-01

    Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

  12. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective...

  13. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective...

  14. Collection-limited theory interprets the extraordinary response of single semiconductor organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Biswajit; Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Boudouris, Bryan W.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) architecture has dominated the literature due to its ability to be implemented in devices with relatively high efficiency values. However, a simpler device architecture based on a single organic semiconductor (SS-OPV) offers several advantages: it obviates the need to control the highly system-dependent nanoscale BHJ morphology, and therefore, would allow the use of broader range of organic semiconductors. Unfortunately, the photocurrent in standard SS-OPV devices is typically very low, which generally is attributed to inefficient charge separation of the photogenerated excitons. Here we show that the short-circuit current density from SS-OPV devices can be enhanced significantly (∼100-fold) through the use of inverted device configurations, relative to a standard OPV device architecture. This result suggests that charge generation may not be the performance bottleneck in OPV device operation. Instead, poor charge collection, caused by defect-induced electric field screening, is most likely the primary performance bottleneck in regular-geometry SS-OPV cells. We justify this hypothesis by: (i) detailed numerical simulations, (ii) electrical characterization experiments of functional SS-OPV devices using multiple polymers as active layer materials, and (iii) impedance spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, we show that the collection-limited photocurrent theory consistently interprets typical characteristics of regular SS-OPV devices. These insights should encourage the design and OPV implementation of high-purity, high-mobility polymers, and other soft materials that have shown promise in organic field-effect transistor applications, but have not performed well in BHJ OPV devices, wherein they adopt less-than-ideal nanostructures when blended with electron-accepting materials. PMID:26290582

  15. Collection-limited theory interprets the extraordinary response of single semiconductor organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Biswajit; Baradwaj, Aditya G; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Boudouris, Bryan W; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-09-01

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) architecture has dominated the literature due to its ability to be implemented in devices with relatively high efficiency values. However, a simpler device architecture based on a single organic semiconductor (SS-OPV) offers several advantages: it obviates the need to control the highly system-dependent nanoscale BHJ morphology, and therefore, would allow the use of broader range of organic semiconductors. Unfortunately, the photocurrent in standard SS-OPV devices is typically very low, which generally is attributed to inefficient charge separation of the photogenerated excitons. Here we show that the short-circuit current density from SS-OPV devices can be enhanced significantly (∼100-fold) through the use of inverted device configurations, relative to a standard OPV device architecture. This result suggests that charge generation may not be the performance bottleneck in OPV device operation. Instead, poor charge collection, caused by defect-induced electric field screening, is most likely the primary performance bottleneck in regular-geometry SS-OPV cells. We justify this hypothesis by: (i) detailed numerical simulations, (ii) electrical characterization experiments of functional SS-OPV devices using multiple polymers as active layer materials, and (iii) impedance spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, we show that the collection-limited photocurrent theory consistently interprets typical characteristics of regular SS-OPV devices. These insights should encourage the design and OPV implementation of high-purity, high-mobility polymers, and other soft materials that have shown promise in organic field-effect transistor applications, but have not performed well in BHJ OPV devices, wherein they adopt less-than-ideal nanostructures when blended with electron-accepting materials. PMID:26290582

  16. Improved device reliability in organic light emitting devices by controlling the etching of indium zinc oxide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ying-Jie; Lou, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    A controllable etching process for indium zinc oxide (IZO) films was developed by using a weak etchant of oxalic acid with a slow etching ratio. With controllable etching time and temperature, a patterned IZO electrode with smoothed surface morphology and slope edge was achieved. For the practical application in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), a suppression of the leak current in the current—voltage characteristics of OLEDs was observed. It resulted in a 1.6 times longer half lifetime in the IZO-based OLEDs compared to that using an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode etched by a conventional strong etchant of aqua regia.

  17. Coding theory based models for protein translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Elebeoba Eni; Bitzer, Donald L. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Rosnick, David I. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Vouk, Mladen A.

    2003-03-01

    Our research explores the feasibility of using communication theory, error control (EC) coding theory specifically, for quantitatively modeling the protein translation initiation mechanism. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of Escherichia coli K-12 is modeled as a noisy (errored), encoded signal and the ribosome as a minimum Hamming distance decoder, where the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) serves as a template for generating a set of valid codewords (the codebook). We tested the E. coli based coding models on 5' untranslated leader sequences of prokaryotic organisms of varying taxonomical relation to E. coli including: Salmonella typhimurium LT2, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. The model identified regions on the 5' untranslated leader where the minimum Hamming distance values of translated mRNA sub-sequences and non-translated genomic sequences differ the most. These regions correspond to the Shine-Dalgarno domain and the non-random domain. Applying the EC coding-based models to B. subtilis, and S. aureus Mu50 yielded results similar to those for E. coli K-12. Contrary to our expectations, the behavior of S. typhimurium LT2, the more taxonomically related to E. coli, resembled that of the non-translated sequence group.

  18. A simple theory of molecular organization in fullerene-containing liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroukidis, S. D.; Vanakaras, A. G.; Photinos, D. J.

    2005-10-01

    Systematic efforts to synthesize fullerene-containing liquid crystals have produced a variety of successful model compounds. We present a simple molecular theory, based on the interconverting shape approach [Vanakaras and Photinos, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2002 (2005)], that relates the self-organization observed in these systems to their molecular structure. The interactions are modeled by dividing each molecule into a number of submolecular blocks to which specific interactions are assigned. Three types of blocks are introduced, corresponding to fullerene units, mesogenic units, and nonmesogenic linkage units. The blocks are constrained to move on a cubic three-dimensional lattice and molecular flexibility is allowed by retaining a number of representative conformations within the block representation of the molecule. Calculations are presented for a variety of molecular architectures including twin mesogenic branch monoadducts of C60, twin dendromesogenic branch monoadducts, and conical (badminton shuttlecock) multiadducts of C60. The dependence of the phase diagrams on the interaction parameters is explored. In spite of its many simplifications and the minimal molecular modeling used (three types of chemically distinct submolecular blocks with only repulsive interactions), the theory accounts remarkably well for the phase behavior of these systems.

  19. Functional Organization of the Action Observation Network in Autism: A Graph Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alaerts, Kaat; Geerlings, Franca; Herremans, Lynn; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Verhoeven, Judith; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize, understand and interpret other’s actions and emotions has been linked to the mirror system or action-observation-network (AON). Although variations in these abilities are prevalent in the neuro-typical population, persons diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have deficits in the social domain and exhibit alterations in this neural network. Method Here, we examined functional network properties of the AON using graph theory measures and region-to-region functional connectivity analyses of resting-state fMRI-data from adolescents and young adults with ASD and typical controls (TC). Results Overall, our graph theory analyses provided convergent evidence that the network integrity of the AON is altered in ASD, and that reductions in network efficiency relate to reductions in overall network density (i.e., decreased overall connection strength). Compared to TC, individuals with ASD showed significant reductions in network efficiency and increased shortest path lengths and centrality. Importantly, when adjusting for overall differences in network density between ASD and TC groups, participants with ASD continued to display reductions in network integrity, suggesting that also network-level organizational properties of the AON are altered in ASD. Conclusion While differences in empirical connectivity contributed to reductions in network integrity, graph theoretical analyses provided indications that also changes in the high-level network organization reduced integrity of the AON. PMID:26317222

  20. Nuclear weapons decision-making; an application of organization theory to the mini-nuke case

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing and developing normative theory responsive to the need for improving the quality of decision-making in the nuclear weapons policy-making. Against the background of a critical evaluation of various paradigms in the literature (systems analysis and opposed-systems designed, the bureaucratic politics model, and the cybernetic theory of decision) an attempt is made to design an alternative analytic framework based on the writings of numerous organization theorists such as Herbert Simon and Kenneth Arrow. The framework is applied to the case of mini-nukes, i.e., proposals in the mid-1970s to develop and deploy tens of thousands of very low-yield (sub-kiloton), miniaturized fission weapons in NATO. Heuristic case study identifies the type of study undertaken in the dissertation in contrast to the more familiar paradigmatic studies identified, for example, with the Harvard Weapons Project. Application of the analytic framework developed in the dissertation of the mini-nuke case resulted in an empirical understanding of why decision making concerning tactical nuclear weapons has been such a complex task and why force modernization issues in particular have been so controversial and lacking in policy resolution.

  1. The search for reliable aqueous solubility (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) data for hydrophobic organic compounds; DDT and DDE as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pontolillo, James; Eganhouse, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of an organic contaminant?s physico-chemical properties is essential for predicting its environmental impact and fate. Approximately 700 publications (1944?2001) were reviewed and all known aqueous solubilities (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the organochlorine pesticide, DDT, and its persistent metabolite, DDE were compiled and examined. Two problems are evident with the available database: 1) egregious errors in reporting data and references, and 2) poor data quality and/or inadequate documentation of procedures. The published literature (particularly the collative literature such as compilation articles and handbooks) is characterized by a preponderance of unnecessary data duplication. Numerous data and citation errors are also present in the literature. The percentage of original Sw and Kow data in compilations has decreased with time, and in the most recent publications (1994?97) it composes only 6?26 percent of the reported data. The variability of original DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data spans 2?4 orders of magnitude, and there is little indication that the uncertainty in these properties has declined over the last 5 decades. A criteria-based evaluation of DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data sources shows that 95?100 percent of the database literature is of poor or unevaluatable quality. The accuracy and reliability of the vast majority of the data are unknown due to inadequate documentation of the methods of determination used by the authors. [For example, estimates of precision have been reported for only 20 percent of experimental Sw data and 10 percent of experimental Kow data.] Computational methods for estimating these parameters have been increasingly substituted for direct or indirect experimental determination despite the fact that the data used for model development and validation may be of unknown reliability. Because of the prevalence of errors, the lack of methodological documentation, and unsatisfactory data

  2. FFLO strange metal and quantum criticality in two dimensions: Theory and application to organic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Francesco; Zwerger, Wilhelm; Strack, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the spin imbalance in superconductors can spatially modulate the gap by forming Cooper pairs with finite momentum. For large imbalances compared to the Fermi energy, the inhomogeneous FFLO superconductor ultimately becomes a normal metal. There is mounting experimental evidence for this scenario in two-dimensional (2D) organic superconductors in large in-plane magnetic fields; this is complemented by ongoing efforts to realize this scenario in coupled tubes of atomic Fermi gases with spin imbalance. Yet, a theory for the phase transition from a metal to an FFLO superconductor has not been developed so far and the universality class has remained unknown. Here we propose and analyze a spin imbalance driven quantum critical point between a 2D metal and an FFLO phase in anisotropic electron systems. We derive the effective action for electrons and bosonic FFLO pairs at this quantum phase transition. Using this action, we predict non-Fermi-liquid behavior and the absence of quasiparticles at a discrete set of hot spots on the Fermi surfaces. This results in strange power laws in thermodynamics and response functions, which are testable with existing experimental setups on 2D organic superconductors and may also serve as signatures of the elusive FFLO phase itself. The proposed universality class is distinct from previously known quantum critical metals and, because its critical fluctuations appear already in the pairing channel, a promising candidate for naked metallic quantum criticality over extended temperature ranges.

  3. The reversed Müller-Lyer illusion and figure-ground organization theory.

    PubMed

    Taya, R; Ohashi, Y

    1992-01-01

    When the shaft is shortened and reaches neither of the vertices of the two pairs of wings, a reversed Müller-Lyer illusion is observed: a shaft between inward-pointing wings appears to be longer than a shaft between the outward-pointing wings. In this paper it is examined whether this illusion can be explained in terms of figure-ground organization. A circle was used as the focal area, instead of a shaft or a pair of dots, so that the figure-ground character could be seen more definitely in this focal area. The apparent size of the focal circle was measured under different conditions with three variables (enclosure, wings direction, and depth). The focal circle appeared to be largest in the condition where the circle should appear most readily as a hole, ie in the single, wings-in, space condition. The circle appeared to be smallest in the condition where the circle should appear most readily as a disc, ie in the separate, wings-out, object condition. This is consistent with an explanation of the usual, as well as the reversed, Müller-Lyer illusion in terms of figure-ground organization theory. PMID:1488264

  4. Simple, stable and reliable modeling of gas properties of organic working fluids in aerodynamic designs of turbomachinery for ORC and VCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, T.

    2016-05-01

    A simple, stable and reliable modeling of the real gas nature of the working fluid is required for the aerodesigns of the turbine in the Organic Rankine Cycle and of the compressor in the Vapor Compression Cycle. Although many modern Computational Fluid Dynamics tools are capable of incorporating real gas models, simulations with such a gas model tend to be more time-consuming than those with a perfect gas model and even can be unstable due to the simulation near the saturation boundary. Thus a perfect gas approximation is still an attractive option to stably and swiftly conduct a design simulation. In this paper, an effective method of the CFD simulation with a perfect gas approximation is discussed. A method of representing the performance of the centrifugal compressor or the radial-inflow turbine by means of each set of non-dimensional performance parameters and translating the fictitious perfect gas result to the actual real gas performance is presented.

  5. A regulatory theory of cortical organization and its applications to robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangavelautham, Jekanthan

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental aspects of biologically-inspired regulatory mechanisms are considered in a robotics context, using artificial neural-network control systems. Regulatory mechanisms are used to control expression of genes, adaptation of form and behavior in organisms. Traditional neural network control architectures assume networks of neurons are fixed and are interconnected by wires. However, these architectures tend to be specified by a designer and are faced with several limitations that reduce scalability and tractability for tasks with larger search spaces. Traditional methods used to overcome these limitations with fixed network topologies are to provide more supervision by a designer. More supervision as shown does not guarantee improvement during training particularly when making incorrect assumptions for little known task domains. Biological organisms often do not require such external intervention (more supervision) and have self-organized through adaptation. Artificial neural tissues (ANT) addresses limitations with current neural-network architectures by modeling both wired interactions between neurons and wireless interactions through use of chemical diffusion fields. An evolutionary (Darwinian) selection process is used to 'breed' ANT controllers for a task at hand and the framework facilitates emergence of creative solutions since only a system goal function and a generic set of basis behaviours need be defined. Regulatory mechanisms are formed dynamically within ANT through superpositioning of chemical diffusion fields from multiple sources and are used to select neuronal groups. Regulation drives competition and cooperation among neuronal groups and results in areas of specialization forming within the tissue. These regulatory mechanisms are also shown to increase tractability without requiring more supervision using a new statistical theory developed to predict performance characteristics of fixed network topologies. Simulations also confirm the

  6. Further discussion on reliability: the art of reliability estimation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B

    2015-01-01

    Sijtsma and van der Ark (2015) focused in their lead article on three frameworks for reliability estimation in nursing research: classical test theory (CTT), factor analysis (FA), and generalizability theory. We extend their presentation with particular attention to CTT and FA methods. We first consider the potential of yielding an overly negative or an overly positive assessment of reliability based on coefficient alpha. Next, we discuss other CTT methods for estimating reliability and how the choice of methods affects the interpretation of the reliability coefficient. Finally, we describe FA methods, which not only permit an understanding of a measure's underlying structure but also yield a variety of reliability coefficients with different interpretations. On a more general note, we discourage reporting reliability as a two-choice outcome--unsatisfactory or satisfactory; rather, we recommend that nursing researchers make a conceptual and empirical argument about when a measure might be more or less reliable, depending on its use. PMID:25738627

  7. Discovery of fairy circles in Australia supports self-organization theory.

    PubMed

    Getzin, Stephan; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bell, Bronwyn; Erickson, Todd E; Postle, Anthony C; Katra, Itzhak; Tzuk, Omer; Zelnik, Yuval R; Wiegand, Kerstin; Wiegand, Thorsten; Meron, Ehud

    2016-03-29

    Vegetation gap patterns in arid grasslands, such as the "fairy circles" of Namibia, are one of nature's greatest mysteries and subject to a lively debate on their origin. They are characterized by small-scale hexagonal ordering of circular bare-soil gaps that persists uniformly in the landscape scale to form a homogeneous distribution. Pattern-formation theory predicts that such highly ordered gap patterns should be found also in other water-limited systems across the globe, even if the mechanisms of their formation are different. Here we report that so far unknown fairy circles with the same spatial structure exist 10,000 km away from Namibia in the remote outback of Australia. Combining fieldwork, remote sensing, spatial pattern analysis, and process-based mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that these patterns emerge by self-organization, with no correlation with termite activity; the driving mechanism is a positive biomass-water feedback associated with water runoff and biomass-dependent infiltration rates. The remarkable match between the patterns of Australian and Namibian fairy circles and model results indicate that both patterns emerge from a nonuniform stationary instability, supporting a central universality principle of pattern-formation theory. Applied to the context of dryland vegetation, this principle predicts that different systems that go through the same instability type will show similar vegetation patterns even if the feedback mechanisms and resulting soil-water distributions are different, as we indeed found by comparing the Australian and the Namibian fairy-circle ecosystems. These results suggest that biomass-water feedbacks and resultant vegetation gap patterns are likely more common in remote drylands than is currently known. PMID:26976567

  8. The organic surface of 5145 Pholus: Constraints set by scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid

    1994-01-01

    No known body in the Solar System has a spectrum redder than that of object 5145 Pholus. We use Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in this laboratory to examine the ability of mixtures of a number of organic solids and ices to reproduce the observed spectrum and phase variation. The primary materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic extract, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. In a computer grid search of over 10 million models, we find an intraparticle mixture of 15% Titan tholin, 10% poly-HCN, and 75% water ice with 10-micrometers particles to provide an excellent fit. Replacing water ice with ammonia ice improves the fits significantly while using a pure hydrocarbon tholin, Tholin alpha, instead of Titan tholin makes only modest improvements. All acceptable fits require Titan tholin or some comparable material to provide the steep slope in the visible, and poly-HCN or some comparable material to provide strong absorption in the near-infrared. A pure Titan tholin surface with 16-micrometers particles, as well as all acceptable Pholus models, fit the present spectrophotometric data for the transplutonian object 1992 QB(sub 1). The feasibility of gas-phase chemistry to generate material like Titan tholin on such small objects is examined. An irradiated transient atmosphere arising from sublimating ices may generate at most a few centimeters of tholin over the lifetime of the Solar System, but this is insignificant compared to the expected lag deposit of primordial contaminants left behind by the sublimating ice. Irradiation of subsurface N2/CH4 or NH3/CH4 ice by cosmic rays may generate approximately 20 cm of tholin in the upper 10 m of regolith in the same time scale but the identity of this tholin to its gas-phase equivalent has not been demonstrated.

  9. Species Detection and Identification in Sexual Organisms Using Population Genetic Theory and DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Birky, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (θ) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/θ≥4) or the same species (K/θ<4) with probability ≥0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/θ ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/θ ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/θ ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/θ ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113

  10. Interface dipoles of organic molecules on Ag(111) in hybrid density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Oliver T.; Atalla, Viktor; Moll, Nikolaj; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the molecular acceptors 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA), 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) and 4,5,9,10-pyrenetetraone (PYTON) on Ag(111) using density-functional theory (DFT). For two groups of the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE(α, ω)) family of exchange-correlation functionals (ω = 0 and 0.2 Å) we study the isolated components as well as the combined systems as a function of the amount of exact-exchange (α). We find that hybrid functionals favour electron transfer to the adsorbate. Comparing with experimental work function data, for α ≈ 0.25 we report a notable but small improvement over (semi) local functionals for the interface dipole. Although Kohn-Sham eigenvalues are only approximate representations of ionization energies, incidentally, at this value also the density of states agrees well with the photoelectron spectra. However, increasing α to values for which the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital matches the experimental electron affinity in the gas phase worsens both the interface dipole and the density of states. Our results imply that semi-local DFT calculations may often be adequate for conjugated organic molecules on metal surfaces and that the much more computationally demanding hybrid functionals yield only small improvements.

  11. From Structural Dilemmas to Institutional Imperatives: A Descriptive Theory of the School as an Institution and of School Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    This study outlines a descriptive theory that seeks to grasp the complexity of the school as a state and societal institution as well as single schools as organizations. A significant characteristic of this complexity is the ambiguity of the missions and goals--the outer boundaries--of the school-institution. The more institutional ambiguity that…

  12. Body without Organs: Notes on Deleuze & Guattari, Critical Race Theory and the Socius of Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this article is to epistemologically read Deleuze and Guattari (D & G) against critical race theory (CRT) and simultaneously delineate how D & G's notion of "body without organs" can benefit from CRT. At first glance, especially for language instructors and researchers, these two epistemological frameworks not only…

  13. The Process by Which Black Male College Students Become Leaders of Predominantly White Organizations in Higher Education: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschella, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to understand the process by which Black undergraduate men on predominately White college campuses become leaders of predominately White organizations. Using the theoretical frameworks of Black and White racial identity development (Helms, 1990), Critical Race Theory (Delgado & Stefancic, 2001), and Wijeyesinghe's (2001)…

  14. Understanding and Administering Educational Organizations: The Contribution of Greenfield's "Alternative Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil A.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of T. B. Greenfield's "Alternative Theory" to a comprehensive theory for school administration in practice and scholarship. Considers Greenfield's standpoint in relation to rational, natural, and open systems perspectives. (DMM)

  15. The Reliability Of Planar InGaAs/InP PIN Photodiodes With Organic Coatings For Use In Low Cost Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Robert R.; Stokoe, J. C.; Skrimshire, Christopher P.; MacDonald, Brian M.; Sloan, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    Low-cost optoelectronic components in non-hermetic packages are now required for use in the local loop, and these components will be subject to humidity-induced failure mechanisms. The results presented in this paper show that it is possible to provide some protection for the photodiode against the effects of humidity by means of an organic coating. Photodiodes with three different organic coatings were tested at 85C/85% relative humidity, and all survived longerthan uncoated control photodiodes. One of the coatings was superior to the other two, and photodiodes with this coating may have adequate reliability for some local loop applications. The temperature and humidity acceleration factors for uncoated photodiodes were determined. The temperature acceleration factor was found to be low (equivalent to an activation energy of 0.2eV, instead of the more usual 0.6eV). Failure analysis of failed photodiodes, which included Auger analysis of corrosion products, showed that failure was due to oxidation of the InP surface.

  16. Excited states properties of organic molecules: from density functional theory to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter Green's function formalisms.

    PubMed

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Attaccalite, C; Duchemin, I; Blase, X

    2014-03-13

    Many-body Green's function perturbation theories, such as the GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms, are starting to be routinely applied to study charged and neutral electronic excitations in molecular organic systems relevant to applications in photovoltaics, photochemistry or biology. In parallel, density functional theory and its time-dependent extensions significantly progressed along the line of range-separated hybrid functionals within the generalized Kohn-Sham formalism designed to provide correct excitation energies. We give an overview and compare these approaches with examples drawn from the study of gas phase organic systems such as fullerenes, porphyrins, bacteriochlorophylls or nucleobases molecules. The perspectives and challenges that many-body perturbation theory is facing, such as the role of self-consistency, the calculation of forces and potential energy surfaces in the excited states, or the development of embedding techniques specific to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalisms, are outlined. PMID:24516185

  17. A Theory of Complex Adaptive Inquiring Organizations: Application to Continuous Assurance of Corporate Financial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, John R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the theories of complexity and complex adaptive systems and the Singerian Inquiring System from C. West Churchman's seminal work "The Design of Inquiring Systems" the dissertation herein develops a systems design theory for continuous auditing systems. The dissertation consists of discussion of the two foundational theories,…

  18. Organizational Economics: Notes on the Use of Transaction-Cost Theory in the Study of Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews transaction-cost approaches to organizational analysis, examines their use in microeconomic theory, and identifies some important flaws in the study. Advocates transaction-cost theory as a powerful tool for organizational and strategic analysis when set within the famework of more general organizational theory. Includes 61 references. (MLH)

  19. Theory aided design and analysis of dielectric and semiconductor components for organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Sara Arlene

    Perfluoroacyl/acyl-derivatized quaterthiophens are developed and synthesized. The frontier molecular orbital energies of these compounds are studied by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry while solid-state/film properties are investigated by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) performance parameters are discussed in terms of the interplay between semiconductor molecular energetics and film morphologies/microstructures. The majority charge carrier type and mobility exhibit a strong correlation with the regiochemistry of perfluoroarene incorporation. In quaterthiophene-based semiconductors, carbonyl-functionalization allows tuning of the majority carrier type from p-type to ambipolar and to n-type. In situ conversion of a p-type semiconducting film to n-type film is also demonstrated. The design of chemical and film microstructural alternative hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics is described using the classic Clausius-Mossotti relation. The Maxwell-Wagner effective medium model is used to compute the effective dielectric permittivity of two types of dielectrics self-assembled nanodielectrics (SANDs) and crosslinked polymer blends (CPBs). In these calculations showing good agreement between theory and experiment, it is found that greater capacitances should be achievable with mixed composites than with layered composites. With this insight, a series of mixed metal oxide-polyolefin nanocomposites is synthesized via in-situ olefin polymerization using the single-site metallocene catalysts. By integrating organic and inorganic constituents, the resulting hybrid material exhibit high permittivity (from the inorganic inclusions) and high breakdown strength, mechanical flexibility, and facile processability (from the polymer matrices). In order to better optimize the capacitance and leakage current of hybrid organic-inorganic dielectrics, the capacitance, leakage current and OFET gate

  20. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Word and Passage Reading Fluency Assessments: Grade 3. Technical Report #1218

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  1. Intentions of becoming a living organ donor among Hispanics: a theory-based approach exploring differences between living and nonliving organ donation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Dominick, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This research examines perceptions concerning living (n = 1,253) and nonliving (n = 1,259) organ donation among Hispanic adults, a group considerably less likely than the general population to become donors. Measures are derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and Vested Interest Theory (Crano, 1983, 1997). A substantial percentage of respondents reported positive attitudes and high personal stake concerning organ donation. Mean differences in norms, attitudes, intentions, and assumed immediacy of payoff were found between living and nonliving donor groups, suggesting that these two donation formats are dissimilar and should be examined independently. Accordingly, separate hierarchical multiple regression models were estimated for living and nonliving donation. Analyses supported both theoretical frameworks: Constructs associated with Planned Behavior and Vested Interest independently contributed to donor intentions. The implications of these results, and our recommendations for future health campaigns, are presented in light of these theoretical models. PMID:18307137

  2. Microvascular changes explain the "two-hit" theory of multiple organ failure.

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, R N; Spain, D A; Wilson, M A; Keelen, P A; Harris, P D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine intestinal microvascular endothelial cell control after sequential hemorrhage and bacteremia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sepsis that follows severe hemorrhagic shock often results in multiple system organ failure (MSOF) and death. The sequential nature of this clinical scenario has led to the idea of a "two-hit" theory for the development of MSOF, the hallmark of which is peripheral vasodilation and acidosis. Acute bacteremia alone results in persistent intestinal vasoconstriction and mucosal hypoperfusion. Little experimental data exist to support the pathogenesis of vascular dysregulation during sequential physiologic insults. We postulate that hemorrhagic shock followed by bacteremia results in altered microvascular endothelial cell control of dilation and blood flow. METHODS: Rats underwent volume hemorrhage and resuscitation. A sham group underwent the vascular cannulation without hemorrhage and resuscitation, and controls had no surgical manipulation. After 24 and 72 hours, the small intestine microcirculation was visualized by in vivo videomicroscopy. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, arteriolar diameters, and A1 flow by Doppler velocimetry were measured. Endothelial-dependent dilator function was determined by the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh). After 1 hour of Escherichia coil bacteremia, ACh dose responses were again measured. Topical nitroprusside was then applied to assess direct smooth muscle dilation (endothelial-independent dilator function) in all groups. Vascular reactivity to ACh was compared among the groups. RESULTS: Acute bacteremia, with or without prior hemorrhage, caused significant large-caliber A1 arteriolar constriction with a concomitant decrease in blood flow. This constriction was blunted at 24 hours after hemorrhage but was restored to control values by 72 hours. There was a reversal of the response to bacteremia in the premucosal A3 vessels, with a marked dilation both at 24 and

  3. Elastic, not plastic species: Frozen plasticity theory and the origin of adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing organisms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Darwin's evolutionary theory could easily explain the evolution of adaptive traits (organs and behavioral patterns) in asexual but not in sexual organisms. Two models, the selfish gene theory and frozen plasticity theory were suggested to explain evolution of adaptive traits in sexual organisms in past 30 years. Results The frozen plasticity theory suggests that sexual species can evolve new adaptations only when their members are genetically uniform, i.e. only after a portion of the population of the original species had split off, balanced on the edge of extinction for several generations, and then undergone rapid expansion. After a short period of time, estimated on the basis of paleontological data to correspond to 1-2% of the duration of the species, polymorphism accumulates in the gene pool due to frequency-dependent selection; and thus, in each generation, new mutations occur in the presence of different alleles and therefore change their selection coefficients from generation to generation. The species ceases to behave in an evolutionarily plastic manner and becomes evolutionarily elastic on a microevolutionary time-scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time-scale. It then exists in this state until such changes accumulate in the environment that the species becomes extinct. Conclusion Frozen plasticity theory, which includes the Darwinian model of evolution as a special case - the evolution of species in a plastic state, not only offers plenty of new predictions to be tested, but also provides explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classic evolutionary theories. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Rob Knight, Fyodor Kondrashov and Massimo Di Giulio (nominated by David H. Ardell). PMID:20067646

  4. Assessment of Student Performance in a PSI College Physics Course Using Ausubel's Learning Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Content Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriera, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    David Ausubel's learning theory was used as a framework for the content organization of an experimental Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) course in physics. Evaluation suggests that the combination of PSI as a method of instruction and Ausubel's theory for organization might result in better learning outcomes. (Author/JMD)

  5. A Theory for Nonprecipitating Convection between Two Parallel Plates. Part II: Nonlinear Theory and Cloud Field Organization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.

    1988-09-01

    In Part I, an idealized model of nonprecipitating moist convection in a shallow conditionally unstable layer of viscous and diffusive air between two parallel plates was introduced, and the `linear' instability of an exactly saturated static state maintained by diffusion was investigated. If there are initially many clouds, the `linear' theory predicted that weaker clouds are suppressed by the subsidence warming and drying from the ever-growing stronger clouds, and the average cloud spacing becomes arbitrarily large as time goes on. Each growing cloud is surrounded by compensating subsidence, which decreases away from the cloud with a characteristic decay scale Rs, the subsidence radius, which can be understood from gravity wave arguments.In Part II, fields of finite amplitude clouds are considered. An asymptotic analysis is performed in which the moist Rayleigh number Nc2 exceeds by only a small amount the value Nc02 necessary for the onset of convection. This leads to a nonlinear set of `cloud field equations' which predict how the amplitudes and positions of all the clouds evolve in time. These equations predict a minimum stable cloud spacing c Rslog(1). If the cloud spacing < c, slight differences in the strengths of neighboring clouds increase until the weaker clouds are suppressed. Unevenly spaced clouds drift until they become evenly spaced, ultimately resulting in a steady field of identical clouds with uniform spacing > c.Numerical experiments with dry stability Nd = Nc corroborate the conclusions from the cloud field equations when Nc2/Nc02 is less than ten. As Nc2 increases, the numerically determined c. becomes approximately 1.8Rs 1.8Nd. There is a second threshold spacing t 1.6Ndtheory, below which a field of identical growing clouds is transient. This leads to two types of cloud field evolution. If Nc2/Nc02 is less than 10, all initial conditions lead to steady uniformly spaced fields of identical clouds. If Nc2/Nc02

  6. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  7. Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiping; Yang, Di; Elishakoff, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    In engineering applications, probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method, however, in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs. In this paper, we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory, which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient. By using the interval analysis, a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper, and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis. Moreover, the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory, but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition. Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.

  8. A Monte Carlo Simulation Investigating the Validity and Reliability of Ability Estimation in Item Response Theory with Speeded Computer Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, T. A.; Sass, D. A.; Sullivan, J. R.; Walker, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Imposed time limits on computer adaptive tests (CATs) can result in examinees having difficulty completing all items, thus compromising the validity and reliability of ability estimates. In this study, the effects of speededness were explored in a simulated CAT environment by varying examinee response patterns to end-of-test items. Expectedly,…

  9. A Theory-Based Comparison of the Reliabilities of Fixed-Length and Trials-to-Criterion Scoring of Physical Education Skills Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Spray, Judith A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliabilities of two types of measurement plans were compared across six hypothetical distributions of true scores or abilities. The measurement plans were: (1) fixed-length, where the number of trials for all examinees is set in advance; and (2) trials-to-criterion, where examinees must keep trying until they complete a given number of trials…

  10. Multifractality to Photonic Crystal & Self-Organization to Metamaterials through Anderson Localizations & Group/Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-04-01

    Arthur Cayley at least investigate by creating the theory of permutation group[F:∖∖Group_theory.htm] where in cell elements addressing of the lattice Qmf used a Cayley tree, the self-afine object Qmf is described by the combination of the finite groups of rotation & inversion and the infinite groups of translation & dilation[G Corso & LS Lacena: ``Multifractal lattice and group theory'', Physica A: Statistical Mechanics &Its Applications, 2005, v 357, issue I, h 64-70; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articel/pii/S0378437105005005 ] hence multifractal can be related to group theory. Many grateful Thanks to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Ir. SARWONO KUSUMAATMADJA.