Science.gov

Sample records for reliability risk management

  1. Commentary: Risk Management and Reliability Design for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Dennis L.; Cranwell, Robert M.; Hunter, Regina L.

    1999-05-28

    Where there is a significant actuarial basis for decision making (e.g., the occurrence of fires in single-family dwellings), there is little incentive for formal risk management. Formal risk assessments are most useful in those cases where the value of the structure is high, many people may be affected, the societal perception of risk is high, consequences of a mishap would be severe, and the actuarial uncertainty is large. For these cases, there is little opportunity to obtain the necessary experiential data to make informed decisions, and the consequences in terms of money, lives, and societal confidence are severe enough to warrant a formal risk assessment. Other important factors include the symbolic value of the structure and vulnerability to single point failures. It is unlikely that formal risk management and assessment practices will or should replace the proven institutions of building codes and engineering practices. Nevertheless, formal risk assessment can provide valuable insights into the hazards threatening high-value and high-risk (perceived or actual) buildings and structures, which can in turn be translated into improved public health, safety, and security. The key is to choose and apply the right assessment tool to match the structure in question. Design-for-reliability concepts can be applied to buildings, bridges, transportation sys- tems, dams, and other structures. The use of these concepts could have the dual benefits of lowering life-cycle costs by reducing the necessity for maintenance and repair and of enhancing the saiiety and security of the structure's users.

  2. Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2000-10-01

    In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

  3. Critical aspects of integrated monitoring systems for landslides risk management: strategies for a reliable approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnetti, C.; Bertacchini, E.; Capra, A.; Corsini, A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of advanced technologies for remotely monitor surface processes is a successful way for improving the knowledge of phenomena evolution. In addition, the integration of various techniques is becoming more and more common in order to implement early warning systems that can monitor the evolution of landslides in time and prevent emergencies. The reliability of those systems plays a key role when Public Administrations have to plan actions in case of disasters or for preventing an incoming emergency. To have confidence in the information given by the system is an essential condition for a successful policy aiming to protect the population. The research deals with the major critical aspects to be taken into account when implementing a reliable monitoring system for unstable slopes. The importance of those aspects is often neglected, unlike the effects of a not careful implementation and management of the system can lead to erroneous interpretations of the phenomenon itself. The case study which ruled the research and highlighted the actual need of guidelines for setting up a reliable monitoring system is the Valoria landslide, located in the Northern Italy. The system is based on the integration of an automatic Total Station (TS) measuring 45 reflectors and a master GPS, acting as the reference station for three rovers placed within the landslide. In order to monitor local disturbing effects, a bi-dimensional clinometer has been applied on the TS pillar. Topographic measurements have been also integrated with geotechnical sensors (inclinometers and piezometers) in a GIS for landslide risk management. At the very beginning, periodic measurements were carried out, while the system is now performing continuously since 2008. The system permitted to evaluate movements from few millimeter till some meters per day in most dangerous areas. A more spatially continuous description has been also provided by LiDAR and terrestrial SAR interferometry. Some of the most interesting and critical aspects that will be deeper described and analyzed are: - strategy for planning a successful integrated system for continuous monitoring. - Choice of the reference frame: local coordinate system or georeferenced one. - Stability of the site for the master unit positioning: GPS time series analysis for controlling the effective stability. Thanks to the GPS master station that are operating for over three years, atmospheric disturbances affecting the signal may be removed in order to carefully verify the stability of the area and to establish whether the site is geologically stable, as originally suggested, or not. In the latter case, the magnitude of movements may also be computed for providing corrections to TS observations. - Stability of the monumentation, both for reference points and TS pillar. This is an essential aspect for avoiding misinterpretations when analyzing displacements of prisms placed within the landslide. The results of experiences carried out by Authors over last years about different landslides will be presented in order to propose guidelines for a sort of procedure aiming to increase the reliability of the information provided by the system and the usefulness for local Agencies.

  4. Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the identification of risk management, risk management processes such as: quantification and prioritization; mitigation planning; implementation of risk reduction; and tracking process. It develops examples and answers questions about Risk Management.

  5. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, L. Nathan

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" presents an overview of risk management for school districts. The chapter first discusses four fundamental elements of risk management: (1) identifying and measuring risks; (2) reducing or eliminating risks; (3) transferring unassumable risks; and (4) assuming remaining risks. The chapter…

  6. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, L. Nathan

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" presents an overview of risk management for school districts. The chapter first discusses four fundamental elements of risk management: (1) identifying and measuring risks; (2) reducing or eliminating risks; (3) transferring unassumable risks; and (4) assuming remaining risks. The chapter

  7. Project Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jr., R. F. Miles

    1995-01-01

    Project risk management is primarily concerned with performance, reliability, cost, and schedule. Environmental risk management is primarily concerned with human health and ecological hazards and likelihoods. This paper discusses project risk management and compares it to environmental risk management, both with respect to goals and implementation. The approach of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to risk management is presented as an example of a project risk management approach that is an extension to NASA NHB 7120.5: Management of Major System Programs and Projects.

  8. Reliability of objects in aerospace technologies and beyond: Holistic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shai, Yair; Ingman, D.; Suhir, E.

    A “ high level” , deductive-reasoning-based (“ holistic” ), approach is aimed at the direct analysis of the behavior of a system as a whole, rather than with an attempt to understand the system's behavior by conducting first a “ low level” , inductive-reasoning-based, analysis of the behavior and the contributions of the system's elements. The holistic view on treatment is widely accepted in medical practice, and “ holistic health” concept upholds that all the aspects of people's needs (psychological, physical or social), should be seen as a whole, and that a disease is caused by the combined effect of physical, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental imbalances. Holistic reasoning is applied in our analysis to model the behavior of engineering products (“ species” ) subjected to various economic, marketing, and reliability “ health” factors. Vehicular products (cars, aircraft, boats, etc.), e.g., might be still robust enough, but could be out-of-date, or functionally obsolete, or their further use might be viewed as unjustifiably expensive. High-level-performance functions (HLPF) are the essential feature of the approach. HLPFs are, in effect, “ signatures” of the “ species” of interest. The HLPFs describe, in a “ holistic” , and certainly in a probabilistic, way, numerous complex multi-dependable relations among the representatives of the “ species” under consideration. ; umerous inter-related “ stresses” , both actual (“ physical” ) and nonphysical, which affect the probabilistic predictions are inherently being taken into account by the HLPFs. There is no need, and might even be counter-productive, to conduct tedious, time- and labor-consuming experimentations and to invest significant amount of time and resources to accumulate “ representative statistics” to predict - he governing probabilistic characteristics of the system behavior, such as, e.g., life expectancy of a particular type of products. “ Species” of military aircraft, commercial aircraft and private cars have been chosen in our analysis as illustrations of the fruitfulness of the “ holistic” approach. The obtained data show that both commercial “ species” exhibit similar “ survival dynamics” in compare with those of the military species of aircraft: lifetime distributions were found to be Weibull distributions for all “ species” however for commercial vehicles, the shape parameters were a little higher than 2, and scale parameters were 19.8 years (aircraft) and 21.7 (cars) whereas for military aircraft, the shape parameters were much higher and the mean time to failure much longer. The difference between the lifetime characteristics of the “ species” can be attributed to the differences in the social, operational, economic and safety-and-reliability requirements and constraints. The obtained information can be used to make tentative predictions for the most likely trends in the given field of vehicular technology. The following major conclusions can be drawn from our analysis: 1) The suggested concept based on the use of HLPFs reflects the current state and the general perceptions in the given field of engineering, including aerospace technologies, and allows for all the inherent and induced factors to be taken into account: any type of failures, usage profiles, economic factors, environmental conditions, etc. The concept requires only very general input data for the entire population. There is no need for the less available information about individual articles. 2) Failure modes are not restricted to the physical type of failures and include economic, cultural or social effects. All possible causes, which might lead to making a decision to terminate the use of a particular type

  9. Grid reliability management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Martinez, C.; Dyer, J.; Budhraja, V.

    2000-10-01

    To summarize, Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) is engaged in a multi-year program of public interest R&D to develop and prototype software tools that will enhance system reliability during the transition to competitive markets. The core philosophy embedded in the design of these tools is the recognition that in the future reliability will be provided through market operations, not the decisions of central planners. Embracing this philosophy calls for tools that: (1) Recognize that the game has moved from modeling machine and engineering analysis to simulating markets to understand the impacts on reliability (and vice versa); (2) Provide real-time data and support information transparency toward enhancing the ability of operators and market participants to quickly grasp, analyze, and act effectively on information; (3) Allow operators, in particular, to measure, monitor, assess, and predict both system performance as well as the performance of market participants; and (4) Allow rapid incorporation of the latest sensing, data communication, computing, visualization, and algorithmic techniques and technologies.

  10. Risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1995-12-31

    In the autumn of 1993 an incident occurred with a diving support vessel, whereby a live pipeline from a NAM gas production platform, situated in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, was considerably displaced. Key element in the repair of the line was to identify potential hazards involved in various remedial scenarios and to manage the associated risks.

  11. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  12. Interrater reliability of Risk Matrix 2000/s.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen C; Mann, Ruth E; Milner, Rebecca J

    2011-12-01

    Actuarial risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders are often used in high-stakes decision making and therefore should be subject to stringent reliability and validity testing. Furthermore, those involved in the risk assessment of sexual offenders should be aware of the factors that may affect the reliability of these instruments. The present study examined the interrater reliability of the Risk Matrix 2000/s between one field rater and one independent rater with a sample of more than 100 sexual offenders. The results indicated good interrater reliability of the tool, although reliability varies from item to item. A number of factors were identified that seem to reduce the reliability of scoring. The present findings are strengthened by examining interrater reliability of the tool in the usual practitioner context and by calculating a range of reliability statistics. Strategies are suggested to increase reliability in the use of actuarial tools in routine practice. PMID:22114173

  13. Interrater Reliability of Risk Matrix 2000/s.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen C; Mann, Ruth E; Milner, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    Actuarial risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders are often used in high-stakes decision making and therefore should be subject to stringent reliability and validity testing. Furthermore, those involved in the risk assessment of sexual offenders should be aware of the factors that may affect the reliability of these instruments. The present study examined the interrater reliability of the Risk Matrix 2000/s between one field rater and one independent rater with a sample of more than 100 sexual offenders. The results indicated good interrater reliability of the tool, although reliability varies from item to item. A number of factors were identified that seem to reduce the reliability of scoring. The present findings are strengthened by examining interrater reliability of the tool in the usual practitioner context and by calculating a range of reliability statistics. Strategies are suggested to increase reliability in the use of actuarial tools in routine practice. PMID:21216783

  14. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K D; McKay, M K; Sattison, M.B. Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S T; Rasmuson, D M

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 4.0 and is the subject of this Reference Manual. Version 4.0 of IRRAS provides the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance.

  15. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study

  16. Quantification of risks from technology for improved plant reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the least understood and therefore appreciated threats to profitability are risks from power plant technologies such as steam generators, turbines, and electrical systems. To effectively manage technological risks, business decisions need to be based on knowledge. The scope of the paper describes a quantification or risk process that combines technical knowledge and judgments with commercial consequences. The three principle alternatives to manage risks as well as risk mitigation techniques for significant equipment within a power plant are reported. The result is to equip the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the risk exposures enabling cost effective activities to be undertaken to improve a plant`s reliability.

  17. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  18. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is key to success. Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks -- risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  19. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  20. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2013-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks - not just risk office personnel. Each group/department is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. ? Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  1. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  2. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article

  3. Bayesian Inference for NASA Probabilistic Risk and Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Kelly, Dana; Smith, Curtis; Vedros, Kurt; Galyean, William

    2009-01-01

    This document, Bayesian Inference for NASA Probabilistic Risk and Reliability Analysis, is intended to provide guidelines for the collection and evaluation of risk and reliability-related data. It is aimed at scientists and engineers familiar with risk and reliability methods and provides a hands-on approach to the investigation and application of a variety of risk and reliability data assessment methods, tools, and techniques. This document provides both: A broad perspective on data analysis collection and evaluation issues. A narrow focus on the methods to implement a comprehensive information repository. The topics addressed herein cover the fundamentals of how data and information are to be used in risk and reliability analysis models and their potential role in decision making. Understanding these topics is essential to attaining a risk informed decision making environment that is being sought by NASA requirements and procedures such as 8000.4 (Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements), NPR 8705.05 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures for NASA Programs and Projects), and the System Safety requirements of NPR 8715.3 (NASA General Safety Program Requirements).

  4. Risk Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This manual focuses on the promotion of good risk management practices. The first of four sections presents an overview of risk management in terms of risk management concepts and avoiding, transferring, controlling, and financing risk. Second, the manual present methods for identifying and assessing risk. The third section discusses different

  5. Integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to first present a basis or foundation for the building of an integrated risk management plan and them to present the plan. The integration referred to is across both the temporal and the hierarchical dimensions. Complexity, consequence, and credibility seem to be driving the need for the consideration of risk. Reduction of personal bias and reproducibility of the decision making process seem to be driving the consideration of a formal risk plan. While risk can be used as either a selection tool or a control tool, this paper concentrates on the selection usage. Risk relies on stated purpose. The tightness of the definition of purpose and success is directly reflected in the definition and control of risk. Much of a risk management plan could be designed by the answers to the questions of why, what, who, when, and where. However, any plan must provide the following information about a threat or risk: likelihood, consequence, predictability, reliability, and reproducibility. While the environment at NASA is seen as warm, but not hot, for the introduction of a risk program, some encouragement is seen if the following problems are addressed: no champion, no commitment of resource, confused definitions, lack of direction and focus, a hard sell, NASA culture, many choices of assessment methods, and cost. The plan is designed to follow the normal method of doing work and is structured to follow either the work break down structure or a functional structure very well. The parts of the plan include: defining purpose and success, initial threat assessment, initial risk assessment, reconciling threats and parameters, putting part of the information down and factoring the information back into the decision process as it comes back up, and developing inferences. Two major suggestions are presented. One is to build an office of risk management to be used as a resource by managers in doing the risk process. Another is to form a pilot program to try out the details in the plan and modify the method where needed.

  6. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  7. Rethinking risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Kloman, H.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring together the ideas of those who currently practice the many different forms of risk management on a global basis. These forms include guidance of public policy on macro risks, risk financing and insurance for many larger commercial organizations, managing credit, currency and interest rate risks for financial institutions, plus other extensions of risk management including security, quality control, and quality assurance in a health-care environment.

  8. Focus on risk management.

    PubMed

    Freedman, T J; Gerring, G

    1993-01-01

    With the Canadian Council of Health Facilities Accreditation's introduction of new standards on risk management in 1991, many health care facilities in Canada are re-evaluating their risk-management programs. This article outlines how Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital established new objectives and developed administrative structures to consolidate and improve its risk-management practices. PMID:10126395

  9. Probabilistic Methods for Structural Reliability and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2007-01-01

    A formal method is described to quantify structural reliability and risk in the presence of a multitude of uncertainties. The method is based on the materials behavior level where primitive variables with their respective scatters are used to describe that behavior. Computational simulation is then used to propagate those uncertainties to the structural scale where reliability and risk are usually specified. A sample case is described to illustrate the effectiveness, versatility, and maturity of the method. Typical results from this method demonstrate that the method is mature and that it can be used for future strategic projections and planning to assure better, cheaper, faster products for competitive advantages in world markets. The results also indicate that the methods are suitable for predicting remaining life in aging or deteriorating structures.

  10. [Novel therapeutics risk management].

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The identification and assessment of risks, in particular, of new or innovative medicines, as well as risk mitigation are the most important tasks of pharmacovigilance. Pharmacovigilance activities should abide by the 'precautionary principle'. Risk management plans are a new tool for achieving this goal. The key elements of risk management plans include a drug-specific risk specification, a pharmacovigilance plan as well as appropriate risk communication procedures. PMID:19645340

  11. [Global risk management].

    PubMed

    Sghaier, W; Hergon, E; Desroches, A

    2015-08-01

    Risk management is a fundamental component of any successful company, whether it is in economic, societal or environmental aspect. Risk management is an especially important activity for companies that optimal security challenge of products and services is great. This is the case especially for the health sector institutions. Risk management is therefore a decision support tool and a means to ensure the sustainability of an organization. In this context, what methods and approaches implemented to manage the risks? Through this state of the art, we are interested in the concept of risk and risk management processes. Then we focus on the different methods of risk management and the criteria for choosing among these methods. Finally we highlight the need to supplement these methods by a systemic and global approach including through risk assessment by the audits. PMID:26119049

  12. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  13. Risk Management Implementation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Shayla L.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Risk Management (CM) is a software engineering practice with processes, methods, and tools for managing risk in a project. It provides a controlled environment for practical decision making, in order to assess continually what could go wrong, determine which risk are important to deal with, implement strategies to deal with those risk and assure the measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. Continuous Risk Management provides many training workshops and courses to teach the staff how to implement risk management to their various experiments and projects. The steps of the CRM process are identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and control. These steps and the various methods and tools that go along with them, identification, and dealing with risk is clear-cut. The office that I worked in was the Risk Management Office (RMO). The RMO at NASA works hard to uphold NASA s mission of exploration and advancement of scientific knowledge and technology by defining and reducing program risk. The RMO is one of the divisions that fall under the Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD). I worked under Cynthia Calhoun, Flight Software Systems Engineer. My task was to develop a help screen for the Continuous Risk Management Implementation Tool (RMIT). The Risk Management Implementation Tool will be used by many NASA managers to identify, analyze, track, control, and communicate risks in their programs and projects. The RMIT will provide a means for NASA to continuously assess risks. The goals and purposes for this tool is to provide a simple means to manage risks, be used by program and project managers throughout NASA for managing risk, and to take an aggressive approach to advertise and advocate the use of RMIT at each NASA center.

  14. Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Stephenson

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this Risk Management Plan (RMP) is to establish the concept and define the process to assure that National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office Environmental Management (NNSA/NV EM) programs and projects incorporate appropriate, efficient, cost-effective measures to mitigate the impact of program-and/or project-related risks. In addition, it describes the roles and responsibilities of program personnel in performing the risk management functions, and defines reporting and tracking requirements for risk-related information. The product of this risk analysis will be a risk analysis report listing the various risks with their classification, mitigation and handling strategies, impact on cost and schedule, and action items. The risk management process will identify potential risk sources; assess individual risks and impacts on performance, cost, and schedule; evaluate alternative approaches to mitigate high and moderate risks; develop action plans to handle individual risks; and interface risks with other programs and/or projects. Risk management and risk assessment will be consistent with DOE Orders 430.1 and 413.3 and their associated guidance documentation. The RMP will remain valid for the life cycle of the program and/or projects and will be under configuration control with revisions to be conducted as required and approved.

  15. Probabilistic Methods for Structural Reliability and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2010-01-01

    A probabilistic method is used to evaluate the structural reliability and risk of select metallic and composite structures. The method is a multiscale, multifunctional and it is based on the most elemental level. A multifactor interaction model is used to describe the material properties which are subsequently evaluated probabilistically. The metallic structure is a two rotor aircraft engine, while the composite structures consist of laminated plies (multiscale) and the properties of each ply are the multifunctional representation. The structural component is modeled by finite element. The solution method for structural responses is obtained by an updated simulation scheme. The results show that the risk for the two rotor engine is about 0.0001 and the composite built-up structure is also 0.0001.

  16. Probabilistic Methods for Structural Reliability and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic method is used to evaluate the structural reliability and risk of select metallic and composite structures. The method is a multiscale, multifunctional and it is based on the most elemental level. A multi-factor interaction model is used to describe the material properties which are subsequently evaluated probabilistically. The metallic structure is a two rotor aircraft engine, while the composite structures consist of laminated plies (multiscale) and the properties of each ply are the multifunctional representation. The structural component is modeled by finite element. The solution method for structural responses is obtained by an updated simulation scheme. The results show that the risk for the two rotor engine is about 0.0001 and the composite built-up structure is also 0.0001.

  17. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and

  18. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same

  19. Risk management planning handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Greenway, R.

    1998-12-31

    Subtitled ``A Comprehensive Guide to Hazard Assessment, Accidental Release Prevention and Consequence Analysis,`` this new book will help companies be prepared to meet the mid-1999 deadline for Risk Management Plan submission. The book offers specific, cost-effective recommendations on preparing and implementing risk management programs, identifying worst-case emissions using what if computer modeling.

  20. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  1. Today's School Risk Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl P.; Levering, Steve

    2009-01-01

    School districts are held accountable not only for the monies that contribute to the education system but also for mitigating any issues that threaten student learning. Some school districts are fortunate to have professional risk managers on staff who can identify and control the many risks that are unique to school systems. Most schools,…

  2. Probabilistic Assessment of Climate Risk to Water Supply Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.; Martin, M.; Ghile, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change poses risks to the reliability of water supply operations around the world. In this study, a climate risk assessment was conducted of the Quabbin-Wachusett reservoir system which supplies municipal water to the city of Boston and surround metropolitan area, serving 2.2 million people with about 250 million gallons per day. Given the uncertainty associated with climate change projections for the region, a risk-based methodology was adopted for the study. The methodology consisted of (1) identifying the climate sensitivities of the system and thresholds where changes in performance would be unacceptable, (2) use climate information, including GCM output, to estimate the probability of climate changes that exceeded the acceptable thresholds, and (3) develop a strategy for managing problematic climate risks that were identified in the first 2 steps. The innovative aspect of this study was the use of inverse modeling of climate risks to create a climate response function. In this case, the reliability of the reservoir system was calculated for a range of possible changes in precipitation and temperature. This allowed the identification of the thresholds in temperature and precipitation that were unacceptable in terms of system performance. For example, temperature changes of greater than +3% coupled with precipitation changes that were less than an increase of 4% would cause the reliability of the system to fall below 95% which was unacceptable. Next, output from GCMs was used to estimate the probability of these changes occurring. A multi-model, multi-member ensemble was used to estimate the full distribution of the future projections, given that no single model or single run presents an acceptable estimate of the possibilities. In this case, it was found that there was a very low probability of climate changes that exceeded the thresholds identified above because most projections were for increases in precipitation of greater than 4%. Given the relatively low risk associated with climate change, step 3 would consist of development of strategies related to managing the risks associated with climate variability, i.e., extended periods of drought, and also the implications of demand growth.

  3. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  4. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility, dynamic learning methods for scheduling the maintenance of direct load control switches whose operating state is not directly observable and can only be inferred from the metered electricity consumption, and machine learning methods for accurately forecasting the load of hundreds of thousands of residential, commercial and industrial customers. These algorithms have been implemented in the software system provided by AutoGrid, Inc., and this system has helped several utilities in the Pacific Northwest, Oklahoma, California and Texas, provide more reliable power to their customers at significantly reduced prices. Providing power to widely spread out communities in developing countries using the conventional power grid is not economically feasible. The most attractive alternative source of affordable energy for these communities is solar micro-grids. We discuss risk-aware robust methods to optimally size and operate solar micro-grids in the presence of uncertain demand and uncertain renewable generation. These algorithms help system operators to increase their revenue while making their systems more resilient to inclement weather conditions.

  5. Risk management in surgery

    PubMed Central

    MESSANO, G.A.; SPAZIANI, E.; TURCHETTA, F.; CECI, F.; CORELLI, S.; CASCIARO, G.; MARTELLUCCI, A.; COSTANTINO, A.; NAPOLEONI, A.; CIPRIANI, B.; NICODEMI, S.; DI GRAZIA, C.; MOSILLO, R.; AVALLONE, M.; ORSINI, S.; TUDISCO, A.; AIUTI, F.; STAGNITTI, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Malpractice is the responsible for the greatest number of legal claims. At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy are 15,000 per year, and a stunning increase about costs to refund patients injured by therapeutic and diagnostic errors is expected. The method for the medical prevention is “Risk Management”, that is the setting-up of organizational instruments, methods and actions that enable the measurement or estimation of medical risk; it allows to develop strategies to govern and reduce medical error. In the present work, the reconstruction about the history of risk management in Italy was carried out. After then the latest initiatives undertaken by Italy about the issue of risk management were examined. PMID:24091181

  6. Children's Aquatics: Managing the Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langendorfer, Stephen; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies the major risks faced by young children in aquatic programs, outlines several methods for managing risk factors, and discusses the steps involved in implementing a risk-management system. (IAH)

  7. Risk Management of NASA Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarper, Hueseyin

    1997-01-01

    Various NASA Langley Research Center and other center projects were attempted for analysis to obtain historical data comparing pre-phase A study and the final outcome for each project. This attempt, however, was abandoned once it became clear that very little documentation was available. Next, extensive literature search was conducted on the role of risk and reliability concepts in project management. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques are being used with increasing regularity both in and outside of NASA. The value and the usage of PRA techniques were reviewed for large projects. It was found that both civilian and military branches of the space industry have traditionally refrained from using PRA, which was developed and expanded by nuclear industry. Although much has changed with the end of the cold war and the Challenger disaster, it was found that ingrained anti-PRA culture is hard to stop. Examples of skepticism against the use of risk management and assessment techniques were found both in the literature and in conversations with some technical staff. Program and project managers need to be convinced that the applicability and use of risk management and risk assessment techniques is much broader than just in the traditional safety-related areas of application. The time has come to begin to uniformly apply these techniques. The whole idea of risk-based system can maximize the 'return on investment' that the public demands. Also, it would be very useful if all project documents of NASA Langley Research Center, pre-phase A through final report, are carefully stored in a central repository preferably in electronic format.

  8. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  9. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  10. Cost effective management of space venture risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.

  11. Risk and reliability assessment for telecommunications networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques to model network reliability for a wide variety of communications network architectures. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of current generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree PLM techniques. They have developed a ``plug-and-play`` fault tree analysis methodology that can be used to model connectivity and the provision of network services in a wide variety of current generation network architectures. They have also developed an efficient search algorithm that can be used to determine the minimal cut sets of an arbitrarily-interconnected (non-hierarchical) network without the construction of a fault tree model. This paper provides an overview of these modeling techniques and describes how they are applied to networks that exhibit hybrid network structures (i.e., a network in which some areas are hierarchical and some areas are not hierarchical).

  12. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  13. RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment of mixtures of environmental pollutants has become a subject of increasing public and regulatory concern. ypically, assessment of mixtures has been based on aggregating the risks associated with the individual constituents of the mixture. his approach does not con...

  14. Managing the effects of aging and reliability improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.; Boccio, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Over recent years the electric power generating community has acknowledged the importance of the aging process on plant safety and availability. To cope with time-dependent degradation phenomenon that can affect active as well as passive components and lead to unacceptable, unanticipated failures requires research into the mechanisms of the aging process, advances in productive methods for assessing the aging impact on risk and availability, and a better understanding of power plant operations so that strategies for defending against this pervasive stress can be developed. This paper discusses current research advances and presents a framework to aid in the systematic integration of these three needs. As such it is anchored to research being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the areas of plant aging, life extension, reliability, performance indication, and risk assessment. The current question facing the industry can be simply stated. ''How can an acceptable level of safety and availability be maintained throughout the operational life of a nuclear power plant.'' The complexity of this question indicates that managing aging effects must be a continuous, coordinated process integrated with day-to-day tactical plant operation decisions. This implies that aging and reliability programs must be systemic properties of an organization's management, and that research into aging technology must be closely linked.

  15. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained, resolved and incorporated, and this document presents the results of the assessment.

  16. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  17. Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment - How They Play Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Stutts, Richard G.; Zhaofeng, Huang

    2015-01-01

    PRA methodology is one of the probabilistic analysis methods that NASA brought from the nuclear industry to assess the risk of LOM, LOV and LOC for launch vehicles. PRA is a system scenario based risk assessment that uses a combination of fault trees, event trees, event sequence diagrams, and probability and statistical data to analyze the risk of a system, a process, or an activity. It is a process designed to answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? What is the severity of the degradation? Since 1986, NASA, along with industry partners, has conducted a number of PRA studies to predict the overall launch vehicles risks. Planning Research Corporation conducted the first of these studies in 1988. In 1995, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted a comprehensive PRA study. In July 1996, NASA conducted a two-year study (October 1996 - September 1998) to develop a model that provided the overall Space Shuttle risk and estimates of risk changes due to proposed Space Shuttle upgrades. After the Columbia accident, NASA conducted a PRA on the Shuttle External Tank (ET) foam. This study was the most focused and extensive risk assessment that NASA has conducted in recent years. It used a dynamic, physics-based, integrated system analysis approach to understand the integrated system risk due to ET foam loss in flight. Most recently, a PRA for Ares I launch vehicle has been performed in support of the Constellation program. Reliability, on the other hand, addresses the loss of functions. In a broader sense, reliability engineering is a discipline that involves the application of engineering principles to the design and processing of products, both hardware and software, for meeting product reliability requirements or goals. It is a very broad design-support discipline. It has important interfaces with many other engineering disciplines. Reliability as a figure of merit (i.e. the metric) is the probability that an item will perform its intended function(s) for a specified mission profile. In general, the reliability metric can be calculated through the analyses using reliability demonstration and reliability prediction methodologies. Reliability analysis is very critical for understanding component failure mechanisms and in identifying reliability critical design and process drivers. The following sections discuss the PRA process and reliability engineering in detail and provide an application where reliability analysis and PRA were jointly used in a complementary manner to support a Space Shuttle flight risk assessment.

  18. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  19. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  20. Risk Management in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratory tests play an integral role in medical decision-making and as such must be reliable and accurate. Unfortunately, no laboratory tests or devices are foolproof and errors can occur at pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases of testing. Evaluating possible conditions that could lead to errors and outlining the necessary steps to detect and prevent errors before they cause patient harm is therefore an important part of laboratory testing. This can be achieved through the practice of risk management. EP23-A is a new guideline from the CLSI that introduces risk management principles to the clinical laboratory. This guideline borrows concepts from the manufacturing industry and encourages laboratories to develop risk management plans that address the specific risks inherent to each lab. Once the risks have been identified, the laboratory must implement control processes and continuously monitor and modify them to make certain that risk is maintained at a clinically acceptable level. This review summarizes the principles of risk management in the clinical laboratory and describes various quality control activities employed by the laboratory to achieve the goal of reporting valid, accurate and reliable test results. PMID:24982831

  1. Risk management in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Nichols, James H

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratory tests play an integral role in medical decision-making and as such must be reliable and accurate. Unfortunately, no laboratory tests or devices are foolproof and errors can occur at pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases of testing. Evaluating possible conditions that could lead to errors and outlining the necessary steps to detect and prevent errors before they cause patient harm is therefore an important part of laboratory testing. This can be achieved through the practice of risk management. EP23-A is a new guideline from the CLSI that introduces risk management principles to the clinical laboratory. This guideline borrows concepts from the manufacturing industry and encourages laboratories to develop risk management plans that address the specific risks inherent to each lab. Once the risks have been identified, the laboratory must implement control processes and continuously monitor and modify them to make certain that risk is maintained at a clinically acceptable level. This review summarizes the principles of risk management in the clinical laboratory and describes various quality control activities employed by the laboratory to achieve the goal of reporting valid, accurate and reliable test results. PMID:24982831

  2. Managing information technology security risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task for the organization to protect against the loss of confidentiality, integrity and availability of IT resources. As systems bgecome more complex and diverse and and attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security risk. This paper describes a two-pronged approach in addressing IT security risk and risk management in the organization: 1) an institutional enterprise appraoch, and 2) a project life cycle approach.

  3. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. PMID:21819846

  4. Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment - How They Play Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal; Stutts, Richard; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Since the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986, NASA has extensively used probabilistic analysis methods to assess, understand, and communicate the risk of space launch vehicles. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), used in the nuclear industry, is one of the probabilistic analysis methods NASA utilizes to assess Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for launch vehicles. PRA is a system scenario based risk assessment that uses a combination of fault trees, event trees, event sequence diagrams, and probability distributions to analyze the risk of a system, a process, or an activity. It is a process designed to answer three basic questions: 1) what can go wrong that would lead to loss or degraded performance (i.e., scenarios involving undesired consequences of interest), 2) how likely is it (probabilities), and 3) what is the severity of the degradation (consequences). Since the Challenger accident, PRA has been used in supporting decisions regarding safety upgrades for launch vehicles. Another area that was given a lot of emphasis at NASA after the Challenger accident is reliability engineering. Reliability engineering has been a critical design function at NASA since the early Apollo days. However, after the Challenger accident, quantitative reliability analysis and reliability predictions were given more scrutiny because of their importance in understanding failure mechanism and quantifying the probability of failure, which are key elements in resolving technical issues, performing design trades, and implementing design improvements. Although PRA and reliability are both probabilistic in nature and, in some cases, use the same tools, they are two different activities. Specifically, reliability engineering is a broad design discipline that deals with loss of function and helps understand failure mechanism and improve component and system design. PRA is a system scenario based risk assessment process intended to assess the risk scenarios that could lead to a major/top undesirable system event, and to identify those scenarios that are high-risk drivers. PRA output is critical to support risk informed decisions concerning system design. This paper describes the PRA process and the reliability engineering discipline in detail. It discusses their differences and similarities and how they work together as complementary analyses to support the design and risk assessment processes. Lessons learned, applications, and case studies in both areas are also discussed in the paper to demonstrate and explain these differences and similarities.

  5. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins; John M. Beck

    2011-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Risk Management System (RMS) is a database used to maintain the project risk register. The RMS also maps risk reduction activities to specific identified risks. Further functionality of the RMS includes mapping reactor suppliers Design Data Needs (DDNs) to risk reduction tasks and mapping Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRTs) to associated risks. This document outlines the basic instructions on how to use the RMS. This document constitutes Revision 1 of the NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk. It incorporates the latest enhancements to the RMS. The enhancements include six new custom views of risk data - Impact/Consequence, Tasks by Project Phase, Tasks by Status, Tasks by Project Phase/Status, Tasks by Impact/WBS, and Tasks by Phase/Impact/WBS.

  6. Risk Assessment/Management Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    RAMTool performs the following: • A tool to perform facility and programmatic risk assessments, produce risk registers, develop risk management plans (RMPs), link risks to improvement/risk-reduction projects, and actively manage risks • Ability to conduct risk assessments. Ease of determination of probability and consequence based on industry standard risk matrices. Complies with site risk management performance document. Provides multiple outputs/report for required risk forms. Conduct quick risk data analysis. • Performs/calculates a facility risk factormore » (RF) and a programmatic RF. Supports project and initiative prioritization and funding in order to make solid decisions on risk reduction. Assigns responsibility and accountability at a risk owner (RO) level. Monitors and tracks progress toward completing mitigation strategies. Ability to import massive amounts of data at the push of a button. Integrates development of a Risk Management Plan (RMP) Built for ease-of-use – design, built, and used by technical/management personnel. Can be customized (functions and/or reports) for further analysis« less

  7. Risk Assessment/Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    RAMTool performs the following: ? A tool to perform facility and programmatic risk assessments, produce risk registers, develop risk management plans (RMPs), link risks to improvement/risk-reduction projects, and actively manage risks ? Ability to conduct risk assessments. Ease of determination of probability and consequence based on industry standard risk matrices. Complies with site risk management performance document. Provides multiple outputs/report for required risk forms. Conduct quick risk data analysis. ? Performs/calculates a facility risk factor (RF) and a programmatic RF. Supports project and initiative prioritization and funding in order to make solid decisions on risk reduction. Assigns responsibility and accountability at a risk owner (RO) level. Monitors and tracks progress toward completing mitigation strategies. Ability to import massive amounts of data at the push of a button. Integrates development of a Risk Management Plan (RMP) Built for ease-of-use ? design, built, and used by technical/management personnel. Can be customized (functions and/or reports) for further analysis

  8. Time-Tagged Risk/Reliability Assessment Program for Development and Operation of Space System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yuki; Takegahara, Haruki; Aoyagi, Junichiro

    We have investigated a new method of risk/reliability assessment for development and operation of space system. It is difficult to evaluate risk of spacecraft, because of long time operation, maintenance free and difficulty of test under the ground condition. Conventional methods are FMECA, FTA, ETA and miscellaneous. These are not enough to assess chronological anomaly and there is a problem to share information during R&D. A new method of risk and reliability assessment, T-TRAP (Time-tagged Risk/Reliability Assessment Program) is proposed as a management tool for the development and operation of space system. T-TRAP consisting of time-resolved Fault Tree and Criticality Analyses, upon occurrence of anomaly in the system, facilitates the responsible personnel to quickly identify the failure cause and decide corrective actions. This paper describes T-TRAP method and its availability.

  9. Improving Information Security Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    manaOptimizing risk to information to protect the enterprise as well as to satisfy government and industry mandates is a core function of most information security departments. Risk management is the discipline that is focused on assessing, mitigating, monitoring and optimizing risks to information. Risk assessments and analyses are critical…

  10. Improving Information Security Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    manaOptimizing risk to information to protect the enterprise as well as to satisfy government and industry mandates is a core function of most information security departments. Risk management is the discipline that is focused on assessing, mitigating, monitoring and optimizing risks to information. Risk assessments and analyses are critical

  11. Challenges to sustainable risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ariel C., Aurora, Ashish, Hall, Dennis E.,

    2004-08-09

    This paper summarizes the intermediate lessons learned from the analyses of the risk management problems in three technological endeavors. These problems are: the absence of a structure for rewarding successful project risk management; the need for an ever-more accurate economic measure of risk; and the difficulty of transferring risks to contract-bound independent outsourcing entity. This paper also describes recent advancement towards providing answers to these challenges and future research endeavors in this field.

  12. Continuous Risk Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

  13. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-09-01

    To facilitate the implementation of the Risk Management Plan, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project has developed and employed an analytical software tool called the NGNP Risk Management System (RMS). A relational database developed in Microsoft® Access, the RMS provides conventional database utility including data maintenance, archiving, configuration control, and query ability. Additionally, the tool’s design provides a number of unique capabilities specifically designed to facilitate the development and execution of activities outlined in the Risk Management Plan. Specifically, the RMS provides the capability to establish the risk baseline, document and analyze the risk reduction plan, track the current risk reduction status, organize risks by reference configuration system, subsystem, and component (SSC) and Area, and increase the level of NGNP decision making.

  14. Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Risk identification is an ongoing activity that takes place during the routine project work flow. Project activities such as programmatic and technical meetings, telecons, reviews, and other forms of communication often bring to light project risks. When this occurs, we record and analyze the risk on a Risk Information Sheet. This process helps the project team identify and cope with project risks throughout the life of the project.

  15. Risk management for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, Ben

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a quantitative engineering process that provides the analytic structure and decision-making framework for total programmatic risk management. Ideally, it is initiated in the conceptual design phase and used throughout the program life cycle. Although PRA was developed for assessment of safety, reliability, and availability risk, it has far greater application. Throughout the design phase, PRA can guide trade-off studies among system performance, safety, reliability, cost, and schedule. These studies are based on the assessment of the risk of meeting each parameter goal, with full consideration of the uncertainties. Quantitative trade-off studies are essential, but without full identification, propagation, and display of uncertainties, poor decisions may result. PRA also can focus attention on risk drivers in situations where risk is too high. For example, if safety risk is unacceptable, the PRA prioritizes the risk contributors to guide the use of resources for risk mitigation. PRA is used in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Program. To meet the stringent requirements of the SEI mission, within strict budgetary constraints, the PRA structure supports informed and traceable decision-making. This paper briefly describes the SEI PRA process.

  16. Reliability of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brener, N D; Collins, J L; Kann, L; Warren, C W; Williams, B I

    1995-03-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) has been used on a biennial basis since 1990 to measure health risk behaviors of high school students nationwide. The YRBS measures behaviors related to intentional and unintentional injury, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual activity, diet, and physical activity. The authors present the results from a test-retest reliability study of the YRBS, conducted by administering the YRBS questionnaire to 1,679 students in grades 7 through 12 on two occasions 14 days apart. The authors computed a kappa statistic for each of 53 self-report items and compared group prevalence estimates across the two testing occasions. Kappas ranged from 14.5% to 91.1%; 71.7% of the items were rated as having "substantial" or higher reliability (kappa = 61-100%). No significant differences were found between the prevalence estimates at time 1 and time 2. Responses of seventh grade students were less consistent than those of students in higher grades, indicating that the YRBS is best suited for students in grade 8 and above. Except for a few suspect items, students appeared to report personal health risk behaviors reliably over time. Reliability and validity issues in health behavior assessment also are discussed. PMID:7900725

  17. A high reliability battery management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over a period of some 5 years Canadian Astronautics Limited (CAL) has developed a system to autonomously manage, and thus prolong the life of, secondary storage batteries. During the development, the system was aimed at the space vehicle application using nickel cadmium batteries, but is expected to be able to enhance the life and performance of any rechargeable electrochemical couple. The system handles the cells of a battery individually and thus avoids the problems of over, and under, drive that inevitably occur in a battery of cells managed by an averaging system. This individual handling also allow cells to be totally bypassed in the event of failure, thus avoiding the losses associated with low capacity, partial short circuit, and the catastrophe of open circuit. The system has an optional capability of managing redundant batteries simultaneously, adding the advantage of on line reconditioning of one battery, while the other maintains the energy storage capability of the overall system. As developed, the system contains a dedicated, redundant, microprocessor, but the capability exists to have this computing capability time shared, or remote, and operating through a data link. As adjuncts to the basic management system CAL has developed high efficiency, polyphase, power regulators for charge and discharge power conditioning.

  18. MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) based risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, G.J.

    1990-02-01

    Risk Management is the optimization of safety programs. This requires a formal systems approach to hazards identification, risk quantification, and resource allocation/risk acceptance as opposed to case-by-case decisions. The Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) has gained wide acceptance as a comprehensive formal systems approach covering all aspects of risk management. It (MORT) is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing safety system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal ''universal'' management program for optimizing occupational safety.

  19. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  20. Managing risk in software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, S.K.; Jansma, R.M.; Murphy, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    A methodology for risk management in the design of software systems is presented. It spans security, safety, and correct operation of software within the context of its environment, and produces a risk analysis and documented risk management strategy. It is designed to be iteratively applied, to attain appropriate levels of detail throughout the analysis. The methodology and supporting tools are discussed. The methodology is critiqued relative to other research in the field. Some sample applications of the methodology are presented.

  1. The NASA Risk Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA Risk Management Program established by the Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Quality (MSQ). Current agency policy is outlined, risk management assistance to the field is described, and examples are given of independent risk assessments conducted by SMQ. The motivation for and the structure of the program is placed in the historical context of pre- and post-Challenger environments.

  2. Reliability engineering appraisal for power plants life assessment and management

    SciTech Connect

    Isreb, M.

    1998-12-31

    Reliability engineering in power plants life assessment and management aims at minimization of life synthesis cycle plant cost without compromising plant safety. Power plant reliability depends, as discussed in the present paper, on power plants life synthesis and various reliability methods such as synthesis based analysis, design, and manufacturing, operating conditions, plant reporting and recording system, plant failure analysis system, and field operational data on the same or similar power plants components. The paper presents a new approach to power plants reliability engineering appraisal. The approach, designed specifically to form part of a power plant`s overall life assessment and management, introduces a flexible mechanism for appraisal. This is done through the introduction of the Reliability Appraisal Matrix (RAM) of various reliability methods. In addition, RAM is introduced for Boiler Tubing (BT) life synthesis in relation to new, random and remnant life of BT. RAM is also introduced for BT components, namely stress rupture, water-side corrosion, fire-side corrosion, erosion, and deficiency of quality assurance leading to failure. In fact, there is a growing need in the literature to find an indicator of reliability appraisal. The indicator is introduced in the present paper as RAM. The paper recommends the standardization of RAM as an adaptable and dynamic mechanism for engineering reliability appraisal of power plant life assessment and management. Furthermore, the recommended standardization of RAM coefficients should account for different classes of power plant components, operating conditions, maintenance procedure and age.

  3. Risk Management Issues - An Aerospace Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks--risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements.. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner, Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  4. Quantified Risk Ranking Model for Condition-Based Risk and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyaya, Pradip Kumar; Basu, Sushil Kumar; Majumdar, Manik Chandra

    2016-03-01

    In the recent past, risk and reliability centered maintenance (RRCM) framework is introduced with a shift in the methodological focus from reliability and probabilities (expected values) to reliability, uncertainty and risk. In this paper authors explain a novel methodology for risk quantification and ranking the critical items for prioritizing the maintenance actions on the basis of condition-based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM). The critical items are identified through criticality analysis of RPN values of items of a system and the maintenance significant precipitating factors (MSPF) of items are evaluated. The criticality of risk is assessed using three risk coefficients. The likelihood risk coefficient treats the probability as a fuzzy number. The abstract risk coefficient deduces risk influenced by uncertainty, sensitivity besides other factors. The third risk coefficient is called hazardous risk coefficient, which is due to anticipated hazards which may occur in the future and the risk is deduced from criteria of consequences on safety, environment, maintenance and economic risks with corresponding cost for consequences. The characteristic values of all the three risk coefficients are obtained with a particular test. With few more tests on the system, the values may change significantly within controlling range of each coefficient, hence `random number simulation' is resorted to obtain one distinctive value for each coefficient. The risk coefficients are statistically added to obtain final risk coefficient of each critical item and then the final rankings of critical items are estimated. The prioritization in ranking of critical items using the developed mathematical model for risk assessment shall be useful in optimization of financial losses and timing of maintenance actions.

  5. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage. PMID:23477199

  6. Risk analysis and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Present software development accomplishments are indicative of the emerging interest in and increasing efforts to provide risk assessment backbone tools in the manned spacecraft engineering community. There are indications that similar efforts are underway in the chemical processes industry and are probably being planned for other high risk ground base environments. It appears that complex flight systems intended for extended manned planetary exploration will drive this technology.

  7. Space flight risk data collection and analysis project: Risk and reliability database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The focus of the NASA 'Space Flight Risk Data Collection and Analysis' project was to acquire and evaluate space flight data with the express purpose of establishing a database containing measurements of specific risk assessment - reliability - availability - maintainability - supportability (RRAMS) parameters. The developed comprehensive RRAMS database will support the performance of future NASA and aerospace industry risk and reliability studies. One of the primary goals has been to acquire unprocessed information relating to the reliability and availability of launch vehicles and the subsystems and components thereof from the 45th Space Wing (formerly Eastern Space and Missile Command -ESMC) at Patrick Air Force Base. After evaluating and analyzing this information, it was encoded in terms of parameters pertinent to ascertaining reliability and availability statistics, and then assembled into an appropriate database structure.

  8. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  9. The Management of Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Dan

    1979-01-01

    Defining the nature and extent of risk associated with adventure education, this article notes the riskiest activities and delineates three main causes of accidents: unsafe conditions; unsafe acts; and judgmental errors. Careful program organization, staff selection, routine safety inspections, and emergency plans are also addressed. (SB)

  10. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  11. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  12. Risk management in radiology departments

    PubMed Central

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  13. Risk management in radiology departments.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-06-28

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  14. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

  15. Managing Corporate Risk through Better Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explain how progressive companies are using a combination of knowledge and risk management (KRM) systems and techniques in order to help them to prevent, or respond most effectively to, ethical or reputation-damaging incidents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains KRM, develops a corporate integrity framework, and then

  16. Risk management models in netball.

    PubMed

    Otago, L; Brown, L

    2003-06-01

    Risk management strategies have been used in a wide range of sports. Many issues involved in the implementation of risk management models in sport have not been investigated especially the sport specific and location specific nature of such models. The aim of this study was to ascertain the usefulness of Occupational Health & Safety risk management (RM) models in a mainly voluntary sporting organisation and to investigate the requirements of a netball population in developing "user friendly" risk management plans. The industry RM plans were trialled in a rural setting at various netball associations over a six week period. After these trials focus groups and interviews were conducted and the trials evaluated. The requirements of the netball population for a RM plan were investigated using focus groups from regional and rural areas. The industry RM models presented were not generally accepted by the trial participants. They found that the level of expertise required did not exist in netball at the club/team level. The focus groups on the needs of netball for a user friendly model brought out a number of issues including the specific needs of rural football/netball leagues, the need to develop strategies for all levels of netball (coach, player, umpire, administrator). Barriers to the uptake of risk management models were discussed. An effective RM plan can be developed for voluntary sports associations but they must be specific to the sport and flexible. The RM plan must also take into account the barriers to implementation for each sporting culture. PMID:12945628

  17. Risk Management Structured for Today's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    In NPG (NASA Procedures and Guidelines) 7120.5A, we define risk management as "an organized, systematic decision-making process that efficiently identifies, analyzes, plans, tracks, controls, and communicates and documents risk in order to increase the likelihood of achieving program/project goals." Effective risk management depends upon a thorough understanding of the concept of risk, the principles of risk management and the formation of a disciplined risk management process. In human spaceflight programs, NASA has always maintained a rigorous and highly structured risk management effort. When lives are at stake, NASA's missions must be 100% safe; the risk management approach used in human spaceflight has always been comprehensive.

  18. Laboratory Information Management System Chain of Custody: Reliability and Security

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Elliott-Smith, W.; Radosta, T.

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of automation and of data reliability can vary, and FDA- and EPA-compliant electronic signatures and system security are rare. PMID:17671623

  19. Risk Management: Research Needs and Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Terry J.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes risk-management research in categories of practical relevance to outdoor recreation stakeholders and the research community: conceptualization of risk; risk/benefit studies; risk monitoring; risk management in organizations and programs (identification, evaluation, control, planning, evaluation); legal issues; and risk communication.

  20. Structured prototyping as risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda SH.; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for integrating the systems-engineering management recommendation of prototyping into the traditional project-management process for developing large-scale systems. The suggested methodology begins with the identification of life-cycle risk areas, outlines the structure and conduct of the prototyping process, and defines the composition of the prototyping team. The methodology includes a step-by-step procedure for creating, executing, and documenting a prototyping test plan to evaluate design alternatives. It is argued that managers who adopt this methodology and apply it rigorously will increase the likelihood that the systems they build will be operationally effective and will be accepted by the intended users.

  1. Flood risk and flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Erich J.

    2002-10-01

    Risk management has been established as a well defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental or man made hazards, of which floods are representative. Risk management has been discussed in many previous papers giving different meanings to the term—a result of the fact that risk management actually takes place on three different levels of actions: the operational level, which is associated with operating an existing system, a project planning level, which is used when a new, or a revision of an existing project is planned, and a project design level, which is embedded into the second level and describes the process of reaching an optimal solution for the project. The first two levels will be briefly described in the paper. It will be emphasized that the transition from the first to the second level is a dynamic process. As the value system of a nation changes, and as the natural boundary conditions are modified by human actions or global changes, an existing system will be found not meeting the demands of the present society, and actions on the second level are initiated. The decisions for change depend on the changes in options available for handling a flood situation, as well as on the changes in risk perception and attitudes towards risk. On the third level, the actual cost of a design are evaluated and compared with the benefits obtained from the planned project. In particular, on this level the residual risk is considered, i.e. the risk which remains even after a project is completed and fully operational.

  2. Overview of the Hanford risk management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, T.G.

    1998-03-26

    The Project Hanford Management Contract called for the enhancement of site-wide decision processes, and development of a Hanford Risk Management Plan to adopt or develop a risk management system for the Hanford Site. This Plan provides a consistent foundation for Site issues and addresses site-wide management of risks of all types. It supports the Department of Energy planning and sitewide decision making policy. Added to this requirement is a risk performance report to characterize the risk management accomplishments. This paper presents the development of risk management within the context of work planning and performance. Also discussed are four risk elements which add value to the context.

  3. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-10-31

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it`s subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists.

  4. Risk management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

    2013-05-01

    The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

  5. Managing risk, clinical error, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Milne, J Kenneth

    2002-09-01

    Clinical risk presents enormous challenges for the health profession and governments. Despite excellent national and regional programs focused on the management of obstetrical conditions and prevention of newborn injury, an environment of clinical error persists; according to Canadian Medical Protective Association data, each year 6% of Canadian obstetricians face a legal challenge, with most cases also involving nurses and hospitals. Principles and lessons learned from risk management developed in high reliability organizations (HROs), such as air traffic controllers and nuclear power plants, can be applied to risk management in perinatal/obstetrical units. In 2002, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada will launch an obstetrical risk management program called "Managing Obstetrical Risk Efficiently" (MORE), integrating labour and delivery clinical core content with HRO principles and reflective learning and practice modification tools designed to help all obstetrical caregivers build and maintain confidence and competency, improve patient safety and quality of care, and reduce clinical error and adverse events. PMID:12360367

  6. Engineering for reliability in at-home chronic disease management

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Eschler, Jordan; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B.; Vizer, Lisa M.; Ralston, James D.; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions face challenges with maintaining lifelong adherence to self-management activities. Although reminders can help support the cognitive demands of managing daily and future health tasks, we understand little of how they fit into people’s daily lives. Utilizing a maximum variation sampling method, we interviewed and compared the experiences of 20 older adults with diabetes and 19 mothers of children with asthma to understand reminder use for at-home chronic disease management. Based on our participants’ experiences, we contend that many self-management failures should be viewed as systems failures, rather than individual failures and non-compliance. Furthermore, we identify key principles from reliability engineering that both explain current behavior and suggest strategies to improve patient reminder systems. PMID:25954384

  7. Engineering for reliability in at-home chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Logan; Eschler, Jordan; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B; Vizer, Lisa M; Ralston, James D; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions face challenges with maintaining lifelong adherence to self-management activities. Although reminders can help support the cognitive demands of managing daily and future health tasks, we understand little of how they fit into people's daily lives. Utilizing a maximum variation sampling method, we interviewed and compared the experiences of 20 older adults with diabetes and 19 mothers of children with asthma to understand reminder use for at-home chronic disease management. Based on our participants' experiences, we contend that many self-management failures should be viewed as systems failures, rather than individual failures and non-compliance. Furthermore, we identify key principles from reliability engineering that both explain current behavior and suggest strategies to improve patient reminder systems. PMID:25954384

  8. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... models used to measure and monitor such risk; (iii) Regarding day-to-day operational liquidity needs and... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and... RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  9. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  10. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  11. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  12. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  13. Hanford Tanks Initiative risk management guide

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-10-29

    This project-specific Risk Management Guide describes the general approach and process being used by the HTI Project to manage risk associated with execution of the HTI mission. It includes the initial identification of risk and the quantification of its likelihood and severity of its consequences. It further addresses the formulation of risk mitigation plans, periodic statusing of the Risk Management List, and risk closure.

  14. [Risk and risk management in aviation].

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred

    2004-10-01

    RISK MANAGEMENT: The large proportion of human errors in aviation accidents suggested the solution--at first sight brilliant--to replace the fallible human being by an "infallible" digitally-operating computer. However, even after the introduction of the so-called HITEC-airplanes, the factor human error still accounts for 75% of all accidents. Thus, if the computer is ruled out as the ultimate safety system, how else can complex operations involving quick and difficult decisions be controlled? OPTIMIZED TEAM INTERACTION/PARALLEL CONNECTION OF THOUGHT MACHINES: Since a single person is always "highly error-prone", support and control have to be guaranteed by a second person. The independent work of mind results in a safety network that more efficiently cushions human errors. NON-PUNITIVE ERROR MANAGEMENT: To be able to tackle the actual problems, the open discussion of intervened errors must not be endangered by the threat of punishment. It has been shown in the past that progress is primarily achieved by investigating and following up mistakes, failures and catastrophes shortly after they happened. HUMAN FACTOR RESEARCH PROJECT: A comprehensive survey showed the following result: By far the most frequent safety-critical situation (37.8% of all events) consists of the following combination of risk factors: 1. A complication develops. 2. In this situation of increased stress a human error occurs. 3. The negative effects of the error cannot be corrected or eased because there are deficiencies in team interaction on the flight deck. This means, for example, that a negative social climate has the effect of a "turbocharger" when a human error occurs. It needs to be pointed out that a negative social climate is not identical with a dispute. In many cases the working climate is burdened without the responsible person even noticing it: A first negative impression, too much or too little respect, contempt, misunderstandings, not expressing unclear concern, etc. can considerably reduce the efficiency of a team. PMID:15595595

  15. A framework for managing risk-based managed care contracts.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Michael

    2013-12-01

    To prepare for managing risk-based contracts with payers and other purchasers, providers should: Identify operational, competitive, and financial risks associated with the relevant patient populations. Improve organizational abilities related to patient care management, which is the key to managing operational risk. Address the competitive risks that can ensue when traditional lines of demarcation between providers and payers are crossed. Adopt strategies and tactics to manage financial risk, beyond buying malpractice and stop-loss insurance. PMID:24380254

  16. An Extensible Information Grid for Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on developing an extensible information grid for risk management at NASA - a RISK INFORMATION GRID. This grid is being developed by integrating information grid technology with risk management processes for a variety of risk related applications. To date, RISK GRID applications are being developed for three main NASA processes: risk management - a closed-loop iterative process for explicit risk management, program/project management - a proactive process that includes risk management, and mishap management - a feedback loop for learning from historical risks that escaped other processes. This is enabled through an architecture involving an extensible database, structuring information with XML, schemaless mapping of XML, and secure server-mediated communication using standard protocols.

  17. Risk Management for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    NASA requires continuous risk management for all programs and projects. The risk management process identifies risks, analyzes their impact, prioritizes them, develops and carries out plans to mitigate or accept them, tracks risks and mitigation plans, and communicates and documents risk information. Project risk management is driven by the project goal and is performed by the entire team. Risk management begins early in the formulation phase with initial risk identification and development of a risk management plan and continues throughout the project life cycle. This paper describes the risk management approach that is suggested for use in NASA's Human Support Technology Development. The first step in risk management is to identify the detailed technical and programmatic risks specific to a project. Each individual risk should be described in detail. The identified risks are summarized in a complete risk list. Risk analysis provides estimates of the likelihood and the qualitative impact of a risk. The likelihood and impact of the risk are used to define its priority location in the risk matrix. The approaches for responding to risk are either to mitigate it by eliminating or reducing the effect or likelihood of a risk, to accept it with a documented rationale and contingency plan, or to research or monitor the risk, The Human Support Technology Development program includes many projects with independently achievable goals. Each project must do independent risk management, considering all its risks together and trading them against performance, budget, and schedule. Since the program can succeed even if some projects fail, the program risk has a complex dependence on the individual project risks.

  18. Reliability, Risk and Cost Trade-Offs for Composite Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    Risk and cost trade-offs have been simulated using a probabilistic method. The probabilistic method accounts for all naturally-occurring uncertainties including those in constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and loading conditions. The probability density function of first buckling load for a set of uncertain variables is computed. The probabilistic sensitivity factors of uncertain variables to the first buckling load is calculated. The reliability-based cost for a composite fuselage panel is defined and minimized with respect to requisite design parameters. The optimization is achieved by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations whose coefficients are functions of probabilistic sensitivity factors. With optimum design parameters such as the mean and coefficient of variation (representing range of scatter) of uncertain variables, the most efficient and economical manufacturing procedure can be selected. In this paper, optimum values of the requisite design parameters for a predetermined cost due to failure occurrence are computationally determined. The results for the fuselage panel analysis show that the higher the cost due to failure occurrence, the smaller the optimum coefficient of variation of fiber modulus (design parameter) in longitudinal direction.

  19. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may...

  20. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may...

  1. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may...

  2. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may...

  3. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may take effect, each Bank shall obtain the...

  4. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must specify the risk assessment methods it uses to identify potential risks to the participant. (b) The...

  5. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must specify the risk assessment methods it uses to identify potential risks to the participant. (b) The...

  6. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must... plan for how identified risks will be mitigated. (d) The State must ensure that the risk...

  7. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must... plan for how identified risks will be mitigated. (d) The State must ensure that the risk...

  8. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must... plan for how identified risks will be mitigated. (d) The State must ensure that the risk...

  9. Risk management : a European regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Jane N S

    2004-01-01

    Risk management for European regulators means the detection and assessment of risks, the development and selection of measures to reduce risk, and monitoring of the effectiveness of risk control; all aspects of pharmacovigilance intended to minimise risk to European Union citizens associated with use of medicinal substances. This incorporates earlier and better planning of pharmacovigilance through formal product risk-management plans, better use of information tools to protect public health and routine audit of effectiveness of regulatory action. PMID:15154823

  10. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),

  11. Managing risk with renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney, P.; Bell, K.

    1997-09-01

    One approach to managing risk is for a utility company to invest in diverse power sources such as wind power plants. Since wind plants consume no fuel, can be built in relatively small increments with short construction lead times, and generate no pollutants, it is often said that they offer significant protection from risks associated with conventional fossil-fuel power plants. With assistance from Convergence Research, Charles River Associates, and the Tellus Institute, the authors tested this hypothesis by conducting an in-depth analysis of the risk implications of a decision to build a 1,600 MW wind power plant instead of a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant. (The two plants were assumed to have equal firm capacity.) The case study utility was Texas Utilities Electric, a very large investor-owned company serving an area with substantial, high-quality wind resources. The uncertain inputs included fuel prices, environmental regulations (specifically, CO{sub 2} and air pollution controls), wind plant output, conventional plant availability, and load growth. Two different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation and an unregulated wholesale market characterized either by a power pool or fixed-price contracts of varying duration. Conclusions are striking: under traditional regulation, wind energy provides a net present-value risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh.

  12. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  13. Extreme Environments and Extreme Science: Reliability and Risk Assessment for Autonomous Systems with Application to Polar Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembanis, A.; Griffiths, G.

    2006-12-01

    Assessment of reliability and consequent risk to autonomous systems is an increasingly common and critical concern given the number of challenging new extreme environment research programs calling for the utilization of autonomous systems (e.g. AUVs, gliders, floats, etc.). The interest in using autonomous systems amongst the scientific community is particularly strong amongst polar research programs where so much vital area lies beyond the reach of traditional approaches. Therefore, the potential for scientific discovery is significantly increased, because of the very ability of autonomous systems to get to and gather information in the critical zones. The scientific merits and rewards of polar research are great but so too are the risks. There are risks both to mission success (i.e. science delivery) and risks to asset survival and recovery (i.e. retrieval). In polar settings the greatest increased risks are the complexities of operation (e.g. launch/recovery and retrieval) associated with sea ice and shelf ice. Even in open water settings the temporal and spatial dynamics of environmental conditions complicate the operation of autonomous systems. Very little systematic study and quantitative analysis has been conducted to evaluate the reliability and risk to autonomous systems in any operational setting let alone the demanding and increasingly sought after polar environments. Here we present some assessments of AUV reliability for polar and also non-polar settings drawing largely on datasets from both a large autonomous vehicle program (Autosub) and a small autonomous vehicle program (DOERRI) in order to illustrate key and common elements of reliability and risk that may provide insights to scientific end-users (PIs), program managers, and the developers and operators of other similar autonomous systems working in polar settings. An approach to risk management is laid out. Key risk mitigation elements are presented in categories of system stability and operational protocol based on existing datasets and hypothetical polar campaign scenarios. In particular we explore risk and reliability from the perspective of two key stakeholders 1) the owner/technical operator and 2) the scientific PI. Resolving the tensions and mutual interests between these two parties and the specific objectives and criteria for success/failure that they each bring to the table are at the center of a risk management program that must be undertaken prior to polar operations. We hope to engage a dialogue between scientific end-users and technical operators through a case study example demonstrating a framework for risk management suitable to autonomous systems especially in polar settings.

  14. Risk management: Time for innovative approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Venkateswara R.

    1995-05-01

    Risk management practices under the current environmental regulations is a long, complex process that considers scientific, technologic, and management factors to develop various regulatory standards and pollution control measures. Using the mandatory enforcement approach, sometimes referred to as “command-and-control”, a set of preliminary environmental goals, such as better air and water qualities, were achieved. However, the information-intensive nature of the risk management process and the lack of flexibility in conventional regulatory methods to changing economic and technologic realities of the decade has created interest among risk managers to examine some innovative management approaches. Above all, environmental problems of a global scale require novel management methods while striving to achieve the desired environmental goals. As the principal analytical tool in risk management, quantitative risk assessment exerts considerable influence on the risk management process. Therefore, advances in risk management are closely associated with scientific developments that enhance the risk assessment process, particularly those efforts aimed at improving human exposure and toxicity assessments. Market incentives, information dissemination, creative enforcement practices, and interagency and intergovernmental interactions were identified as the key elements of innovative environmental risk management practices. This paper will present an overview of the emerging innovative risk management approaches.

  15. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a separation of functions between stack convention and fuel processing, i.e. external reforming using low-cost, non-catalytic under-oxidized burners. Even for fuel cell technologies capable of internal reforming, the separation of functions offers the advantage of separate optimization of the fuel cell stack and fuel processor, leading to fuel flexibility and lower systems costs. The combination of small size fuel cells, high market values, low development and demonstration costs, low market entry costs, and availability of off-the-shelf balance-of-system components, provides a low financial and technical risk scenario for fuel cell commercialization.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Persian (Farsi) version of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Soltanipour, S; Heidarzadeh, A; Jafarinezhad, A

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of patients' risk perceptions is essential for the management of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of a Persian (Farsi) language translation of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. After forward-backward translation the RPS-DM was randomly administered to 106 adult patients with diabetes who were enrolled in a teaching referral clinic in the north of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Rasht). Internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis were applied. The minimum value for internal consistency was 0.50 for risk knowledge and the highest value was 0.88 on the optimistic bias subscale. Principal component analysis showed that the items of the composite risk score matched with the same items in the English language version, except for question numbers 16, 24 and 25. The Persian version of RPS-DM is the first standardized tool for measuring risk perception and knowledge about diabetes complications in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24950077

  17. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs Ranking of programs or activities by risk Ranking of wastes/materials by risk Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  18. Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment - How They Play Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Stutts, Richard; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss the PRA process and the reliability engineering discipline, their differences and similarities, and how they are used as complimentary analyses to support design and flight decisions.

  19. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to

  20. Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stuart N; Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2011-05-13

    The mantra that policy and management should be 'evidence-based' is well established. Less so are the implications that follow from 'evidence' being predictions of the future (forecasts, scenarios, horizons) even though such futures define the actions taken today to make the future sustainable. Here, we consider the tension between 'evidence', reliable because it is observed, and predictions of the future, unobservable in conventional terms. For flood risk management in England and Wales, we show that futures are actively constituted, and so imagined, through 'suites of practices' entwining policy, management and scientific analysis. Management has to constrain analysis because of the many ways in which flood futures can be constructed, but also because of commitment to an accounting calculus, which requires risk to be expressed in monetary terms. It is grounded in numerical simulation, undertaken by scientific consultants who follow policy/management guidelines that define the futures to be considered. Historical evidence is needed to deal with process and parameter uncertainties and the futures imagined are tied to pasts experienced. Reliance on past events is a challenge for prediction, given changing probability (e.g. climate change) and consequence (e.g. development on floodplains). So, risk management allows some elements of risk analysis to become unstable (notably in relation to climate change) but forces others to remain stable (e.g. invoking regulation to prevent inappropriate floodplain development). We conclude that the assumed separation of risk assessment and management is false because the risk calculation has to be defined by management. Making this process accountable requires openness about the procedures that make flood risk analysis more (or less) reliable to those we entrust to produce and act upon them such that, unlike the 'pseudosciences', they can be put to the test of public interrogation by those who have to live with their consequences. PMID:21464071

  1. Quick Fix for Managing Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under a Phase II SBIR contract, Kennedy and Lumina Decision Systems, Inc., jointly developed the Schedule and Cost Risk Analysis Modeling (SCRAM) system, based on a version of Lumina's flagship software product, Analytica(R). Acclaimed as "the best single decision-analysis program yet produced" by MacWorld magazine, Analytica is a "visual" tool used in decision-making environments worldwide to build, revise, and present business models, minus the time-consuming difficulty commonly associated with spreadsheets. With Analytica as their platform, Kennedy and Lumina created the SCRAM system in response to NASA's need to identify the importance of major delays in Shuttle ground processing, a critical function in project management and process improvement. As part of the SCRAM development project, Lumina designed a version of Analytica called the Analytica Design Engine (ADE) that can be easily incorporated into larger software systems. ADE was commercialized and utilized in many other developments, including web-based decision support.

  2. COMMUNICATING PROBABILISTIC RISK OUTCOMES TO RISK MANAGERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, risk assessors are moving away from simple deterministic assessments to probabilistic approaches that explicitly incorporate ecological variability, measurement imprecision, and lack of knowledge (collectively termed "uncertainty"). While the new methods provide an...

  3. Managing Research in a Risk World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Chief Medical Officer (OCHMO) owns all human health and performance risks managed by the Human System Risk Board (HSRB). While the HSRB manages the risks, the Human Research Program (HRP) manages the research portion of the overall risk mitigation strategy for these risks. The HSRB manages risks according to a process that identifies and analyzes risks, plans risk mitigation and tracks and reviews the implementation of these strategies according to its decisions pertaining to the OCHMO risk posture. HRP manages risk research work using an architecture that describes evidence-based risks, gaps in our knowledge about characterizing or mitigating the risk, and the tasks needed to produce deliverables to fill the gaps and reduce the risk. A planning schedule reflecting expected research milestones is developed, and as deliverables and new evidence are generated, research progress is tracked via the Path to Risk Reduction (PRR) that reflects a risk's research plan for a design reference mission. HRP's risk research process closely interfaces with the HSRB risk management process. As research progresses, new deliverables and evidence are used by the HSRB in conjunction with other operational and non-research evidence to inform decisions pertaining to the likelihood and consequence of the risk and risk posture. Those decisions in turn guide forward work for research as it contributes to overall risk mitigation strategies. As HRP tracks its research work, it aligns its priorities by assessing the effectiveness of its contributions and maintaining specific core competencies that would be invaluable for future work for exploration missions.

  4. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  5. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care

  6. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  7. Doctoral Education, Danger and Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica; Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how risk management is reworking the doctoral supervisor/candidate relationship. Examines "soft marking" (grading) as a specific domain in which risk minimization is producing new relational identities for both supervisors and students involved in doctoral studies programs. (EV)

  8. Reliability/Risk Methods and Design Tools for Application in Space Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Smart, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Since 1984 NASA has funded several major programs to develop Reliability/Risk Methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. Two probabilistic software tools that show great promise for practical application are the finite element code NESSUS and the system risk analysis code QRAS. This paper examines NASA's past, present, and future directions in reliability and risk engineering applications, Both the NESSUS and QRAS software tools are detailed.

  9. Risk management on R&D projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wageman, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    Project management is becoming more common on research and development (R&D) projects such as those encountered in high-technology industries, academic institutions, and governmental agencies. By their nature, these projects manifest uncertainties that pose numerous threats and opportunities to success. To adequately manage these uncertainties project managers and their stakeholders must possess a solid understanding of the nature of risk and the various analytical and planning tools that are available to monitor and control risks. Since R&D projects present unusual challenges related to risk management, effective utilization of the available tools is key to successful implementation. There are several tools and methodologies that can be used to manage risk on such projects. With effective and continuous attention to risk management, a manager can successfully complete a project within all performance expectations. Without such attention the probability of success diminishes markedly.

  10. Business resilience: Reframing healthcare risk management.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    The responsibility of risk management in healthcare is fractured, with multiple stakeholders. Most hospitals and healthcare systems do not have a fully integrated risk management system that spans the entire organizational and operational structure for the delivery of key services. This article provides insight toward utilizing a comprehensive Business Resilience program and associated methodology to understand and manage organizational risk leading to organizational effectiveness and operational efficiencies, with the fringe benefit of realizing sustainable operational capability during adverse conditions. PMID:26418138

  11. Epidemiology in risk management for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D

    2006-01-01

    Risk management is the process by which choices are made between alternative actions or policies according to the likelihood of beneficial or adverse outcomes. It entails an assessment of the potential risks and benefits associated with each possible option, and the application of value judgements to decide which option should be chosen. Informal risk management for chemicals, a distinction is made between hazard (a potential adverse effect of the substance) and risk (the probability that that a hazard will be realised given the circumstances and extent of exposure to the substance). Where there is uncertainty about the existence of a hazard or about the level of risk associated with an exposure, this must also be taken into account. Of the various measures of risk, the two that are most relevant to risk management are the individual attributable risk and the population attributable risk. Assessment of risk entails the identification and characterisation of hazards, and estimation of the risks associated with the exposure circumstances that will follow from different policy options. Examples are given of the way in which epidemiology can contribute to this process, and also to checking that the outcomes of decisions in risk management accord with what was predicted by underpinning risk assessments. The strengths and limitations of epidemiology as a tool in risk management are discussed. PMID:17017348

  12. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  13. [The management of risks by the global risk analysis].

    PubMed

    Desroches, A

    2013-05-01

    After a reminder on the fundamental concepts of the management of risk, the author describes the overall analysis of risk (AGR), name given by the author to the up-to-date APR method which after several changes of the initial process aims to cover a perimeter of analysis and broader management both at the level of structural that business risks of any kind throughout the system development life cycle, of the study of its feasibility to dismantling. PMID:23602675

  14. ESMD Risk Management Workshop: Systems Engineering and Integration Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale

    2005-01-01

    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Risk Management team in close coordination with the Systems Engineering Team. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of key lessons learned derived from the SE RFP Development process. Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document.

  15. Managing the total cost of risk exposures through risk mapping techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Unione, A.J.; Rode, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    In a competitive power market, power producers are exposed to an increasingly broad spectrum of financial risks. The cumulative impact of these financial risks is known collectively as the Total of Cost of Risk. The concept of Total of Cost of Risk presents the business reality of a company's exposure to potentially devastating financial consequences in an integrated and useful way. In this way, a strategy of managing Total Cost of Risk in the most cost effective way can become a means of ensuring long term business health and security. This paper will examine the use of risk mapping as a tool for visually understanding Total Cost of Risk, thus creating an enhanced situational awareness and an integrated basis for risk management decision. The evaluation process, available through the use of risk maps allows the power producers to pro-actively implement prudent business decisions concerning the design, operation and maintenance of power plants. Risk mapping is thus a means for harmonizing operational objectives, such as improved plant reliability, with corporate strategies and goals in terms of an effective risk management program.

  16. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Hodson, L. L.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Kuempel, E. D.; Murashov, V.; Martinez, K. F.; Heidel, D. S.

    2013-04-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  17. The Development of Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis Simulations for Inclusion in Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Diego Mandelli; Ronald L. Boring; Curtis L. Smith; Rachel B. Shirley

    2015-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, which has the overall objective of supporting the near-term and the extended operation of commercial nuclear power plants. One key research and development (R&D) area in this program is the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway, which combines probabilistic risk simulation with thermohydraulic simulation codes to define and manage safety margins. The R&D efforts to date, however, have not included robust simulations of human operators, and how the reliability of human performance or lack thereof (i.e., human errors) can affect risk-margins and plant performance. This paper describes current and planned research efforts to address the absence of robust human reliability simulations and thereby increase the fidelity of simulated accident scenarios.

  18. The Risk Management Plan: Promises and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the history of risk management and currently popular risk management tools, e.g., item-decision model and frequency/severity matrix. Discusses the safety record of outdoor adventure programs including data on injury rates and frequent accident types. Argues for flexible and realistic safety procedures and serious study of the phenomenon of

  19. Risk management - What about software?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Risks in software systems arise from many directions. There are risks that the software is faulty, that the system may be attacked, that safety hazards exist, that the system may be inoperable or untimely, that an abnormal event may cause unexpected actions, etc. Risk analysis tools should support and document risk-mitigation decisions and facilitate understanding of residual risks. These tools must be based on a sound theory of risk, which does not exist today. Probabilistic risk assessment techniques apply to physically-based systems where failure modes and event dependence are fairly well understood. But they cannot be blindly applied to software systems, which do not share these characteristics. Moreover, we need to meld many diverse aspects of risk for software systems. This presentation will explore some thought-provoking ideas about modeling, problem spaces, solution approaches, math, decision friendly output, and the role of risk analysis in the software lifecycle.

  20. [Does clinical risk management require a structured conflict management?].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A key element of clinical risk management is the analysis of errors causing near misses or patient damage. After analyzing the causes and circumstances, measures for process improvement have to be taken. Process management, human resource development and other established methods are used. If an interpersonal conflict is a contributory factor to the error, there is usually no structured conflict management available which includes selection criteria for various methods of conflict processing. The European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder) has created a process model for introducing a structured conflict management system which is suitable for hospitals and could fill the gap in the methodological spectrum of clinical risk management. There is initial evidence that a structured conflict management reduces staff fluctuation and hidden conflict costs. This article should be understood as an impulse for discussion on to what extent the range of methods of clinical risk management should be complemented by conflict management. PMID:25421136

  1. Prioritized Reliability-Risk$ Optimization for a Hydro-Thermal System CddHoward Consulting Ltd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.; Howard, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    This paper provides a real-world example of a hydro-economic model for risk estimation and impact assessment. Ensembles of forecasted reservoir inflows were used to drive an integrated hydro-thermal two-reservoir stochastic long term economic optimization model. The optimization objective was to minimize long term thermal energy purchases by recommending the best current operating decisions within policies on long-term Risk (probabilistic cost). Risk was determined as a function of Reliability to meet forecasted energy load. Reservoir End of Month Rule Curves Reliability: Thermal Risk and Hydro Revenue

  2. Risk Management In Perspective Of Knowledge Management A Brief Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2015-09-01

    This article explains the application of knowledge management for project risk management in industry. Combination of knowledge management and risk management is becoming a dire need for industries nowadays, because it has become necessary to make information reach timely to its destined users to achieve the desired goals. Quick decisions are needed throughout a project life cycle to mitigate or avoid a risk, but they are only possible when knowledge about it is in hand and can be inferred for fruitful decisions. Quality engineers make huge effort in analyzing and mitigating the risk and prepare various documents about different risk management stages. But this knowledge resides in documents or underutilized databases without any relation to each other that makes it useless for complex decision making. This article shall explain how knowledge management activities are helpful in risk management and the advantages of their fusion. It will also present a conceptual architecture of an Information Technology based solution for risk management and knowledge management combination.

  3. Reliable Individual Differences in Preterm Infants' Excitation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korner, Anneliese F.

    1996-01-01

    Determined whether individual neonate characteristics could be detected and reliably measured in preterm infants. Results showed that preterms were highly self-consistent in their reactions to stimuli from neurobehavioral assessments. Highly reliable individual differences among infants were also seen. Individual consistencies and differences in

  4. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Current decision making involves numerous possible combinations of technology elements, safety and health issues, operational aspects and process considerations to satisfy program goals. Identifying potential risk considerations as part of the management decision making process provides additional tools to make more informed management decision. Adapting and using risk assessment methodologies can generate new perspectives on various risk and safety concerns that are not immediately apparent. Safety and operational risks can be identified and final decisions can balance these considerations with cost and schedule risks. Additional assessments can also show likelihood of event occurrence and event consequence to provide a more informed basis for decision making, as well as cost effective mitigation strategies. Methodologies available to perform Risk Assessments range from qualitative identification of risk potential, to detailed assessments where quantitative probabilities are calculated. Methodology used should be based on factors that include: 1) type of industry and industry standards, 2) tasks, tools, and environment 3) type and availability of data and 4) industry views and requirements regarding risk & reliability. Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures.

  5. Intelligent adversary risk analysis: a bioterrorism risk management model.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Gregory S; Smith, Christopher M; Moxley, Frederick I

    2010-01-01

    The tragic events of 9/11 and the concerns about the potential for a terrorist or hostile state attack with weapons of mass destruction have led to an increased emphasis on risk analysis for homeland security. Uncertain hazards (natural and engineering) have been successfully analyzed using probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Unlike uncertain hazards, terrorists and hostile states are intelligent adversaries who can observe our vulnerabilities and dynamically adapt their plans and actions to achieve their objectives. This article compares uncertain hazard risk analysis with intelligent adversary risk analysis, describes the intelligent adversary risk analysis challenges, and presents a probabilistic defender-attacker-defender model to evaluate the baseline risk and the potential risk reduction provided by defender investments. The model includes defender decisions prior to an attack; attacker decisions during the attack; defender actions after an attack; and the uncertainties of attack implementation, detection, and consequences. The risk management model is demonstrated with an illustrative bioterrorism problem with notional data. PMID:20002893

  6. Risk management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.G.; Stack, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has risk management programs at a number of administrative levels. Each line organization has responsibility for risk management for routine operations. The Facility Risk Management group (HS-3) is the Los Alamos organization with the primary responsibility for risk management including providing input and expertise to facilities and line managers in the management and documentation of ES&H hazards and risks associated with existing and new activities. One of the major contributions this group has made to laboratory risk management program is to develop and implement a hazard identification and classification methodology that is readily adaptable to continuously changing classification guidelines such as DOE-STD-1027. The increased emphasis on safety at Los Alamos has led to the formation of additional safety oversight organization such as the Integration and Coordination Office (ICO), which is responsible for prioritization of risk management activities. In the fall of 1991, nearly 170 DOE inspectors spent 6 weeks analyzing the environmental, safety, and health activities at Los Alamos. The result of this audit was a list of over 1000 findings, each indicating some deficiency in current Laboratory operations relative to DOE and other government regulation. The audit team`s findings were consolidated and ``action plans`` were developed to address the findings. This resulted in over 200 action plans with a total estimated cost of almost $1 billion. The Laboratory adopted a risk-based prioritization process to attempt to achieve as much risk reduction as possible with the available resources. This paper describes the risk based prioritization model that was developed.

  7. Multi-state component models for reliability and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-state single-plant risk models are developed and the impacts of various failure and repair characteristics associated with safe shutdown and multiple accident conditions are analyzed. Comparisons of models are presented and recommendations are made for selecting a model. Fundamental recursive equations are then derived for the probabilistic characteristics of components in general. These equations are new results for multi-state components, allow replacement components to be new or old, and allow general failure and repair time distributions to be used. The equations are solved for the time dependent state probabilities and conditional and unconditional failure and repair rates.

  8. Evaluating risk management strategies in resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of risk management strategies as a part of integrated resource planning. Value- and scope-related uncertainties can be addressed during the process of planning, but uncertainties in the operating environment require technical analysis within planning models. Flexibility and robustness are two key classes of strategies for managing the risk posed by these uncertainties. This paper reviews standard capacity expansion planning models and shows that they are poorly equipped to compare risk management strategies. Those that acknowledge uncertainty are better at evaluating robustness than flexibility, which implies a bias against flexible options. Techniques are available to overcome this bias.

  9. Relating Risk and Reliability Predictions to Design and Development Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Cornford, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    In this context there are many possible assurance activities. Some focus on the prevention of defects - for example, up-front planning, adoption of design standards, configuration management, training, etc. Others focus on the detection of defects - either to detect latent defects in a system (and so be able to correct them before actual deployment of the system), or to increase confidence that such defects are not present. For example, a wide gamut of reviews, design walkthroughs, tests, inspections, analyses, etc. can be applied to systems and their components.

  10. Risk: assessment, acceptability and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Risk assessment, particularly of risks to the public health resulting from government and industry decisions, is discussed. Cost/benefit analysis as applied to such situations as human deaths and the contracting of cancer by humans is discussed. The role of government regulations and standards is discussed.

  11. Safety optimization through risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Peltonen, P.

    The paper discusses the overall process of system safety optimization in the space program environment and addresses in particular methods that enhance the efficiency of this activity. Effective system safety optimization is achieved by concentrating the available engineering and safety assurance resouces on the main risk contributors. The qualitative risk contributor identification by means of the hazard analyses and the FMECA constitute the basis for the system safety process. The risk contributors are ranked firstly on a qualitative basis according to the consequence severities. This ranking is then refined by mishap propagation/recovery time considerations and by probabilistic means (PRA). Finally, in order to broaden and extend the use of risk contributor ranking as a managerial tool in project resource assignment, quality, manufacturing and operations related critical characteristics, i.e. risk influencing factors, are identified for managerial visibility.

  12. Safety optimisation through risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Peltonen, P.

    1992-08-01

    The paper discusses the overall process of system safety optimization in the space program environment and addresses in particular methods that enhance the efficiency of this activity. Effective system safety optimization is achieved by concentrating the available engineering and safety assurance resources on the main risk contributors. The qualitative risk contributor identification by means of the hazard analyses and the FMECA constitute the basis for the system safety process. The risk contributors are ranked firstly on a qualitative basis according to the consequence severities. This ranking is then refined by mishap propagation/recovery time considerations and by probabilistic means (PRA). Finally, in order to broaden and extend the use of risk contributor ranking as a managerial tool in project resource assignment, quality, manufacturing and operations related critical characteristics, i.e., risk influencing factors, are identified for managerial visibility.

  13. Risks and benefits of risk-management plans.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, David

    2007-01-01

    Scott Gottlieb criticizes the emphasis on the greater use of risk-management plans in the recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on drug safety and the Kennedy-Enzi bill as impractical, failing to recognize the underlying causes of recent drug risk concerns, having the potential to create barriers to care, and interfering unnecessarily in physician decision making. These are worthy concerns but ones that need to be considered in the context of specific regulatory decisions for individual drugs. This is precisely the motivation for calls for greater attention to the potential use of risk-management plans in drug evaluation. PMID:17485744

  14. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 2. 0 user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.D.; Sattison, M.B. ); Rasmuson, D.M. . Div. of Systems Research)

    1990-06-01

    The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Also provided in the system is an integrated full-screen editor for use when interfacing with remote mainframe computer systems. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 2.0 and is the subject of this user's guide. Version 2.0 of IRRAS provides all of the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance. 9 refs., 292 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  16. Driving forces and risk management

    EPA Science Inventory

    From a public health perspective, food safety is the overall goal and there are two distinct areas where interventions to this end can take place either pre- or post-harvest. In pre-harvest, water quality management is the focus whereas post-harvest quality management depends ...

  17. Driving forces and risk management

    EPA Science Inventory

    From a public health perspective, food safety is the overall goal and there are two distinct areas where interventions to this end can take place – either pre- or post-harvest. In pre-harvest, water quality management is the focus whereas post-harvest quality management depends ...

  18. Risk management integration into complex project organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, K.; Greanias, G.; Rose, J.; Dumas, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing and adapting the SIRTF prototype, discusses some of the lessons learned in developing the SIRTF prototype, and explains the adaptability of the risk management database to varying levels project complexity.

  19. Performance Contracting: Successfully Managing the Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thor, Linda M.

    1987-01-01

    Details strategies used by community colleges to successfully manage the financial risk inherent in performance contracting. Compares the results of training under the Job Training Partnership Act and California's Employment Training Panel from the perspective of a college administrator. (AYC)

  20. LISTSERVER - NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To expand and improve communication to stakeholders, the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has established a listserver to more quickly announce publications, workshops, conferences, and other activities related to NRMRL's research activities. The listserver i...

  1. Risk management applied to security. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Renis, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a small part of a large integrated program of FEMA that has been designated Protection of Industrial Capability (PIC). For an overview of the work performed at this laboratory, see report number UCID-20296 entitled Protection of Industrial Capability Program Pre-Decision Support. Current risk management theory and practices were determined through a literature search and interviews with risk managers from critical industries. This report details the results of our literature search and interviews and evaluates the security preparedness implications of current practices. This report contains recommendations for risk management approaches that can be presented to private industry to assist them in protecting assets and a research plan that FEMA can undertake to develop better risk management techniques.

  2. Reliability, Resilience, and Vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of Human Health Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the impact of water quality on the health of a general population is challenging due high degrees of uncertainty and variability in hydrological, toxicological and human aspects of the system. Assessment of the impact of changes in water quality of a public water supply is critical to management of that water supply. We propose the use of three different system evaluation criteria: Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV) as a tool for assessing the impact of uncertainty in the arrival of contaminant mass through time with respect to human health risks on a variable population. These criteria were first introduced to the water resources community by Hashimoto et al (1982). Most simply one can understand these criteria as the following: Reliability is the likelihood of the system being in a state of success; Resilience is the probability that the system will return to a state of success at t+1 if it is in failure at time step t, and Vulnerability is the severity of failure, which here is defined as the maximum health risk. These concepts are applied to a theoretical example where the water quality at a water supply well varies over time: health impact is considered based on sliding, 30-year windows of exposure to water derived from the well. We apply the methodology, in terms of uncertainty in water quality deviations, to eight simulated breakthrough curves of a contaminant at the well: each curve represents equal mass of contaminant arriving at the well over a 70-year lifetime of the well, but different mass distributions over time. These curves are used to investigate the impact of uncertainty in the distribution through time of the contaminant mass at the well, as well as the initial arrival of the contaminant over the 70-year lifetime of the well. In addition to extending the health risk through time with uncertainty in mass distribution, we incorporate variability in the human population to examine the evolution of the three criteria within the population. We show that the distribution of predicted health risk, as measured by each of the RRV criteria, is strongly dependent on both the distribution (over time) of the arrival of contaminant mass at the well and the timing of the initial arrival of contaminant within the 70 year lifetime of the well.

  3. The Importance of Human Reliability Analysis in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    HRA is a method used to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the occurrence of human failures in the operation of complex systems that affect availability and reliability. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure in a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) provides a more complete picture of the risk and risk contributions. A high quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedural, equipment design and need for automation.

  4. Teaching Risk Management: Addressing ACGME Core Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Kiki; Angus, Steven V.; Miller, Wendy; Silverman, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Risk management is an important aspect of education for all residents. Unfortunately, few curricula currently exist to fulfill this educational need. Objective We developed a curriculum that teaches residents basic principles of risk management with the goals of (1) educating residents about the medical-legal environment in which they operate, (2) helping residents identify common malpractice exposures, and (3) teaching practical risk management/patient safety interventions that can be implemented in their practice that could reduce malpractice exposure and improve patient safety. Methods The curriculum was developed by Medical Risk Management, LLC, a Connecticut-based risk management firm, in conjunction with academic leadership at the University of Connecticut. The program uses 3 learning modalities: live lectures, web-based video modules, and e-mailed learning publications. Gains in resident knowledge through participation in the curriculum were measured using pretests and posttests. Learner satisfaction with the curriculum was measured through web-based surveys. Results We found a significant improvement in knowledge in residents who took the pretest and posttest (P < .001). Of the survey respondents, 97% said the content was relevant to their specialty practice and 95% responded that these sessions should be held annually. Most respondents indicated they would change their practice as a result of what they learned from the live lectures. Conclusion This risk management curriculum has been successful in providing our residents with learning activities in risk management, improving their knowledge of risk management principles, and changing their attitudes and behaviors. These improvements may lead to fewer malpractice claims against them and the hospitals they train in. PMID:22132283

  5. Wildfire Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation we address federal wildfire risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, wildfires present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal wildfire management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of wildfire management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the wildfire management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of wildfire, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of wildfire, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors influencing research and development on this critically important topic. Specifically we will focus on how to embed simulation models within an economic framework, how to link fire models with models of wildfire management expenditures, how to evaluate alternative management policies, and how to measure cost-effectiveness.

  6. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics are established and monitored as tools for risk tracking. Also a trigger or threshold should be set on the metric data that indicates when an action is needed. Results of this tracking are usually evaluated and reported in a relevant format at weekly or monthly meetings. Choosing controls is the subsequent step, which involves the effects of the tracking. The three basic controls are: close, continue tracking, and re- plan. Finally communicate & document is the last step, but occurs throughout the process. It is vital that main risks, plans, changes, and progress are known by everyone in the project. A good way to keep everyone updated and inform other projects of common issues is by thoroughly documenting project risks. NASA sees value in risk management and believes that projects have greater probability or success by using the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process.

  7. [Man at risk. Preventive strategies and risk management for patient safety].

    PubMed

    Grube, C; Schaper, N; Graf, B M

    2002-04-01

    Anaesthesia-related risk has been significantly reduced within the last decade. Nevertheless the risk and the possibility of dying or suffering permanent damage still exist. To improve patient safety, risk assessment and analysis must lead to the development of preventive strategies. For this purpose anaesthesia can rely on the concepts of other "high reliability" organisations such as aviation or nuclear power plants. Analyses of critical incidents in the different fields confirm that next to technical problems human factors account for most of the preventable mishaps. Human factors are responsible for individual mistakes as well as for organisational errors. Therefore besides traditional concepts of risk reduction (e.g. guidelines) new strategies (e.g. full-scale simulation) must be applied to minimise the negative impact of human factors on patient safety. Risk management has to consider technical, organisational and human factors to implement a higher standard of patient safety. PMID:12063713

  8. Managing unnatural disaster risk from climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, Reinhard; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Surminski, Swenja; Williges, Keith

    2014-04-01

    Truly understanding climate-related disaster risk, and the management of that risk, can inform effective action on climate adaptation and the loss and damage mechanism, the main vehicle under the UN Climate Convention for dealing with climate-related effects, including residual impacts after adaptation.

  9. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, C.O. Gruber, J.H. Harris, D.J. Rej, R.T. Simmons, and R.L. Strykowsky

    2009-02-11

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and sub-assemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-08. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks ultimately were unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project.

  10. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G. H.; Gruber, C. O.; Harris, J. H.; Rej, D. J.; Simmons, R. T.; Strykowsky, R. L.

    2009-07-21

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and sub-assemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-08. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks ultimately were unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project.

  11. A Humanistic Approach to Emotional Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubendall, Robert L.

    Adventure programs attempt to control or limit injuries in high-risk programming. This risk management has concentrated on the physical safety of participants at the expense of emotional and developmental security. In the zeal for accident-free statistics, a highly controlled, directive approach is created that treats individuals according to a

  12. Managing Care through Limited Risk, Bundled Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Kevin; Evans, Jeanne; Mills, Michael; Gilbert, Robin

    This report describes a managed care approach which uses limited risk bundled contracting to provide mental health services for high risk children and youth in Franklin County, Ohio. The project uses flexible allocation of blended dollars to support individualized plans that are strength-based and family-centered and incorporate principles of

  13. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  14. Managing multihazards risk in metropolitan USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Comfort, Louise K.; Shanis, Donald S.

    2003-07-01

    This proposal outlines an action plan for risk management in the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Region. This plan is consistent with the goals for strengthening homeland security announced by President Bush, and is designed to complement efforts currently under development by Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and Department of Health. This plan proposes the formation of a Delaware Valley Risk Management Consortium, representing the critical disciplines and organizations related to risk assessment and management. This group would have membership from academic institutions, government agencies, industry, and nonprofit organizations. This Consortium would develop a systemic scope of work with the appropriate recommendations for technology acquisition, development and integration with risk management policies and procedures. This scope of work would include the development of two related information systems for the Delaware Valley Region. The first would be a comprehensive 'health monitoring' system to assess the continuity of operations, which would use integrated remote sensing and imaging, information gathering, communication, computation, and, information processing and management over wide-area networks covering the entire metropolitan area. The second would use real-time information from the health monitoring system to support interactive communication, search and information exchange needed to coordinate action among the relevant agencies to mitigate risk, respond to hazards and manage its resources efficiently and effectively.

  15. Statistical models for operational risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Chiara; Giudici, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has released, in the last few years, recommendations for the correct determination of the risks to which a banking organization is subject. This concerns, in particular, operational risks, which are all those management events that may determine unexpected losses. It is necessary to develop valid statistical models to measure and, consequently, predict, such operational risks. In the paper we present the possible approaches, including our own proposal, which is based on Bayesian networks.

  16. Information needs for risk management/communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.A.

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  17. Managing Risk on the Final Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel, David M.; Newman, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has combined the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) discipline with innovative knowledge management (KM) practices to more effectively enable the accomplishment of work. CRM enables proactive problem identification and problem solving in the complex world of rocket science. while KM is used to improve this process.

  18. Risk Management in environmental geotechnical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammeme, Olavi; Torn, Hardi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the basis of risk analysis, assessment and management, accompanying problems and principles of risk management when drafting an environmental geotechnical model, enabling the analysis of an entire territory or developed region as a whole. The environmental impact will remain within the limits of the criteria specified with the standards and will be acceptable for human health and environment. An essential part of the solution of the problem is the engineering-geological model based on risk analysis and the assessment and forecast of mutual effects of the processes.

  19. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  20. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are

  1. Recommendations for Insulin Dose Calculator Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the usefulness of an automated insulin dose bolus advisor (BA) in achieving improved glycemic control for insulin-using diabetes patients. Although regulatory agencies have approved several BAs over the past decades, these devices are not standardized in their approach to dosage calculation and include many features that may introduce risk to patients. Moreover, there is no single standard of care for diabetes worldwide and no guidance documents for BAs, specifically. Given the emerging and more stringent regulations on software used in medical devices, the approval process is becoming more difficult for manufacturers to navigate, with some manufacturers opting to remove BAs from their products altogether. A comprehensive literature search was performed, including publications discussing: diabetes BA use and benefit, infusion pump safety and regulation, regulatory submissions, novel BAs, and recommendations for regulation and risk management of BAs. Also included were country-specific and international guidance documents for medical device, infusion pump, medical software, and mobile medical application risk management and regulation. No definitive worldwide guidance exists regarding risk management requirements for BAs, specifically. However, local and international guidance documents for medical devices, infusion pumps, and medical device software offer guidance that can be applied to this technology. In addition, risk management exercises that are algorithm-specific can help prepare manufacturers for regulatory submissions. This article discusses key issues relevant to BA use and safety, and recommends risk management activities incorporating current research and guidance. PMID:24876550

  2. Risk management plans for ethylene plants

    SciTech Connect

    Eidson, M.A.; Mahalingam, S.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) require many domestic chemical manufacturers to implement a written risk management plan to control the release of highly hazardous chemicals to the environment and the surrounding community. Building upon the requirements imposed by the OSHA Process Safety Management Standard (29CFR1910.119) which focused on workplace effects, this section of the CAA requires consideration for off-site consequences and includes a formal risk assessment for worst case scenarios. This paper will describe the impact of these CAA risk management plans as they apply to ethylene producers. This paper will provide guidance based upon Stone and Webster`s project experience with the California RMPP, New Jersey TCPA, OSHA PSM and international regulations, along with risk assessment experience performed for several grass-roots ethylene projects. Specific ethylene plant release scenarios and their corresponding impact will also be discussed.

  3. [Biological evaluation within a risk management process].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Fei; Ding, Biao

    2007-07-01

    Bio-evaluation within the medical device quality/risk management system is a risk analyzing and assessing process. On the basis of data from characterization of materials, scientific literatures, application history, bio-toxicology testing and so on, weighing the benefit and the risk, bio-evaluation does a conclusion to "take" or "quit" the product design. There is no "zero risk" though "no toxicity" always is the most desirable conclusion in a testing report. The application history data is the most comprehensive among the information available, since no testing system can "clone" the human body. In addition, the capital cost has to be taken into account when bringing the sophisticated testing technologies into the evaluating system. Investigating the #G95-1 of FDA CDRH and the changes of ISO 10993-1, the trend to integrate bio-evaluation into a quality/risk management process can be figured out. PMID:17969511

  4. Managing risk: An environmental engineering perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, M.A.; Weisberg, J.L.; Apel, S.R.

    1998-07-01

    Due to the nature of environmental investigation, remediation and design, the environmental engineer faces a large potential risk of receiving a claim on almost every project regardless of size. The liability for such a claim can be many times the negotiated fee for the project. While the risk of claims cannot be eliminated, the cost of such risk can be managed through an understanding of the nature of potential liabilities, the utilization of contractual allocation, and the purchase of insurance. Once claims are received, a proper use of appropriate legal defenses, will facilitate the resolution of such claims. While an exhaustive description of all risks encountered by an environmental engineer is beyond the scope of this paper, the following will address the risks most often encountered, which if not properly managed, can result in large costs to the engineer.

  5. Small numbers, disclosure risk, security, and reliability issues in Web-based data query systems.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Barbara A; Shah, Gulzar H; Love, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the process for developing consensus guidelines and tools for releasing public health data via the Web and highlights approaches leading agencies have taken to balance disclosure risk with public dissemination of reliable health statistics. An agency's choice of statistical methods for improving the reliability of released data for Web-based query systems is based upon a number of factors, including query system design (dynamic analysis vs preaggregated data and tables), population size, cell size, data use, and how data will be supplied to users. The article also describes those efforts that are necessary to reduce the risk of disclosure of an individual's protected health information. PMID:16479232

  6. Fault management system for reliable ADSL services provisioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Il; Hong, Won-Kyu; Jong, Mun-Jo; Oh, Chang-suk

    2001-07-01

    A number of ADSL subscribers are explosively increasing every year. The ATM over ADSL gives us a new paradigm for Internet access service using existing copper cable. An ATM network takes the role of access network for providing the Internet access service using the ATM over ADSL. However, it is very difficult for network service provider to manage the large-scale ATM access network in uniform in terms of the stabilized Internet access service provision using the ATM over ADSL model. We logically divide the ATM access network into two domains from the perspective of fault management. The first domain is composed of DSLAMs and the seconds one is composed of the pure ATM switches. This paper proposes two level fault management schemes for ATM over ADSL service provision in terms of TMN functional layering: one is the fault management in terms of the network management layer (NML) and the other is one in terms of the service management layer (SML). We also describe the experience learned from the network management under the real network applying the proposed fault management schemes.

  7. 78 FR 18817 - Revisions to Reliability Standard for Transmission Vegetation Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... most effectively ensure strong project management and funding. 55. AEP, BPA, Duke, Idaho Power and... Management AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Under section 215 of... Reliability Standard FAC-003-2 (Transmission Vegetation Management), submitted to the Commission for...

  8. Risk analysis and risk management in an uncertain world.

    PubMed

    Kunreuther, Howard

    2002-08-01

    The tragic attacks of September 11 and the bioterrorist threats with respect to anthrax that followed have raised a set of issues regarding how we deal with events where there is considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about the likelihood of their occurrence and their potential consequences. This paper discusses how one can link the tools of risk assessment and our knowledge of risk perception to develop risk management options for dealing with extreme events. In particular, it suggests ways that the members of the Society for Risk Analysis can apply their expertise and talent to the risks associated with terrorism and discusses the changing roles of the public and private sectors in dealing with extreme events. PMID:12224739

  9. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  10. 76 FR 10583 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Notice Establishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System, 76 FR 2369 (January 13, 2011... Energy Regulatory Commission Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk- Power System... convened a Commissioner-led technical conference regarding priorities for addressing risks to...

  11. Case histories in pharmaceutical risk management.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cynthia G; Henningfield, Jack E; Haddox, J David; Varughese, Sajan; Lindholm, Anders; Rosen, Susan; Wissel, Janne; Waxman, Deborah; Carter, Lawrence P; Seeger, Vickie; Johnson, Rolley E

    2009-12-01

    The development and implementation of programs in the U.S. to minimize risks and assess unintended consequences of new medications has been increasingly required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the mid 1990s. This paper provides four case histories of risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs utilized recently to address problems associated with possible abuse, dependence and diversion. The pharmaceutical sponsors of each of these drugs were invited to present their programs and followed a similar template for their summaries that are included in this article. The drugs and presenting companies were OxyContin, an analgesic marketed by Purdue Pharma L.P., Daytrana and Vyvanse, ADHD medications marketed by Shire Pharmaceuticals, Xyrem for narcolepsy marketed by Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Subutex and Suboxone for opioid dependence marketed by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. These case histories and subsequent discussions provide invaluable real-world examples and illustrate both the promise of risk management programs in providing a path to market and/or for keeping on the market drugs with serious potential risks. They also illustrate the limitations of such programs in actually controlling unintended consequences, as well as the challenge of finding the right balance of reducing risks without posing undue barriers to patient access. These experiences are highly relevant as the FDA increasingly requires pharmaceutical sponsors to develop and implement the more formalized and enforceable versions of the risk management term Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). PMID:19767156

  12. Managing dynamic epidemiological risks through trade

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Finnoff, David; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that trade, by connecting geographically isolated regions, unintentionally facilitates the spread of invasive pathogens and pests – forms of biological pollution that pose significant risks to ecosystem and human health. We use a bioeconomic framework to examine whether trade always increases private risks, focusing specifically on pathogen risks from live animal trade. When the pathogens have already established and traders bear some private risk, we find two results that run counter to the conventional wisdom on trade. First, uncertainty about the disease status of individual animals held in inventory may increase the incentives to trade relative to the disease-free case. Second, trade may facilitate reduced long-run disease prevalence among buyers. These results arise because disease risks are endogenous due to dynamic feedback processes involving valuable inventories, and markets facilitate the management of private risks that producers face with or without trade. PMID:25914431

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  14. Escherichia coli sampling reliability at a frequently closed Chicago beach: monitoring and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring beaches for recreational water quality is becoming more common, but few sampling designs or policy approaches have evaluated the efficacy of monitoring programs. The authors intensively sampled water for E. coli (N=1770) at 63rd Street Beach, Chicago for 6 months in 2000 in order to (1) characterize spatial-temporal trends, (2) determine between and within transect variation, and (3) estimate sample size requirements and determine sampling reliability. E. coli counts were highly variable within and between sampling sites but spatially and diurnally autocorrelated. Variation in counts decreased with water depth and time of day. Required number of samples was high for 70% precision around the critical closure level (i.e., 6 within or 24 between transect replicates). Since spatial replication may be cost prohibitive, composite sampling is an alternative once sources of error have been well defined. The results suggest that beach monitoring programs may be requiring too few samples to fulfill management objectives desired. As the recreational water quality national database is developed, it is important that sampling strategies are empirically derived from a thorough understanding of the sources of variation and the reliability of collected data. Greater monitoring efficacy will yield better policy decisions, risk assessments, programmatic goals, and future usefulness of the information.

  15. Space Weather and Management of Environmental Risks and Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Kauristie, K.; Lappalainen, H.

    "Space Weather" is defined as electromagnetic and particle conditions in the space environment that can disturb space-borne and ground-based technological systems (e.g. satellite operation, telecommunication, aviation, electric power transmission) and even endanger human health. Thus, space weather is of great importance to the society since people are dependent on reliable operation of modern technology, interruptions of which may lead to large economical and other losses. Physical processes involved in space weather constitute a complicated chain from the Sun to the Earth's surface. Thus, a full understanding of space weather and the risks it produces requires expertise in many different disciplines of science and technology. Space weather is a new subject among the natural risks and hazards which threaten the society and its infrastructure (although the first observations of ground effects of space weather were already made about 150 years ago). Monitoring systems for the management of other risks, such as floods, forest fires, etc., and for security are, to a great extent, based on satellite observations. Spacecraft and the communication between satellites and the ground are vulnerable to space weather. Thus, besides being a direct risk to technological systems, space weather may also be indirectly adverse to risk management. These two aspects of space weather are considered in a proposal to be submitted to EU's Sixth Framework Programme under the "Aeronautics and Space" priority in the "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) / Risk Management" area in March 2004. The proposal coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute with five to ten participating institutes is called SW-RISK ("Space Weather - Risk Indices from Scientific Know-how").

  16. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications. PMID:23113627

  17. 78 FR 44557 - Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on July 12, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), pursuant to Order No. 777...

  18. 14 CFR 121.495 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.495... Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk Management System...

  19. 14 CFR 121.495 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.495... Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk Management System...

  20. Reliability and Convergent Validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey Physical Activity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), flexibility (FLEX), and muscular strength and/or endurance (MSE) questions. Twenty college students completed the four items twice during the same day. During the next 7

  1. Extended Editorial: Research and Education in Reliability, Maintenance, Quality Control, Risk and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a special theme journal issue on research and education in quality control, maintenance, reliability, risk analysis, and safety. Discusses each of these theme concepts and their applications to naval architecture, marine engineering, and industrial engineering. Considers the effects of the rapid transfer of research results through…

  2. Extended Editorial: Research and Education in Reliability, Maintenance, Quality Control, Risk and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a special theme journal issue on research and education in quality control, maintenance, reliability, risk analysis, and safety. Discusses each of these theme concepts and their applications to naval architecture, marine engineering, and industrial engineering. Considers the effects of the rapid transfer of research results through

  3. Reliability, Maintenance and Risk Assessment in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Education in the US.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inozu, Bahadir; Ayyub, Bilal A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the current status of existing curricula, accreditation requirements, and new developments in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering education in the United States. Discusses the emerging needs of the maritime industry in light of advances in information technology and movement toward risk-based, reliability-centered rule making in the

  4. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record,...

  5. Coupling hydrologic and hydraulic modelling for reliable flood risk mitigation activities in the Upper-Medium Tiber River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, N.; Brocca, L.; Giustarini, L.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the recent and serious flood events occurred in latest years in Italy, the interest towards accurate methodology for the evaluation of flood prone areas is continually increasing. In particular, this issue is related to urbanization planning activities, civil protection actions (e.g. hydraulic risk warning systems), and the assessment of hydraulic engineering structures behaviour during severe hydrometeorological conditions. In Italy, following the publishing in the late 90's of many laws and regulations concerning hydraulic risk assessment matters, a widespread flooding areas mapping have been carried out (Italian Basin Authorities "PAI" plans). In case of limited availability of historical peak flow data, the flood prone areas estimation was based on the application of hydrologic and hydraulic modelling separately. Moreover, the recent directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks requires from each member state: preliminary flood risk assessment (within December 2011), flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (within December 2013), flood risk management plans (within December 2015). In order to prevent and control flood events in medium-small river basins (e.g. Upper Tiber River basin, Central Italy), the use of hydrologic models coupled with hydraulic ones can be a valuable tool also for real time applications, such as flood risk mitigation and warning activities of the Italian National Warning System Network (composed by regional "Functional Centres" coordinated by the National Civil Protection Department). In this context, two significant flood events occurred in November 2005 and December 2008 in the Umbria Region territory were considered. In this area a hydrometeorological network, characterized by a high temporal and spatial resolution, is operating in real time. Different coupled models were considered to reproduce the selected events, in order to test and compare their reliability and efficiency. Specifically, two semi-distributed models (MISD model and HEC-HMS model) and two hydraulic models (DHI-MIKE11 and HEC-RAS) were chosen and applied in the Tiber River at Monte Molino section (5270 km2). After the calibrating procedure, the models were used to produce floodplain maps and then for the delineation of dynamic flood hazard and risk scenarios, useful for real-time risk management. The proposed calibration procedure was found to be characterized by a strong reliability due to the fact that a lot of information are available for the two chosen events. In particular, there were detailed hydrometeorological data, such as rainfall records in most of the pluviometric stations located in the basin and hydrometric levels collected in more than one point along the main channel reach. Moreover, from the local "territorial presidium" it was possible to collect non-instrumental information, such as the number and location of embankment failures and other direct observations. Lastly, for these events remote sensing observations of actual flooded areas were also available. Together with hydrometric recorded levels and computed discharges (disposing of reliable rating curves yearly controlled), these last information were extremely useful during the calibration process. Final results showed how useful this tool is for reliable flood risk mitigation activities (mapping and risk assessment as well as real time applications) especially when inundations occur.

  6. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  7. NGNP Risk Management through Assessing Technology Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2010-08-01

    Throughout the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project life cycle, technical risks are identified, analyzed, and mitigated and decisions are made regarding the design and selection of plant and sub-system configurations, components and their fabrication materials, and operating conditions. Risk resolution and decision making are key elements that help achieve project completion within budget and schedule constraints and desired plant availability. To achieve this objective, a formal decision-making and risk management process was developed for NGNP, based on proven systems engineering principles that have guided aerospace and military applications.

  8. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  9. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework.

    PubMed

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer's role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this "poor compliance" trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  10. Load Carriage: An Integrated Risk Management Approach.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney R

    2015-11-01

    Orr, RM and Pope, RR. Load carriage: An integrated risk management approach. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S119-S128, 2015-Military load carriage (LC) gives rise to substantial risks to soldier health, tactical performance, and mission success. The aim of this article was to extract and synthesize the key findings of a series of LC research reports previously published by the authors. Five reviews and 6 studies were included, with key findings extracted and synthesized in tabulated and critical narrative form. The weight of a soldier's load is a source of risk for soldier's injuries and tactical task performance. The resulting level of risk is influenced by risk modifiers (like speed of march, terrain grade, and task type and duration) and risk controls (like administrative controls and physical conditioning). In the Australian context, these risk controls were limited, with soldiers carrying heavier loads than those mandated by doctrine and policy, and LC conditioning not meeting best practice. The diversity of LC contexts, combined with the influence of risk modifiers and risk controls, means that levels of risk associated with LC are not consistent and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Load weight and marching routes (terrains, gradients), distances, speed, and duration are all potentially treatable sources of LC-related risk. Potential risk treatments include not only commanders directly addressing these specific sources of risk to the extent feasible, on a case-by-case basis, when planning or conducting LC tasks but also improving administration controls (i.e., doctrine and policies) and personal protection (i.e., the physical conditioning of the soldier) as part of the hierarchy of controls. Practical application would involve commanders developing and implementing dedicated LC doctrine and policies and implementing and enforcing LC conditioning programs that meets best practice. PMID:26506174

  11. Risk based management of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, M.J.; Aller, J.E.; Tallin, A.; Weber, B.J.

    1996-07-01

    The API Piping Inspection Code is the first such Code to require classification of piping based on the consequences of failure, and to use this classification to influence inspection activity. Since this Code was published, progress has been made in the development of tools to improve on this approach by determining not only the consequences of failure, but also the likelihood of failure. ``Risk`` is defined as the product of the consequence and the likelihood. Measuring risk provides the means to formally manage risk by matching the inspection effort (costs) to the benefits of reduced risk. Using such a cost/benefit analysis allows the optimization of inspection budgets while meeting societal demands for reduction of the risk associated with process plant piping. This paper presents an overview of the tools developed to measure risk, and the methods to determine the effects of past and future inspections on the level of risk. The methodology is being developed as an industry-sponsored project under the direction of an API committee. The intent is to develop an API Recommended Practice that will be linked to In-Service Inspection Standards and the emerging Fitness for Service procedures. Actual studies using a similar approach have shown that a very high percentage of the risk due to piping in an operating facility is associated with relatively few pieces of piping. This permits inspection efforts to be focused on those piping systems that will result in the greatest risk reduction.

  12. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) and Enhanced Structural Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC) activities to further the Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD), including those to determine the effectiveness of emerging NDE techniques. The paper discusses the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology draws on experience derived from evaluating techniques that have emerged in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round-robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will document the path taken for previous techniques and set a standardized course for future NDE techniques.

  13. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,

  14. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,…

  15. RISK COMMUNICATION AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL: A RISK COMMUNICATION WORKBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communicating information about environmental risk to the people most affected by it is one of the major challenges faced by risk managers and community decision makers. Changing human behavior is a far more complex task than designing water retention systems or managing storm wa...

  16. Application of classical process risk analysis tools to business risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Einolf, D.M.; Menghini, L.K.

    1999-07-01

    Process engineers and safety professionals have used qualitative and quantitative risk assessment techniques for many years to analyze process hazards. Environmental managers have recently been exposed to many of these techniques through submission of Accidental Release Risk Management Plans (40 CFR 68). This presentation discusses the broader application of such tools (Hazard and Operability Analysis, Fault-Tree, Failure Modes and Effects) to issues involving emergency and disaster preparedness and business contingency planning. In particular, the authors have successfully expanded the HazOp methodology to apply to a broad range of natural and man-made disasters that may affect continued business operations. Specific examples, including the development of comprehensive contingency planning for a water supply system, electronics manufacturer, and a distribution center will be discussed. These classical safety and reliability tools have broad application in the environmental planning arena, including emergency response and the operability of air and water pollution control equipment.

  17. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & C. Middleton, 2004) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated with

  18. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & C. Middleton, 2004) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated with…

  19. UTILITY DATA ARCHIVING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA let a contract for a consultant to collect information about historical changes in operations and maintenance, design and construction, and planning and siting for water and wastewater infrastructure. The goal of this research study is to determine risk management alternativ...

  20. TREATABILITY DATABASE (NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory has developed and is continuing to expand a database on the effectiveness of proven treatment technologies in the removal/destruction of chemicals in various types of media, including water, wastewater, soil, debris, sludge, and se...

  1. Fifteen-Minute Comprehensive Alcohol Risk Survey: Reliability and Validity Across American Indian and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Bethany J; Garrett, Brady A; Molina, Mildred Maldonado; Boyd, Misty L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American Indians (AIs) suffer from significant alcohol-related health disparities, and increased risk begins early. This study examined the reliability and validity of measures to be used in a preventive intervention trial. Reliability and validity across racial/ethnic subgroups are crucial to evaluate intervention effectiveness and promote culturally appropriate evidence-based practice. Method: To assess reliability and validity, we used three baseline surveys of high school students participating in a preventive intervention trial within the jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. The 15-minute alcohol risk survey included 16 multi-item scales and one composite score measuring key proximal, primary, and moderating variables. Forty-four percent of the students indicated that they were AI (of whom 82% were Cherokee), including 23% who reported being AI only (n = 435) and 18% both AI and White (n = 352). Forty-seven percent reported being White only (n = 901). Results: Scales were adequately reliable for the full sample and across race/ethnicity defined by AI, AI/White, and White subgroups. Among the full sample, all scales had acceptable internal consistency, with minor variation across race/ethnicity. All scales had extensive to exemplary test–retest reliability and showed minimal variation across race/ethnicity. The eight proximal and two primary outcome scales were each significantly associated with the frequency of alcohol use during the past month in both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal models, providing support for both criterion validity and predictive validity. For most scales, interpretation of the strength of association and statistical significance did not differ between the racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The results support the reliability and validity of scales of a brief questionnaire measuring risk and protective factors for alcohol use among AI adolescents, primarily members of the Cherokee Nation. PMID:25486402

  2. An open framework for risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-08-01

    Risk assessment methodologies are ready to enter their third generation. In this next generation, assessment will be based on a whole system understanding of the system to be assessed. To realize this vision of risk management, the authors have begun development of an extensible software tool kit. This tool kit breaks with the traditional approach to assessment by having the analyst spend the majority of the assessment time building an explicit model that documents in a single framework the various facets of the system, such as the system`s behavior, structure, and history. Given this explicit model of the system, a computer is able to automatically produce a standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees. This brings with it a number of advantages relative to current risk management tools. Among these are a greater sense of completeness and correctness in assessment results and the ability to preserve and later employ lessons learned.

  3. Risk management and expert system development methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry; Gilstrap, Lewey

    1991-01-01

    A risk-based expert-system development methodology has been developed to provide guidance to managers and technical personnel and to serve as a standard for developing expert systems. Expert-system development differs from conventional software development in that the information needed to prepare system requirements for expert systems is not known at the outset of a project and is obtained by knowledge engineering methods. The paper describes the expert-system life cycle, development methodology, and the approach taken in this methodology to manage and reduce the risks in expert system development. Also examined are the risks of using and of not using a methodology, the studies undertaken to validate the provisions of the expert system development methodology, and the results of these validation studies.

  4. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in 2004 of evaluating the tolerance limits and safe operating bands called for in the Bioastronautics Strategy. Over the next several years, the concept of the "operating bands" were turned into Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS), developed by the technical resources of the SLSD at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These standards were developed and reviewed at the SLSD and then presented to the OCHMO for acceptance. The first set of standards was published in 2007 as the NASA-STD-3001, Volume 1, Crew Health that elaborated standards for several physiological areas such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, radiation exposure and nutrition. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Human Health was published in 2011, along with development guidance in the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Taken together, the SFHSS Volumes 1 and 2, and the HIDH replaced the NASA-STD-3000 with new standards and revisions of the older document. Three other changes were also taking place that facilitated the development of the human system risk management approach. In 2005, the life sciences research and development portfolio underwent a comprehensive review through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) that resulted in the reformulation of the Bioastronautics Program into Human Research Program (HRP) that was focused on appropriate mitigation results for high priority human health risks. The baseline HRP budget was established in August 2005. In addition, the OCHMO formulated the Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) in 2006 that established the position of the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the NASA JSC along with other key technical disciplines, and the OCHMO became the responsible office for the SFHSS as noted above. The final change was the establishment in 2008 of the Human System Risk Board (HSRB), chaired by the CMO with representation from the HRP, SLSD management and technical experts. The HSRB then began to review all human system risks, established a comprehensive risk management and configuration management plan and data sharing policy. These major developments of standards, the HRP, the HMTA and a forum for review of human system risks (HSRB) facilitated the integration of human research, medical operations, systems engineering and many other disciplines in the comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB began a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30 where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit 6 and 12 months, deep space sortie for 30 days and 1 year, a one year lunar mission, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary assessment representing the state of knowledge/evidence base for that risk, the available risk mitigations, traceability to the SFHSS and program requirements, and future work required. These data then can drive coordinated budgets across the HRP, the International Space Station, Crew Health and Safety and Advanced Exploration System budgets. These risk assessments were completed for 6 DRMs in December of 2014 and serve as the baseline for which subsequent research and technology development and crew health care portfolios can be assessed. The HSRB will review each risk at least annually and especially when new information is available that must be considered for effective risk mitigation. The current status of each risk can be reported to program management for operations, budget reviews and general oversight of the human system risk management program.

  5. Risk management: application of early warning systems to emergency plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C.; Sterlacchini, S.; Pasuto, A.; de Amicis, M.

    2009-04-01

    Warning System and emergency plans are two fundamental elements of risk management and governance, but unfortunately, most of the times, they are developed independently one from the other, as sequential steps not necessary linked. The main goal of this research is to develop a methodology for applying Early Warning Systems - Community Based to the emergency plan using the results of social surveys and quantitative risk assessment, taking into account the administrative structure and the planning system of the study area, as well as the legislative obligations of each entity involved in the risk governance and emergency management. Using a integrative scientific and social approach to natural hazards the research aim to contribute to fill the gap between scientists, policy makers, stakeholders and community. Initially applied in Comunit Montana Valtellina di Tirano, Italy, the methodology involves the application of two comprehensive surveys. The first is addressed to stakeholders (including policy makers, emergency managers, emergency volunteers, consultants and scientists) in order to determine their needs, points of view, concerns and constraints. The second survey is addressed specifically to local community to assess risk perception, awareness, needs, capacity and level of trust towards stakeholders, besides asking for their willingness to participate in future risk communication activities. The Early Warning System developed includes all the stages of the early warning process (hazard evaluation and forecasting; warning and dissemination and public response) and would be based on a multidisciplinary partnership that takes into account the different actors involved in the risk management in order to accomplish a more reliable and credible result, including an emergency plan specifically designed for each study area. After evaluating the results of the surveys, information and education campaigns will be developed with the objective of reducing vulnerability of the population by increasing risk perception and improving response to early warnings. Spatial planning and specifically decisions about future land-use are critical to mitigate the hazard and to reduce the vulnerability, therefore some inputs will be provided to the decision-makers on where additional risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer measures are especially necessary.

  6. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  7. [Managing health risks of workers in business trip].

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data of prospective observation over the risk management system concerning health of international oil and gas company workers in business trips. The management system included training and screening of workers under risk, specific prophylaxis and other measures. The authors described problems of the risk management system implementation, suggested recommendations to control risks connected with business trips. PMID:25881395

  8. 14 CFR 121.527 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.527... 121.527 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk...

  9. 14 CFR 121.527 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.527... 121.527 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk...

  10. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

  11. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%-8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  12. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405

  13. 76 FR 2369 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk- Power System... related to reliability of the Bulk-Power System, including priorities for addressing risks to...

  14. Integrating legal liabilities in nanomanufacturing risk management.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mayank; Trump, Benjamin D; Bates, Matthew E; Monica, John C; Linkov, Igor

    2012-08-01

    Among other things, the wide-scale development and use of nanomaterials is expected to produce costly regulatory and civil liabilities for nanomanufacturers due to lingering uncertainties, unanticipated effects, and potential toxicity. The life-cycle environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risks of nanomaterials are currently being studied, but the corresponding legal risks have not been systematically addressed. With the aid of a systematic approach that holistically evaluates and accounts for uncertainties about the inherent properties of nanomaterials, it is possible to provide an order of magnitude estimate of liability risks from regulatory and litigious sources based on current knowledge. In this work, we present a conceptual framework for integrating estimated legal liabilities with EHS risks across nanomaterial life-cycle stages using empirical knowledge in the field, scientific and legal judgment, probabilistic risk assessment, and multicriteria decision analysis. Such estimates will provide investors and operators with a basis to compare different technologies and practices and will also inform regulatory and legislative bodies in determining standards that balance risks with technical advancement. We illustrate the framework through the hypothetical case of a manufacturer of nanoscale titanium dioxide and use the resulting expected legal costs to evaluate alternative risk-management actions. PMID:22717005

  15. Effectively Managing Risks of Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Reible, D.D.; Lampert, D.

    2008-07-01

    Various research undertaken over the past decade has improved our ability to assess and effectively manage contaminated sediments. Key to this improvement is a better understanding of the risks, both in time and space. Sediments can pose risks if contaminants are present in the biologically active zone of a water body or if transport processes can move contaminants into that zone. Conversely, effective management of contaminants can be accomplished by physically separating contaminants from the biologically active zone or hindering the transport processes that can result in contaminant migration. Both of these are accomplished by sediment capping, either conventional capping with a passive barrier such as sand, or, when greater control over mobile contaminants is required, by active capping in which amendments are used to retard any applicable transport processes. In this paper, the key transport and exposure processes are assessed and the ability to manage these risks with both passive and active capping evaluated. In summary, conventional sand capping can be effective in reducing exposures, while active capping can provide greater control; options include activated carbon/coke (to sequester organic compounds), organo-clays (to control nonaqueous phase and dissolved liquids), and clay polymers (to control permeability). Field demonstrations are underway on both coasts (including Portland, Oregon, and the Anacostia) to assess the effectiveness of various in-situ options, including organo-clay mats and other active caps. In addition, a unique in-situ sampling approach is demonstrating that pore water concentrations can be determined and employed to assess baseline or post-remedial risks due to contaminated sediments. Additional capping research is addressing issues such as gas release, treatment for other contaminants, and geotechnical tests to evaluate mobility of nonaqueous phase liquids due to cap loading and consolidation. Science and technology are combining to support more realistic risk assessments and practical management measures for contaminated sediments, with particular emphasis on in situ approaches. (authors)

  16. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list.

  17. An evaluation of the reliability and usefulness of external-initiator PRA (probabilistic risk analysis) methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The discipline of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has become so mature in recent years that it is now being used routinely to assist decision-making throughout the nuclear industry. This includes decision-making that affects design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation. Unfortunately, not all sub-areas within the larger discipline of PRA are equally mature,'' and therefore the many different types of engineering insights from PRA are not all equally reliable. 93 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated potential risks within NASA, as well as the process for communicating and cooperating with other government agencies and industry partners, both domestic and international, to ensure mission success.

  19. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire?risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers perceptions of factor importance and how their fire?risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk?taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real?world context may well distort the nature of risk?taking behavior.

  20. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Jiří; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  1. Diabetes in pregnancy: health risks and management.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sarah; Dornhorst, Anne

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy is increasing and therefore it is important to raise awareness of the associated health risks to the mother, the growing fetus, and the future child. Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in diabetic pregnancies through increased stillbirths and congenital malformation rates. These are mainly the result of early fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia. In the mother, pregnancy may lead to worsening or development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and hypoglycaemia. This review defines pregestational and gestational diabetes and the associated health risks to the growing fetus and mother. Management is discussed, focusing on clinical evidence based guidelines published by the American Diabetic Association and the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence on the management of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. PMID:21368321

  2. Applied climate science: the risk management route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    While several Masters programmes on climate science exist in the British Isles, until recently there has been little regard for the requirements of business, local government and the insurance market in the provision of postgraduate taught programmes. This talk will discuss the issue of climate change risk management as a way of embedding climate science into the decision-making protocols for commercial and governmental organisations. It will outline several issues for business decision-making that have implications for climate change. These include: climate sensitivity, model uncertainty and rapid climate change. The experience of developing and running the MSc in Climate Change and Risk management at Exeter University will be used to highlight these issues.

  3. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific data recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of operating wind turbines. This report is intended to help develop a basic understanding of the data needed for reliability analysis from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and analysis and reporting needs. The 'Motivation' section of this report provides a rationale for collecting and analyzing field data for reliability analysis. The benefits of this type of effort can include increased energy delivered, decreased operating costs, enhanced preventive maintenance schedules, solutions to issues with the largest payback, and identification of early failure indicators.

  4. Pareto-based efficient stochastic simulation-optimization for robust and reliable groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, J.; Moore, Catherine; Wolf, Leif

    2016-02-01

    Simulation-optimization methods are used to develop optimal solutions for a variety of groundwater management problems. The true optimality of these solutions is often dependent on the reliability of the simulation model. Therefore, where model predictions are uncertain due to parameter uncertainty, this should be accounted for within the optimization formulation to ensure that solutions are robust and reliable. In this study, we present a stochastic multi-objective formulation of the otherwise single objective groundwater optimization problem by considering minimization of prediction uncertainty as an additional objective. The proposed method is illustrated by applying to an injection bore field design problem. The primary objective of optimization is maximization of the total volume of water injected into a confined aquifer, subject to the constraints that the resulting increases in hydraulic head in a set of control bores are below specified target levels. Both bore locations and injection rates were considered as optimization variables. Prediction uncertainty is estimated using stacks of uncertain parameters and is explicitly minimized to produce robust and reliable solutions. Reliability analysis using post-optimization Monte Carlo analysis proved that while a stochastic single objective optimization failed to provide reliable solutions with a stack size of 50, the proposed method resulted in many robust solutions with high reliability close to 1.0. Results of the comparison indicate potential gains in efficiency of the stochastic multi-objective formulation to identify robust and reliable groundwater management strategies.

  5. Cultural resource management: The risk of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.A.

    1994-02-01

    The statutory mandate for federal agencies to involve American Indians in the management of cultural resources may create a cultural risk for the people those statutes are intended to protect. A conceptual framework is given to help understand this dilemma. Factors that can exacerbate the severity of the adverse cultural impacts for tribal people are also examined. Policy recommendations are offered for reducing tensions among an the participants in the statutory process.

  6. 76 FR 7187 - Priorities for Addressing Risks to the Reliability of the Bulk-Power System; Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... protecting against sophisticated and fast-moving threats? What role do you expect Smart Grid to play in the... grid reliability under Smart Grid applications? If not, how should NERC address these issues? c. Will Smart Grid applications have non-cyber reliability implications that need to be addressed? d. What...

  7. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in Infrastructure and Efficiency Could Improve Performance and Reduce Risk: - Different portfolios of water-supply and demand-reduction options offer performance trade-offs. - Different types of options in the portfolios, such as conservation, desalination, or water banking, would affect future outcomes and costs of implementation. - Analysis of all the portfolios identified important near-term, high-priority options that should be implemented in the near future, including municipal, industrial, and agricultural conservation. Other Solutions May Be Required: - If future hydrologic conditions develop in a manner consistent with the more pessimistic projections, the Basin is increasingly likely to face vulnerable conditions. The region may need to consider additional management options.

  8. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  9. Desktop risk management and decision support

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The world can be a risky place, and both seasoned petroleum veterans and relative newcomers know no industry exemplifies that better than oil and gas. For years, industry handled its inherent risk with diversification. In the past, {open_quotes}I`ll take part of your deal if you take part in mine{close_quotes} was an efficient way to control exposure in wells, fields and basins. Recently, more sophisticated methods of handling certain types of risks - generally financially oriented like commodity price or currency - have evolved that use financial-type tools such as futures or basis differential. However, the petroleum industry still struggles to quantify and manage its risk throughout the exploration and production chain.

  10. Bisphenol A and Risk Management Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliot, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This option allows society to maximize the benefits from the use of the chemical while minimizing risks to human health or the environment, and it represents a compromise between competing values. When it is not possible to establish acceptable exposure levels for chemicals that pose significant health or environmental risks, the most reasonable options for risk management may be to enact either partial or complete bans on their use. These options create greater moral conflict than other risk management strategies, leaving policymakers difficult choices between competing values. PMID:24471646

  11. Bisphenol A and risk management ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-03-01

    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This option allows society to maximize the benefits from the use of the chemical while minimizing risks to human health or the environment, and it represents a compromise between competing values. When it is not possible to establish acceptable exposure levels for chemicals that pose significant health or environmental risks, the most reasonable options for risk management may be to enact either partial or complete bans on their use. These options create greater moral conflict than other risk management strategies, leaving policymakers difficult choices between competing values. PMID:24471646

  12. Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Glicken, J.

    1994-12-31

    The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  14. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  15. Recall (report) bias and reliability in the retrospective assessment of melanoma risk.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, M A; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-02-01

    In a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study cohort, the authors assessed recall bias in the ascertainment of two risk factors for melanoma: hair color and ability to tan. Participants reported on these risk factors in a 1982 questionnaire and in a subsequent case-control questionnaire or telephone interview. The test-retest reliability among controls was high for both questions (Spearman's r = 0.76). Among women diagnosed with melanoma after the first questionnaire and before the second, there was a substantial shift toward reporting a reduced ability to tan when participants were questioned after the diagnosis of melanoma (p = 0.035). No shift was noted for the hair color question (p = 0.8). The authors conclude that recall bias was observed among female nurses with cutaneous melanoma in the assessment of tanning ability, a major risk factor for melanoma. PMID:2000841

  16. Competing risk models in reliability systems, a weibull distribution model with bayesian analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, Ismed; Satria Gondokaryono, Yudi

    2016-02-01

    In reliability theory, the most important problem is to determine the reliability of a complex system from the reliability of its components. The weakness of most reliability theories is that the systems are described and explained as simply functioning or failed. In many real situations, the failures may be from many causes depending upon the age and the environment of the system and its components. Another problem in reliability theory is one of estimating the parameters of the assumed failure models. The estimation may be based on data collected over censored or uncensored life tests. In many reliability problems, the failure data are simply quantitatively inadequate, especially in engineering design and maintenance system. The Bayesian analyses are more beneficial than the classical one in such cases. The Bayesian estimation analyses allow us to combine past knowledge or experience in the form of an apriori distribution with life test data to make inferences of the parameter of interest. In this paper, we have investigated the application of the Bayesian estimation analyses to competing risk systems. The cases are limited to the models with independent causes of failure by using the Weibull distribution as our model. A simulation is conducted for this distribution with the objectives of verifying the models and the estimators and investigating the performance of the estimators for varying sample size. The simulation data are analyzed by using Bayesian and the maximum likelihood analyses. The simulation results show that the change of the true of parameter relatively to another will change the value of standard deviation in an opposite direction. For a perfect information on the prior distribution, the estimation methods of the Bayesian analyses are better than those of the maximum likelihood. The sensitivity analyses show some amount of sensitivity over the shifts of the prior locations. They also show the robustness of the Bayesian analysis within the range between the true value and the maximum likelihood estimated value lines.

  17. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT: FRAMEWORK FOR DECISION MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk assessment and risk management initiatives described in this report are tools which will help make possible more efficient protection of the environment and human health. e expect to gain the following specific management advantages: isk assessment and risk management he...

  18. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering... monitored, funding availability, and program management risk. (c) Appropriate techniques should be...

  19. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering... monitored, funding availability, and program management risk. (c) Appropriate techniques should be...

  20. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering... monitored, funding availability, and program management risk. (c) Appropriate techniques should be...

  1. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-11-07

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure.

  2. 14 CFR 121.473 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.473...: Domestic Operations 121.473 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The...

  3. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under...

  4. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under...

  5. 14 CFR 117.7 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 117.7... LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) 117.7 Fatigue risk management system. (a... Fatigue Risk Management System that provides at least an equivalent level of safety against...

  6. 14 CFR 121.473 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.473...: Domestic Operations 121.473 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The...

  7. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-10-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Observational Risk Screening in Evaluating Dynamic Knee Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ekegren, Christina L.; Miller, William C.; Celebrini, Richard G.; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Nonexperimental methodological study. Objectives To determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and validity of using observational risk screening guidelines to evaluate dynamic knee valgus. Background A deficiency in the neuromuscular control of the hip has been identified as a key risk factor for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in post pubescent females. This deficiency can manifest itself as a valgus knee alignment during tasks involving hip and knee flexion. There are currently no scientifically tested methods to screen for dynamic knee valgus in the clinic or on the field. Methods Three physiotherapists used observational risk screening guidelines to rate 40 adolescent female soccer players according to their risk of ACL injury. The rating was based on the amount of dynamic knee valgus observed on a drop jump landing. Ratings were evaluated for intrarater and interrater agreement using kappa coefficients. Sensitivity and specificity of ratings were evaluated by comparing observational ratings with measurements obtained using 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. Results Kappa coefficients for intrarater and interrater agreement ranged from 0.75 to 0.85, indicating that ratings were reasonably consistent over time and between physiotherapists. Sensitivity values were inadequate, ranging from 6787%. This indicated that raters failed to detect up to a third of truly high risk individuals. Specificity values ranged from 6072% which was considered adequate for the purposes of the screen. Conclusion Observational risk screening is a practical and cost-effective method of screening for ACL injury risk. Rater agreement and specificity were acceptable for this method but sensitivity was not. To detect a greater proportion of individuals at risk of ACL injury, coaches and clinicians should ensure that they include additional tests for other high risk characteristics in their screening protocols. PMID:19721212

  9. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management

  10. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity of alternative performance incentive program models to manage DSM risk in BC. Three performance incentive program models were assessed and compared to BC Hydro's current large industrial DSM incentive program, Power Smart Partners -- Transmission Project Incentives, itself a performance incentive-based program. Together, the selected program models represent a continuum of program design and implementation in terms of the schedule and level of incentives provided, the duration and rigour of measurement and verification (M&V), energy efficiency measures targeted and involvement of the private sector. A multi criteria assessment framework was developed to rank the capacity of each program model to manage BC large industrial DSM risk factors. DSM risk management rankings were then compared to program costeffectiveness, targeted energy savings potential in BC and survey results from BC industrial firms on the program models. The findings indicate that the reliability of DSM energy savings in the BC large industrial sector can be maximized through performance incentive program models that: (1) offer incentives jointly for capital and low-cost operations and maintenance (O&M) measures, (2) allow flexible lead times for project development, (3) utilize rigorous M&V methods capable of measuring variable load, process-based energy savings, (4) use moderate contract lengths that align with effective measure life, and (5) integrate energy management software tools capable of providing energy performance feedback to customers to maximize the persistence of energy savings. While this study focuses exclusively on the BC large industrial sector, the findings of this research have applicability to all energy utilities serving large, energy intensive industrial sectors.

  11. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  12. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  13. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a “gold standard” for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  14. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    DOEpatents

    Wyss, Gregory D.

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  15. Application of the ARRAMIS Risk and Reliability Software to the Nuclear Accident Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, Gregory D.; Daniel, Sharon L.; Hays, Kelly M.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-06-01

    The ARRAMIS risk and reliability analysis software suite developed by Sandia National Laboratories enables analysts to evaluate the safety and reliability of a wide range of complex systems whose failure results in high consequences. This software was originally designed to model the systems, responses, and phenomena associated with potential severe accidents at commercial nuclear power reactors by solving very large fault tree and event tree models. However, because of its power and versatility, ARRAMIS and its constituent analysis engines have recently been used to evaluate a wide variety of systems, including nuclear weapons, telecommunications facilities, robotic material handling systems, and aircraft systems using hybrid fault tree event tree analysis techniques incorporating fully integrated uncertainty analysis capabilities. This paper describes recent applications in the area of nuclear reactor accident progression analysis using a large event tree methodology and the ARRAMIS package.

  16. A Systems Modeling Approach for Risk Management of Command File Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The main cause of commanding errors is often (but not always) due to procedures. Either lack of maturity in the processes, incompleteness of requirements or lack of compliance to these procedures. Other causes of commanding errors include lack of understanding of system states, inadequate communication, and making hasty changes in standard procedures in response to an unexpected event. In general, it's important to look at the big picture prior to making corrective actions. In the case of errors traced back to procedures, considering the reliability of the process as a metric during its' design may help to reduce risk. This metric is obtained by using data from Nuclear Industry regarding human reliability. A structured method for the collection of anomaly data will help the operator think systematically about the anomaly and facilitate risk management. Formal models can be used for risk based design and risk management. A generic set of models can be customized for a broad range of missions.

  17. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  18. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  19. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk

  20. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts as well as performing major probabilistic assessments used to support flight rationale and help establish program requirements. During 2008, the Analysis Group performed more than 70 assessments. Although all these assessments were important, some were instrumental in the decisionmaking processes for the Shuttle and Constellation Programs. Two of the more significant tasks were the Space Transportation System (STS)-122 Low Level Cutoff PRA for the SSP and the Orion Pad Abort One (PA-1) PRA for the CxP. These two activities, along with the numerous other tasks the Analysis Group performed in 2008, are summarized in this report. This report also highlights several ongoing and upcoming efforts to provide crucial statistical and probabilistic assessments, such as the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PRA for the Hubble Space Telescope service mission and the first fully integrated PRAs for the CxP's Lunar Sortie and ISS missions.

  1. Use quantitative analysis to manage fire risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    By incorporating quantitative engineering tools into fire-risk evaluations, safety engineers and managers can mitigate hazards caused by pressurized oil. Fire remains the number one factor for unscheduled downtime, lost production and equipment damage. Pressurized oil is a common and sometimes underestimated fire hazard. This hazard exists in many industrial facilities and can fuel a pool fire or an intense torch fire. Standard sprinkler protection does not affect torch fires, and either roil fire type can rapidly weaken structural steel members to the point of failure. Two case histories show how safety engineers using quantitative tools analyze fire hazards presented by pressurized oil and reduce its risks. The techniques are simple-to-use and are readily available.

  2. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  3. Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Methodology: Comparisons with other HRA Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, James Clifford; Gertman, David Ira; Hill, Susan Gardiner; Blackman, Harold Stabler; Gentillon, Cynthia Ann; Hallbert, Bruce Perry; Haney, Lon Nolan

    2000-08-01

    The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

  4. Simplified plant analysis risk (SPAR) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology: Comparisons with other HRA methods

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Byers; D. I. Gertman; S. G. Hill; H. S. Blackman; C. D. Gentillon; B. P. Hallbert; L. N. Haney

    2000-07-31

    The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

  5. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  6. Risk management modeling and its application in maritime safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ting-Rong; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Zeng, Xiang-Kun

    2008-12-01

    Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However, attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods, which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories, such as the relationships among risk, safety, danger, and so on. In order to solve this problem, as a first step, fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics, and then illustrated with some charts. Second, man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this, a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension; a management dimension; an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension), which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next, the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method, which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading, comes from Risk Management theory. Finally, conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently, as well as areas where further research is required.

  7. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 4.0: Tutorial. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, R.L.; Russell, K.D.; Skinner, N.L.

    1992-10-01

    This NUREG is the tutorial for the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 4.0, a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most analyses performed with IRRAS. The tutorial is divided into two major sections: basic and additional features. The basic section contains lessons that lead the student through development of a very simple problem in IRRAS, highlighting the program`s most basic features. The additional features section contains lessons that expand on basic features of IRRAS 4.0.

  8. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 4. 0: Tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, R.L.; Russell, K.D.; Skinner, N.L. )

    1992-10-01

    This NUREG is the tutorial for the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 4.0, a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most analyses performed with IRRAS. The tutorial is divided into two major sections: basic and additional features. The basic section contains lessons that lead the student through development of a very simple problem in IRRAS, highlighting the program's most basic features. The additional features section contains lessons that expand on basic features of IRRAS 4.0.

  9. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  10. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization.

  11. Risk based bridge data collection and asset management and the role of structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Bush, Simon; Henning, Theunis; McCarten, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Bridges are critical to the operation and functionality of the whole road networks. It is therefore essential that specific data is collected regarding bridge asset condition and performance, as this allows proactive management of the assets and associated risks and more accurate short and long term financial planning. This paper proposes and discusses a strategy for collection of data on bridge condition and performance. Recognizing that risk management is the primary driver of asset management, the proposed strategy prioritizes bridges for levels of data collection including core, intermediate and advanced. Individual bridges are seen as parts of wider networks and bridge risk and criticality assessment emphasizes bridge failure or underperformance risk in the network context. The paper demonstrates how more reliable and detailed data can assist in managing network and bridge risks and provides a rationale for application of higher data collection levels for bridges characterized by higher risk and criticality. As the bridge risk and/or criticality increases planned and proactive integration of structural health monitoring (SHM) data into asset management is outlined. An example of bridge prioritization for data collection using several bridges taken from a national highway network is provided using an existing risk and criticality scoring methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion on the role of SHM in data collection for bridge asset management and where SHM can make the largest impacts.

  12. Risk factor management: the cardiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G

    1994-12-01

    Risk factors are associated with disease and are not necessarily causative; as they are additive they should not be judged in isolation. Thus, 'mild blood pressure' does not imply a 'mild' risk in a cigarette-smoking, hypertensive diabetic. Cardiologists are usually fortunate, in that they see patients when there is already evidence of disease (ie, when secondary prevention is the issue, which is much less contentious than primary prevention). In the 'whizz-bang' specialty of cardiology, a balloon can remove in a matter of seconds what a lipidologist has toiled over for years. Attention to detail may not come easily in a stressful world: it is the detail of prevention that is likely to slow the progression of disease and induce regression rather than angioplasty or bypass surgery. In the presence of coronary artery disease, the essence of management is the team approach, the patient being the most important member of the team. Furthermore, the factors that need the most concentrated effort include cigarette smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia. As risk factors are additive, treatment of one should not make another one worse. Some drugs for hypertension can exacerbate hyperlipidaemia or impair glucose tolerance (eg thiazides), while ACE inhibitors can beneficially decrease insulin resistance in diabetes. Therapy must be tailored to the individual, but the overall prognostic benefits of drugs that might have slightly adverse metabolic profiles (such as beta-blockers) must not be ignored. Science is often a loser when faced with the power of marketing. When one risk factor (eg hypertension) is present, it is important to be vigorous in treating other factors (eg hyperlipidaemia) with general advice and support, as well as with specific drug therapy if indicated. There are two individuals that tend to lack education in risk factors--the patient and the cardiologist. The patient is a victim of poor investment in prevention, while the cardiologist is put off by a perceived lack of balance from the medical protagonists. PMID:19496271

  13. Risk factor management: the cardiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G

    1996-01-01

    Risk factors are associated with disease and are not necessarily causative; as they are additive they should not be judged in isolation. Thus, 'mild blood pressure' does not imply a 'mild' risk in a cigarette-smoking, hypertensive diabetic. Cardiologists are usually fortunate, in that they see patients when there is already evidence of disease (ie, when secondary prevention is the issue, which is much less contentious than primary prevention). In the 'whizz-bang' specialty of cardiology, a balloon can remove in a matter of seconds what a lipidologist has toiled over for years. Attention to detail may not come easily in a stressful world: it is the detail of prevention that is likely to slow the progression of disease and induce regression rather than angioplasty or bypass surgery. In the presence of coronary artery disease, the essence of management is the team approach, the patient being the most important member of the team. Furthermore, the factors that need the most concentrated effort include cigarette smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia. As risk factors are additive, treatment of one should not make another one worse. Some drugs for hypertension can exacerbate hyperlipidaemia or impair glucose tolerance (eg thiazides), while ACE inhibitors can beneficially decrease insulin resistance in diabetes. Therapy must be tailored to the individual, but the overall prognostic benefits of drugs that might have slightly adverse metabolic profiles (such as beta-blockers) must not be ignored. Science is often a loser when faced with the power of marketing. When one risk factor (eg hypertension) is present, it is important to be vigorous in treating other factors (eg hyperlipidaemia) with general advice and support, as well as with specific drug therapy if indicated. There are two individuals that tend to lack education in risk factors--the patient and the cardiologist. The patient is a victim of poor investment in prevention, while the cardiologist is put off by a perceived lack of balance from the medical protagonists. PMID:8729589

  14. Probabilistic economic frameworks for disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Guillaume; Forni, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Starting from the general concept of risk, we set up an economic analysis framework for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) investment. It builds on uncertainty management techniques - notably Monte Carlo simulations - and includes both a risk and performance metrics adapted to recurring issues in disaster risk management as entertained by governments and international organisations. This type of framework proves to be enlightening in several regards, and is thought to ease the promotion of DRM projects as "investments" rather than "costs to be born" and allow for meaningful comparison between DRM and other sectors. We then look at the specificities of disaster risk investments of medium to large scales through this framework, where some "invariants" can be identified, notably: (i) it makes more sense to perform analysis over long-term horizons -space and time scales are somewhat linked; (ii) profiling of the fluctuations of the gains and losses of DRM investments over long periods requires the ability to handle possibly highly volatile variables; (iii) complexity increases with the scale which results in a higher sensitivity of the analytic framework on the results; (iv) as the perimeter of analysis (time, theme and space-wise) is widened, intrinsic parameters of the project tend to weight lighter. This puts DRM in a very different perspective from traditional modelling, which usually builds on more intrinsic features of the disaster as it relates to the scientific knowledge about hazard(s). As models hardly accommodate for such complexity or "data entropy" (they require highly structured inputs), there is a need for a complementary approach to understand risk at global scale. The proposed framework suggests opting for flexible ad hoc modelling of specific issues consistent with one's objective, risk and performance metrics. Such tailored solutions are strongly context-dependant (time and budget, sensitivity of the studied variable in the economic framework) and can range from simple elicitation of data from a subject matter expert to calibrate a probability distribution to more advanced stochastic modelling. This approach can be referred to more as a proficiency in the language of uncertainty rather than modelling per se in the sense that it allows for greater flexibility to adapt a given context. In a real decision making context, one seldom has neither time nor budget resources to investigate all of these variables thoroughly, hence the importance of being able to prioritize the level of effort among them. Under the proposed framework, this can be done in an optimised fashion. The point here consists in applying probabilistic sensitivity analysis together with the fundamentals of the economic value of information; the framework as built is well suited to such considerations, and variables can be ranked according to their contribution to risk understanding. Efforts to deal with second order uncertainties on variables prove to be valuable when dealing with the economic value of sample information.

  15. Managing hydroclimatic risks in federal rivers: a diagnostic assessment.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Dustin; De Stefano, Lucia; Fung, Fai; Pittock, Jamie; Schlager, Edella; New, Mark; Connell, Daniel

    2013-11-13

    Hydroclimatic risks and adaptive capacity are not distributed evenly in large river basins of federal countries, where authority is divided across national and territorial governments. Transboundary river basins are a major test of federal systems of governance because key management roles exist at all levels. This paper examines the evolution and design of interstate water allocation institutions in semi-arid federal rivers prone to drought extremes, climatic variability and intensified competition for scarce water. We conceptualize, categorize and compare federal rivers as social-ecological systems to analyse the relationship between governance arrangements and hydroclimatic risks. A diagnostic approach is used to map over 300 federal rivers and classify the hydroclimatic risks of three semi-arid federal rivers with a long history of interstate allocation tensions: the Colorado River (USA/Mexico), Ebro River (Spain) and Murray-Darling River (Australia). Case studies review the evolution and design of water allocation institutions. Three institutional design trends have emerged: adoption of proportional interstate allocation rules; emergence of multi-layered river basin governance arrangements for planning, conflict resolution and joint monitoring; and new flexibility to adjust historic allocation patterns. Proportional allocation rules apportion water between states based on a share of available water, not a fixed volume or priority. Interstate allocation reform efforts in the Colorado and Murray-Darling rivers indicate that proportional allocation rules are prevalent for upstream states, while downstream states seek reliable deliveries of fixed volumes to increase water security. River basin governance arrangements establish new venues for multilayered planning, monitoring and conflict resolution to balance self governance by users and states with basin-wide coordination. Flexibility to adjust historic allocation agreements, without risk of defection or costly court action, also provides adaptive capacity to manage climatic variability and shifting values. Future research should develop evidence about pathways to adaptive capacity in different classes of federal rivers, while acknowledging limits to transferability and the need for context-sensitive design. PMID:24080624

  16. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water. PMID:16839605

  17. Managing the Risk of Command File Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Bryant, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Command File Error (CFE), as defined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) is, regardless of the consequence on the spacecraft, either: an error in a command file sent to the spacecraft, an error in the process for developing and delivering a command file to the spacecraft, or the omission of a command file that should have been sent to the spacecraft. The risk consequence of a CFE can be mission ending and thus a concern to space exploration projects during their mission operations. A CFE during space mission operations is often the symptom of some kind of imbalance or inadequacy within the system that comprises the hardware & software used for command generation and the human experts involved in this endeavour. As we move into an era of enhanced collaboration with other NASA centers and commercial partners, these systems become more and more complex and hence it is all the more important to formally model and analyze CFEs in order to manage the risk of CFEs. Here we will provide a summary of the ongoing efforts at JPL in this area and also explain some more recent developments in the area of developing quantitative models for the purpose of managing CFE's.

  18. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  19. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakage simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user’s manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.

  20. Evaluation of volcanic risk management in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, S.; Stöetter, J.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Merapi (Central Java Province) and Bromo (East Java Province) volcanoes have human-environmental systems with unique characteristics, thus causing specific consequences on their risk management. Various efforts have been carried out by many parties (institutional government, scientists, and non-governmental organizations) to reduce the risk in these areas. However, it is likely that most of the actions have been done for temporary and partial purposes, leading to overlapping work and finally to a non-integrated scheme of volcanic risk management. This study, therefore, aims to identify and evaluate actions of risk and disaster reduction in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes. To achieve this aims, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify earlier studies in both areas. Afterward, the basic concept of risk management cycle, consisting of risk assessment, risk reduction, event management and regeneration, is used to map those earlier studies and already implemented risk management actions in Merapi and Bromo. The results show that risk studies in Merapi have been developed predominantly on physical aspects of volcanic eruptions, i.e. models of lahar flows, hazard maps as well as other geophysical modeling. Furthermore, after the 2006 eruption of Merapi, research such on risk communication, social vulnerability, cultural vulnerability have appeared on the social side of risk management research. Apart from that, disaster risk management activities in the Bromo area were emphasizing on physical process and historical religious aspects. This overview of both study areas provides information on how risk studies have been used for managing the volcano disaster. This result confirms that most of earlier studies emphasize on the risk assessment and only few of them consider the risk reduction phase. Further investigation in this field work in the near future will accomplish the findings and contribute to formulate integrated volcanic risk management cycles for both Merapi and Bromo. Keywords: Risk management, volcanoes hazard, Merapi and Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  1. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to 2.16(a)(4... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency,...

  2. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to 2.16(a)(4... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency,...

  3. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to 2.16(a)(4... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency,...

  4. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to 2.16(a)(4... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency,...

  5. Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Approach to Enterprise Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauder, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Division has implemented an innovative approach to Enterprise Risk Management under a unique governance structure and streamlined integration model. ESD's mission is to design and build the capability to extend human existence to deep space. The Enterprise consists of three Programs: Space Launch System (SLS), Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). The SLS is a rocket and launch system that will be capable of powering humans, habitats, and support systems to deep space. Orion will be the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. GSDO is modernizing Kennedy's spaceport to launch spacecraft built and designed by both NASA and private industry. ESD's approach to Enterprise Risk Management is commensurate with affordability and a streamlined management philosophy. ESD Enterprise Risk Management leverages off of the primary mechanisms for integration within the Enterprise. The Enterprise integration approach emphasizes delegation of authority to manage and execute the majority of cross-program activities and products to the individual Programs, while maintaining the overall responsibility for all cross-program activities at the Division. The intent of the ESD Enterprise Risk Management approach is to improve risk communication, to avoid replication and/or contradictory strategies, and to minimize overhead process burden. This is accomplished by the facilitation and integration of risk information within ESD. The ESD Division risks, Orion risks, SLS risks, and GSDO risks are owned and managed by the applicable Program. When the Programs have shared risks with multiple consequences, they are jointly owned and managed. When a risk is associated with the integrated system that involves more than one Program in condition, consequence, or mitigation plan, it is considered an Exploration Systems Integration (ESI) Risk. An ESI risk may require visibility and risk handling by multiple organizations. The Integrated Risk Working Group (IRWG) is a small team of Risk experts that are responsible for collaborating and communicating best practices. In addition, the forum facilitates proper integration of risks across the Enterprise. The IRWG uses a Continuous Risk Management approach for facilitating the identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and controlling of ESI Risks. The ESD Division, Programs, and Integrated Task Teams identify ESI Risks. The IRWG maintains a set of metrics for understanding Enterprise Risk process and the overall Risk Posture. The team is also actively involved in the modeling of risk for Enterprise Performance Management. With the Enterprise being constrained in Schedule and Budget, and with significant technical complexity, the appropriate use of Risk Management techniques is crucial to the success of the Enterprise. The IRWG achieves this through the modified approach, providing a forum for collaboration on risks that cross boundaries between the separate entities.

  6. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  7. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of interest rate risk. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk....

  9. ReMINE: an ontology-based risk management platform.

    PubMed

    Carenini, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The ReMINE project aims at building a high performance prediction, detection and monitoring platform for managing Risks against Patient Safety (RAPS). The project will contribute to the optimization of RAPS management process in a healthcare system through the development of a platform allowing the (semantically based) fast and secure extraction of RAPS-related data and their correlation across several domains. In this respect the REMINE platform will promote early RAPS detection and mitigation by supporting the process of RAPS management both when a RAPS is foreseen, and the objective is the determination of the best set of preventive actions; and when a RAPS is detected, and the objective is the determination of the best possible reaction, the reliable distribution of the related action list to all involved parties, and the monitoring of the reaction effectiveness. These capabilities will be achieved by means of the establishment of an associated methodology and a framework/platform for integrated RAPS prediction/detection, analysis and mitigation. The overall platform structure assumes the presence of an "info-broker patient safety framework" connected with the Hospital Information System, which will support the process of collecting, aggregating, mining and assessing related data, distributing alerts, and suggesting actions to mitigate (or avoid) RAPS effects or occurrence. The underlying ontological system will support the semantic correlation of data with the hospital processes. PMID:19745233

  10. Risk Management in Australian Science Education: A Model for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Provides a framework that incorporates the diverse elements of risk management in science education into a systematic process and is adaptable to changing circumstances. Appendix contains risk management checklist for management, laboratory and storage, extreme biological and chemical hazards, protective equipment, waste disposal, electrical…

  11. Land Managers' Perceptions of Risk Recreation in the Northern Rockies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Stewart D.

    This survey was conducted to determine the frequency of participation in high-risk recreation activities in the Northern Rocky Mountains and to identify how wildland managers perceive the presence of these sports and the problems associated with them. Managers rated perceived risk, management difficulty, and appropriateness given management…

  12. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are not limited to: prudent project management; use of modular contracting; thorough acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to...

  13. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are not limited to: prudent project management; use of modular contracting; thorough acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to...

  14. Risk Management and Crisis Response: Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirick, Ed

    2002-01-01

    How a camp responds to a crisis may determine whether it can survive financially. Effective risk management requires total commitment from ownership and management, and staff involvement. Steps in formulating a risk management plan include identifying all potential crises and their frequency and severity potential, developing responses,

  15. Training Manual for Human Service Risk Managers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frank W.; And Others

    This manual is designed to educate human service agency management personnel involved in transportation about basic risk management principles and insurance issues. Chapter I illustrates the liability factors that create the insurance and risk management needs. Both legal and humanitarian obligations of human service agencies involved in

  16. 76 FR 9870 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk OMB Number: 1550-0094 Form Number: N/A... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork...

  17. 76 FR 23646 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk. OMB... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  18. 14 CFR 117.7 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 117.7... LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS 117.7 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No... Management System that provides at least an equivalent level of safety against fatigue-related accidents...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5135 Management of interest rate risk. The board of directors...

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment for a loss of coolant accident in McMaster Nuclear Reactor and application of reliability physics model for modeling human reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Taesung

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was conducted for a loss of coolant accident, (LOCA) in the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR). A level 1 PRA was completed including event sequence modeling, system modeling, and quantification. To support the quantification of the accident sequence identified, data analysis using the Bayesian method and human reliability analysis (HRA) using the accident sequence evaluation procedure (ASEP) approach were performed. Since human performance in research reactors is significantly different from that in power reactors, a time-oriented HRA model (reliability physics model) was applied for the human error probability (HEP) estimation of the core relocation. This model is based on two competing random variables: phenomenological time and performance time. The response surface and direct Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube sampling were applied for estimating the phenomenological time, whereas the performance time was obtained from interviews with operators. An appropriate probability distribution for the phenomenological time was assigned by statistical goodness-of-fit tests. The human error probability (HEP) for the core relocation was estimated from these two competing quantities: phenomenological time and operators' performance time. The sensitivity of each probability distribution in human reliability estimation was investigated. In order to quantify the uncertainty in the predicted HEPs, a Bayesian approach was selected due to its capability of incorporating uncertainties in model itself and the parameters in that model. The HEP from the current time-oriented model was compared with that from the ASEP approach. Both results were used to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative huinan reliability modeling for the manual core relocation in the LOCA risk model. This exercise demonstrated the applicability of a reliability physics model supplemented with a. Bayesian approach for modeling human reliability and its potential usefulness of quantifying model uncertainty as sensitivity analysis in the PRA model.

  1. Risk management of developing assistive devices for elderly.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Tien; Chuang, Huan-Ming; Pei, Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the Delphi method in interviewing experts to identify critical risks in the development of assistive devices. Critical risks included product planning, technology development, production, performance, schedule management, and cost management, comprising 26 risk factors in 6 constructs. This study determined which factors were of high importance, finding a total of 7 market analysis errors. Mind mapping was used to create a knowledge map; and layer expansion was used to understand risk distribution to facilitate risk mitigation and monitoring. Organizational risk strategies could be developed to reduce risk and maintain stability while achieving the objective of developing new products. PMID:21035205

  2. Outcome Measurement for COPD: Reliability and Validity of the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Norweg, Anna; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Whiteson, Jonathan; Kim, Minjin

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ) is a measure of the psychosocial and behavioral responses to dyspnea for adults with COPD. The research objectives were to evaluate the reliability and validity of an expanded DMQ item pool, as a preliminary step for developing a computer adaptive test. Methods The original 66 items of the DMQ were used for the analyses. The sample included 63 women and 44 men with COPD (n = 107) recruited from two urban medical centers. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the DMQ and its underlying cognitive-behavioral theoretical base. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and breadth of coverage of the expanded DMQ item bank were also evaluated. Results Five distinct dyspnea domains were confirmed using 56 original items of the DMQ: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea anxiety, activity avoidance, activity self-efficacy, and strategy satisfaction. Overall, the breadth of items was excellent with a good match between sample scores and item difficulty. The DMQ-56 showed good internal consistency reliability (? = .85 to .96) and good preliminary test-retest reliability over a 3-week interval (ICC = .69 to .92). Conclusions The DMQ demonstrated acceptable levels of reliability and validity for measuring multidimensional dyspnea outcomes after medical, psychological, and behavioral interventions for adults with COPD. PMID:20884194

  3. Cue reliability, risk sensitivity and inducible morphological defense in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, Paul E

    2010-04-01

    Reliable cues that communicate current or future environmental conditions are a requirement for the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, yet we often do not know which cues are responsible for the induction of particular plastic phenotypes. I examined the single and combined effects of cues from damaged prey and predator cues on the induction of plastic shell defenses and somatic growth in the marine snail Nucella lamellosa. Snails were exposed to chemical risk cues from a factorial combination of damaged prey presented in isolation or consumed by predatory crabs (Cancer productus). Water-borne cues from damaged conspecific and heterospecific snails did not affect plastic shell defenses (shell mass, shell thickness and apertural teeth) or somatic growth in N. lamellosa. Cues released by feeding crabs, independent of prey cue, had significant effects on shell mass and somatic growth, but only crabs consuming conspecific snails induced the full suite of plastic shell defenses in N. lamellosa and induced the greatest response in all shell traits and somatic growth. Thus the relationship between risk cue and inducible morphological defense is dependent on which cues and which morphological traits are examined. Results indicate that cues from damaged conspecifics alone do not trigger a response, but, in combination with predator cues, act to signal predation risk and trigger inducible defenses in this species. This ability to "label" predators as dangerous may decrease predator avoidance costs and highlights the importance of the feeding habits of predators on the expression of inducible defenses. PMID:19882173

  4. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, David; Weber, Jochem

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  5. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  6. Sensor Selection and Data Validation for Reliable Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    For new access to space systems with challenging mission requirements, effective implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) must be available early in the program to support the design of systems that are safe, reliable, highly autonomous. Early ISHM availability is also needed to promote design for affordable operations; increased knowledge of functional health provided by ISHM supports construction of more efficient operations infrastructure. Lack of early ISHM inclusion in the system design process could result in retrofitting health management systems to augment and expand operational and safety requirements; thereby increasing program cost and risk due to increased instrumentation and computational complexity. Having the right sensors generating the required data to perform condition assessment, such as fault detection and isolation, with a high degree of confidence is critical to reliable operation of ISHM. Also, the data being generated by the sensors needs to be qualified to ensure that the assessments made by the ISHM is not based on faulty data. NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technologies for sensor selection and data validation as part of the FDDR (Fault Detection, Diagnosis, and Response) element of the Upper Stage project of the Ares 1 launch vehicle development. This presentation will provide an overview of the GRC approach to sensor selection and data quality validation and will present recent results from applications that are representative of the complexity of propulsion systems for access to space vehicles. A brief overview of the sensor selection and data quality validation approaches is provided below. The NASA GRC developed Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4) is a model-based procedure for systematically and quantitatively selecting an optimal sensor suite to provide overall health assessment of a host system. S4 can be logically partitioned into three major subdivisions: the knowledge base, the down-select iteration, and the final selection analysis. The knowledge base required for productive use of S4 consists of system design information and heritage experience together with a focus on components with health implications. The sensor suite down-selection is an iterative process for identifying a group of sensors that provide good fault detection and isolation for targeted fault scenarios. In the final selection analysis, a statistical evaluation algorithm provides the final robustness test for each down-selected sensor suite. NASA GRC has developed an approach to sensor data qualification that applies empirical relationships, threshold detection techniques, and Bayesian belief theory to a network of sensors related by physics (i.e., analytical redundancy) in order to identify the failure of a given sensor within the network. This data quality validation approach extends the state-of-the-art, from red-lines and reasonableness checks that flag a sensor after it fails, to include analytical redundancy-based methods that can identify a sensor in the process of failing. The focus of this effort is on understanding the proper application of analytical redundancy-based data qualification methods for onboard use in monitoring Upper Stage sensors.

  7. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Authority by the Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services § 2.44 Administrator, Risk... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency,...

  8. Application of data mining to medical risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Yokoyama, Shigeki

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an application of data mining to medical risk management, where data mining techniques were applied to detection, analysis and evaluation of risks potentially existing in clinical environments. We applied this technique to the following two medical domains: risk aversion of nurse incidents and infection control. The results show that data mining methods were effective to detection and aversion of risk factors.

  9. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  10. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jeremy G. White, Iain Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-15

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context.

  11. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national assembly elections Kenya plunged into bloodshed. One Kenyan went for another, people who had been living together as neighbours suddenly turned on one another. Some of the more glaring outcomes were: • About 1,300 Kenyans died. • Property worth billions of shillings was destroyed. • Thousands of Kenyans fled their homes/farms/houses. • To date Kenya has Internally Displaced Persons (IDP). It has become a buzzword, almost fashionable if it were not so sad and grave, and a disgrace to democracy. During the short rains in September and October we experienced floods, land slides, crop failures. Ironically, in the previous months, we had just gone through drought, crops had failed, livestock died, sadly some people died, some through vagaries of weather while others as a result of inter-community friction. The net results were: • Kenya is primarily an agricultural economy sector employs over 80%. Only 20% of the land is arable, the rest is arid and semi arid land, occupied by the nomadic Kenyans. So when there is drought or floods, we get challenges that spark inter-community conflicts. Food shortages lead to higher food prices, a kilogramme bag of maize meal rose from barely affordable Kes. 52.00 to 120.00 in less than two months. In any case the food is not necessarily always available. • The global financial crisis affected our economy very adversely. Fuel prices rose from Kenya Shillings 60.00 per litre to 112.00. • Ironically Kenya's parliament voted against a law that would have compelled them to pay taxes. • As if in anticipation of citizen reactions the MP's passed the media law that would gag freedom of the press. METHODOLOGY 1. Review literature available on disasters in Kenya over the last decades. 2. I will ask Kenyans what they understand by the terms disasters and risks. 3. I will ask the Kenyan authorities - central government and local governments, what plans they have. 4. I will ask Kenya Red Cross what their plans are, their challenges and opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  12. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national assembly elections Kenya plunged into bloodshed. One Kenyan went for another, people who had been living together as neighbours suddenly turned on one another. Some of the more glaring outcomes were: • About 1,300 Kenyans died. • Property worth billions of shillings was destroyed. • Thousands of Kenyans fled their homes/farms/houses. • To date Kenya has Internally Displaced Persons (IDP). It has become a buzzword, almost fashionable if it were not so sad and grave, and a disgrace to democracy. During the short rains in September and October we experienced floods, land slides, crop failures. Ironically, in the previous months, we had just gone through drought, crops had failed, livestock died, sadly some people died, some through vagaries of weather while others as a result of inter-community friction. The net results were: • Kenya is primarily an agricultural economy sector employs over 80%. Only 20% of the land is arable, the rest is arid and semi arid land, occupied by the nomadic Kenyans. So when there is drought or floods, we get challenges that spark inter-community conflicts. Food shortages lead to higher food prices, a kilogramme bag of maize meal rose from barely affordable Kes. 52.00 to 120.00 in less than two months. In any case the food is not necessarily always available. • The global financial crisis affected our economy very adversely. Fuel prices rose from Kenya Shillings 60.00 per litre to 112.00. • Ironically Kenya's parliament voted against a law that would have compelled them to pay taxes. • As if in anticipation of citizen reactions the MP's passed the media law that would gag freedom of the press. METHODOLOGY 1. Review literature available on disasters in Kenya over the last decades. 2. I will ask Kenyans what they understand by the terms disasters and risks. 3. I will ask the Kenyan authorities - central government and local governments, what plans they have. 4. I will ask Kenya Red Cross what their plans are, their challenges and opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  13. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient. PMID:24847995

  14. Satellite Radar Interferometry For Risk Management Of Gas Pipeline Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianoschi, Raluca; Schouten, Mathijs; Bas Leezenberg, Pieter; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    InSAR time series analyses can be fine-tuned for specific applications, yielding a potential increase in benchmark density, precision and reliability. Here we demonstrate the algorithms developed for gas pipeline monitoring, enabling operators to precisely pinpoint unstable locations. This helps asset management in planning, prioritizing and focusing in-situ inspections, thus reducing maintenance costs. In unconsolidated Quaternary soils, ground settlement contributes to possible failure of brittle cast iron gas pipes and their connections to houses. Other risk factors include the age and material of the pipe. The soil dynamics have led to a catastrophic explosion in the city of Amsterdam, which triggered an increased awareness for the significance of this problem. As the extent of the networks can be very wide, InSAR is shown to be a valuable source of information for identifying the hazard regions. We monitor subsidence affecting an urban gas transportation network in the Netherlands using both medium and high resolution SAR data. Results for the 2003-2010 period provide clear insights on the differential subsidence rates in the area. This enables characterization of underground motion that affects the integrity of the pipeline. High resolution SAR data add extra detail of door-to-door pipeline connections, which are vulnerable due to different settlements between house connections and main pipelines. The rates which we measure represent important input in planning of maintenance works. Managers can decide the priority and timing for inspecting the pipelines. The service helps manage the risk and reduce operational cost in gas transportation networks.

  15. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakagemore » simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user’s manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.« less

  16. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    Environmental uncertainty poses a growing number of financial risks to society, with droughts, floods, extreme temperatures and violent storms imposing costs that approach 500 billion per year. While structural forms of mitigation (i.e. levees, dams) will certainly play a role in limiting financial impacts, these are large investments whose full value is only rarely realized. Furthermore, the value of such long-lived measures becomes increasingly uncertain in a changing climate, raising the issue of whether they will be effective 20-30 years hence. Financial instruments, such as index insurance, can provide increased flexibility by providing compensation for losses only when they occur, and limited contract periods allow terms to be periodically rewritten in response to changing conditions. Financial instruments can also be effectively combined with other economic tools and infrastructure to create integrated solutions in which infrastructure mitigates losses from moderate events, while financial products compensate for more rare, but extreme, events. There is a long history of environmentally-related insurance and hedging instruments, but to date the actuarial analyses that underlie contract structure and pricing have been based on straightforward observations, such as cumulative rainfall. More recently, simple correlations between two time series have been used to develop index-based contracts. Links between temperature and electricity demand, for example, provide a basis for contracts that are used to limit the financial exposure of power generators to low revenues during unseasonably warm winters or cool summers. Unfortunately, few environmental risks can be so quickly and easily linked to a financial impact. However, with a more advanced understanding of the environmental systems that give rise to financial losses, opportunities exist to develop innovative contracts for a range of new applications. Recent research describes the characterization and mitigation of financial losses experienced by such entities as water utilities, hydropower producers and inland shipping firms as a result of water scarcity, all of which suggest a growing role for financial instruments in managing environmental risk.

  17. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  18. Risk perception - issues for flood management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, R. A.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; van der Craats, I. M.; Krywkow, J.; Rotko, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Bonaiuto, M.; De Dominicis, S.; Waylen, K.; Schelfaut, K.

    2012-07-01

    Public perception of flood risk and flood risk information is often overlooked when developing flood risk management plans. As scientists and the public at large perceive risk in very different ways, flood risk management strategies are known to have failed in the past due to this disconnect between authorities and the public. This paper uses a novel approach in exploring the role of public perception in developing flood risk communication strategies in Europe. Results are presented of extensive quantitative research of 1375 questionnaire responses from thirteen communities at risk across six European countries. The research forms part of two research projects funded under the 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative: URFlood and FREEMAN. Risk perception is conceptualised as a pillar of social resilience, representing an innovative approach to the issue. From this process recommendations are identified for improving flood risk management plans through public participation.

  19. Customer-Specific Transaction Risk Management in E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, Markus; Sackmann, Stefan

    Increasing potential for turnover in e-commerce is inextricably linked with an increase in risk. Online retailers (e-tailers), aiming for a company-wide value orientation should manage this risk. However, current approaches to risk management either use average retail prices elevated by an overall risk premium or restrict the payment methods offered to customers. Thus, they neglect customer-specific value and risk attributes and leave turnover potentials unconsidered. To close this gap, an innovative valuation model is proposed in this contribution that integrates customer-specific risk and potential turnover. The approach presented evaluates different payment methods using their risk-turnover characteristic, provides a risk-adjusted decision basis for selecting payment methods and allows e-tailers to derive automated risk management decisions per customer and transaction without reducing turnover potential.

  20. Risk management for buildings -- Has the time come?

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Hunter, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    There are both incentives and challenges for applying formal risk management processes to buildings and other structures, including bridges, highways, dams, stadiums, shopping centers, and private dwellings. Based on an assessment of several issues, the authors conclude that for certain types of buildings and structures the time has come for the use of a formal risk-management approach, including probabilistic risk assessment methods, to help identify dominant risks to public health, safety, and security and to help manage these risks in a cost-effective manner.

  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lamuro, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

  2. Integrated Risk Management Within NASA Programs/Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connley, Warren; Rad, Adrian; Botzum, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    As NASA Project Risk Management activities continue to evolve, the need to successfully integrate risk management processes across the life cycle, between functional disciplines, stakeholders, various management policies, and within cost, schedule and performance requirements/constraints become more evident and important. Today's programs and projects are complex undertakings that include a myriad of processes, tools, techniques, management arrangements and other variables all of which must function together in order to achieve mission success. The perception and impact of risk may vary significantly among stakeholders and may influence decisions that may have unintended consequences on the project during a future phase of the life cycle. In these cases, risks may be unintentionally and/or arbitrarily transferred to others without the benefit of a comprehensive systemic risk assessment. Integrating risk across people, processes, and project requirements/constraints serves to enhance decisions, strengthen communication pathways, and reinforce the ability of the project team to identify and manage risks across the broad spectrum of project management responsibilities. The ability to identify risks in all areas of project management increases the likelihood a project will identify significant issues before they become problems and allows projects to make effective and efficient use of shrinking resources. By getting a total team integrated risk effort, applying a disciplined and rigorous process, along with understanding project requirements/constraints provides the opportunity for more effective risk management. Applying an integrated approach to risk management makes it possible to do a better job at balancing safety, cost, schedule, operational performance and other elements of risk. This paper will examine how people, processes, and project requirements/constraints can be integrated across the project lifecycle for better risk management and ultimately improve the chances for mission success.

  3. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  4. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels. PMID:26591931

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Cynthia L; Lusk, Jaimie L

    2015-01-01

    As health care trends toward a system of care approach, providers from various disciplines strive to collaborate to provide optimal care for their patients. While a multidisciplinary approach to suicide risk assessment and management has been identified as important for reducing suicidality, standardized clinical guidelines for such an approach do not yet exist. In this article, the authors propose the adoption of the therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient (TRMSP) to improve suicide risk assessment and management within multidisciplinary systems of care. The TRMSP, which has been fully articulated in previous articles, involves augmenting clinical risk assessment with structured instruments, stratifying risk in terms of both severity and temporality, and developing and documenting a safety plan. Augmenting clinical risk assessments with reliable and valid structured instruments serves several functions, including ensuring important aspects of suicide are addressed, establishing a baseline for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, facilitating interprofessional communication, and mitigating risk. Similarly, a two-dimensional risk stratification qualifying suicide risk in terms of both severity and temporality can enhance communication across providers and settings and improve understanding of acute crises in the context of chronic risk. Finally, safety planning interventions allow providers and patients to collaboratively create a personally meaningful plan for managing a suicidal crisis that can be continually modified across time with multiple providers in different care settings. In a busy care environment, the TRMSP can provide concrete guidance on conducting clinically and medicolegally sound suicide risk assessment and management. This collaborative and comprehensive process would potentially improve care of patients with suicidality, optimize clinical resources, decrease unnecessary and costly admissions, and mitigate medicolegal risk. The TRMSP may serve as a foundation for building a standardized, collaborative, stepped-care approach that patients, individual providers, and the health care system can all benefit from. PMID:26150725

  6. Comparative Risk Analysis for Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional solid waste management planning usually focuses on economic optimization, in which the related environmental impacts or risks are rarely considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology of how optimization concepts and techniques can be applied to structure and solve risk management problems such that the impacts of air pollution, leachate, traffic congestion, and noise increments can be regulated in the iong-term planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems. Management alternatives are sequentially evaluated by adding several environmental risk control constraints stepwise in an attempt to improve the management strategies and reduce the risk impacts in the long run. Statistics associated with those risk control mechanisms are presented as well. Siting, routing, and financial decision making in such solid waste management systems can also be achieved with respect to various resource limitations and disposal requirements.

  7. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Michelle; Hollingworth, Sophie; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP. PMID:26404367

  8. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Michelle; Hollingworth, Sophie; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 ± 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP. PMID:26404367

  9. Risk Management Collaboration through Sharing Interactive Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingsby, Aidan; Dykes, Jason; Wood, Jo; Foote, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Risk management involves the cooperation of scientists, underwriters and actuaries all of whom analyse data to support decision-making. Results are often disseminated through static documents with graphics that convey the message the analyst wishes to communicate. Interactive graphics are increasingly popular means of communicating the results of data analyses because they enable other parties to explore and visually analyse some of the data themselves prior to and during discussion. Discussion around interactive graphics can occur synchronously in face-to-face meetings or with video-conferencing and screen sharing or they can occur asynchronously through web-sites such as ManyEyes, web-based fora, blogs, wikis and email. A limitation of approaches that do not involve screen sharing is the difficulty in sharing the results of insights from interacting with the graphic. Static images accompanied can be shared but these themselves cannot be interacted, producing a discussion bottleneck (Baker, 2008). We address this limitation by allowing the state and configuration of graphics to be shared (rather than static images) so that a user can reproduce someone else's graphic, interact with it and then share the results of this accompanied with some commentary. HiVE (Slingsby et al, 2009) is a compact and intuitive text-based language that has been designed for this purpose. We will describe the vizTweets project (a 9-month project funded by JISC) in which we are applying these principles to insurance risk management in the context of the Willis Research Network, the world's largest collaboration between the insurance industry and the academia). The project aims to extend HiVE to meet the needs of the sector, design, implement free-available web services and tools and to provide case studies. We will present a case study that demonstrate the potential of this approach for collaboration within the Willis Research Network. Baker, D. Towards Transparency in Visualisation Based Research. AHRC ICT Methods Network Expert Workshop. Available at http://www.viznet.ac.uk/documents Slingsby, A., Dykes, J. and Wood, J. 2009. Configuring Hierarchical Layouts to Address Research Questions. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 15 (6), Nov-Dec 2009, pp977-984.

  10. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning System, with the Greek NWTC actively participating as a Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider. In addition, Greece designed and conducted the first tsunami exercise program in the Union Civil Protection Mechanism in 2011, which also considered the attrition of response capabilities by the earthquake generating the tsunami. These exercises have demonstrated the capability of the Greek NWTC to provide early warning to local civil protection authorities, but warning dissemination to the population remains an issue, especially during the summer season. However, there is no earthquake or tsunami national emergency operations plan, and we found that tsunami disaster planning and preparedness activities are rather limited at the local level. We acknowledge partial support by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete.

  11. Medical Device Risk Management For Performance Assurance Optimization and Prioritization.

    PubMed

    Gaamangwe, Tidimogo; Babbar, Vishvek; Krivoy, Agustina; Moore, Michael; Kresta, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Performance assurance (PA) is an integral component of clinical engineering medical device risk management. For that reason, the clinical engineering (CE) community has made concerted efforts to define appropriate risk factors and develop quantitative risk models for efficient data processing and improved PA program operational decision making. However, a common framework that relates the various processes of a quantitative risk system does not exist. This article provides a perspective that focuses on medical device quality and risk-based elements of the PA program, which include device inclusion/exclusion, schedule optimization, and inspection prioritization. A PA risk management framework is provided, and previous quantitative models that have contributed to the advancement of PA risk management are examined. A general model for quantitative risk systems is proposed, and further perspective on possible future directions in the area of PA technology is also provided. PMID:26618842

  12. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  13. Aquatic Models, Genomics and Chemical Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Keith C.; Hinton, David E.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Planchart, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Hinton et al., 2009; Schmale et al., 2007; Schmale, 2004; Nairn et al., 2001) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yield data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  14. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, S.G.; Gregory, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk).

  15. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

  16. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  17. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... asset/liability management policy which establishes interest rate risk exposure limits as well as...

  18. Essentials of Risk Management. Strategic Decisions. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonenstein, Burton; Kumin, Laura A.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet, intended for trustees of institutions of higher education, offers some instruction on the principles of risk management. Introductory information provides a definition of risk management, which is seen as a planning and strategic function, not solely as a financial or safety assessment. Individual sections then address the following

  19. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Risk management. 1815.203-72 Section 1815.203-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services...

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PLAN FOR WET WEATHER FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan was prepared by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) to guide the risk management aspects of the urban wet weather flow (WWF) research for the next five years. There are three types of urban WWF dis...

  1. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk management. 1815.203-72 Section 1815.203-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services...

  2. Assessing Risk Management: How Effective Is Your Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries may occur more often in physical education due to the nature of the activities taught. Because of this, the issue of negligence is an important concern. Risk management is one method physical educators use to decrease the occurrence of injuries and negligence. The purpose of this article is to introduce a Risk Management Inventory that

  3. 17 CFR 23.609 - Clearing member risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearing member risk management. 23.609 Section 23.609 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... Clearing member risk management. (a) With respect to clearing activities in futures, security...

  4. 17 CFR 23.609 - Clearing member risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clearing member risk management. 23.609 Section 23.609 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... Clearing member risk management. (a) With respect to clearing activities in futures, security...

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PLAN FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document outlines the scope of National Risk Management Laboratory (NRMRL) risk management research in the area of ecosystem restoration. NRMRL is uniquely positioned to make substantial contributions to ecosystem science because of its in-house expertise relative to surfac...

  6. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) operated under 7 CFR part 1437), have obtained NAP coverage by filing the proper paperwork and fee within... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be...

  7. Dilemmas in the Community Risk Management of Sexually Offensive Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John; Clegg, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A study analyzed attribution statements of six community workers who provide risk management for men with mental retardation who sexually offend. Results highlight the effort participants made to obtain sufficient information. They focused on external factors for most effective risk management, but other staff undermined their confidence.

  8. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WORKSHOP NEWMEDIA CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a CD-ROM version of the workshop, Effective Risk Management of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, held in January 2002, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The goal of this workshop was to introduce the science and engineering behind managing the potential risk of suspected endocri...

  9. Essentials of Risk Management. Strategic Decisions. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonenstein, Burton; Kumin, Laura A.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet, intended for trustees of institutions of higher education, offers some instruction on the principles of risk management. Introductory information provides a definition of risk management, which is seen as a planning and strategic function, not solely as a financial or safety assessment. Individual sections then address the following…

  10. 12 CFR 704.21 - Enterprise risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise risk management. 704.21 Section 704.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.21 Enterprise risk management. (a) A corporate credit union must develop...

  11. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must...

  12. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must...

  13. 12 CFR 704.21 - Enterprise risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise risk management. 704.21 Section 704.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.21 Enterprise risk management. (a) A corporate credit union must develop...

  14. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must...

  15. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must...

  16. 12 CFR 704.21 - Enterprise risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enterprise risk management. 704.21 Section 704.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.21 Enterprise risk management. (a) A corporate credit union must develop...

  17. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must...

  18. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Risk management. 1815.203-72 Section 1815.203-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services...

  19. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Risk management. 1815.203-72 Section 1815.203-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services...

  20. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk management. 1815.203-72 Section 1815.203-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services...

  1. OVERVIEW OF THE INTRAMURAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide a summary of the risk management portion of ORD's endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) research program, including its motivation, goals, planning efforts and resulting research areas.

    In an emerging research area like EDCs, risk management ...

  2. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) operated under 7 CFR part 1437), have obtained NAP coverage by filing the proper paperwork and fee within... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be...

  3. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) operated under 7 CFR part 1437), have obtained NAP coverage by filing the proper paperwork and fee within... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be...

  4. Assessing Risk Management: How Effective Is Your Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries may occur more often in physical education due to the nature of the activities taught. Because of this, the issue of negligence is an important concern. Risk management is one method physical educators use to decrease the occurrence of injuries and negligence. The purpose of this article is to introduce a Risk Management Inventory that…

  5. Examining the relationship between risk assessment and risk management in mental health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E; Adams, A; Buckingham, C D

    2011-12-01

    Thorough risk assessment helps in developing risk management plans that minimize risks that can impede mental health patients' recovery. Department of Health policy states that risk assessments and risk management plans should be inextricably linked. This paper examines their content and linkage within one Trust. Four inpatient wards for working age adults (18-65 years) in a large mental health Trust in England were included in the study. Completed risk assessment forms, for all patients in each inpatient ward were examined (n= 43), followed by an examination of notes for the same patients. Semi-structured interviews took place with ward nurses (n= 17). Findings show much variability in the amount and detail of risk information collected by nurses, which may be distributed in several places. Gaps in the risk assessment and risk management process are evident, and a disassociation between risk information and risk management plans is often present. Risk information should have a single location so that it can be easily found and updated. Overall, a more integrated approach to risk assessment and management is required, to help patients receive timely and appropriate interventions that can reduce risks such as suicide or harm to others. PMID:22070749

  6. An Engineering Approach to Seismic Risk Management in Hardrock Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudyma, Marty; Potvin, Yves Henri

    2010-11-01

    The problem of mining-induced seismicity in hardrock mines has become significant as underground mines from around the world are pushing production to deeper levels. At many mines, the risk associated with large seismic events and rockburst damage must be managed to ensure the safety of mine workers and minimise production losses. In this paper, an engineering approach to seismic risk management is described. It relies on accepted risk management techniques, which principally include the identification and understanding of hazards from which risk mitigation measures can be developed. This is achieved using simple but effective analysis techniques of high resolution microseismic data.

  7. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  8. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-04

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  9. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  10. Draugen HSE-case - occupational health risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Glas, J.J.P.; Kjaer, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Draugen HSE-Case serves as a risk management tool. Originally, risk management included only major safety hazards to personnel, environment and assets. Work Environment risks such as ergonomics, psycho-social factors and exposure to chemicals and noise, was not given the same attention. The Draugen HSE-Case addresses this weakness and extends all work environment risks. In order to promote line responsibility and commitment, relevant personnel is involved in the Case development. {open_quotes}THESIS{degrees}, a software application, is used to systematize input and to generate reports. The Draugen HSE-case encompasses: HSE risk analyses related to specific activities; Control of risk related to work environment; Established tolerability criteria; Risk reducing measures; Emergency contingency measures; and Requirements for Competence and Follow-up. The development of Draugen HSE-Case is a continuous process. It will serve to minimize the potential of occupational illnesses, raise general awareness, and make occupational health management more cost-effective.

  11. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  12. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. PMID:26269258

  13. Back to basics--just how much should a risk manager know about risk financing?

    PubMed

    Miller, Vivian B

    2011-01-01

    Whether directly involved in development and implementation of the organization's risk financing program or not, risk management professionals, at the very least, need to be familiar with and understand the various risk financing strategies available to address all areas of exposure. This article addresses the types of coverages and risk financing options that should be considered when developing a comprehensive risk-financing program, and why it is important for risk management professionals to have some knowledge about these products, in order for their true value to be fully appreciated. PMID:21793116

  14. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  15. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  16. An overview of the evolution of human reliability analysis in the context of probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, Dennis C.; Lois, Erasmia; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Forester, John Alan; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the Reactor Safety Study in the early 1970's, human reliability analysis (HRA) has been evolving towards a better ability to account for the factors and conditions that can lead humans to take unsafe actions and thereby provide better estimates of the likelihood of human error for probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent reviews of operational events and advances in the behavioral sciences that have impacted the evolution of HRA methods and contributed to improvements. The paper discusses the importance of human errors in complex human-technical systems, examines why humans contribute to accidents and unsafe conditions, and discusses how lessons learned over the years have changed the perspective and approach for modeling human behavior in PRAs of complicated domains such as nuclear power plants. It is argued that it has become increasingly more important to understand and model the more cognitive aspects of human performance and to address the broader range of factors that have been shown to influence human performance in complex domains. The paper concludes by addressing the current ability of HRA to adequately predict human failure events and their likelihood.

  17. Reliability and Efficacy of Water Use Estimation Techniques and their Impact on Water Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Deeds, N.; Kelley, V.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating how much water is being used by various water users is key to effective management and optimal utilization of groundwater resources. This is especially true for aquifers like the Ogallala that are severely stressed and display depleting trends over the last many years. The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Water users within the 16 counties that comprise the HPWD draw from the Ogallala extensively. The HPWD has recently proposed flow-meters as well as various 'alternative methods' for water users to report water usage. Alternative methods include using a) site specific energy conversion factors to convert total amount of energy used (for pumping stations) to water pumped, b) reporting nozzle package (on center pivot irrigation systems) specifications and hours of usage, and c) reporting concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The focus of this project was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness for each of these water use estimation techniques for regulatory purposes. Reliability and effectiveness of direct flow-metering devices was also addressed. Findings indicate that due to site-specific variability and hydrogeologic heterogeneity, alternative methods for estimating water use can have significant uncertainties associated with water use estimates. The impact of these uncertainties on overall water usage, conservation, and management was also evaluated. The findings were communicated to the Stakeholder Advisory Group and the Water Conservation District with guidelines and recommendations on how best to implement the various techniques.

  18. Microgrid Design Analysis Using Technology Management Optimization and the Performance Reliability Model

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason E.; Eddy, John P.; Jensen, Richard P.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are a focus of localized energy production that support resiliency, security, local con- trol, and increased access to renewable resources (among other potential benefits). The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capa- bility Technology Demonstration (JCTD) program between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) resulted in the pre- liminary design and deployment of three microgrids at military installations. This paper is focused on the analysis process and supporting software used to determine optimal designs for energy surety microgrids (ESMs) in the SPIDERS project. There are two key pieces of software, an ex- isting software application developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) called Technology Management Optimization (TMO) and a new simulation developed for SPIDERS called the per- formance reliability model (PRM). TMO is a decision support tool that performs multi-objective optimization over a mixed discrete/continuous search space for which the performance measures are unrestricted in form. The PRM is able to statistically quantify the performance and reliability of a microgrid operating in islanded mode (disconnected from any utility power source). Together, these two software applications were used as part of the ESM process to generate the preliminary designs presented by SNL-led DOE team to the DOD. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military instal- lations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Tarek Abdallah, Melanie Johnson, and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory * Colleagues from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for their reviews, suggestions, and participation in the work.

  19. Reliability and Validity Analysis of the "Stay Well and Healthy!" Health Risk Appraisal for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle Hahn, Joan; Aronow, Harriet Udin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The "Stay Well and Healthy!" Health Risk Appraisal (SWH-HRA) tool was developed and piloted in an in-home preventive healthcare program for persons ageing with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Aronow & Hahn 2005; Hahn & Aronow 2005). This paper presents the results of reliability and validity assessment of the SWH-HRA tool…

  20. Reliability and Validity Analysis of the "Stay Well and Healthy!" Health Risk Appraisal for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle Hahn, Joan; Aronow, Harriet Udin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The "Stay Well and Healthy!" Health Risk Appraisal (SWH-HRA) tool was developed and piloted in an in-home preventive healthcare program for persons ageing with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Aronow & Hahn 2005; Hahn & Aronow 2005). This paper presents the results of reliability and validity assessment of the SWH-HRA tool

  1. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale with Elementary Age English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Connor, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (0.83). Second, we…

  2. Risk management for IEC 60601-1 third edition.

    PubMed

    Bills, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    With the examples above we have demonstrated for our selected topics that our device meets the risk management requirements of 60601-1. An expansion of the tables to include all of the risk management requirements would be useful to identify how the manufacturer has met all of the risk management requirements of the standard. By setting up a file system under the manufacturer's quality system that meets the requirements of the 14971 risk management standard, the manufacturer will be able to effectively demonstrate compliance with a number of applicable standards, including 60601-1, and also be able to demonstrate the device meets FDA product safety requirements. The file system would also be useful in creating the technical file for the MDD. A risk management summary table similar to the one recommended by the GHTF will assist the manufacturer in tracking the documentation required to support this effort. A list of the hazards identified for the product is contained in the summary table and the summary table will also aid in determining if all of the required steps in the risk management process have been completed for each hazard. This table will become an important record in the risk management file. PMID:17078374

  3. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

  4. Risk Communication: the connection between assessment and management of changing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Teresa; Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Charrire, Marie

    2013-04-01

    Working toward effective risk mitigation strategies amidst ever-present and increasingly changing risks requires first effective communication between assessment and management spheres. This notion permeates the spectrum of what can be considered the physical changing risk inputs that feed into the risk governance processes of assessment, management and communication of risks. Close connections and overlaps between assessment and management requires communication to serve as the crux for the close collaboration necessary for encouraging preventative, long-term strategies for reducing disaster risks.1 More specifically, communication of risk information plays this connective role by informing and advising policy and decision making processes conducted by actors such as spatial planners who receive this information. In this way, those who assess the risks provide information to those who must manage these risks. When this one-directional communication pathway is reciprocated, risk managers provide information to risk assessors, enabling two-way communication amongst actors working toward risk reduction. This communication and exchange of information enables development of strategies and actions taken toward creating and improving risk mitigation measures within a given territory and community. Further, management actions taken (especially for mitigative measures) can alter the physical and social elements of the spatial context of their territory.2 This demands an adjustment of the previous risk assessment information and communication of the change in potential risk. These conceptual underpinnings are addressed and presented through explanation of an analytical framework encompassing changing risk inputs into risk governance processes. The framework elaborates the risk communication component and is supported by practical examples from stakeholder meetings and site visits in the Polish and Romania case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES.3 Specific examples are provided especially within the topic of mitigation through spatial planning, as one of the risk management actors using the provided risk information to implement effective measures. Results of example analysis indicate that, in Poland, alteration in risk assessment methods according to the implementation of the EU Floods Directive may be detrimental to local level management strategies. In the case of Romania, evidence suggests that severe deficiencies exist in the communication and use of risk assessment information especially in the formation and implementation of land use plans. Utilizing these and other examples, the research concludes with some key points gleaned from the combination of the both conceptual and practical approach in order to foster dialogue and discussion toward future research.

  5. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  6. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This…

  7. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This

  8. Improving Our Odds: Success through Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2009-01-01

    Launching a rocket, running a business, driving to work and even day-to-day living all involve some degree of risk. Risk is ever present yet not always recognized, adequately assessed and appropriately mitigated. Identification, assessment and mitigation of risk are elements of the risk management component of the "continuous improvement" way of life that has become a hallmark of successful and progressive enterprises. While the application of risk management techniques to provide continuous improvement may be detailed and extensive, the philosophy, ideals and tools can be beneficially applied to all situations. Experiences with the use of risk identification, assessment and mitigation techniques for complex systems and processes are described. System safety efforts and tools used to examine potential risks of the Ares I First Stage of NASA s new Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) presently being designed are noted as examples. Recommendations from lessons learned are provided for the application of risk management during the development of new systems as well as for the improvement of existing systems. Lessons learned and suggestions given are also examined for applicability to simple systems, uncomplicated processes and routine personal daily tasks. This paper informs the reader of varied uses of risk management efforts and techniques to identify, assess and mitigate risk for improvement of products, success of business, protection of people and enhancement of personal life.

  9. A phased approach to induced seismicity risk management

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua A.; Foxall, William

    2014-01-01

    This work describes strategies for assessing and managing induced seismicity risk during each phase of a carbon storage project. We consider both nuisance and damage potential from induced earthquakes, as well as the indirect risk of enhancing fault leakage pathways. A phased approach to seismicity management is proposed, in which operations are continuously adapted based on available information and an on-going estimate of risk. At each project stage, specific recommendations are made for (a) monitoring and characterization, (b) modeling and analysis, and (c) site operations. The resulting methodology can help lower seismic risk while ensuring site operations remain practical and cost-effective.

  10. A phased approach to induced seismicity risk management

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, Joshua A.; Foxall, William

    2014-01-01

    This work describes strategies for assessing and managing induced seismicity risk during each phase of a carbon storage project. We consider both nuisance and damage potential from induced earthquakes, as well as the indirect risk of enhancing fault leakage pathways. A phased approach to seismicity management is proposed, in which operations are continuously adapted based on available information and an on-going estimate of risk. At each project stage, specific recommendations are made for (a) monitoring and characterization, (b) modeling and analysis, and (c) site operations. The resulting methodology can help lower seismic risk while ensuring site operations remain practical andmore » cost-effective.« less

  11. Risk Management using Dependency Stucture Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovi?, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    An efficient method based on dependency structure matrix (DSM) analysis is given for ranking risks in a complex system or process whose entities are mutually dependent. This rank is determined according to the element's values of the unique positive eigenvector which corresponds to the matrix spectral radius modeling the considered engineering system. For demonstration, the risk problem of NASA's robotic spacecraft is analyzed.

  12. RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

  13. Developing a Valid and Reliable Instrument to Predict the Protective Sexual Behaviors in Women at Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: One much needed tool to assist with the monitoring and evaluation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention programs is to provide a valid instrument to measure protective sexual behavior and related factors. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a valid and reliable instrument to predict the protective sexual behaviors of women at risk of HIV in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study was a sequential mixed cross-sectional and methodological research. Initially, via a qualitative research, constructs and factors associated with sexual protective behavior of women at risk were identified through 25 in-depth interviews. The questionnaire on predictors of protective sexual behaviors in women at risk of HIV (PSPB) was designed based on a qualitative study, and then its qualitative validity, content, and construct validity were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and 200 women at risk participated. Results: Seven concepts emerged after exploratory factor analysis of the 48 items. The content validity ratio (CVR) of the questionnaire constructs were 0.55 to 0.76, and content validity index (CVI) structure was 0.86 to 0.95. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire questionnaire was 0.78, and correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability for the constructs was from 0.73 to 0.89. Conclusions: The current study proved the capability of the predictors of sexual protective behavior in women at risk for HIV questionnaire as a valid and reliable instrument for the Iranian community. PMID:25593717

  14. Geo-risk in Central Africa: integrating multi-hazards and vulnerability to support risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Francois; Nicolas, d'Oreye; Haventith, Hans-Balder; Kervyn, Matthieu; Caroline, Michellier; Trefon, Theodore; Wolff, Eleonore

    2013-04-01

    In some places, geo-hazards are a major concern for population, the assets, and the economy. This is especially the case in the East African Rift (EAR), where high volcanic and tectonic activities are sometimes coupled with geopolitical issues and dense population as in the Kivu rift area. That area is one of the most densely populated regions of Central Africa and is affected by decades of political instability and subsequent humanitarian crisis. In that region, geo-hazards are poorly assessed despite the numerous recent and historical events. Moreover, the relief of the rift also corresponds in this area to the main political boundaries, which complicates the coordination and the management of geo-hazards monitoring networks and related mitigation measures. Based on the experience acquired through several projects focused on hazard assessment and reinforcement of local monitoring capacity, the GeoRisCA project is addressing the assessment of the global risk related to the major geohazards that affect the region. Taking into account the identified factors, GeoRisCA's objective is to assess the risk from multi geohazards in a region which is subject to many (possibly combined) disasters every year and which could undergo a large impact disaster in the coming years. At regional scale, the high seismicity and the volcanic activity are the most important concerns. Possible eruptions of lethal gas in certain area around Goma, and the large number of reported and likely future mass movements as well as site-specific seismic amplification effects increase the danger at local scale. As both human lives and specific ecosystems are under threat, comprehensive methodologies are required to reliably assess multi geohazards over both short and long terms and to clearly outline and map related risk. These tools are needed by local and regional authorities as well as local and international stakeholders in management and mitigation processes. Developed methodologies in GeoRisCA combine hazard and vulnerability factors, as well as risk perception indicators. Such an approach combining natural and human sciences to address georisks globally at a regional scale has never been performed in that region so far.

  15. Reliability assessment of non-utility generation and demand-side management in composite power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adzanu, Steve Kwaku

    The last two decades have brought about significant changes in the resource planning environment of electric power utilities throughout the world. The conventional generation technologies that have been the backbone of every electric utility i.e., coal, hydro, nuclear, oil and natural gas, are being re-examined to address environmental concerns and resource utilization. The research described in this thesis focuses on the adequacy and economic assessment of non-utility generation (NUG) and demand-side management (DSM) initiatives within a typical power system. The main objective was to examine and extend the ability of the contingency enumeration approach to evaluate the economic reliability benefits of incorporating NUG and DSM options separately or jointly in composite system adequacy assessment. Two test systems were employed in the evaluations. The studies undertaken in this thesis demonstrate the need for accurate load model representations which clearly reflect the mix of customer sectors at each bus. Chronological hourly load curves were developed for each load bus in the test systems recognizing the individual load profiles of the customers. The adequacy and economic implications of demand-side management initiatives in the test systems were examined at each load point in the composite generation and transmission configuration. This thesis illustrates the development of techniques by which system planners and operators can incorporate reliability cost/worth assessment power system applications. Focus is placed in the thesis on the utilization of reliability cost/worth concepts in integrated resource planning in the form of NUG additions and DSM initiatives. Methods for the joint implementation of NUG and DSM options in a composite power system are presented and examples from the studies conducted are used to illustrate the procedures. Studies are presented which illustrate the impacts of NUG additions and DSM initiatives on the test system planning reserve margins (PRM) and on the total societal cost of electrical energy. The total evaluated cost incorporates the explicit cost associated with customer failures but does not include the cost associated with DSM program implementation. The results of the studies conducted show that NUG facilities and DSM programs can have considerable reliability and economic impacts on electric power systems.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and Hudson River white perch: implications for population-level ecological risk assessment and risk management.

    PubMed

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W; Glaser, David; DeSantis, Liane

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk management decisions concerning risks to wild fish populations resulting from exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related chemicals have been based primarily on observations of effects of chemicals on individual organisms. Although the development and application of population-level ecological risk-assessment methods is proceeding at a rapid pace, the organism-level approach is still being justified by arguments that population-level ecological risk assessment is in an early stage of development and has not been shown to be reliable. This article highlights the importance of including population-level effects in risk-management decision-making, by examining the effects of exposures to PCBs on fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River, New York, USA, a system in which data have been collected for approximately 30 y concerning both concentrations of PCBs in sediment and fish tissue and the abundance and reproduction of exposed fish populations. We previously tested hypotheses concerning the effects of PCBs on the striped bass population of the Hudson River, and found that the available data conflicted with all of these hypotheses. Here, we report results of similar analyses of effects of historic PCB exposures on the Hudson River white perch population, using an extended data set that recently became available. As with striped bass, we found no correlation between maternal PCB tissue concentrations and any measure of reproductive success in Hudson River white perch during the 30-y period covered by the data set. Together with results of studies performed on fish populations exposed to PCBs at other sites, our results clearly demonstrate that physiological and genetic adaptation, biological compensation, and other ecological processes influence responses of fish populations to PCB exposures and should be considered in risk management decision-making. PMID:20050031

  17. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: Are We There Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouls, Claudia; Jeandarme, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Research on risk assessment and risk management in offenders with intellectual disabilities (OIDs), although far behind compared to the mainstream offender literature, is now expanding. The current review provides an overview of the predictive value of risk assessment and treatment outcome monitoring tools developed for both mainstream forensic

  18. Problematizing "Risk" and the Principalship: The Risky Business of Managing Risk in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, risk in education has stimulated increasing attention and prominence, with principals bearing responsibility and liability for "managing" risk in schools. As a consequence, compulsory risk compliance regimes have become increasingly complex, technical and time-consuming. This article focuses on the responses of

  19. Problematizing "Risk" and the Principalship: The Risky Business of Managing Risk in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, risk in education has stimulated increasing attention and prominence, with principals bearing responsibility and liability for "managing" risk in schools. As a consequence, compulsory risk compliance regimes have become increasingly complex, technical and time-consuming. This article focuses on the responses of…

  20. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: Are We There Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouls, Claudia; Jeandarme, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Research on risk assessment and risk management in offenders with intellectual disabilities (OIDs), although far behind compared to the mainstream offender literature, is now expanding. The current review provides an overview of the predictive value of risk assessment and treatment outcome monitoring tools developed for both mainstream forensic…

  1. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  2. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-05-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  3. Risk Management on the National Compact Stellarator Project (NCSX)

    SciTech Connect

    Risk Management on the National Compact Stellarator Project

    2009-02-06

    In its simplest form, risk management is a continuous assessment from project start to completion that identifies what can impact your project (i.e., what the risks are)., which of these risks are important, and identification and implementation of strategies to deal with these risks (both threats and opportunities). The National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX) Project was a "first-of-a-kind" fusion experiment that was technically very challenging, primarily resulting from the complex component geometries and tight tolerances. Initial risk quantification approaches proved inadequate and contributed to the escalation of costs as the design evolved and construction started. After the Project was well into construction, a new risk management plan was adopted. This plan was based on successful Department of Energy (DOE) and industrial risk management precepts. This paper will address the importance of effective risk management processes and lessons learned. It is of note that a steady reduction of risk was observed in the last six months of the project.

  4. Management of high-risk pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coco, L; Giannone, T T; Zarbo, G

    2014-08-01

    Today, 88% of pregnancies has a physiological course during which just basic care, while in 12% of cases there is a high-risk pregnancy that requires additional assistance and specific. The approach that should be used is that of supervision in all pregnant women considering their potential to have a normal pregnancy until there is no clear evidence to the contrary. Pregnancy is considered at risk if there are medical conditions that may affect maternal or fetal health or life of the mother, fetus or both. Among the risk factors for pregnancy there is first the woman's age, in fact the increase in high-risk pregnancies in the last 20 years is attributable to the increase in the average age of women who face pregnancy. In addition, the diet is very important during pregnancy and diabetes or autoimmune diseases often lead to the failure of a pregnancy. Risk factors for pregnancy, also, are the complications that occur during its course as hypertension during pregnancy, and infectious diseases. Fears and anxieties typical of a high-risk pregnancy prevent the couple to live happily in the months of gestation. Effective communication, control and early detection are important tools that doctors must be able to ensure that women in order to plan the best treatment strategies and to minimize the risks of maternal and / or fetal. PMID:25020057

  5. Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently implementing the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Program developed by the Carnegie Mellon University and recommended by NASA as the Risk Management (RM) implementation approach. The four most frequently used risk assessment tools in the center are: (a) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). There are some guidelines for selecting the type of risk assessment tools during the project formulation phase of a project, but there is not enough guidance as to how to apply these tools in the Continuous Risk Management process (CRM). But the ways the safety and risk assessment tools are used make a significant difference in the effectiveness in the risk management function. Decisions regarding, what events are to be included in the analysis, to what level of details should the analysis be continued, make significant difference in the effectiveness of risk management program. Tools of risk analysis also depends on the phase of a project e.g. at the initial phase of a project, when not much data are available on hardware, standard FMEA cannot be applied; instead a functional FMEA may be appropriate. This study attempted to provide some directives to alleviate the difficulty in applying FTA, PRA, and FMEA in the CRM process. Hazard Analysis was not included in the scope of the study due to the short duration of the summer research project.

  6. Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model in a Chinese Hospital Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Congcong; Wu, Xinjuan; Lin, Songbai; Jia, Zhaoxia; Cao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To translate, validate and examine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Hendrich II Fall risk Model (HFRM) in predicting falls in elderly inpatient. A sample of 989 Chinese elderly inpatients was recruited upon admission at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The inpatients were assessed for fall risk using the Chinese version of the HFRM at admission. The reliability of the Chinese version of the HFRM was determined using the internal consistency and test-rested methods. Validity was determined using construct validity and convergent validity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to determine the sensitivity and specificity. The Chinese version of the HFRM showed excellent repeatability with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.9950 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99230.9984). The inter-rater reliability was high with an ICC of 0.9950 (95%CI: 0.99230.9984). Cronbachs alpha coefficient was 0.366. Content validity was excellent, with a content validity ratio of 0.9333. The Chinese version of the HFRM had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 69% when using a cut-off of 5 points on the scale. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.815 (P<0.001). The Chinese version of the HFRM showed good reliability and validity in assessing the risk of fall in Chinese elderly inpatients. PMID:26544961

  7. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  8. Risk Assessment and Management of the Mother with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hebson, Camden; Saraf, Anita; Book, Wendy M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic medical conditions account for most nonobstetrical pregnancy-related maternal complications. Preconception counseling of women with cardiovascular disease can be aided by an understanding of cardiovascular physiology in pregnancy and risk scores to guide management. PMID:26876118

  9. Managing the Risks of Climate Change and Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Eugene; Dietz, Tom; Moss, Richard H.; Atran, Scott; Moser, Susanne

    2012-04-07

    The article describes challenges to comparative risk assessment, a key approach for managing uncertainty in decision making, across diverse threats such as terrorism and climate change and argues new approaches will be particularly important in addressing decisions related to sustainability.

  10. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND ITS RELEVANCE TO RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past indoor environmental risk management has, for the most part, focused on control of primary pollutants, which enter the indoor environment directly from outdoor and indoor sources. Recent developments in indoor chemistry suggest that secondary pollutants, generated by ...

  11. ROLE OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry is an important tier of environmental protection and has been traditionally linked to compliance and/or exposure monitoring activities for environmental contaminants. The adoption of the risk management paradigm has led to special challenges for analytical ch...

  12. Environmental Enterprise Risk Management Benefits for a Government Contractor

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Guinn

    2012-05-01

    An often overlooked advantage that an Environmental Enterprise Risk Management System (ERMS) has to organizations is the added protection from the Civil False Claims Act (FCA) for activities under a government contract.

  13. Think It Through: Managing the Benefits and Risks of Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It Through: Managing the Benefits and Risks of Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... or thoughts that you may have. Know Your Medicines--Prescription and Over-the-Counter the brand and ...

  14. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation will not occur until a major hurricane hits the region, despite the cost effectiveness of preemptive interventions. It is assumed that after a hurricane the political risks will shift. New policies will be tried and new infrastructure will be built. Many municipalities and agencies are creating "shovel ready" plans in advance to take advantage of post-catastrophe funds. How do the design of these plans reflect perceptions of legal and political risk? Will they do a good job of reducing scientific risk by addressing long term physical threats? In this study we identify specific challenges to climate adaptation in Florida and explore how local and regional water management decision makers balance physical, legal, and political risks in their planning. A primary risk management tool is the strategic use of information. Through targeted interviews with stakeholders we identify key information gatekeepers and their strategies for reducing multiple types of risk.

  15. APPLICATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO NNSA TRITIUM READINESS SUBPROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Shete, S; Srini Venkatesh, S

    2007-01-31

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Stockpile Technology (NNSA/NA-123) chartered a risk assessment of the Tritium Readiness (TR) Subprogram to identify risks and to develop handling strategies with specific action items that could be scheduled and tracked to completion in order to minimize program failures. This assessment was performed by a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) comprised of representatives from various organizations participating in the TR Subprogram. The process was coordinated by Savannah River Site, Systems Engineering (SRS/SE) with support from Subprogram Team. The Risk Management Process steps performed during this risk assessment were: Planning, Identification, Grading, Handling, and Impact Determination. All of the information captured during the risk assessment was recorded in a database. The team provided estimates for the cost and schedule impacts of implementing the recommended handling strategies and facilitated the risk based cost contingency analysis. The application of the Risk Management Practices to the NNSA Tritium Readiness Subprogram resulted in: (1) The quarterly review and update of the Risk Management Database to include an evaluation of all existing risks and the identification/evaluation of any potential new risks. (2) The risk status and handling strategy action item tracking mechanism that has visibility and buy-in throughout the Tritium Readiness Subprogram to ensure that approved actions are completed as scheduled and that risk reduction is being achieved. (3) The generation of a risk-based cost contingency estimate that may be used by the Tritium Readiness Subprogram Manager in establishing future year program budgets.

  16. [Risk assessment and risk management of chemical exposures in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Moretto, A

    2010-01-01

    The most important risk in agriculture derives from exposure to pesticides. Pesticide risk assessment is conducted before (pre-market) and after (post-market) the introduction in use of the substance. Evaluation of the extensive toxicological studies required for all pesticides leads to the definition of the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL) expressed as systemic dose (mg/kg). The AOEL is compared with exposures estimated by exposure models, that are currently being revised in the European Union. Only if estimated exposure is below the AOEL the product is authorised, sometimes with compulsory use of certain personal protective equipment. These are reported in the label. Post-marketing activities include health surveillance, biological monitoring, exposure monitoring, enforcement on the use of proper and properly maintained equipment, and use of proper personal protection devices. PMID:21442780

  17. Managing risk in an unstable world.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Ian

    2005-06-01

    With emerging markets like China and politically unstable countries like Saudi Arabia figuring more than ever into companies' investment calculations, business leaders are turning to political risk analysis to measure the impact of politics on potential markets, minimize risks, and make the most of global opportunities. But political risk is more subjective than its economic counterpart. It is influenced by the passage of laws, the foibles of government leaders, and the rise of popular movements. So corporate leaders must grapple not just with broad, easily observable trends but also with nuances of society and even quirks of personality. And those hard-to-quantify factors must constantly be pieced together into an ongoing narrative within historical and regional contexts. As goods, services, information, ideas, and people cross borders today with unprecedented velocity, corporations debating operational or infrastructural investments abroad increasingly need objective, rigorous assessments. One tool for measuring and presenting stability data, for example, incorporates 20 composite indicators of risk in emerging markets and scores risk variables according to both their structural and their temporal components. The indicators are then organized into four equally weighted subcategories whose ratings are aggregated into a single stability score. Countries are ranked on a scale of zero (a failed state) to100 (a fully institutionalized, stable democracy). Companies can buy political risk analyses from consultants or, as some large energy and financial services organizations have done, develop them in-house. Either way, a complete and accurate picture of any country's risk requires analysts with strong reportorial skills; timely, accurate data on a variety of social and political trends; and a framework for evaluating the impact of individual risks on stability. PMID:15938438

  18. Risk Mitigation for Managing On-Orbit Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews strategies for managing risk mitigation that occur with anomalies in on-orbit spacecraft. It reviews the risks associated with mission operations, a diagram of the method used to manage undesirable events that occur which is a closed loop fault analysis and until corrective action is successful. It also reviews the fish bone diagram which is used if greater detail is required and aids in eliminating possible failure factors.

  19. Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing System

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Aitor; Lpez-de-Ipia, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Modeling and managing correctly the user context in Smart Environments is important to achieve robust and reliable systems. When modeling reality we must take into account its ambiguous nature. Considering the uncertainty and vagueness in context data information it is possible to attain a more precise picture of the environment, thus leading to a more accurate inference process. To achieve these goals we present an ontology that models the ambiguity in intelligent environments and a data fusion and inference process that takes advantage of that extra information to provide better results. Our system can assess the certainty of the captured measurements, discarding the unreliable ones and combining the rest into a unified vision of the current user context. It also models the vagueness of the system, combining it with the uncertainty to obtain a richer inference process. PMID:22666068

  20. A challenge for land and risk managers: differents stakeholders, differents definitions of the risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruegg, J.

    2012-04-01

    In developing countries, mountain populations and territories are subject to multiple risks and vulnerabilities. In addition, they face even greater challenges than developed countries due to lack of knowledge, resources and technology. There are many different types of actors in society that manage risk at various scales and levels (i.e. engineers, geologists, administrators, land use planners, merchants and local indigenous and non-indigenous people). Because of limited resources and possibilities to reduce all types of risk, these different actors, or 'risk managers' have to choose and compete to prioritize which types of risks to address. This paper addresses a case study from San Cristobal Altaverapaz, Guatemala where a large landslide "Los Chorros", a catastrophic collapse of 6 millions cubic meters of rock, is affecting several communities and one of the country's main west-east access highways. In this case, the government established that the "primary" risk is the landslide, whereas other local stakeholders consider the primary risks to be economic This paper, situated at the cross section between political science, geography and disaster risk management, addresses the social conflict and competition for priorities and solutions for risk management, depending on the group of actors based on the on-going Los Chorros, Guatemala landslide mitigation process. This work is based on the analysis of practices, (Practical Science), policies and institutions in order to understand how the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in determining risk priorities can lead to more sustainable risk management in a given territory. The main objective of this investigation is first to identify and understand the juxtaposition of different readings of the risk equation, usually considered the interface between vulnerability, exposure and hazards. Secondly, it is to analyze the mechanisms of actions taken by various stakeholders, or risk managers. The analysis focuses on the various solutions proposed for reducing vulnerabilities (and consequentially their risks). To resolve a post-disaster situation, the actors prioritize one main type of vulnerability to address a set of vulnerabilities (in a multi-vulnerability context). With this choice, they define their own acceptable risk limits and the type of action that is most relevant. In doing so, they have to determine what elements can be changed and improved and which elements must be considered essential and preserved or the priority variables. These may include: equipment, production facilities, networks, services, modes of production and organizations, etc. or various economic and social capitals upon which individuals and groups rely for recovering from a post-disaster situation. Depending on the actor, certain factors will be will be emphasized over others and these may change over time. Linked with this political, institutional and geographical analysis of risk management, this work also questions who are the legitimate actors and the right criteria to prioritize risk reduction actions using public funds criteria and finally, which motivations are satisfied. In this sense, the challenge for managers of natural hazards is to move from risk management in the strict sense, which focuses mainly on hazards only, to a broader risks management, taking into consideration what is important for society and for the functioning of systems (what have not be vulnerable in a territorial system). In a context where risk and risk management is produced and managed by both formal and informal stakeholders, the main issue is how to engage the various stakeholders and evaluate different priorities of risk in order to determine which actions are best suited for a more balanced approach to risk management. This case study demonstrates that reducing landslide risk is subject to interpretation depending on the stakeholder and the result of priorities, providing on the role of each actor, their needs and range of action with a territory.

  1. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current climate conditions. There are several ways in which the World Bank Group can continue helping its clients better manage climate risks to poverty reduction and sustainable development: Integrating climate risk management into the project cycle, by adopting early risk identification (for instance by applying a quick and simple risk-screening tool) and following up throughout the design process if necessary. Integrating climate risk management into country and sector dialogues, especially in countries and sectors that are particularly vulnerable. Enhancing internal support for and coordination of climate risk management by, for example, expanding analytical work and capacity for cross-support by the Global Climate Change Team and the Hazard Management Unit of the World Bank and by actively developing climate risk management activities within regional departments. Supporting the establishment of proper financing mechanisms for adaptation, using, for example, the Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development. New funding mechanisms created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and being made operational by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), as well as the Kyoto Protocol, should be used to leverage maximum adaptation results within the Bank's broad range of development activities and investments. By enhancing climate risk management, the World Bank Group will be able to address the growing risks from climate change and, at the same time, make current development investments more resilient to climate variability and extreme weather events. In that way, climate risk management will not only guard the Bank's investments in a changing climate but will also improve the impact of development efforts right now.

  2. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  3. MS ANTWERPEN: Emergency Management Training for Low-Risk Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohschneider, Stefan; Gerdes, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    Emergency management training programs have been developed mostly for trainees from high-risk environments such as aviation or the chemical industry. This article describes a training program for staff members from low-risk environments such as hospitals or hotels, where the awareness of potential dangers is usually low and emergency plans are

  4. Risk Management: An Accountability Guide for University and College Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    With proven advice and practical best practices for sound risk management, this robust publication written by the CEO of United Educators identifies how engaged board members should collaborate closely with institutional leaders on a variety of operational and strategic risks. All board members, whatever their role or committee assignment, will

  5. Risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries.

    PubMed

    Uzwyshyn, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries. It is suitable for a broad audience interested in online libraries and research centers in universities and colleges. It outlines risk mitigation strategies, and disaster recover planning for online resource-centered information systems. PMID:26750817

  6. Behavior-Based Safety and Occupational Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The behavior-based approach to managing occupational risk and preventing workplace injuries is reviewed. Unlike the typical top-down control approach to industrial safety, behavior-based safety (BBS) provides tools and procedures workers can use to take personal control of occupational risks. Strategies the author and his colleagues have been

  7. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    PubMed

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  8. Tort Liability and Risk Management in Adventure Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubendall, Robert L., Jr.

    On the premise that the benefits of adventure education far outweigh risks in any well managed program, this document provides such programs, which stand on relatively untested ground in the eye of the law in this litigious society, with strategies for reduction of risk by controlling the nature and frequency of accidents. The first section

  9. Risk Management: An Accountability Guide for University and College Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    With proven advice and practical best practices for sound risk management, this robust publication written by the CEO of United Educators identifies how engaged board members should collaborate closely with institutional leaders on a variety of operational and strategic risks. All board members, whatever their role or committee assignment, will…

  10. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  11. Managing the Risks Associated with End-User Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Maryam; Weiss, Ira R.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies organizational risks of end-user computing (EUC) associated with different stages of the end-user applications life cycle (analysis, design, implementation). Generic controls are identified that address each of the risks enumerated in a manner that allows EUC management to select those most appropriate to their EUC environment. (5…

  12. 77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... of the publication, by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk... specific needs of electricity sector organizations. The objective of the guideline is to build...

  13. Risk management in fly-by-wire systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Karyn T.

    1993-01-01

    A general description of various types of fly-by-wire systems is provided. The risks inherent in digital flight control systems, like those used in the Space Shuttle, are identified. The results of a literature survey examining risk management methods in use throughout the aerospace industry are presented. The applicability of these methods to the Space Shuttle program is discussed.

  14. ePORT, NASA's Computer Database Program for System Safety Risk Management Oversight (Electronic Project Online Risk Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    ePORT (electronic Project Online Risk Tool) provides a systematic approach to using an electronic database program to manage a program/project risk management processes. This presentation will briefly cover the standard risk management procedures, then thoroughly cover NASA's Risk Management tool called ePORT. This electronic Project Online Risk Tool (ePORT) is a web-based risk management program that provides a common framework to capture and manage risks, independent of a programs/projects size and budget. It is used to thoroughly cover the risk management paradigm providing standardized evaluation criterion for common management reporting, ePORT improves Product Line, Center and Corporate Management insight, simplifies program/project manager reporting, and maintains an archive of data for historical reference.

  15. The role of risk perception in making flood risk management more effective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.

  16. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act. PMID:9721251

  17. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5135...

  18. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated

  19. Concepts of modern risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Corbin, S B

    1994-01-01

    An emerging and increasingly complex array of environmental health concerns face dental practitioners in both the private and public sectors. These concerns are challenging and possibly threatening the traditionally inviolable dentist-patient relationship. Regulatory bodies, health risk experts, attorneys, and enthusiastic media are inserting themselves into the process. Essential assets for "successful" dental practitioners include enhanced expertise in basic science and technology, including the area of risk assessment, and development of broadened perspectives and skills for communicating with patients and the public. PMID:7829771

  20. Risk Management Techniques and Practice Workshop Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T; Zosel, M

    2008-12-02

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day Risk Management Techniques and Practice (RMTAP) workshop held September 18-19 at the Hotel Nikko in San Francisco. The purpose of the workshop, which was sponsored by the SC/Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)/Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, was to assess current and emerging techniques, practices, and lessons learned for effectively identifying, understanding, managing, and mitigating the risks associated with acquiring leading-edge computing systems at high-performance computing centers (HPCCs). Representatives from fifteen high-performance computing (HPC) organizations, four HPC vendor partners, and three government agencies attended the workshop. The overall workshop findings were: (1) Standard risk management techniques and tools are in the aggregate applicable to projects at HPCCs and are commonly employed by the HPC community; (2) HPC projects have characteristics that necessitate a tailoring of the standard risk management practices; (3) All HPCC acquisition projects can benefit by employing risk management, but the specific choice of risk management processes and tools is less important to the success of the project; (4) The special relationship between the HPCCs and HPC vendors must be reflected in the risk management strategy; (5) Best practices findings include developing a prioritized risk register with special attention to the top risks, establishing a practice of regular meetings and status updates with the platform partner, supporting regular and open reviews that engage the interests and expertise of a wide range of staff and stakeholders, and documenting and sharing the acquisition/build/deployment experience; and (6) Top risk categories include system scaling issues, request for proposal/contract and acceptance testing, and vendor technical or business problems. HPC, by its very nature, is an exercise in multi-level risk management. Every aspect of stewarding HPCCs into the petascale era, from identification of the program drivers to the details of procurement actions and simulation environment component deployments, represents unprecedented challenges and requires effective risk management. The fundamental purpose of this workshop was to go beyond risk management processes as such and learn how to weave effective risk management practices, techniques, and methods into all aspects of migrating HPCCs into the next generation of leadership computing systems. This workshop was a follow-on to the Petascale System Integration Workshop hosted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)/NERSC last year. It was intended to leverage and extend the risk management experience of the participants by looking for common best practices and unique processes that have been especially successful. This workshop assessed the effectiveness of tools and techniques that are or could be helpful in HPCC risk management, with a special emphasis on how practice meets process. As the saying goes: 'In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is'. Finally, the workshop brought together a network of experts who shared information as technology moves into the petascale era and beyond.

  1. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  2. A general cause based methodology for analysis of dependent failures in system risk and reliability assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Andrew N.

    Traditional parametric Common Cause Failure (CCF) models quantify the soft dependencies between component failures through the use of empirical ratio relationships. Furthermore CCF modeling has been essentially restricted to identical components in redundant formations. While this has been advantageous in allowing the prediction of system reliability with little or no data, it has been prohibitive in other applications such as modeling the characteristics of a system design or including the characteristics of failure when assessing the risk significance of a failure or degraded performance event (known as an event assessment). This dissertation extends the traditional definition of CCF to model soft dependencies between like and non-like components. It does this through the explicit modeling of soft dependencies between systems (coupling factors) such as sharing a maintenance team or sharing a manufacturer. By modeling the soft dependencies explicitly these relationships can be individually quantified based on the specific design of the system and allows for more accurate event assessment given knowledge of the failure cause. Since the most data informed model in use is the Alpha Factor Model (AFM), it has been used as the baseline for the proposed solutions. This dissertation analyzes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Common Cause Failure Database event data to determine the suitability of the data and failure taxonomy for use in the proposed cause-based models. Recognizing that CCF events are characterized by full or partial presence of "root cause" and "coupling factor" a refined failure taxonomy is proposed which provides a direct link between the failure cause category and the coupling factors. This dissertation proposes two CCF models (a) Partial Alpha Factor Model (PAFM) that accounts for the relevant coupling factors based on system design and provide event assessment with knowledge of the failure cause, and (b)General Dependency Model (GDM),which uses Bayesian Network to model the soft dependencies between components. This is done through the introduction of three parameters for each failure cause that relate to component fragility, failure cause rate, and failure cause propagation probability.

  3. Inter-rater reliability of three most commonly used pressure ulcer risk assessment scales in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hua; Chen, Hong-Lin; Yan, Hong-Yan; Gao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Fang; Ming, Yue; Lu, Li; Ding, Jing-Jing

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale for pressure ulcer risk assessment in clinical practice. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 23 patients at pressure ulcer risk were included in the study, and 6 best registered nurses conducted three subsequent risk assessments for all included patients. They assessed alone and independently from each other. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability. For the Braden Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0603 (95% CI: 0435-0770) for the item 'moisture' and a maximum of 0964 (95% CI: 0936-0982) for the item 'activity'; for the Norton Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0595 (95% CI: 0426-0764) for the item 'physical condition' and a maximum of 0975 (95% CI: 0955-0988) for the item 'activity'; and for the Waterlow Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0592 (95% CI: 0422-0762) for the item 'skin type' and a maximum of 0990 (95% CI: 0982-0995) for the item 'activity'. The ICC values of total score for three scales of were 0955 (95% CI: 0922-0978), 0967 (95% CI: 0943-0984), and 0915 (95% CI: 0855-0958) for Braden, Norton, and Waterlow scales, respectively. Although the inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale total scores were all substantial, the reliability of some items was not so good. The items of 'moisture', 'physical condition' and 'skin type' should be paid more attention. However, some studies are needed to find out high reliable quantitative items to replace these ambiguous items in new designed scales. PMID:25224688

  4. Packaging and transportation risk management and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyne, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Shipments of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are governed by a variety of Federal and state regulations, industrial standards, and LANL processes and procedures. Good judgement is exercised in situations that are not covered by regulations. As a result, the safety record for transporting hazardous materials at LANL has been excellent. However, future decisions should be made such that the decision-making process produces a defensible record of the safety of onsite shipments. This report proposes the development of a risk management tool to meet this need. First, the application of quantitative risk analysis methodology to transportation is presented to provide a framework of understanding. Risk analysis definitions, the basic quantitative risk analysis procedure, quantitative methodologies, transportation data bases, and risk presentation techniques are described. Quantitative risk analysis is frequently complex; but simplified approaches can be used as a management tool to make good decisions. Second, a plan to apply the use of risk management principles to the selection of routes, special administrative controls, and containers for hazardous material transportation at LANL is provided. A risk management tool is proposed that can be used by MAT-2 without substantial support from specialized safety and risk analysis personnel, e.g., HS-3. A workbook approach is proposed that can be automated at a later date. The safety of some types of onsite shipments at LANL is not well documented. Documenting that shipments are safe, i.e., present acceptable risks, will likely require elaborate analyses that should be thoroughly reviewed by safety and risk professionals. These detailed analyses are used as benchmarks and as examples for the use of the proposed tool by MAT-2. Once the benchmarks are established, the workbook can be used by MAT-2 to quantify that safety goals are met by similar shipments.

  5. School-to-Work Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorheis, Greg; Meyer, Gregg; Van Houten, June

    This paper examines risk and liability issues related to school to work (STW) programs. With the passage of the federal School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994, the distance between the school and the world of work is diminishing. The Act's requirement that students, schools, and employers become part of an integrated learning process brings the

  6. Integrating Risk Management and Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achampong, Francis K.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning is critical to ensuring that institutions of higher education thoughtfully and systematically position themselves to accomplish their mission, vision, and strategic goals, particularly when these institutions face a myriad of risks that can negatively impact their continued financial viability and compromise their ability to…

  7. 17 CFR 39.13 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section, in order to address any risks posed by any such large trader. (3) Stress tests. A derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests, as defined in § 39.2 of this part, as follows: (i) On a daily basis, a derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests with respect to each...

  8. 17 CFR 39.13 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, in order to address any risks posed by any such large trader. (3) Stress tests. A derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests, as defined in § 39.2 of this part, as follows: (i) On a daily basis, a derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests with respect to each...

  9. 17 CFR 39.13 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section, in order to address any risks posed by any such large trader. (3) Stress tests. A derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests, as defined in § 39.2 of this part, as follows: (i) On a daily basis, a derivatives clearing organization shall conduct stress tests with respect to each...

  10. Assessing and Managing Violence Risk in Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borum, Randy; Verhaagen, David

    2006-01-01

    Highly practical and accessible, this is an indispensable resource for any mental health practitioner working with adolescents at risk for violent behavior. Presented is a comprehensive framework for evaluating justice-involved youth or those whose behavior in school, therapy sessions, or other contexts raises concern about violence. Detailed case…

  11. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs).\\5\\ \\4\\ See, e.g., 76 FR 3698 (Jan. 20, 2011) (Risk.... See proposed Sec. 39.13(h)(5). \\5\\ See, e.g., 75 FR 91397 (Nov. 23, 2010) (Regulations Establishing... would affect FCMs, DCOs, SDs, and MSPs. \\9\\ 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq. \\10\\ 47 FR 18618, Apr. 30, 1982....

  12. Integrating Risk Management and Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achampong, Francis K.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning is critical to ensuring that institutions of higher education thoughtfully and systematically position themselves to accomplish their mission, vision, and strategic goals, particularly when these institutions face a myriad of risks that can negatively impact their continued financial viability and compromise their ability to

  13. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  14. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Gilroy, K.; Williams, D.

    2015-01-01

    Droughts will likely become more frequent, of greater magnitude and of longer duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functioning. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules) on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  15. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Gilroy, K.; Williams, D.

    2015-08-01

    Droughts will likely become more frequent, greater in magnitude and longer in duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as a key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functionality. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules) on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  16. Risk management in the design of medical device software systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul L; Jorgens, Joseph; Taylor, Alford R; Weber, Markus

    2002-01-01

    The safety of any medical device system is dependent on the application of a disciplined, well-defined, risk management process throughout the product life cycle. Hardware, software, human, and environmental interactions must be assessed in terms of intended use, risk, and cost/benefit criteria. This article addresses these issues in the context of medical devices that incorporate software. The article explains the principles of risk management, using terminology and examples from the domain of software engineering. It may serve as a guide to those new to the concepts of risk management and as an aide-memoire for medical device system/software engineers who are more familiar with the topic. PMID:12162111

  17. Governance of environmental risk: new approaches to managing stakeholder involvement.

    PubMed

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter; Martin, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Disputes concerning industrial legacies such as the disposal of toxic wastes illustrate changing pressures on corporations and governments. Business and governments are now confronted with managing the expectations of a society increasingly aware of the social and environmental impacts and risks associated with economic development and demanding more equitable distribution and democratic management of such risks. The closed managerialist decision-making of the powerful bureaucracies and corporations of the industrial era is informed by traditional management theory which cannot provide a framework for the adequate governance of these risks. Recent socio-political theories have conceptualised some key themes that must be addressed in a more fitting approach to governance. We identify more recent management and governance theory which addresses these themes and develop a process-based approach to governance of environmental disputes that allows for the evolving nature of stakeholder relations in a highly complex multiple stakeholder arena. PMID:18768249

  18. Citizen participation in managing the risks of chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, P.A.; Allison, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the extent to which an industrial association in east Harris County, Texas, is voluntarily involving citizens in managing the risks of chemical releases. In response to a rule in the Clean Air Act of 1990, industrial associations around the US are managing risks of so-called worst case and other scenarios. All the rule requires is that the risk management plans for these scenarios be made public in some way, for example, by putting them in a public library. However, on their own initiatives, these associations are involving citizens to a greater or lesser extent. Thus, the east Harris County project is not unique in that regard. Rather, it provides some measure of how some chemical companies are empowering citizens as part of the planning process for how to meet the rule. This behavior stands in contrast to the way in which these chemical companies operated as recently as ten years ago. At that time they did not pursue questions about sharing power with citizens. There were no questions and certainly no answers about citizens' role in management decisions about chemical releases. However, in the present situation, companies are committed to following through on the rule requiring risk management plans, that is, to preventing chemical accidents and to reducing risks by ways which citizens suggest and help implement. To substantiate the foregoing claim, this paper will not only review the Risk Management Program (RMP) rule of 1996, but also the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. The paper will go on to describe what companies are doing in the east Harris County project relative to what much the same companies did about ten years ago. Finally, the paper will describe the two phases of the release of risk management plans that had taken place by the time of writing of this paper.

  19. Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.; Gray, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the release of many objects into its orbital plane, usually during the course of an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Such releases are often unintentional, but in a growing number of cases, the jettison has been intentional, conducted after a careful assessment of the net risk to the partnership and to other objects in space. Since its launch in 1998 the ISS has contributed on average at least one additional debris object that is simultaneously in orbit with the station, although the number varies widely from zero to eight at any one moment. All of these objects present potential risks to other objects in orbit. Whether it comes from known and tracked orbiting objects or from unknown or untrackable objects, collision with orbital debris can have disastrous consequences. Objects greater than 10cm are generally well documented and tracked, allowing orbiting spacecraft or satellites opportunities to perform evasive maneuvers (commonly known as Debris Avoidance Maneuvers, or DAMs) in the event that imminent collision is predicted. The issue with smaller debris; however, is that it is too numerous to be tracked effectively and yet still poses disastrous consequences if it intercepts a larger object. Due to the immense kinetic energy of any item in orbit, collision with debris as small as 1cm can have catastrophic consequences for many orbiting satellites or spacecraft. Faced with the growing orbital debris threat and the potentially catastrophic consequences of a collision-generated debris shower originating in an orbit crossing the ISS altitude band, in 2007 the ISS program manger asked program specialists to coordinate a multilateral jettison policy amongst the ISS partners. This policy would define the acceptable risk trade rationale for intentional release of a debris object, and other mandatory constraints on such jettisons to minimize the residual risks whenever a jettison was accepted. Although ISS-related debris often presents untenable risks to the EVA crew, IVA crew, or to a departing cargo vehicle for a controlled disposal, such released objects also present a ballistic nuisance to the visiting vehicle traffic, and a potential fragmentation threat to the hundreds of other functional and debris objects whose perigees lie below the ISS orbital altitude. Thus, every such jettison decision is a conscious risk trade.

  20. Navigating financial and supply reliability tradeoffs in regional drought management portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2014-06-01

    Rising development costs and growing concerns over environmental impacts have led many communities to explore more diversified water management strategies. These "portfolio"-style approaches integrate existing supply infrastructure with other options such as conservation measures or water transfers. Diversified water supply portfolios have been shown to reduce the capacity and costs required to meet demand, while also providing greater adaptability to changing hydrologic conditions. However, this additional flexibility can also cause unexpected reductions in revenue (from conservation) or increased costs (from transfers). The resulting financial instability can act as a substantial disincentive to utilities seeking to implement more innovative water management techniques. This study seeks to design portfolios that employ financial tools (e.g., contingency funds and index insurance) to reduce fluctuations in revenues and costs, allowing these strategies to achieve improved performance without sacrificing financial stability. This analysis is applied to the development of coordinated regional supply portfolios in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina, an area comprising four rapidly growing municipalities. The actions of each independent utility become interconnected when shared infrastructure is utilized to enable interutility transfers, requiring the evaluation of regional tradeoffs in up to five performance and financial objectives. Diversified strategies introduce significant tradeoffs between achieving reliability goals and introducing burdensome variability in annual revenues and/or costs. Financial mitigation tools can mitigate the impacts of this variability, allowing for an alternative suite of improved solutions. This analysis provides a general template for utilities seeking to navigate the tradeoffs associated with more flexible, portfolio-style management approaches.